CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Plumbing Code 2018 (IPC 2018)

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of vent systems.
The plumbing system shall be provided with a system of vent piping that will permit the admission or emission of air so that the seal of any fixture trap shall not be subjected to a pressure differential of more than 1 inch of water column (249 Pa).
Traps and trapped fixtures shall be vented in accordance with one of the venting methods specified in this chapter.

P-901.2.2 Relief Vent

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A relief vent pipe shall be installed on the building (house) drain before the main building (house) trap inside the building and be connected to the nearest vent line for any building 75 feet (23 m) or higher. On building (house) drains of 8 inches (203 mm) or less, the vent shall be a minimum of 4 inches. On building (house) drains 10 inches (254 mm) and over, the relief vent shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm).

901.3 P-901.3 Chemical Waste Vent Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The vent system for a chemical waste system shall be independent of the sanitary vent system and shall terminate separately through the roof to the outdoors or to an air admittance valve that complies with ASSE 1049. Air admittance valves for chemical waste systems shall be constructed of materials approved in accordance with Section 702.5 and shall be tested for chemical resistance in accordance with ASTM F1412.
The plumbing vent system shall not be utilized for purposes other than the venting of the plumbing system.
The vent system shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.

Engineered venting systems shall conform to the provisions of Section 919.

The materials and methods utilized for the construction and installation of venting systems shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section 702.
Sheet copper for vent pipe flashings shall conform to ASTM B152 and shall weigh not less than 8 ounces per square foot (2.5 kg/m2).
Sheet lead for vent pipe flashings shall weigh not less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m2) for field-constructed flashings and not less than 21/2 pounds per square foot (12 kg/m2) for prefabricated flashings.

903.1 Roof Extension

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Open vent pipes that extend through a roof shall be terminated not less than [NUMBER]24 inches (610 mm) above the roof. Where a roof is to be used for assembly or as a promenade, observation deck, sunbathing deck or similar purposes, open vent pipes shall terminate not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof.

903.2 Frost Closure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where the 97.5-percent value for outdoor design temperature is 0°F (-18°C) or less, vent extensions through a roof or wall shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Any increase in the size of the vent shall be made not less than 1 foot (305 mm) inside the thermal envelope of the building.

903.2 Reserved

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The juncture of each vent pipe with the roof line shall be made water tight by an approved flashing.
A vent terminal shall not be used for any purpose other than a vent terminal.
An open vent terminal from a drainage system shall not be located directly beneath any door, openable window, or other air intake opening of the building or of an adjacent building, and any such vent terminal shall not be within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such an opening unless it is 3 feet (914 mm) or more above the top of such opening.
Vent terminals extending through the wall shall terminate at a point not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from a lot line and not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above average ground level. Vent terminals shall not terminate under the overhang of a structure with soffit vents. Side wall vent terminals shall be protected to prevent birds or rodents from entering or blocking the vent opening.

903.7 Extension Outside a Structure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In climates where the 97.5-percent value for outside design temperature is less than 0°F (-18°C), vent pipes installed on the exterior of the structure shall be protected against freezing by insulation, heat or both.

903.7 Reserved

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The vent system serving each building drain shall have not less than one vent pipe that extends to the outdoors.
The required vent shall be a dry vent that connects to the building drain or an extension of a drain that connects to the building drain. Such vent shall not be an island fixture vent as allowed by Section 916.
The required vent shall be sized in accordance with Section 906.2 based on the required size of the building drain.

A vent stack shall be required for every drainage stack that has five branch intervals or more.

Exception: Drainage stacks installed in accordance with Section 913.

904.3 P-904.3 Vent Termination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Vent stacks or stack vents shall terminate outdoors to the open air or to a stack-type air admittance valve in accordance with Section 918.
Vent stacks shall connect to the base of the drainage stack. The vent stack shall connect at or below the lowest horizontal branch. Where the vent stack connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack.
Stack vents and vent stacks connected into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extending to the open air at one point shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Section 906.1. The number of fixture units shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks connected thereto, and the developed length shall be the longest vent length from the intersection at the base of the most distant stack to the vent terminal in the open air, as a direct extension of one stack.

905.1 P-905.1 Connection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Individual, branch and circuit vents shall connect to a vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve or extend to the open air.
Vent and branch vent pipes shall be so graded and connected as to drain back to the drainage pipe by gravity.
Every dry vent connecting to a horizontal drain shall connect above the centerline of the horizontal drain pipe.

Every dry vent shall rise vertically to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest trap or trapped fixture being vented.

Exception: Vents for interceptors located outdoors.

A connection between a vent pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents, relief vents or loop vents shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served.

905.6 P-905.6 Vent for Future Fixtures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where the drainage piping has been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection for a vent shall be installed. The vent size shall be not less than one-half the diameter of the rough-in drain to be served or a full-size vent when serving drainage piping as part of a single-stack vent system. The vent rough-in shall connect to the vent system, or shall be vented by other means as provided for in this chapter. The connection shall be identified to indicate that it is a vent.

The minimum required diameter of stack vents and vent stacks shall be determined from the developed length and the total of drainage fixture units connected thereto in accordance with Table 906.1, but in no case shall the diameter be less than one-half the diameter of the drain served or less than 11/4 inches (32 mm).

TABLE 906.1

SIZE AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS

DIAMETER OF SOIL (inches)TOTAL FIXTURE UNITS
BEING VENTED (dfu)
MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet)a
DIAMETER OF VENT (inches)
11/411/2221/2345681012
11/4
11/2
11/2
2
8
10
30
50
30
150
100
2
2
21/2
12
20
42
30
26
75
50
30
200
150
100
300
3
3
3
10
21
53
42
32
27
150
110
94
360
270
230
1,040
810
680
3
4
4
102
43
140
25
86
35
27
210
85
65
620
250
200
980
750
4
4
5
320
540
190
23
21
55
50
28
170
150
82
640
580
320
990
5
5
5
490
940
1,400
21
18
16
63
53
49
250
210
190
760
670
590
6
6
6
500
1,100
2,000
33
26
22
130
100
84
400
310
260
1,000
780
660
6
8
8
2,900
1,800
3,400
20
77
31
24
240
95
73
600
240
190
940
729
8
8
10
5,600
7,600
4,000
20
18
62
56
31
160
140
78
610
560
310
960
10
10
10
7,200
11,000
15,000
24
20
18
60
51
46
240
200
180
740
630
571
12
12
12
7,300
13,000
20,000
31
24
20
120
94
79
380
300
250
940
720
610
12
15
15
26,000
15,000
25,000
18
72
40
31
230
130
96
500
310
240
15
15
38,000
50,000
26
24
81
74
200
180

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. The developed length shall be measured from the vent connection to the open air.
The diameter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents and relief vents shall be not less than one-half the required diameter of the drain served. The required size of the drain shall be determined in accordance with Table 710.1(2). Vent pipes shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. Vents exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in developed length shall be increased by one nominal pipe size for the entire developed length of the vent pipe. Relief vents for soil and waste stacks in buildings having more than 10 branch intervals shall be sized in accordance with Section 908.2.
The developed length of individual, branch, circuit and relief vents shall be measured from the farthest point of vent connection to the drainage system to the point of connection to the vent stack, stack vent or termination outside of the building.
Where multiple branch vents are connected to a common branch vent, the common branch vent shall be sized in accordance with this section based on the size of the common horizontal drainage branch that is or would be required to serve the total drainage fixture unit load being vented.
Sump vent sizes shall be determined in accordance with Sections 906.5.1 and 906.5.2.

Drainage piping below sewer level shall be vented in the same manner as that of a gravity system. Building sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or sewage ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined in accordance with Table 906.5.1.

TABLE 906.5.1

SIZE AND LENGTH OF SUMP VENTS

DISCHARGE CAPACITY OF
PUMP
(gpm)
MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet)a
Diameter of vent (inches)
11/411/2221/234
10No limitbNo limitNo limitNo limitNo limitNo limit
20270No limitNo limitNo limitNo limitNo limit
4072160No limitNo limitNo limitNo limit
603175270No limitNo limitNo limit
801641150380No limitNo limit
10010c2597250No limitNo limit
150Not permitted10c44110370No limit
200Not permittedNot permitted2060210No limit
250Not permittedNot permitted1036132No limit
300Not permittedNot permitted10c2288380
400Not permittedNot permittedNot permitted10c44210
500Not permittedNot permittedNot permittedNot permitted24130

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

  1. Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction due to fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall be obtained from NBS Monograph 31 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value is not available.
  2. Actual values greater than 500 feet.
  3. Less than 10 feet.
The air pressure relief pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be connected to an independent vent stack terminating as required for vent extensions through the roof. The relief pipe shall be sized to relieve air pressure inside the ejector to atmospheric pressure, but shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in size.
Horizontal offsets of drainage stacks shall be vented where five or more branch intervals are located above the offset. The offset shall be vented by venting the upper section of the drainage stack and the lower section of the drainage stack.
The upper section of the drainage stack shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connection installed in accordance with Section 904.4. The offset shall be considered to be the base of the stack.
The lower section of the drainage stack shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset and the next lower horizontal branch. The yoke vent connection shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drainage stack. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be not less than the size required for the vent stack of the drainage stack.
Soil and waste stacks in buildings having more than 10 branch intervals shall be provided with a relief vent at each tenth interval installed, beginning with the top floor.
The size of the relief vent shall be equal to the size of the vent stack to which it connects. The lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the soil or waste stack through a wye below the horizontal branch serving the floor, and the upper end shall connect to the vent stack through a wye not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor.

Each fixture trap shall have a protecting vent located so that the slope and the developed length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting are within the requirements set forth in Table 909.1.

Exception: The developed length of the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting for self-siphoning fixtures, such as water closets, shall not be limited.

TABLE 909.1

MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF FIXTURE TRAP FROM VENT

SIZE OF TRAP
(inches)
SLOPE
(inch per foot)
DISTANCE FROM TRAP
(feet)
11/41/45
11/21/46
21/48
31/812
41/816

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.

The total fall in a fixture drain due to pipe slope shall not exceed the diameter of the fixture drain, nor shall the vent connection to a fixture drain, except for water closets, be below the weir of the trap.
A vent shall not be installed within two pipe diameters of the trap weir.
Each trap and trapped fixture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The individual vent shall connect to the fixture drain of the trap or trapped fixture being vented.
An individual vent is permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented shall be located on the same floor level.
Where the fixture drains being common vented connect at the same level, the vent connection shall be at the interconnection of the fixture drains or downstream of the interconnection.

Where the fixture drains connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a vertical extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe connecting the two fixture drains shall be considered to be the vent for the lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance with Table 911.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water closet.

TABLE 911.3

COMMON VENT SIZES

PIPE SIZE
(inches)
MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM UPPER
11/21
24
21/2 to 36

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Any combination of fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same floor level is permitted to be vented by a horizontal wet vent. The wet vent shall be considered to be the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the connection of the dry vent along the direction of the flow in the drain pipe to the most downstream fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch drain. Each wet-vented fixture drain shall connect independently to the horizontal wet vent. Only the fixtures within the bathroom groups shall connect to the wet-vented horizontal branch drain. Any additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of the horizontal wet vent.
Any combination of fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same floor level is permitted to be vented by a vertical wet vent. The vertical wet vent shall be considered to be the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the connection of the dry vent down to the lowest fixture drain connection. Each wet-vented fixture shall connect independently to the vertical wet vent. Water closet drains shall connect at the same elevation. Other fixture drains shall connect above or at the same elevation as the water closet fixture drains. The dry-vent connection to the vertical wet vent shall be an individual or common vent serving one or two fixtures.
The required dry-vent connection for wet-vented systems shall comply with Sections 912.2.1 and 912.2.2.
The dry-vent connection for a horizontal wet-vent system shall be an individual vent or a common vent for any bathroom group fixture, except an emergency floor drain. Where the dry-vent connects to a water closet fixture drain, the drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal wet-vent system. Not more than one wet-vented fixture drain shall discharge upstream of the dry-vented fixture drain connection.
The dry-vent connection for a vertical wet-vent system shall be an individual vent or common vent for the most upstream fixture drain.

The dry vent serving the wet vent shall be sized based on the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet-vent system served by the dry vent. The wet vent shall be of a size not less than that specified in Table 912.3, based on the fixture unit discharge to the wet vent.

TABLE 912.3

WET VENT SIZE

WET VENT PIPE SIZE
(inches)
DRAINAGE FIXTURE
UNIT LOAD (dfu)
11/21
24
21/26
312

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

A waste stack shall be considered to be a vent for all of the fixtures discharging to the stack where installed in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The waste stack shall be vertical, and both horizontal and vertical offsets shall be prohibited between the lowest fixture drain connection and the highest fixture drain connection. Fixture drains shall connect separately to the waste stack. The stack shall not receive the discharge of water closets or urinals.
A stack vent shall be provided for the waste stack. The size of the stack vent shall be not less than the size of the waste stack. Offsets shall be permitted in the stack vent, shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level of the highest fixture and shall be in accordance with Section 905.2. The stack vent shall be permitted to connect with other stack vents and vent stacks in accordance with Section 904.5.

The waste stack shall be sized based on the total discharge to the stack and the discharge within a branch interval in accordance with Table 913.4. The waste stack shall be the same size throughout its length.

TABLE 913.4

WASTE STACK VENT SIZE

STACK SIZE
(inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
(dfu)
Total discharge into one Total discharge for stack
11/212
224
21/2No limit8
3No limit24
4No limit50
5No limit75
6No limit100

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Not more than eight fixtures connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most downstream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch.
Circuit-vented horizontal branch drains are permitted to be connected together. Each group of not more than eight fixtures shall be considered to be a separate circuit vent and shall conform to the requirements of this section.
The circuit vent connection shall be located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be installed in accordance with Section 905. The circuit vent pipe shall not receive the discharge of any soil or waste.
The slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be not greater than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3-percent slope). The entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch.
Each separate circuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall be sized independently in accordance with Section 914.3. The downstream circuit-vented horizontal branch shall be sized for the total discharge into the branch, including the upstream branches and the fixtures within the branch.
A relief vent shall be provided for circuit-vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four or more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal branches.
The relief vent shall connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and the most downstream fixture drain of the circuit vent. The relief vent shall be installed in accordance with Section 905.
The relief vent is permitted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures located within the same branch interval as the circuit-vented horizontal branch. The maximum discharge to a relief vent shall be four fixture units.
Fixtures, other than the circuit-vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizontal branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same floor as the circuit-vented fixtures and shall be either individually or common vented.
A combination waste and vent system shall not serve fixtures other than floor drains, sinks, lavatories and drinking fountains. Combination waste and vent systems shall not receive the discharge from a food waste disposer or clinical sink.
The only vertical pipe of a combination waste and vent system shall be the connection between the fixture drain and the horizontal combination waste and vent pipe. The vertical distance shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
The slope of a horizontal combination waste and vent pipe shall not exceed one-half unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) and shall be not less than that indicated in Table 704.1.

The size of a combination waste and vent pipe shall be not less than that indicated in Table 915.2.2. The horizontal length of a combination waste and vent system shall be unlimited.

TABLE 915.2.2

SIZE OF COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT PIPE

DIAMETER
PIPE (inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE
FIXTURE UNITS (dfu)
Connecting to a horizontal Connecting to a building
234
21/2626
31231
42050
5160250
6360575

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

The combination waste and vent system shall be provided with a dry vent connected at any point within the system or the system shall connect to a horizontal drain that serves vented fixtures located on the same floor. Combination waste and vent systems connecting to building drains receiving only the discharge from one or more stacks shall be provided with a dry vent. The vent connection to the combination waste and vent pipe shall extend vertically to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally.
The vent shall be sized for the total drainage fixture unit load in accordance with Section 906.2.
The fixture branch or fixture drain shall connect to the combination waste and vent within a distance specified in Table 909.1. The combination waste and vent pipe shall be considered to be the vent for the fixture.
Island fixture venting shall not be permitted for fixtures other than sinks and lavatories. Residential kitchen sinks with a dishwasher waste connection, a food waste disposer, or both, in combination with the kitchen sink waste, shall be permitted to be vented in accordance with this section.
The island fixture vent shall connect to the fixture drain as required for an individual or common vent. The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage outlet of the fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally or vertically downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple island fixture vents shall extend to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest island fixture being vented before connecting to the outside vent terminal.
The vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in accordance with Chapter 7, except for sizing. The vent shall be sized in accordance with Section 906.2. The lowest point of the island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drainage system. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or to the top half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be provided in the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all vent piping located below the flood level rim of the fixtures. Rodding in both directions shall be permitted through a cleanout.
A drainage stack shall serve as a single-stack vent system where sized and installed in accordance with Sections 917.2 through 917.9. The drainage stack and branch piping shall be the vents for the drainage system. The drainage stack shall have a stack vent.

Drainage stacks shall be sized in accordance with Table 917.2. Stacks shall be uniformly sized based on the total connected drainage fixture unit load. The stack vent shall be the same size as the drainage stack. A 3-inch (76 mm) stack shall serve not more than two water closets.

TABLE 917.2

SINGLE STACK SIZE

STACK SIZE
(inches)
MAXIMUM CONNECTED DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
Stacks less than
75 feet in height
Stacks 75 feet to
less than 160 feet
in height
Stacks 160 feet
and greater in
height
324NPNP
422524NP
548022524
61,015480225
82,3201,015480
104,5002,3201,015
128,1004,5002,320
1513,6008,1004,500

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Horizontal branches connecting to a single-stack vent system shall be sized in accordance with Table 710.1(2). Not more than one water closet shall discharge into a 3-inch (76 mm) horizontal branch at a point within a developed length of 18 inches (457 mm) measured horizontally from the stack.

Where a water closet is within 18 inches (457 mm) measured horizontally from the stack and not more than one fixture with a drain size of not more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) connects to a 3-inch (76 mm) horizontal branch, the branch drain connection to the stack shall be made with a sanitary tee.

The length of horizontal branches shall conform to the requirements of Sections 917.4.1 through 917.4.3.

Water closet connections shall be not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) in developed length measured horizontally from the stack.

Exception: Where the connection is made with a sanitary tee, the maximum developed length shall be 8 feet (2438 mm).

Fixtures other than water closets shall be located not greater than 12 feet (3657 mm) in developed length, measured horizontally from the stack.
The length of vertical piping in a fixture drain connecting to a horizontal branch shall not be considered in computing the fixture's distance in developed length measured horizontally from the stack.
The vertical portion of piping in a fixture drain to a horizontal branch shall be 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum size of the vertical portion of piping for a water-supplied urinal or standpipe shall be 3 inches (76 mm). The maximum vertical drop shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). Fixture drains that are not increased in size, or have a vertical drop in excess of 4 feet (1219 mm), shall be individually vented.
Additional venting shall be provided where more than one water closet discharges to a horizontal branch and where the distance from a fixture trap to the stack exceeds the limits in Section 917.4. Where additional venting is required, the fixture(s) shall be vented by individual vents, common vents, wet vents, circuit vents, or a combination waste and vent pipe. The dry vent extensions for the additional venting shall connect to a branch vent, vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve, or shall terminate outdoors.
Where fixture drains are not connected below a horizontal offset in a stack, a horizontal offset shall not be required to be vented. Where horizontal branches or fixture drains are connected below a horizontal offset in a stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance with Section 907. Fixture connections shall not be made to a stack within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a horizontal offset.
Stacks greater than 2 branch intervals in height shall not receive the discharge of horizontal branches on the lower two floors. There shall not be connections to the stack between the lower two floors and a distance of not less than 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the single stack vented system.
The building drain and building sewer receiving the discharge of a single stack vent system shall be sized in accordance with Table 710.1(1).

918.1 P-918.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Vent systems utilizing air admittance valves shall comply with this section. Stack-type air admittance valves shall conform to ASSE 1050. Individual and branch-type air admittance valves shall conform to ASSE 1051. Air admittance valves shall be allowed for permitted alterations to the plumbing system in one- and two-family dwellings in place of an individual vent for a single fixture drain other than a water closet or any other soil waste.
The valves shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of this section and the manufacturer's instructions. Air admittance valves shall be installed after the DWV testing required by Section 312.2 or 312.3 has been performed.

918.3 P-918.3 Where Permitted

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Individual, branch and circuit ventsAn individual vent shall be permitted to terminate with a connection to an individual or branch-type air admittance valve in accordance with Section 918.3.1. Stack vents and vent stacks shall be permittedprohibited to terminate to stack-type air admittance valves in accordance with Section 918.3.2.

918.3.1 P-918.3.1 Horizontal Branches

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Individual and branch-type air admittance valves shall vent only fixturesa single fixture that areis on the same floor level and connectconnected to a horizontal branch drain or vertical waste stack. Where the horizontal branch is located more than four branch intervals from the top of the stack, the horizontal branch shall be provided with a relief vent that shall connect to a vent stack or stack vent, or extend outdoors to the open air. The relief vent shall connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and the most downstream fixture drain connected to the horizontal branch drain. The relief vent shall be sized in accordance with Section 906.2 and installed in accordance with Section 905. The relief vent shall be permitted to serve as the vent for other fixtures.

918.3.2 P-918.3.2 Stack

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stack-type air admittance valves shall be prohibited from serving as the vent terminal for vent stacks or stack vents that serve drainage stacks having more than six branch intervals.

918.4 P-918.4 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Individual and branch-type air admittance valves shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the horizontal branch drain or fixture drain being vented. Stack-type air admittance valves shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being vented. The air admittance valve shall be located within the maximum developed length permitted for the vent. The air admittance valve shall be installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above insulation materials.
Access shall be provided to all air admittance valves. Such valves shall be installed in a location that allows air to enter the valve.
The air admittance valve shall be rated in accordance with the standard for the size of the vent to which the valve is connected.
Within each plumbing system, not less than one stack vent or vent stack shall extend outdoors to the open air.

918.8 P-918.8 Prohibited Installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Air admittance valves shall not be installed in nonneutralized special waste systems as described in Chapter 8 except where such valves are in compliance with ASSE 1049, are constructed of materials approved in accordance with Section 702.5 and are tested for chemical resistance in accordance with ASTM F1412. Air admittance valves shall not be located in spaces utilized as supply or return air plenums. Air admittance valves shall not be used to vent sumps or tanks except where the vent system for the sump or tank has been designed by an engineer. Air admittance valves shall not be installed on outdoor vent terminals for the sole purpose of reducing clearances to gravity air intakes or mechanical air intakes. Air admittance valves shall not be used in any other applications other than described in Section 918.1.

Section 919 Engineered Vent Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section P-919 Philadelphia Single-Stack Waste and Vent System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.2.1 Fixture-Unit Values

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The relative load weights of fixtures shall be determined in accordance with Table 919.2(a).

P-919.2.2 Values for Fixtures Not Listed

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fixture-unit values for fixtures that are not listed in Table 919.2(a) and cannot be determined by similarity to a fixture listed therein shall be determined by Table 919.2(b).

P-919.2.3 Values for Continuous Flow

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
For a continuous or semi-continuous flow in a sanitary drainage system, such as from a bilge pump, ejector, air conditioning equipment, commercial laundry, dishwashing equipment or similar device, each gallon per minute flow shall be deemed to be two fixture units.

P-919.2.4 Maximum Fixture-Unit Load

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The maximum number of fixture units connected to a given size of house drain, horizontal branch, or vertical soil or waste stack, shall be determined by Table 919.2(c).

P-919.2.5 Soil Stack Size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The size of a soil or waste stack is determined by the fixture units on the stack plus the fixture units on the horizontal branch from the base of the soil or waste stack connected to the house drain.

P-919.2.6 Horizontal Branch Size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The size of the horizontal branch from the base of the soil or waste stack connected to the house drain is determined by the fixture units and gradient fall.

P-919.2.7 Building Drain/Building Sewer Size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The size of the house drain is determined by its gradient fall and total number of fixture units.

P-919.2.8 Fall for Small Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Horizontal drainage piping of 3-inch (76 mm) diameter and less shall be installed with a fall of not less than 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m).

P-919.2.9 Fall for Large Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Horizontal drainage piping of more than 3 inches (76 mm) and up to and including 6 inches in diameter shall be installed with a fall not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m). Horizontal drainage piping larger than 6-inch (152 mm) diameter shall be installed with a fall of not less than 1/16 inch per foot (5.2 mm/m).

P-919.2.10 High-Rise Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
If the building is 75 feet (23 m) in height and not more than 160 feet (49 m) in height, as measured from the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, the vertical soil or waste stacks connected to the house drain or to any of its branches shall be one size larger than given in Table 919.2(c), and this shall also apply when the soil or waste stacks are connected to a horizontal branch pipe that discharges into a soil or waste stack. If the building is more than 160 feet in height, the vertical soil or waste stacks connected to the house drain or to any of its branches shall be two sizes larger than given in Table 919.2(c), and this shall also apply when the vertical soil or waste stacks are connected to the horizontal branch pipe that discharges into a soil or waste stack. The size of the main soil stack shall be sized according to the largest branch entering the stack, except if the amount of fixture units requires a larger size. The developed length of the soil or waste stacks shall be determined by measuring the distance between the center line of the horizontal branch pipe and the roof. If a relief vent is installed on all horizontal branches below the top floor and between the soil or waste stacks and the first fixture on the horizontal branch, the soil or waste stack sizes shall be in accordance with Table 919.2(c), regardless of the height of the building. The size of the branch line and its stack shall be determined by the developed length of the stack.

P-919.2.11 Minimum Size of Soil and Waste Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
No soil or waste stack shall be smaller than the largest branch draining into it, regardless of the height of the building. Soil stacks receiving the discharge of water closets shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter, as provided in Table 919.2(c). Three-inch soil stacks shall be limited to six water closets. No horizontal soil pipe or waste pipe draining water closets shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. When using 3-inch (76 mm) ideal bends (closet bends) to receive the discharge of water closets, this fitting shall be a blind bend containing no drainage connections for other fixtures. No waste pipe shall be less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter.

P-919.2.12 Building Drain/Building Sewer

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The minimum size of the main house drain receiving the discharge of water closets shall be 4 inches (102 mm) inside nominal diameter.

P-919.3 Venting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.3.1 Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All fixtures shall be adequately vented to prevent syphonic action and to protect trap seals.

P-919.3.2 Connection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The seal of every fixture trap in a plumbing system shall be protected by being individually connected to a properly vented drain.

Exception: Leader traps, area drain traps and yard drain traps.

P-919.3.3 Stack Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Every soil or waste stack shall be extended vertically, full size, as a stack vent to open air.

P-919.3.4 Vent Stacks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A vent stack or main vent shall be installed with a soil or waste stack when relief vents or other branch vents are required in more than five branch intervals. The vent stack shall terminate independently in the open air above the roof or shall be connected with the stack vent at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture and shall connect with the soil or waste stack through, at or below the lowest horizontal soil or waste branch, or with the house drain, in such manner as to prevent the accumulation of rust scale. When water closets are installed on this lowest horizontal branch, they shall be connected to the side of the horizontal branch.

P-919.3.5 Vent Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Every building in which plumbing is installed shall have at least one stack vent or vent stack which shall run undiminished in size and as directly as possible from the building drainage system through to the open air above the roof. The minimum size of the stack vent or vent stack shall be 3 inches (76 mm).

P-919.4 Velocity Breaks in Buildings Over 30 Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.4.1 Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Velocity breaks shall be required in soil stacks in buildings more than 30 stories above grade to impede the velocity of the waste. At each velocity break, the stack shall be offset by two 45-degree breaks. A relief vent one-half the size of the soil stack shall be installed at the top of the second 45-degree break and shall be connected to the nearest vent stack.

P-919.4.2 Intervals

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Velocity breaks shall be installed at maximum 10-story intervals above the 30th floor.

P-919.4.3 Relief Vent

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A relief vent pipe shall be installed on the main drain before the main house trap inside the building and be connected to the nearest vent line for any building 75 feet (23 m) or higher. On main drains of 8 inches (203 mm) or less, the vent shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm). On main drains 10 inches (254 mm) and over, the relief vent shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm).

P-919.5 Ventilation of Branch or Horizontal Pipes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

919.5.4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing stacks in buildings where the center of a water closet outlet is more than 4 feet but not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from the center of a vented soil pipe, an additional 11/2-inch (38 mm) vent will be permitted if the vent is no longer than 30 feet (9 m), provided the conditions are the same as in Section 919.5.3.

P-919.5.1 Vent Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Every branch, horizontal soil pipe or waste pipe to which a group of two or more fixtures is to be connected shall have a vent of the same size as the branch by: extending the branch full size as through the roof; connecting to the stack vent 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest fixture; or connecting to the vent stack 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest fixture connected to the branch. The horizontal branch from the base of a stack shall be connected to the building drain.

P-919.5.2 Alternatives

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where the center of a water closet outlet is not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in developed length from the center of 4-inch (102 mm) vented soil pipe on a vertical line, or through a wye or wye and 1/8 bend on a vented horizontal line, connection of small fixture wastes—not exceeding two that are 11/2 inches (38 mm) or less in diameter—to the side of an ideal bend (closet bend) above the center line without an additional vent, or by using no-hub, copper, ABS or PVC pipe and fittings. Where the center of a water closet outlet is not more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the center of a 3-inch (76 mm) vented soil pipe and the 4-inch (102 mm) ideal bend (closet bend) is connected directly to a sanitary tee on a vertical line, connection of small fixture wastes—not exceeding two that are 11/2 inches (38 mm) or less in diameter— to the sides of the bend above the center line without an additional vent and in accordance with Section 919.2.11. As an alternative to increasing the size of a stack from 3 inches to 4 inches (76 mm to 102 mm), a merion/stack tee fittings shall be used to receive the discharge of a water closet and small fixture wastes.

P-919.5.3 Merion/Stack Tee Fittings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The water closet soil line connected to a merion/stack tee fittings shall be a maximum of 8 feet (2438 mm) developed length. The ideal bend (closet bend) shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal diameter when receiving the discharge of small fixture wastes. When using 3-inch (76 mm) ideal bends (closet bend) to receive discharges of water closets, this fitting shall be a blind bend containing no drainage connections for other fixtures.

P-919.6 Fixture Venting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.6.1 Minimum Vent Size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Any single water closet branch more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length or waste branch for fixtures other than water closets more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length shall have a vent sized at least one-half the diameter of the branch pipe. Depending on its length, the number of fixture units connected shall be in accordance with Table 919.9(a).

P-919.7 Venting of Offsets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.7.1 Stack Offsets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Offsets in soil or waste stacks at an angle greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical serving fixtures above the offset shall be vented as provided in Sections 919.7.2 or 919.7.3.

P-919.7.2 Yoke Venting Offsets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Such offsets shall be provided with a yoke vent equal to one-half the diameter of the vent stack or soil stack but not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm). The lower end of the yoke vent shall connect to the soil or waste stack through a wye below the offset and above the next lower horizontal branch, and the upper end shall connect to the stack vent or the vent stack not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest fixture.

P-919.7.3 Separate Venting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Such offsets shall be vented as two separate soil or waste stacks, with the stack section below the offset and the stack section above the offset.

P-919.7.4 Venting Not Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All buildings of not more than three stories having a soil or waste stack with one offset at an angle greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical and which does not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in length shall not require additional venting. No fixtures shall be permitted above the offset, except that one small fixture may be installed for a heel wash.

P-919.8 Vent Headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

P-919.8.1 Vent Header Permitted

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stack vents and vent stacks shall be permitted to connect into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extend to the open air above the roof at one point. Such header shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of Table 919.9(a). As per Section 919.5, the size of the horizontal branch entering a stack shall have a vent of the same size; therefore, one of the stacks entering into a common vent header shall be of the same size as the branch entering the stack and shall maintain that size through the roof. Other sizes of the header can then be sized as per Table 919.9(a).

P-919.8.2 Sizing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The number of fixture units considered in sizing the vent header shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks connected thereto. The developed length shall be the longest vent length from the intersection at the base of the most distant stack to the vent header terminal in the open air above the roof. The latter shall be extended to the open air above the roof as a direct extension of one stack.

P-919.9.1 Length of Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The length of a vent shall be its developed length from the lowest connection of the vent with the soil stack, waste stack or house drain to the vent terminal above the roof.

P-919.9.2 Size of Stack Vent

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The diameter of a stack vent shall not be less than the diameter of the soil or waste stack of which it is an extension.

P-919.9.3 Size of Vent Stacks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A vent stack or main vent connecting relief vents, circuit vents or loop vents shall have a diameter of at least one-half the diameter of the soil or waste stack to which the vent stack or main vent is connected, but in no case less than 11/2 inches (38 mm). The maximum number of fixture units connected to the vent stack shall be in accordance with Table 919.9(a). The vent stack or main vent shall not be less in size than the branch, circuit, or loop vent it is servicing. Where fixtures are installed on the house drain behind the line of vent, a minimum vent stack of 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be required for small fixtures having a fixture unit value not greater than 10 inches (254 mm) and a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) for one or more water closets and other fixtures, except if a larger size is required according to Table 919.9(a).

P-919.9.4 Size of Relief Vent

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The diameter of a relief vent shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the horizontal branch to which it is connected, with a minimum size of 11/2 inches (38 mm). The maximum number of fixture units connected to the relief vent shall be in accordance with Table 919.9(a).

919.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Engineered vent systems shall comply with this section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and testing requirements of Section 105.3.

919.2 Individual Branch Fixture and Individual Fixture Header Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The maximum developed length of individual fixture vents to vent branches and vent headers shall be determined in accordance with Table 919.2 for the minimum pipe diameters at the indicated vent airflow rates.

The individual vent airflow rate shall be determined in accordance with the following:

(Equation 9-1)

For SI:

where:

Nn,b = Number of fixtures per header (or vent branch) ÷ total number of fixtures connected to vent stack.

Qh,b = Vent branch or vent header airflow rate (cfm).

Qv = Total vent stack airflow rate (cfm).

Qv (gpm) = 27.8 rs2/3 (1 — rs) D8/3

Qv (cfm) = 0.134 Qv (gpm)

where:

D = Drainage stack diameter (inches).

Qw = Design discharge load (gpm).

rs = Waste water flow area to total area.

=

Individual vent airflow rates are obtained by equally distributing Qh,b into one-half the total number of fixtures on the branch or header for more than two fixtures; for an odd number of total fixtures, decrease by one; for one fixture, apply the full value of Qh,b.

Individual vent developed length shall be increased by 20 percent of the distance from the vent stack to the fixture vent connection on the vent branch or header.

TABLE 919.2

MINIMUM DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL BRANCH FIXTURE VENTS AND INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE HEADER VENTS FOR SMOOTH PIPES

DIAMETER OF
VENT PIPE
(inches)
INDIVIDUAL VENT AIRFLOW RATE (cubic feet per minute)
Maximum developed length of vent (feet)
1234567891011121314151617181920
1/295251385432111111111111
3/41008847302015109765433322221
11009465483729242017141211987766
11/4100877362534640363229262321
11/21009684756560544945
2100

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

P-919.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The City of Philadelphia has the oldest known model plumbing code in the country dating back to June 30, 1885. Since the inception of the Philadelphia Plumbing Code, one of the main characteristics and theories has been the single stack method of waste and vent. This code and the single stack theory has stood the test of time and continues today to be a model code copied by many other codes as a base line. Every building and structure in the City of Philadelphia as of this writing has been built incorporating this methodology of the single stack theory. This section is intended to be used as an option for any modification or rebuilding of any of these existing structures, homes or buildings or any planned new construction in the future.

P-919.2 Drainage System Sizing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
TABLE P-919.2(a)
FIXTURE-UNIT VALUES
FIXTURES PRIVATE INSTALLATIONS PUBLIC INSTALLATIONS
Bathroom group consisting of 1 lavatory, 1 water closet, 1 bathtub or shower stall
6
Bathtub with 11/2 inch trapa 2 3
Bathtub with 2-inch trapa 3 4
Cup sink 2
Dishwashers, domestic, automatic 4
Drinking fountain 1/2
Floor drain 3 3
Kitchen sink with 11/2 inch trapb 3 3
Kitchen sink with 2-inch trapb 4
Laundry tray with 11/2 inch trap (1 or 2 compartment) 3 3
Laundry tray with 2-inch trap 4
Lavatory with 11/4 inch or 11/2 inch trap 1 2
Lavatory, barber, beauty, parlor or surgeons 3
Service sink (slop sink), mop receptor 3
Service sink, flushing rim with flush valve 6
Shower stall with 11/2 inch or 2 inch trap 2 3
Shower stall with required 3-inch trap 6
Urinal, stall and washout 2
Urinal, pedestal, siphon-jet and blow-out 4
Urinal, non-water 1
Wash fountain, duo 2
Wash fountain, any other size 5
Washing machine, domestic, automatic 4
Water closet 3 6
Fountain cuspidor (dental chair) 1
Sink, soda fountain or bar 2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. With or without shower head over bathtub.
  2. With or without garbage grinder unit, or dishwasher, in sink with 11/2 or 2-inch trap.


TABLE P-919.2(b)
OTHER FIXTURE VALUES
REQUIRED FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE FIXTURE-UNIT VALUE
PRIVATE INSTALLATIONS PUBLIC INSTALLATIONS
11/4 inch 1 2
11/2 inch 2 3
2-inch 3 4
3-inch 4 6
4-inch 4 8
For SI:1 inch = 25.4 mm.

TABLE P-919.2(c)
MINIMUM PIPE SIZES ACCORDING TO FIXTURE LOAD
(Maximum Fixture Units that may be Connected)
HOUSE DRAIN OR HORIZONTAL BRANCH
VERTICAL SOIL
OR WASTE STACK
PIPE SIZE (Inches) 1/16" FALL 1/8" FALL 1/4" FALL 1/2" FALL
11/4 2 2
11/2 4 6 6
2 10 18 20
21/2 27 36 36
3 48a 65a 75b
4 50 100 200 225
5 130 225 420 480
6 330 480 875 1,015
8 500 850 1,100 2,000 2,320
10 1,050 1,650 2,320 3,800 4,500
12 1,800 3,000 4,500 6,500 8,100
15 3,600 6,000 8,100 10,000 13,600
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Limit 2 water closets.
  2. Limit 6 water closets.

P-919.9 Size and Length of Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
TABLE P-919.9(a)
SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS
FIXTURE UNITS CONNECTED DIAMETER OF VENT (inches)
MAXIMUM LENGTH OF VENT (feet)
11/2" 2" 21/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8"
13 75 310
26 70 300
47 35 140 450
72 23 85 260 650
98 18 75 240 600
195 30 95 240 1,000
293 22 70 180 750
390 28 70 320 1,000
624 20 50 240 750
969 20 95 240 1,000
1,320 18 70 180 750
2,165 30 80 350 1,000
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Section 920 Computerized Vent Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 920 Reserved

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

920.1 Design of Vent System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The sizing, design and layout of the vent system shall be permitted to be determined by approved computer program design methods.

920.2 System Capacity

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The vent system shall be based on the air capacity requirements of the drainage system under a peak load condition.
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