Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
All fixtures shall be adequately vented to prevent syphonic action and to protect trap seals.

Figure P-1101.0




* Refer To Chapter 9 For Sizing Soil and Waste Stacks

PHILADELPHIA SINGLE STACK SYSTEM and HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAINS VENTED BY BRANCH VENTS OR SOIL and WASTE STACKS


Figure P-1101.0a




* Refer To Chapter 9 For Sizing Soil and Waste Stacks

PHILADELPHIA SOIL OR WASTE STACK SYSTEM and HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN and BRANCH VENT
Vent pipes shall be cast iron (hub or hubless), galvanized malleable iron split couplings (victaulic), type DWV copper tubing or heavier, brass, stainless steel (409 type "G" copper-coated), ABS plastic pipe or PVC plastic pipe. The pipe and fittings for each type of pipe including malleable fittings, shall comply with the applicable specifications listed in Section P-305.
Vent pipe exposed to fumes from waste piping carrying corrosive industrial wastes shall be acid-resisting cast iron, chemical porcelain, heat resistant pre-stressed borosilicate glass, polyethylene or polypropylene.
Fittings on ferrous pipe shall be of cast iron or malleable iron. Drainage type fittings shall be required only where vent lines connect to drainage lines.
Underground vent pipe shall be of cast iron or copper tube of a weight not less than type "L" hard temper. All underground vent piping installed parallel to a foundation wall shall be at least 3 feet from the building foundation wall when the depth does not exceed 4 feet. One foot of additional distance from the foundation wall shall be required for each additional one-foot depth below 4 feet.
Fittings shall conform to Section P-1102.1.2.
Vent pipes of ABS plastic and PVC plastic shall be limited to installations of buildings containing dwelling units only. Such buildings shall consist of from one to four families and shall not exceed three stories in height. For the purpose of this section, basements are not considered a story height.
PVC joints shall be solvent weld.
The seal of every fixture trap in a plumbing system shall be protected by being individually connected to a properly vented drain.

Exception: Leader traps, area drain traps, and yard drain traps.
Every soil or waste stack shall be extended vertically, full size, as a stack vent to open air.
A vent stack or main vent shall be installed with a soil or waste stack when relief vents or other branch vents are required in more than five branch intervals. The vent stack shall terminate independently in the open air above the roof or shall be connected with the stack vent at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the highest fixture and shall connect with the soil or waste stack through, at, or below the lowest horizontal soil or waste branch, or with the house drain, in such manner as to prevent the accumulation of rust scale. When water closets are installed on this lowest horizontal branch, they shall be connected to the side of the horizontal branch
Every building in which plumbing is installed shall have at least one stack vent or vent stack which shall run undiminished in size and as directly as possible from the building drainage system through to the open air above the roof and in accordance with Section P-1103.4. The minimum size of the stack vent or vent stack shall be 3 inches.
No vent terminal from a sanitary drainage system shall be directly beneath any door, window or other ventilating opening of the same or adjacent building, nor shall any such vent terminal be within 12 feet horizontally of such an opening unless it is at least 3 feet above the top of such opening.
Extensions of vent pipes through a roof shall be terminated at least 2 feet above the roof surface and shall be properly flashed. Where the roof is used for any purpose other than weather protection, the vent pipe shall extend at least 7 feet above the roof surface and shall be properly supported.
Velocity breaks shall be required in soil stacks in buildings more than 30 stories above grade to impede the velocity of the waste. At each velocity break, the stack shall be offset by two 45-degree breaks. A relief vent one-half the size of the soil stack shall be installed at the top of the second 45-degree break and shall be connected to the nearest vent stack.
Velocity breaks shall be installed at maximum 10-story intervals above the 30th floor
A relief vent pipe shall be installed on the main drain before the main house trap inside the building and be connected to the nearest vent line for any building 75 feet or higher. On main drains of 8 inches or less, the vent shall be a minimum of 4 inches. On main drains 10 inches and over, the relief vent shall be a minimum of 5 inches.

Figure P-1104.0




VELOCITY BREAKS IN BUILDINGS OVER 30 STORIES
Every branch, horizontal soil pipe, or waste pipe to which a group of two or more fixtures is to be connected shall have a vent of the same size as the branch by: extending the branch full size as required in Section P-1103.4; connecting to the stack vent 6 inches above the highest fixture; or connecting to the vent stack 6 inches above the highest fixture connected to the branch. The horizontal branch from the base of a stack shall be connected to the house drain as prescribed in Section P-904.4. Table P-904.4 is not subject to these requirements.

Figure P-1105.1


Where the center of a water closet outlet is not more than 48 inches in developed length from the center of 4-inch vented soil pipe on a vertical line, or through a wye or wye and 1/8 bend on a vented horizontal line, connection of small fixture wastes - not exceeding two that are 1-1/2 inches or less in diameter - to the side of an ideal bend (closet bend) above the center line without an additional vent, or by using no-hub, copper, ABS or PVC pipe and fittings in accordance with Section P-902.0, shall be approved by the Department. Where the center of a water closet outlet is not more than 18 inches from the center of a 3-inch vented soil pipe and the 4- inch ideal bend (closet bend) is connected directly to a sanitary tee on a vertical line, connection of small fixture wastes - not exceeding two that are 1-1/2 inches or less in diameter — to the sides of the bend above the center line without an additional vent and in accordance with Section P-904.5 shall be approved. As an alternative to increasing the size of a stack from 3 inches to 4 inches, a merion fitting shall be used to receive the discharge of a water closet and small fixture wastes.

Figure P-1105.1.1



WATER CLOSET WITHIN 48" OF EXISTING STACK


Figure P-1105.1.1a



BATHROOM GROUP W/ IDEAL BEND


Figure P-1105.1.1b

BATHROOM GROUP W/ MERION FITTING
The water closet soil line connected to a merion fitting shall be a maximum of 8 feet developed length. The ideal bend (closet bend) shall not be less than 4 inches nominal diameter when receiving the discharge of small fixture wastes. When using 3-inch ideal bends (closet bend) to receive discharges of water closets, this fitting shall be a blind bend containing no drainage connections for other fixtures.
On existing stacks in buildings where the center of a water closet outlet is more than 4 feet but not more than 8 feet from the center of a vented soil pipe, an additional 1-1/2 inch vent will be permitted if the vent is not longer than 30 feet, provided the conditions are the same as in Section P-1105.1.1.

Figure P-1105.1.2

WATER CLOSET IN EXCESS OF 48" OF EXISTING STACK
Any single water closet or pedestal urinal branch more than 8 feet in length or any single waste branch for fixtures other than water closets or pedestal urinals more than 12 feet in length shall have a vent sized at least one-half the diameter of the branch pipe. Depending on its length, the number of fixture units connected shall be in accordance with Table P-1110.4.

Figure P-1105.2

SINGLE WASTE BRANCHES IN EXCESS OF 8' - 0" and 12'-0" VENTING REQUIREMENTS


Figure P-1105.2a



* Refer to Chapters 9 and 11 For Sizing

CIRCUIT and LOOP VENTING FOR WALL HUNG WATER CLOSETS and SMALL FIXTURES


Figure P-1105.2b

* Refer to Chapters 9 and 11 For Sizing

CIRCUIT and LOOP VENTING FOR FLOOR MOUNTED CLOSETS and SMALL FIXTURES ABOVE
All ejectors, except pneumatic ejectors or receiving tanks used for receiving sewage or other sanitary waste, shall be provided with a fresh air inlet. The size of the fresh air inlet shall be 4 inches for 4-inch, 5-inch, and 6-inch drain pipe and 6 inches for 8-inch drains discharging into the ejector.
Pneumatic ejectors shall have a fresh air inlet on the inlet piping on the house side of the inlet valves.
All sumps receiving the discharge from fixtures other than water closets shall be provided with a fresh air inlet pipe. The size of the fresh air inlet shall not be less than two inches, and the locations of the fresh air inlet piping shall be in accordance with Section P-503. The drainage piping discharging into the sump shall be vented as provided in Chapter 11.
Offsets in soil or waste stacks at an angle greater than 45 degrees from the vertical serving fixtures above the offset shall be vented as provided in Sections P-1107.1.1 or P-1107.1.2.
Such offsets shall be provided with a yoke vent equal to one-half the diameter of the vent stack or soil stack but not less than 1-1/2 inches. The lower end of the yoke vent shall connect to the soil or waste stack through a wye below the offset and above the next lower horizontal branch, and the upper end shall connect to the stack vent or the vent stack not less than 6 inches above the highest fixture.

Figure P-1107.1.1



YOKE VENTING OFFSETS
Such offsets shall be vented as two separate soil or waste stacks, with the stack section below the offset and the stack section above the offset.

Figure P-1107.1.2



All buildings of not more than three stories having a soil or waste stack with one offset at an angle greater than 45 degrees from the vertical and which does not exceed 10 feet in length shall not require additional venting. No fixtures shall be permitted above the offset, except that one small fixture may be installed for a heel wash.

Figure P-1107.2



OFFSET OF SOIL STACK IN BUILDINGS 3-STORIES and LESS
Stack vents and vent stacks shall be permitted to connect into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extend to the open air above the roof at one point. Such header shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Table P-1110.4. As per Section P-1105, the size of the horizontal branch entering a stack shall have a vent of the same size; therefore, one of the stacks entering into a common vent header shall be of the same size as the branch entering the stack and shall maintain that size through the roof. Other sizes of the header can then be sized as per Table P-1110.4.
The number of fixture units considered in sizing the vent header shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks connected thereto. The developed length shall be the longest vent length from the intersection at the base of the most distant stack to the vent header terminal in the open air above the roof. The latter shall be extended to the open air above the roof as a direct extension of one stack.

Figure P-1108.0



COMMON VENT HEADER
All vent and branch-vent pipes shall be free from drops or sags and shall be graded and connected so as to drip back to the soil or waste pipe or vent stack by gravity.
A connection between a vent pipe and a vent stack shall be at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served by the vent pipe. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents, relief vents, circuit vents or loop vents, shall be at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served.
The length of a vent shall be its developed length from the lowest connection of the vent with the soil stack, waste stack, or house drain to the vent terminal above the roof.
The diameter of a stack vent shall not be less than the diameter of the soil or waste stack of which it is an extension.
A vent stack or main vent connecting relief vents, circuit vents, or loop vents shall have a diameter of at least one-half the diameter of the soil or waste stack to which the vent stack or main vent is connected, but in no case less than 1-1/2 inches. The maximum number of fixture units connected to the vent stack shall be in accordance with Table P-1110.4. The vent stack or main vent shall not be less in size than the branch, circuit, or loop vent it is servicing. Where fixtures are installed on the house drain behind the line of vent, a minimum vent stack of 1-1/2 inches shall be required for small fixtures having a fixture unit value not greater than 10 and a minimum of 2 inches for one or more water closets and other fixtures, except if a larger size is required according to Table P-1110.4.

Figure P-1110.3


VENT STACK SIZING
The diameter of a relief vent shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the horizontal branch to which it is connected, with a minimum size of 1-1/2 inches. The maximum number of fixture units connected to the relief vent shall be in accordance with Table P-1110.4.

Figure P-1110.4



RELIEF VENT SIZING


TABLE P-1110.4 — SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS
Fixture Units
Connected
Diameter of Vent (inches) — Maximum Length of Vent (feet)
11/2" 2" 21/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8"
13 75 310
26 70 300
47 35 140 450
72 23 85 260 650
98 18 75 240 600
195 30 95 240 1000
293 22 70 180 750
390 28 70 320 1000
624 20 50 240 750
969 20 95 240 1000
1320 18 70 180 750
2165 30 80 350 1000
3016 25 60 250 900
3959 40 120 450
4501 30 80 350
5850 25 60 250
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