ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — Definitions

Part III — Building Planning and Construction

Part IV — Energy Conservation

Part V — Mechanical

Part VI — Fuel Gas

Part VII — Plumbing

Part VIII — Electrical

Part IX — Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C 208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C 208.
Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.
Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).
Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).

TABLE R602.3(1)
FASTENING SCHEDULE
ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE
OF FASTENERa, b, c
SPACING AND LOCATION
Roof
1 Blocking between ceiling joists or rafters to top plate 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113") or Toe nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
2 Ceiling joists to top plate 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Per joist, toe nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
3 Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over
partitions [see Sections R802.3.1, R802.3.2 and Table
R802.5.1(9)]
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or Face nail
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
4 Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint)
[see Sections R802.3.1 and R802.3.2 and Table
R802.5.1(9)]
Table R802.5.1(9) Face nail
5 Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 11/4" × 20 ga. ridge strap to
rafter
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail each rafter
6 Rafter or roof truss to plate 3-16d box nails (31/2" × 0.135"); or 2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail
on opposite side of each rafter or
trussi
3-10d common nails (3" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
7 Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters or roof rafter
to minimum 2" ridge beam
4-16d (31/2" × 0.135"); or Toe nail
3-10d common (31/2" × 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
3-16d box 31/2" × 0.135"); or End nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
Wall
8 Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
16" o.c. face nail
9 Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall corners
(at braced wall panels)
16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10 Built-up header (2" to 2" header with 1/2" spacer) 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. each edge face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135") 12" o.c. each edge face nail
11 Continuous header to stud 5-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128")
12 Top plate to top plate 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
13 Double top plate splice for SDCs A-D2 with seismic braced
wall line spacing < 25'
8-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or Face nail on each side of end joint
(minimum 24" lap splice length each
side of end joint)
12-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
12-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
12-3" × 0.131" nails
Double top plate splice SDCs D0, D1, or D2; and braced wall
line spacing ≥25'
12-16d (31/2" × 0.135")
14 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (not at braced wall panels)
16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or 12" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nails
15 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (at braced wall panel)
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or 3 each 16" o.c. face nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or 2 each 16" o.c. face nail
4-3" × 0.131" nails 4 each 16" o.c. face nail
16 Top or bottom plate to stud 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or
4-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or End nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
17 Top plates, laps at corners and intersections 3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or Face nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
18 1" brace to each stud and plate 3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Face nail
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples 13/4"
19 1" × 6" sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Face nail
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
20 1" × 8" and wider sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Face nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Wider than 1" × 8"
4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Floor
21 Joist to sill, top plate or girder 4-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Toe nail
3-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
22 Rim joist, band joist or blocking to sill or top
plate (roof applications also)
8d box (21/2" × 0.113") 4" o.c. toe nail
8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or 6" o.c. toe nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3" × 0.131" nails
23 1" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist 3-8d box (21/2" × 0.113"); or Face nail
2-8d common (21/2" × 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Floor
24 2" subfloor to joist or girder 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or Blind and face nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
25 2" planks (plank & beam—floor & roof) 3-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or At each bearing, face nail
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
26 Band or rim joist to joist 3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162") End nail
4-10 box (3" × 0.128"), or
4-3" × 0.131" nails; or
4-3" × 14 ga. staples, 7/16" crown
27 Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber
layers
20d common (4" × 0.192"); or Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c.
at top and bottom and staggered.
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 24" o.c. face nail at top and bottom
staggered on opposite sides
3" × 0.131" nails
And:
2-20d common (4" × 0.192"); or
Face nail at ends and at each splice
3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
3-3" × 0.131" nails
28 Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 4-16d box (31/2" × 0.135"); or At each joist or rafter, face nail
3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or
4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or
4-3" × 0.131" nails
29 Bridging to joist 2-10d (3" × 0.128") Each end, toe nail
ITEM DESCRIPTION
OF BUILDING ELEMENTS
NUMBER AND
TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)h
Intermediate
supportsc, e

(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
[see Table R602.3(3) for wood structural panel exterior wall sheathing to wall framing]
30 3/8" — 1/2" 6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall)i 6 12f
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof)
31 19/32" — 1" 8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131") 6 12f
32 11/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or 6 12
8d (21/2" × 0.131") deformed nail
Other wall sheathingg
33 1/2" structural cellulosic fiberboard
sheathing
11/2" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head
diameter, or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long
3 6
34 25/32" structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing
13/4" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head diameter,
or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long
3 6
35 1/2" gypsum sheathingd 11/2" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
11/2" long; 11/4" screws, Type W or S
7 7
36 5/8" gypsum sheathingd 13/4" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
15/8" long; 15/8" screws, Type W or S
7 7
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
37 3/4" and less 6d deformed (2" × 0.120") nail; or 6 12
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail
38 7/8" — 1" 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail; or 6 12
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail
39 11/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148" ) nail; or 6 12
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
  2. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. Where the ultimate design wind speed is 130 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. Where the ultimate design wind speed is greater than 130 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
  7. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208.
  8. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
  9. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.
TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2 Staple 15 ga. 13/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 16 ga. 13/4 3 6
19/32 and 5/8 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
23/32 and 3/4 Staple 14 ga. 2 4 8
Staple 15 ga. 13/4 3 6
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
Staple 16 ga. 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.113 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 15 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/2 4 8
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
1/4 3d, corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 1/4 crown
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
11/4 long × .121 shank × .375 head diameter corrosion-resistant
(galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish)
8 8
11/4 long, No. 8 × .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws
(for tile finish)
8 8
Plywood
1/4 and 5/16 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width 2 5
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/2 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/4 11/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8
Staple 16 ga. 11/2 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 11/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 6
4d cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
1/4 4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown 3 6
3/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6
1/2, 5/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4
  7. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C 1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.
TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c
MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACING ULTIMATE DESIGN
WIND SPEED Vult

(mph)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
B C D
6d Common
(2.0" × 0.113")
1.5 24/0 3/8 16 6 12 140 115 110
8d Common
(2.5" × 0.131")
1.75 24/16 7/16 16 6 12 170 140 135
24 6 12 140 115 110

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.
TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa
THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADE STUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studs When siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8 M-1 Exterior glue 16
1/2 M-2 Exterior glue 16 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail not less than 3/8 inch from panel edges.
TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa
STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting a
roof-ceiling assembly
or a habitable attic
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting one
floor, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
two floors, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
one floor heighta

(inches)
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta

(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)
       
2 × 3b 10 16
2 × 4 10 24c 16c 24 14 24
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 24 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS

R602.3.1 Stud Size, Height and Spacing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.3.1 Stud Size, Height and Spacing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stud size, height and spacing. The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).

Exceptions:
  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 14 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center. Studs shall be minimum No. 2 grade lumber.
  3. Exterior load-bearing studs not exceeding 12 feet (3658 mm) in height provided in accordance with Table R-R602.3(6). The minimum number of full height studs adjacent to openings shall be in accordance with Section R602.7.5. The building shall be located in Exposure B, the roof live load shall not exceed 20 psf (0.96 kPa), and the ground snow load shall not exceed 30 psf (1.4 kPa). Studs and plates shall be No. 2 grade lumber or better.
TABLE R602.3(6)
ALTERNATE WOOD BEARING WALL STUD SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING
STUD HEIGHTSUPPORTINGSTUD SPACINGaULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED
115 mph130 mphb140 mphb
Maximum roof/floor spancMaximum roof/floor spancMaximum roof/floor spanc
12 ft.24 ft.12 ft.24 ft.12 ft.24 ft.
11 ft.Roof Only12 in.2 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 4
16 in.2 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 62 × 42 × 6
24 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
Roof and One Floor12 in.2 × 42 × 62 × 42 × 62 × 42 × 6
16 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
24 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
12 ft.Roof Only12 in2 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 62 × 42 × 6
16 in.2 × 42 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
24 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
Roof and One Floor12 in2 × 42 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
16 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
24 in.2 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6DR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mph = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

DR = Design Required.
  1. Wall studs not exceeding 16 inches on center shall be sheathed with minimum 1/2-inch gypsum board on the interior and 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing on the exterior. Wood structural panel sheathing shall be attached with 8d (2.5" x 0.131") nails not greater than 6 inches on center along panel edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports, and all panel joints shall occur over studs or blocking.
  2. Where the ultimate design wind speed exceeds 115 mph, studs shall be attached to top and bottom plates with connectors having a minimum 300-pound lateral capacity.
  3. The maximum span is applicable to both single- and multiple-span roof and floor conditions. The roof assembly shall not contain a habitable attic.

UpCodes note: This section was added by Bill No. 180953. The bill was approved on January 3, 2019.
Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:
  1. The single top plate shall be tied at corners, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
TABLE R602.3.2 SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS
CONDITION TOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting walls Butt joints in straight walls
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C; and in SDC
D0, D1 and D2 with braced wall line
spacing less than 25 feet
3" × 6" × 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(6) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails
3" × 12" × 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(12) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails
Structures in SDC D0, D1 and D2, with
braced wall line spacing greater than
or equal to 25 feet
3" × 8" by 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(9) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails
3" × 16" × 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(18) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:
  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.
Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:
    1. The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.
    2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.
  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3- inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.
Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall be permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall be permitted to be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
  2. Drilling. Any stud shall be permitted to be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is not more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is not more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall be doubled with not more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted where they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE R602.6(1) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6(2) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS
When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.
Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1 TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

R602.7 Headers

ILLUSTRATION
For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

TABLE R602.7(1)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
GIRDERS AND
HEADERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
Roof and ceiling 1-2 × 8 4-6 1 3-10 1 3-5 1 3-9 1 3-2 1 2-10 2
1-2 × 10 5-8 1 4-11 1 4-4 1 4-9 1 4-1 1 3-7 2
1-2 × 12 6-11 1 5-11 2 5-3 2 5-9 2 4-8 2 3-8 2
2-2 × 4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2-10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1 2-10 1 2-6 1 2-3 1
2-2 × 6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2 4-2 1 3-8 2 3-3 2
2-2 × 8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2 5-4 2 4-7 2 4-1 2
2-2 × 10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 5-0 2
2-2 × 12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-6 2 6-6 2 5-10 3
3-2 × 8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-8 1 5-9 2 5-2 2
3-2 × 10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2 8-2 2 7-0 2 6-4 2
3-2 × 12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-4 2
4-2 × 8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-8 1 6-8 1 5-11 2
4-2 × 10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-3 2
4-2 × 12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-11 2 9-5 2 8-5 2
Roof, ceiling
and one center-
bearing floor
1-2 × 8 3-11 1 3-5 1 3-0 1 3-7 1 3-0 2 2-8 2
1-2 × 10 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-4 2
1-2 × 12 5-10 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 5-5 2 4-2 2 3-4 2
2-2 × 4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2 × 6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2
2-2 × 8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2 × 10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2 × 12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3
3-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 10 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2
3-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 × 8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2
4-2 × 10 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 × 12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-7 2
Roof, ceiling
and one clear
span floor
1-2 × 8 3-6 1 3-0 1 2-8 1 3-5 1 2-11 1 2-7 2
1-2 × 10 4-6 1 3-10 1 3-3 1 4-4 1 3-9 1 3-1 2
1-2 × 12 5-6 1 4-2 2 3-3 2 5-4 2 3-11 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-5 1 2-1 1 1-10 1
2-2 × 6 3-11 1 3-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2 3-6 2 3-1 2 2-9 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-6 2
2-2 × 10 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 3
2-2 × 12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-4 2 5-6 3 5-0 3
3-2 × 8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-7 2 4-11 2 4-5 2
3-2 × 10 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-10 2 6-0 2 5-4 2
3-2 × 12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
4-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2 6-6 1 5-8 2 5-1 2
4-2 × 10 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-2 2
4-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
Roof, ceiling
and two center-
bearing floors
2-2 × 4 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 1-11 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 1
2-2 × 6 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2 3-8 2 3-2 2 2-10 2 3-5 2 3-0 2 2-8 2
2-2 × 8 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-7 2 4-0 2 3-8 2 4-4 2 3-9 2 3-5 2
2-2 × 10 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-8 2 4-11 2 4-5 3 5-3 2 4-7 3 4-2 3
2-2 × 12 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-6 2 5-9 3 5-2 3 6-1 3 5-4 3 4-10 3
3-2 × 8 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 2 5-5 2 4-9 2 4-3 2
3-2 × 10 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2 7-1 2 6-2 2 5-7 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-3 2
3-2 × 12 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 3 7-8 2 6-9 2 6-1 3
4-2 × 8 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2 6-8 1 5-10 2 5-3 2 6-3 2 5-6 2 4-11 2
4-2 × 10 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 2 7-7 2 6-8 2 6-0 2
4-2 × 12 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-8 2 9-5 2 8-3 2 7-5 2 8-10 2 7-9 2 7-0 2
Roof, ceiling,
and two clear-
span floors
2-2 × 4 2-1 1 1-8 1 1-6 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2
2-2 × 6 3-1 2 2-8 2 2-4 2 3-0 2 2-7 2 2-3 2 2-11 2 2-7 2 2-3 2
2-2 × 8 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 3 3-10 2 3-4 2 2-11 3 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 3
2-2 × 10 4-9 2 4-1 3 3-8 3 4-8 2 4-0 3 3-7 3 4-7 3 4-0 3 3-6 3
2-2 × 12 5-6 3 4-9 3 4-3 3 5-5 3 4-8 3 4-2 3 5-4 3 4-7 3 4-1 4
3-2 × 8 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-9 2 4-1 2 3-8 2 4-8 2 4-1 2 3-8 2
3-2 × 10 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-10 2 5-0 2 4-6 3 5-9 2 4-11 2 4-5 3
3-2 × 12 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-9 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-8 2 5-9 3 5-2 3
4-2 × 8 5-7 2 4-10 2 4-4 2 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 2 5-5 2 4-8 2 4-2 2
4-2 × 10 6-10 2 5-11 2 5-3 2 6-9 2 5-10 2 5-2 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-1 2
4-2 × 12 7-11 2 6-10 2 6-2 3 7-9 2 6-9 2 6-0 3 7-8 2 6-8 2 5-11 3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
TABLE R602.7(2)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
HEADERS AND
GIRDERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE BUILDING Widthc (feet)
20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
One floor only 2-2 × 4 3-1 1 2-8 1 2-5 1
2-2 × 6 4-6 1 3-11 1 3-6 1
2-2 × 8 5-9 1 5-0 2 4-5 2
2-2 × 10 7-0 2 6-1 2 5-5 2
2-2 × 12 8-1 2 7-0 2 6-3 2
3-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 1 5-7 2
3-2 × 10 8-9 1 7-7 2 6-9 2
3-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-10 2
4-2 × 8 9-0 1 7-8 1 6-9 1
4-2 × 10 10-1 1 8-9 1 7-10 2
4-2 × 12 11-9 1 10-2 2 9-1 2
Two floors 2-2 × 4 2-2 1 1-10 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 3-2 2 2-9 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 4-1 2 3-6 2 3-2 2
2-2 × 10 4-11 2 4-3 2 3-10 3
2-2 × 12 5-9 2 5-0 3 4-5 3
3-2 × 8 5-1 2 4-5 2 3-11 2
3-2 × 10 6-2 2 5-4 2 4-10 2
3-2 × 12 7-2 2 6-3 2 5-7 3
4-2 × 8 6-1 1 5-3 2 4-8 2
4-2 × 10 7-2 2 6-2 2 5-6 2
4-2 × 12 8-4 2 7-2 2 6-5 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
TABLE R602.7(3)
GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSa FOR OPEN PORCHES
(Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)
SIZE SUPPORTING ROOF SUPPORTING FLOOR
GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
30 50 70
DEPTH OF PORCHc (feet)
8 14 8 14 8 14 8 14
2-2 × 6 7-6 5-8 6-2 4-8 5-4 4-0 6-4 4-9
2-2 × 8 10-1 7-7 8-3 6-2 7-1 5-4 8-5 6-4
2-2 × 10 12-4 9-4 10-1 7-7 8-9 6-7 10-4 7-9
2-2 × 12 14-4 10-10 11-8 8-10 10-1 7-8 11-11 9-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)
SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL


FIGURE R602.7.1(2)
ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE
Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.



For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.
FIGURE R602.7.2
RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.

TABLE R602.7.3
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa
HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel—one side 9 4 4 3 3
15 5 5 4 3 3
Wood structural panel—both sides 9 7 5 5 4 3
15 8 8 7 7 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTES:
  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.
FIGURE R602.7.3
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.

R602.7.5 Supports for Headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.7.5 373 Supports for headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header with four-16d nails (3.5 inches × 0.135 inches).

UpCodes note: This section was added by Bill No. 180953. The bill was approved on January 3, 2019.
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

R602.10 Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1 Braced Wall Lines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.1 Length of a Braced Wall Line

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.2 Offsets Along a Braced Wall Line

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.3 Spacing of Braced Wall Lines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.4 Angled Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2 Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.1 Braced Wall Panel Uplift Load Path

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.2 Locations of Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.2.1 Location of Braced Wall Panels in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.3 Minimum Number of Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.3 Required Length of Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4 Construction Methods for Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.1 Mixing Methods

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.2 Continuous Sheathing Methods

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.3 Braced Wall Panel Interior Finish Material

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5 Minimum Length of a Braced Wall Panel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5.1 Contributing Length

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5.2 Partial Credit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6 Construction of Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.1 Method ABW: Alternate Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.2 Method PFH: Portal Frame With Hold-Downs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.3 Method PFG: Portal Frame at Garage Door Openings in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.4 Method CS-PF: Continuously Sheathed Portal Frame

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.5.1 Length of Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.7 Ends of Braced Wall Lines With Continuous Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8 Braced Wall Panel Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8.1 Braced Wall Panel Connections for Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8.2 Connections to Roof Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.9 Braced Wall Panel Support

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.9.1 Braced Wall Panel Support for Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.10 Panel Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11 Cripple Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11.2 Cripple Wall Bracing for Seismic Design Category D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11.3 Redesignation of Cripple Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10 Wall Bracing Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The wall bracing requirements of sections R602.10 through R602.11.3 of the 2006 International Residential Code shall apply.

R602.11 Wall Anchorage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.11.2 Stepped Foundations in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Buildings meeting all of the conditions listed below shall be permitted to be braced in accordance with this section as an alternate to the requirements of Section R602.10. The entire building shall be braced in accordance with this section; the use of other bracing provisions of Section R602.10, except as specified herein, shall not be permitted.
  1. There shall be not more than three stories above the top of a concrete or masonry foundation or basement wall. Permanent wood foundations shall not be permitted.
  2. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  3. Wall height shall not be greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  4. The building shall have a roof eave-to-ridge height of 15 feet (4572 mm) or less.
  5. Exterior walls shall have gypsum board with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) installed on the interior side fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5.
  6. The structure shall be located where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58 m/s), and the exposure category is B or C.
  7. The structure shall be located in Seismic Design Category A, B or C for detached one- and two-family dwellings or Seismic Design Category A or B for townhouses.
  8. Cripple walls shall not be permitted in three-story buildings.
The bracing required for each building shall be determined by circumscribing a rectangle around the entire building on each floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The rectangle shall not have a side greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side shall be not greater than 3:1.


FIGURE R602.12.1 RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING
The following sheathing materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Section R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited.
  1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(3).
  2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
A bracing unit shall be a full-height sheathed segment of the exterior wall without openings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 and 2 is prohibited on the same story.
  1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, including wall areas between bracing units, above and below openings and on gable end walls, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and areas between bracing units are covered with other materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
Segments of wall compliant with Section R602.12.3 and longer than the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units shall be determined by dividing the wall segment length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a bracing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6.
Each side of the circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing units shall then be placed using the distribution requirements specified in Section R602.12.5.

TABLE R602.12.4 MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE
ULTIMATE
DESIGN WIND
SPEED
(mph)
STORY LEVEL EAVE-TO-RIDGE
HEIGHT
(feet)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDEa, b, d
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDEa, b, d
Length of short side (feet)c Length of long side (feet)c
10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60
115 10 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3
2 3 3 4 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 6 7 8 2 3 4 6 7 8
15 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 3 3 4 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 6 7 9 2 4 5 6 7 9
130 10 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 7 8 10 2 4 5 7 8 10
15 2 3 3 4 4 6 2 3 3 4 4 6
3 4 6 7 8 10 3 4 6 7 8 10
3 6 7 10 11 13 3 6 7 10 11 13

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
  2. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition shall be designated as the first story and the stories above shall be redesignated as the second and third stories, respectively, and shall be prohibited in a three-story structure.
  3. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 10 when using this table.
  4. For Exposure Category C, multiply bracing units by a factor of 1.20 for a one-story building, 1.30 for a two-story building and 1.40 for a three-story building.
The placement of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the following requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5.
  1. A bracing unit shall begin not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from any wall corner.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing units shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have not less than one bracing unit.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.12.5 BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION
The bracing methods referenced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted when using simplified wall bracing.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for one-story garages where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-G panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section R602.10.6.4 shall be permitted where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.75 bracing units. Not more than four CS-PF panels shall be permitted on all segments of walls parallel to each side of the circumscribed rectangle. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted where bracing units are constructed using wood structural panels applied either continuously or intermittently. Each ABW and PFH panel shall equal one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 0.75 bracing unit.
For bracing units located along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with Section R602.10.8.2.
Masonry stem walls with a height and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 139 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category B or C, and the ground snow load is less than or equal to 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).
Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:
  1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener is located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm,

FIGURE R603.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with this section.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold formed to shape from structural-quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H and 50 Type H.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:
  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(1) and with the dimensional and thickness requirements specified in Table R603.2.3. Additionally, C-shaped sections shall have a minimum flange width of 15/8 inches (41 mm) and a maximum flange width of 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum lip size for C-shaped sections shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Track sections shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inches (32 mm). Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used wherever 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses are specified. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used wherever 54 and 68 mil thicknesses are specified.


FIGURE R603.2.3(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION



FIGURE R603.2.3(2)
TRACK SECTION


TABLE R603.2.3
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES AND THICKNESSES
MEMBER
DESIGNATIONa
WEB DEPTH
(inches)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
mil (inches)
350S162-t 3.5 33 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538)
550S162-t 5.5 33 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
  1. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch, "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:
  1. Manufacturer's identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).
Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle-head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. Fasteners shall have rust-inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.
Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:
  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.6.1.
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member.
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 11/2 inches (38 mm).
  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm).
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).
Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.6.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.6.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.6.1
WALL STUD WEB HOLES
Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.6.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:
  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice where web holes exceed the following size limits:
    1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web.
    2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.
  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.6.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.6.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.6.3
WALL STUD WEB HOLE PATCH
Exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Cold-formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2), R603.3.1(3) or R603.3.1(4). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend not less than 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

TABLE R603.3.1 WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b
FRAMING
CONDITION
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY
(mph)
115 B 126 B
or 110 C
< 139 B
or 115 C
126 C < 139 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure
R603.3.1(1)
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12" o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12" o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per
Figure R603.3.1(2)d
1/2" minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 6' o.c.
1/2" minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2" minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2" minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
1/2" minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per
Figure R603.3.1(3)
Steel plate spaced
at 4' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d
common nails
Wind uplift
connector
strength
(lbs)c, e
Stud
Spacing
(inches)
Roof Span
(feet)
 
16 24 NR NR NR 124 209
28 NR NR 62 151 249
32 NR NR 79 179 289
36 NR NR 94 206 329
40 NR 61 117 239 374
24 24 NR NR 69 186 314
28 NR NR 93 227 374
32 NR NR 117 268 434
36 NR 64 141 309 494
40 NR 92 176 359 562

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
  1. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks such as, at door openings or corners. Bolts are to extend not less than 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
  2. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  3. NR = Uplift connector not required.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
  5. See Figure R603.3.1(4) for details.


FIGURE R603.3.1(1) WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(2) WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(3) WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION



FIGURE R603.3.1(4) WIND UPLIFT CONNECTOR
Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1) GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED
(mph)
WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
Exposure
Category
Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
115 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
126 110 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
< 139 115 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.
126 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c.
< 139 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
TABLE R603.3.1.1(2) GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED
(mph)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2-INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
Exposure Category Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h 14 14 < h18 18 < h22
115 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 7" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
126 110 5'- 10" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
< 139 115 4'- 10" o.c. 5'- 6" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
126 4'- 1" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
< 139 5'- 1" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 2" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16) based upon an ultimate design wind speed of 115 miles per hour (51 m/s), Exposure Category B, and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.5 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:
  1. Minimum of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened on the interior surface in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16-inch-thick (11.1 mm) oriented strand board or 15/32-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood are installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load-bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square foot (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when the second-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Second-floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(11).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Third-floor live loads of 40 pounds per square foot (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(12) through R603.3.2(16).

TABLE R603.3.2(1)
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
ELEMENT
NUMBER AND SIZE OF
FASTENERSa
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Wall stud to top or bottom track 2-No. 8 screws Each end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studs No. 8 screwsb 6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate
supports
1/2" gypsum board to framing No. 6 screws 12" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.
TABLE R603.3.2(2)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(3)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(4)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(5)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE
WIND SPEED
AND EXPOSURE
CATEORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 33 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 54 43 33 43 43 43 43 43 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(6)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 33 43 43 54 33 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 33 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(7)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 43 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(8)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
126 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
< 139 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(9)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
126 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(10)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
126 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(11)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
126 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(12)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
126 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    4. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(13)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 110 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    4. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(14)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 110 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions: Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    1. Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    2. Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    3. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    4. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. d. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(15)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 110 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
24 68 68 68 68 54 54 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,

1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    4. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2(16)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 110 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Top floor live load is 30 psf.
    3. Middle floor live load is 40 psf.
    4. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be permitted in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R603.3.2.1(1). The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R603.3.2.1(2)

TABLE R603.3.2.1(1) ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
Exp. B Exp. C 8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
115 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
126 350S162 16 33 33 43
24 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
< 139 350S162 16 33 43 43
24 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Ground snow load is 70 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Floor dead load is 10 psf.
    4. Floor live load is 40 psf.
    5. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.3.2.1(2) ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa, b, c, d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
Stud Height, h (feet)
Exp. B Exp. C 10 < h 12 12 < h14 14 < h 16 16 < h18 18 < h 20 20 < h 22
115 350S162 16 33 43 68
24 43 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 54 54
24 33 33 43 54 68
126 110 350S162 16 43 54
24 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 54 54 68
24 33 43 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 68
24 68
550S162 16 33 43 43 54 68
24 43 54 54 68
126 350S162 16 54
24
550S162 16 33 43 54 54
24 43 54 54
< 139 350S162 16 54
24
550S162 16 43 54 54 68
24 54 54 68

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Ground snow load is 70 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Floor dead load is 10 psf.
    4. Floor live load is 40 psf. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
The flanges of cold-formed steel studs shall be laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Gypsum board on both sides, structural sheathing on both sides, or gypsum board on one side and structural sheathing on the other side of load-bearing walls with gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702 and structural sheathing installed in accordance with Section R603.9 and Table R603.3.2(1).
  2. Horizontal steel straps fastened in accordance with Figure R603.3.3(1) on both sides at mid-height for 8-foot (2438 mm) walls, and at one-third points for 9-foot and 10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Horizontal steel straps shall be not less than 11/2 inches in width and 33 mils in thickness (38 mm by 0.84 mm). Straps shall be attached to the flanges of studs with one No. 8 screw. In-line blocking shall be installed between studs at the termination of straps and at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals along the strap. Straps shall be fastened to the blocking with two No. 8 screws.
  3. Sheathing on one side and strapping on the other side fastened in accordance with Figure R603.3.3(2). Sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Item 1. Steel straps shall be installed in accordance with Item 2.

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.3(1) STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING ONLY



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.3(2) STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING AND SHEATHING MATERIAL
Flanges and lips of cold-formed steel studs and headers shall not be cut or notched.
Steel studs and other structural members shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accordance with Figure R603.3.5.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.5 TRACK SPLICE
In exterior walls, corner studs and the top tracks shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.4 CORNER FRAMING
The method of attachment of exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Headers shall be installed above all wall openings in exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls. Box beam headers and back-to-back headers each shall be formed from two equal sized C-shaped members in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2), respectively, and Tables R603.6(1) through R603.6(6). L-shaped headers shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with AISI S230. Alternately, headers shall be permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.6(1) BOX BEAM HEADER



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.6(2) BACK-TO-BACK HEADER


TABLE R603.6(1)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Onlya, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(20 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(30 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33 3'-3" 2'-8" 2'-2" 2'-8" 2'-2"
2-350S162-43 4'-2" 3'-9" 3'-4" 2'-11" 2'-7" 3'-9" 3'-4" 2'-11" 2'-7" 2'-2"
2-350S162-54 6'-2" 5'-10" 5'-8" 5'-3" 4'-10" 5'-11" 5'-8" 5'-2" 4'-10" 4'-6"
2-350S162-68 6'-7" 6'-3" 6'-0" 5'-10" 5'-8" 6'-4" 6'-1" 5'-10" 5'-8" 5'-6"
2-550S162-33 4'-8" 4'-0" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-6" 4'-1" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-6"
2-550S162-43 6'-0" 5'-4" 4'-10" 4'-4" 3'-11" 5'-5" 4'-10" 4'-4" 3'-10" 3'-5"
2-550S162-54 8'-9" 8'-5" 8'-1" 7'-9" 7'-3" 8'-6" 8'-1" 7'-8" 7'-2" 6'-8"
2-550S162-68 9'-5" 9'-0" 8'-8" 8'-4" 8'-1" 9'-1" 8'-8" 8'-4" 8'-1" 7'-10"
2-800S162-33 4'-5" 3'-11" 3'-5" 3'-1" 2'-10" 3'-11" 3'-6" 3'-1" 2'-9" 2'-3"
2-800S162-43 7'-3" 6'-7" 5'-11" 5'-4" 4'-10" 6'-7" 5'-11" 5'-4" 4'-9" 4'-3"
2-800S162-54 10'-1" 10'-2" 9'-7" 9'-0" 8'-5" 10'-2" 9'-7" 8'-11" 8'-4" 7'-9"
2-800S162-68 12'-8" 11'-10" 11'-2" 10'-7" 10'-1" 11'-11" 11'-2" 10'-7" 10'-0" 9'-6"
2-1000S162-43 7'-10" 6'-10" 6'-1" 5'-6" 5'-0" 6'-11" 6'-1" 5'-5" 4'-11" 4'-6"
2-1000S162-54 12'-3" 11'-5" 10'-9" 10'-2" 9'-6" 11'-6" 10'-9" 10'-1" 9'-5" 8'-9"
2-1000S162-68 14'-5" 13'-5" 12'-8" 12'-0" 11'-6" 13'-6" 12'-8" 12'-0" 11'-5" 10'-10"
2-1200S162-54 12'-11" 11'-3" 10'-0" 9'-0" 8'-2" 11'-5" 10'-0" 9'-0" 8'-1" 7'-4"
2-1200S162-68 15'-11" 14'-10" 14'-0" 13'-4" 12'-8" 15'-0" 14'-0" 13'-3" 12'-7" 11'-11"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    2. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.6(2)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Onlya, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(50 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(70 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33
2-350S162-43 2'-4"
2-350S162-54 4'-8" 4'-2" 3'-9" 3'-5" 3'-1" 3'-7" 3'-2" 2'-9" 2'-5" 2'-0"
2-350S162-68 5'-7" 5'-2" 4'-9" 4'-4" 3'-11" 4'-7" 4'-1" 3'-7" 3'-2" 2'-10"
2-550S162-33 2'-2"
2-550S162-43 3'-8" 3'-1" 2'-6" 2'-3"
2-550S162-54 6'-11" 6'-3" 5'-9" 5'-3" 4'-9" 5'-6" 4'-11" 4'-5" 3'-11" 3'-5"
2-550S162-68 8'-0" 7'-6" 6'-11" 6'-5" 5'-11" 6'-9" 6'-1" 5'-6" 5'-0" 4'-7"
2-800S162-33 2'-7"
2-800S162-43 4'-6" 3'-9" 3'-1" 2'-5" 2'-10"
2-800S162-54 8'-0" 7'-3" 6'-8" 6'-1" 5'-7" 6'-5" 5'-9" 5'-1" 4'-7" 4'-0"
2-800S162-68 9'-9" 9'-0" 8'-3" 7'-8" 7'-1" 8'-0" 7'-3" 6'-7" 6'-0" 5'-6"
2-1000S162-43 4'-8" 4'-1" 3'-6" 2'-9" 3'-3" 2'-2"
2-1000S162-54 9'-1" 8'-2" 7'-3" 6'-7" 6'-0" 7'-0" 6'-2" 5'-6" 5'-0" 4'-6"
2-1000S162-68 11'-1" 10'-2" 9'-5" 8'-8" 8'-1" 9'-1" 8'-3" 7'-6" 6'-10" 6'-3"
2-1200S162-54 7'-8" 6'-9" 6'-1" 5'-6" 5'-0" 5'-10" 5'-1" 4'-7" 4'-1" 3'-9"
2-1200S162-68 12'-3" 11'-3" 10'-4" 9'-7" 8'-11" 10'-1" 9'-1" 8'-3" 7'-6" 6'-10"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    2. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.6(3)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceilinga, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(20 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(30 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33
2-350S162-43 2'-2" 2'-1"
2-350S162-54 4'-4" 3'-10" 3'-5" 3'-1" 2'-9" 4'-3" 2'-9" 3'-4" 3'-0" 2'-8"
2-350S162-68 5'-0" 4'-9" 4'-7" 4'-2" 3'-9" 4'-11" 4'-8" 4'-6" 4'-1" 3'-9"
2-550S162-33
2-550S162-43 3'-5" 2'-9" 2'-1" 3'-3" 2'-7"
2-550S162-54 6'-6" 5'-10" 5'-3" 4'-9" 4'-4" 6'-4" 5'-9" 5'-2" 4'-8" 4'-3"
2-550S162-68 7'-2" 6'-10" 6'-5" 5'-11" 5'-6" 7'-0" 6'-9" 6'-4" 5'-10" 5'-4"
2-800S162-33 2'-1"
2-800S162-43 4'-2" 3'-4" 2'-7" 4'-0" 3'-3" 2'-5"
2-800S162-54 7'-6" 6'-9" 6'-2" 5'-7" 5'-0" 7'-5" 6'-8" 6'-0" 5'-5" 4'-11"
2-800S162-68 9'-3" 8'-5" 7'-8" 7'-1" 6'-6" 9'-1" 8'-3" 7'-7" 7'-0" 6'-5"
2-1000S162-43 4'-4" 3'-9" 2'-11" 4'-3" 3'-8" 2'-9"
2-1000S162-54 8'-6" 7'-6" 6'-8" 6'-0" 5'-5" 8'-4" 7'-4" 6'-6" 5'-10" 5'-4"
2-1000S162-68 10'-6" 9'-7" 8'-9" 8'-0" 7'-5" 10'-4" 9'-5" 8'-7" 7'-11" 7'-3"
2-1200S162-54 7'-1" 6'-2" 5'-6" 5'-0" 4'-6" 6'-11" 6'-1" 5'-5" 4'-10" 4'-5"
2-1200S162-68 11'-7" 10'-7" 9'-8" 8'-11" 8'-2" 11'-5" 10'-5" 9'-6" 8'-9" 8'-0"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    4. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.6(4)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceilinga, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(50 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(70 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33
2-350S162-43
2-350S162-54 3'-5" 3'-0" 2'-7" 2'-2" 2'-8" 2'-2"
2-350S162-68 4'-6" 4'-1" 3'-8" 3'-3" 2'-11" 3'-9" 3'-3" 2'-10" 2'-5" 2'-1"
2-550S162-33
2-550S162-43 2'-0"
2-550S162-54 5'-3" 3'-8" 4'-1" 3'-8" 3'-2" 4'-3" 3'-8" 3'-1" 2'-7" 2'-0"
2-550S162-68 6'-5" 5'-10" 5'-3" 4'-9" 4'-4" 5'-5" 4'-9" 4'-3" 3'-9" 3'-4"
2-800S162-33
2-800S162-43 2'-6"
2-800S162-54 6'-1" 5'-5" 4'-10" 4'-3" 3'-9" 4'-11" 4'-3" 3'-8" 3'-0" 2'-5"
2-800S162-68 7'-8" 6'-11" 6'-3" 5'-9" 5'-2" 6'-5" 5'-9" 5'-1" 4'-6" 4'-0"
2-1000S162-43 2'-10"
2-1000S162-54 6'-7" 5'-10" 5'-3" 4'-9" 4'-3" 5'-4" 4'-9" 4'-1" 3'-5" 2'-9"
2-1000S162-68 8'-8" 7'-10" 7'-2" 6'-6" 5'-11" 7'-4" 6'-6" 5'-9" 5'-1" 4'-6"
2-1200S162-54 5'-6" 4'-10" 4'-4" 3'-11" 3'-7" 4'-5" 3'-11" 3'-6" 3'-2" 2'-11"
2-1200S162-68 9'-7" 8'-8" 7'-11" 7'-2" 6'-6" 8'-1" 7'-2" 6'-4" 5'-8" 5'-0"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    4. Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.6(5)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceilinga, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(20 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(30 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33
2-350S162-43
2-350S162-54 2'-5" 2'-4"
2-350S162-68 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-6" 2'-1" 3'-5" 2'-11" 2'-6" 2'-0"
2-550S162-33
2-550S162-43
2-550S162-54 3'-11" 3'-3" 2'-8" 2'-0" 3'-10" 3'-3" 2'-7"
2-550S162-68 5'-1" 4'-5" 3'-10" 3'-3" 2'-9" 5'-0" 4'-4" 3'-9" 3'-3" 2'-9"
2-800S162-33
2-800S162-43
2-800S162-54 4'-7" 3'-10" 3'-1" 2'-5" 4'-6" 3'-9" 3'-0" 2'-4"
2-800S162-68 6'-0" 5'-3" 4'-7" 3'-11" 3'-4" 6'-0" 5'-2" 4'-6" 3'-11" 3'-3"
2-1000S162-43
2-1000S162-54 5'-0" 4'-4" 3'-6" 2'-9" 4'-11" 4'-3" 3'-5" 2'-7"
2-1000S162-68 6'-10" 6'-0" 5'-3" 4'-6" 3'-10" 6'-9" 5'-11" 5'-2" 4'-5" 3'-9"
2-1200S162-54 4'-2" 3'-7" 3'-3" 2'-11" 4'-1" 3'-7" 3'-2" 2'-10"
2-1200S162-68 7'-7" 6'-7" 5'-9" 5'-0" 4'-2" 7'-6" 6'-6" 5'-8" 4'-10" 4'-1"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Second-floor live load is 40 psf
    4. Third-floor live load is 30 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
TABLE R603.6(6)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceilinga, b, d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(50 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(70 psf)
Building widthc (feet) Building widthc (feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33
2-350S162-43
2-350S162-54 2'-2"
2-350S162-68 3'-3" 2'-9" 2'-3" 2'-11" 2'-5"
2-550S162-33
2-550S162-43
2-550S162-54 3'-7" 2'-11" 2'-3" 3'-3" 2'-7"
2-550S162-68 4'-9" 2'-1" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-5" 4'-4" 3'-9" 3'-2" 2'-8" 2'-1"
2-800S162-33
2-800S162-43
2-800S162-54 4'-3" 3'-5" 2'-8" 3'-9" 3'-0" 2'-3"
2-800S162-68 5'-8" 4'-11" 4'-2" 3'-7" 2'-11" 5'-3" 4'-6" 3'-10" 3'-3" 2'-7"
2-1000S162-43
2-1000S162-54 4'-8" 3'-11" 3'-1" 2'-2" 4'-3" 3'-5" 2'-7"
2-1000S162-68 6'-5" 5'-7" 4'-9" 4'-1" 3'-4" 5'-11" 5'-1" 4'-5" 3'-8" 2'-11"
2-1200S162-54 3'-11" 3'-5" 3'-0" 2'-4" 3'-7" 3'-2" 2'-10"
2-1200S162-68 7'-1" 6'-2" 5'-3" 4'-6" 3'-8" 6'-6" 5'-8" 4'-10" 4'-0" 3'-3"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    1. Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    2. Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    3. Second-floor live load is 40 psf
    4. Third-floor live load is 30 psf.
    5. Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
Box beam and back-to-back headers in gable endwalls shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with Section R603.6 or with the header directly above the opening in accordance with Figures R603.6.1(1) and R603.6.1(2) and the following provisions:
  1. Two 362S162-33 for openings less than or equal to 4 feet (1219 mm).
  2. Two 600S162-43 for openings greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) but less than or equal to 6 feet (1830 mm).
  3. Two 800S162-54 for openings greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) but less than or equal to 9 feet (2743 mm).

FIGURE R603.6.1(1) BOX BEAM HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.6.1(2) BACK-TO-BACK HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL
The number of jack and king studs installed on each side of a header shall comply with Table R603.7(1). King, jack and cripple studs shall be of the same dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. Headers shall be connected to king studs in accordance with Table R603.7(2) and the following provisions:
  1. For box beam headers, one-half of the total number of required screws shall be applied to the header and one-half to the king stud by use of C-shaped or track member in accordance with Figure R603.6(1). The track or C-shaped sections shall extend the depth of the header minus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs.
  2. For back-to-back headers, one-half the total number of screws shall be applied to the header and one-half to the king stud by use of a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) clip angle in accordance with Figure R603.6(2). The clip angle shall extend the depth of the header minus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs. Jack and king studs shall be interconnected with structural sheathing in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2).
TABLE R603.7(1) TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING
SIZE OF OPENING
(feet-inches)
24-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING 16-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING
No. of jack studs No. of king studs No. of jack studs No. of king studs
Up to 3'-6" 1 1 1 1
> 3'-6" to 5'-0" 1 2 1 2
> 5'-0" to 5'-6" 1 2 2 2
> 5'-6" to 8'-0" 1 2 2 2
> 8'-0" to 10'-6" 2 2 2 3
> 10'-6" to 12'-0" 2 2 3 3
> 12'-0" to 13'-0" 2 3 3 3
> 13'-0" to 14'-0" 2 3 3 4
> 14'-0" to 16'-0" 2 3 3 4
> 16'-0" to 18'-0" 3 3 4 4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


TABLE R603.7(2) HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c, d
HEADER SPAN
(feet)
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE CATEGORY
110, Exposure Category C or
less than 139, Exposure Category B
Less than 139, Exposure Category C
≤ 4' 4-No. 8 screws 6-No. 8 screws
> 4' to 8' 4-No. 8 screws 8-No. 8 screws
> 8' to 12' 6-No. 8 screws 10-No. 8 screws
> 12' to 16' 8-No. 8 screws 12-No. 8 screws

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building or the first or second floor of a three-story building, the total number of screws is permitted to be reduced by 2 screws, but the total number of screws shall not be less than four.
  3. For roof slopes of 6:12 or greater, the required number of screws shall be permitted to be reduced by half, but the total number of screws shall not be less than four.
  4. Screws can be replaced by an uplift connector that has a capacity of the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds.
Head track spans above door and window openings and sill track spans beneath window openings shall comply with Table R603.8. For openings less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans by 1.75 shall be permitted in Table R603.8. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans in Table R603.8 by 1.50 shall be permitted.

TABLE R603.8 HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPAN
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE CATEGORY
(mph)
ALLOWABLE HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPANa, b, c
(feet-inches)
TRACK DESIGNATIONd
B C 350T125-33 350T125-43 350T125-54 550T125-33 550T125-43 550T125-54
115 4'-10" 5'-5" 6'-0" 5'-8" 6'-3" 6'-10"
126 110 4'-6" 5'-1" 5'-8" 5'-4" 5'-11" 6'-5"
< 139 115 4'-2" 4'-9" 5'-4" 5'-1" 5'-7" 6'-1"
126 3'-11" 4'-6" 5'-0" 4'-10" 5'-4" 5'-10"
< 139 3'-8" 4'-2" 4'-9" 4'-1" 5'-1" 5'-7"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Deflection limit: L/240.
  2. Head and sill track spans are based on components and cladding wind pressures and 48-inch tributary span.
  3. For openings less than 4 feet in height that have both a head track and sill track, the spans are permitted to be multiplied by 1.75. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet in height that have both a head track and a sill track, the spans are permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 1.5.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
Structural sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.9 and this section on all sheathable exterior wall surfaces, including areas above and below openings.


FIGURE R603.9 STRUCTURAL SHEATHING FASTENING PATTERN
Structural sheathing panels shall consist of minimum 7/16-inch-thick (11 mm) oriented strand board or 15/32-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood.
The minimum length of full-height sheathing on each braced wall line shall be determined by multiplying the length of the braced wall line by the percentage obtained from Table R603.9.2(1) and by the plan aspect-ratio adjustment factors obtained from Table R603.9.2(2). The minimum length of full-height sheathing shall be not less than 20 percent of the braced wall line length.

To be considered full-height sheathing, structural sheathing shall extend from the bottom to the top of the wall without interruption by openings. Only sheathed, full-height wall sections, uninterrupted by openings, which are not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, shall be counted toward meeting the minimum percentages in Table R603.9.2(1). In addition, structural sheathing shall comply with all of the following requirements:
  1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the stud framing and shall cover the full vertical height of wall from the bottom of the bottom track to the top of the top track of each story. Installing the long dimension perpendicular to the stud framing or using shorter segments shall be permitted provided that the horizontal joint is blocked as described in Item 2.
  2. Be blocked where the long dimension is installed perpendicular to the stud framing. Blocking shall be not less than 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness. Each horizontal structural sheathing panel shall be fastened with No. 8 screws spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) on center to the blocking at the joint.
  3. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exterior walls with a minimum 48-inch-wide (1219 mm) panel
Exception: Where stone or masonry veneer is installed, the required length of full-height sheathing and overturning anchorage required shall be determined in accordance with Section R603.9.5.


TABLE R603.9.2(1) MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL-HEIGHT STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLSa, b
WALL SUPPORTING ROOF SLOPE ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE
(mph)
115 B 126 B < 139 B 126 C < 139 C
110 C 115 C
Roof and ceiling only (one story or top
floor of two- or three-story building).
3:12 9 9 12 16 20
6:12 13 15 20 26 35
9:12 23 25 30 50 58
12:12 33 35 40 66 75
One story, roof and ceiling (first floor of a
two-story building or second floor of a
three-story building).
3:12 27 30 35 50 66
6:12 28 30 40 58 74
9:12 38 40 55 74 91
12:12 45 50 65 100 115
Two stories, roof and ceiling (first floor of
a three-story building).
3:12 45 51 58 84 112
6:12 43 45 60 90 113
9:12 53 55 80 98 124
12:12 57 65 90 134 155

For SI: 1 mph = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Linear interpolation is permitted.
  2. For hip-roofed homes the minimum percentage of full-height sheathing, based upon wind, is permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceeding 7:12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12.
TABLE R603.9.2(2) FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
PLAN ASPECT RATIO LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Short wall Long wall
1:1 1.0 1.0
1.5:1 1.5 0.67
2:1 2.0 0.50
3:1 3.0 0.33
4:1 4.0 0.25
The minimum percentage of full-height structural sheathing shall be multiplied by 1.10 for 9-foot-high (2743 mm) walls and multiplied by 1.20 for 10-foot-high (3048 mm) walls.
In the lowest story of a dwelling, multiplying the percentage of full-height sheathing required in Table R603.9.2(1) by 0.6 shall be permitted provided hold-down anchors are provided in accordance with Section R603.9.4.2.
Edges and interior areas of structural sheathing panels shall be fastened to framing members and tracks in accordance with Figure R603.9 and Table R603.3.2(1). Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels shall be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head style with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch (8 mm).

For continuously sheathed braced wall lines using wood structural panels installed with No. 8 screws spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center on intermediate framing members, the following shall apply:
  1. Multiplying the percentages of full-height sheathing in Table R603.9.2(1) by 0.72 shall be permitted.
  2. For bottom track attached to foundations or framing below, the bottom track anchor or screw connection spacing in Tables R505.3.1(1) and R603.3.1 shall be multiplied by two-thirds
Uplift connections shall be provided in accordance with this section.
Where ultimate design wind speeds exceed 126 miles per hour (56 m/s), Exposure Category C walls shall be provided with direct uplift connections in accordance with AISI S230, Section E13.3, and AISI S230, Section F7.2, as required for 139 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category C.
Where the percentage of full-height sheathing is adjusted in accordance with Section R603.9.2.2, a hold-down anchor, with a strength of 4,300 pounds (19 kN), shall be provided at each end of each full-height sheathed wall section used to meet the minimum percent sheathing requirements of Section R603.9.2. Hold-down anchors shall be attached to back-to-back studs; structural sheathing panels shall have edge fastening to the studs, in accordance with Section R603.9.3 and AISI S230, Table E11-1.

A single hold-down anchor, installed in accordance with Figure R603.9.4.2, shall be permitted at the corners of buildings.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.9.4.2
CORNER STUD HOLD-DOWN DETAIL
Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.8, the length of full-height sheathing for exterior and interior wall lines backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting walls with veneer shall comply with this section.

TABLE R603.9.5(1)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 33-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 6-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 3.3 4.7 6.1 7.4 8.8 10.2 3,360
5.3 8.7 12.1 15.4 18.8 22.2 3,360 6,720
7.3 12.7 18.0 23.4 28.8 34.2 3,360 10,080
D1 4.1 5.8 7.5 9.2 10.9 12.7 3,360
6.6 10.7 14.9 19.1 23.3 27.5 3,360 6,720
9.0 15.7 22.4 29.0 35.7 42.2 3,360 10,080
D2 5.7 8.2 10.6 13.0 15.4 17.8 3,360
9.2 15.1 21.1 27.0 32.9 38.8 3,360 6,720
12.7 22.1 31.5 40.9 50.3 59.7 3,360 10,080


TABLE R603.9.5(2)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 43-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 6-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 2.8 4.0 5.1 6.3 7.5 8.7 3,960
4.5 7.4 10.2 13.1 16.0 18.8 3,960 7,920
6.2 10.7 15.3 19.9 24.4 29.0 3,960 11, 880
D1 3.5 4.9 6.4 7.8 9.3 10.7 3,960
5.6 9.1 12.7 16.2 19.8 23.3 3,960 7,920
7.7 13.3 19.0 24.6 30.3 35.9 3,960 11, 880
D2 4.9 6.9 9.0 11.0 13.1 15.1 3,960
7.8 12.9 17.9 22.9 27.9 32.9 3,960 7,920
10.8 18.8 26.7 34.7 42.7 50.7 3,960 11, 880


TABLE R603.9.5(3)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 33-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 4-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 2.5 3.6 4.6 5.7 6.8 7.8 4,392
4.0 6.6 9.2 11.8 14.4 17.0 4,392 8,784
5.6 9.7 13.8 17.9 22.0 26.2 4,392 13,176
D1 3.1 4.4 5.7 7.1 8.4 9.7 4,392
5.0 8.2 11.4 14.6 17.8 21.0 4,392 8,784
6.9 12.0 17.1 22.2 27.3 32.4 4,392 13,176
D2 4.4 6.2 8.1 10.0