About this chapter: Plumbing fixtures are required to be installed for nearly every building as toilet facilities (water closets and lavatories) are needed by the occupants of a building. Additional fixtures for washing, bathing and culinary purposes are also necessary where occupants dwell in buildings. Chapter 4 specifies the minimum number and type of plumbing fixtures for buildings based on the description of use of the building. Because fixture design and quality are paramount to ensure that plumbing fixtures operate properly, this chapter also specifies numerous product and material standards for plumbing fixtures.
Water closets having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or having walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 shall be prohibited. Any water closet that permits siphonage of the contents of the bowl back into the tank shall be prohibited. Trough urinals shall be prohibited.
Materials for specialty fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of stainless steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or shall be lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corrosion-resistant steel or other material especially suited to the application for which the fixture is intended.
Sheet copper for general applications shall conform to ASTM B152 and shall not weigh less than 12 ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m2).
Plumbing fixtures shall be provided in the minimum number as shown in Table 403.1, based on the actual use of the building or space. Uses not shown in Table 403.1 shall be considered individually by the code official. The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code.
(URINALS: SEE SECTION 424.2)
|1||Assembly||Theaters and other buildings for the performing arts and motion picturesd||1 per 125||1 per 65||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Nightclubs, bars, taverns, dance halls and buildings for similar purposesd||1 per 40||1 per 40||1 per 75||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Restaurants, banquet halls and food courtsd||1 per 75||1 per 75||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Casino gaming areas||1 per 100 for the first 400 and 1 per 250 for the remainder exceeding 400||1 per 50 for the first 400 and 1 per 150 for the remainder exceeding 400||1 per 250 for the first 750 and 1 per 500 for the remainder exceeding 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Auditoriums without permanent seating, art galleries, exhibition halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, arcades and gymnasiumsd||1 per 125||1 per 65||1 per 200||—||1 per 500||1 service sink|
|Passenger terminals and transportation facilitiesd||1 per 500||1 per 500||1 per 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Places of worship and other religious servicesd||1 per 150||1 per 75||1 per 200||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Coliseums, arenas, skating rinks, pools and tennis courts for indoor sporting events and activities||1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500||1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520||1 per 200||1 per 150||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|Stadiums, amusement parks, bleachers and grandstands for outdoor sporting events and activitiesf||1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500||1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520||1 per 200||1 per 150||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
|2||Business||Buildings for the transaction of business, professional services, other services involving merchandise, office buildings, banks, ambulatory care, light industrial and similar uses||1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 per 50 for the remainder exceeding 50||1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 per 80 for the remainder exceeding 80||—||1 per 100||1 service sinke|
|3||Educational||Educational facilities||1 per 50||1 per 50||—||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|4||Factory and industrial||Structures in which occupants are engaged in work fabricating, assembly or processing of products or materials||1 per 100||1 per 100||—||1 per 400||1 service sink|
|5||Institutional||Custodial care facilities||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Medical care recipients in hospitals and nursing homes||1 per roomc||1 per roomc||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink per floor|
|Employees in hospitals and nursing homesb||1 per 25||1 per 35||—||1 per 100||—|
|Visitors in hospitals and nursing homes||1 per 75||1 per 100||—||1 per 500||—|
|Prisonsb||1 per cell||1 per cell||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Reformitories, detention centers, and correctional centersb||1 per 15||1 per 15||1 per 15||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Employees in reformitories, detention centers and correctional centersb||1 per 25||1 per 35||—||1 per 100||—|
|Adult day care and child day care||1 per 15||1 per 15||1||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|6||Mercantile||Retail stores, service stations, shops, salesrooms, markets and shopping centers||1 per 500||1 per 750||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sinke|
|7||Residential||Hotels, motels, boarding houses (transient)||1 per sleeping unit||1 per sleeping unit||1 per sleeping unit||—||1 service sink|
|Dormitories, fraternities, sororities and boarding houses (not transient)||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|Apartment house||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||—||1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per 20 dwelling units|
|Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons||1 per 10||1 per 10||1 per 8||1 per 100||1 service sink|
|One- and two-family dwellings and lodging houses with five or fewer guestrooms||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||1 per dwelling unit||—||1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per dwelling unit|
|8||Storage||Structures for the storage of goods, warehouses, storehouse and freight depots. Low and Moderate Hazard.||1 per 100||1 per 100||—||1 per 1,000||1 service sink|
- The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code.
- Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or care recipients.
- A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted provided that each patient sleeping unit has direct access to the toilet room and provision for privacy for the toilet room user is provided.
- The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of facilities required.
- For business and mercantile classifications with an occupant load of 15 or fewer, service sinks shall not be required.
- The required number and type of plumbing fixtures for outdoor public swimming pools shall be in accordance with Section 609 of the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code.
To determine the occupant load of each sex, the total occupant load shall be divided in half. To determine the required number of fixtures, the fixture ratio or ratios for each fixture type shall be applied to the occupant load of each sex in accordance with Table 403.1. Fractional numbers resulting from applying the fixture ratios of Table 403.1 shall be rounded up to the next whole number. For calculations involving multiple occupancies, such fractional numbers for each occupancy shall first be summed and then rounded up to the next whole number.
Exception: The total occupant load shall not be required to be divided in half where approved statistical data indicates a distribution of the sexes of other than 50 percent of each sex.
The plumbing fixtures located in single-user toilet facilities and bathing rooms, including family or assisteduse toilet and bathing rooms that are required by Section 1109.2.1 of the International Building Code, shall contribute toward the total number of required plumbing fixtures for a building or tenant space. Single-user toilet facilities and bathing rooms, and family or assisted-use toilet rooms and bathing rooms shall be identified for use by either sex.
Where two or more toilet rooms are provided for each sex, the required number of lavatories shall be distributed proportionately to the required number of water closets.
Where plumbing fixtures are required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex.
- Separate facilities shall not be required for dwelling units and sleeping units.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in structures or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including both employees and customers, of 15 or fewer.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in mercantile occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 100 or fewer.
- Separate facilities shall not be required in business occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 25 or fewer.
Where a building or tenant space requires a separate toilet facility for each sex and each toilet facility is required to have only one water closet, two family or assisted-use toilet facilities shall be permitted to serve as the required separate facilities. Family or assisted-use toilet facilities shall not be required to be identified for exclusive use by either sex as required by Section 403.4.
For structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization, customers, patrons and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities. Employees associated with structures and tenant spaces shall be provided with toilet facilities. The number of plumbing fixtures located within the required toilet facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 403 for all users. Employee toilet facilities shall be either separate or combined employee and public toilet facilities.
The route to the public toilet facilities required by Section 403.3 shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms or closets. Access to the required facilities shall be from within the building or from the exterior of the building. Routes shall comply with the accessibility requirements of the International Building Code. The public shall have access to the required toilet facilities at all times that the building is occupied.
Toilet rooms shall not open directly into a room used for the preparation of food for service to the public.
In occupancies other than covered and open mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story above or below the space required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m).
In covered and open mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story above or below the space required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 m). In mall buildings, the required facilities shall be based on total square footage within a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, and facilities shall be installed in each individual store or in a central toilet area located in accordance with this section. The maximum distance of travel to central toilet facilities in mall buildings shall be measured from the main entrance of any store or tenant space. In mall buildings, where employees' toilet facilities are not provided in the individual store, the maximum distance of travel shall be measured from the employees' work area of the store or tenant space.
Where pay facilities are installed, such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge.
Where a toilet room is provided for the use of multiple occupants, the egress door for the room shall not be lockable from the inside of the room. This section does not apply to family or assisted-use toilet rooms.
Required public facilities shall be provided with signs that designate the sex, as required by Section 403.2. Signs shall be readily visible and located near the entrance to each toilet facility. Signs for accessible toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1111 of the International Building Code.
Drinking fountains shall not be required to be located in individual tenant spaces provided that public drinking fountains are located within a distance of travel of 500 feet (152 m) of the most remote location in the tenant space and not more than one story above or below the tenant space. Where the tenant space is in a covered or open mall, such distance shall not exceed 300 feet (91 m). Drinking fountains shall be located on an accessible route.
Fixtures shall be set level and in proper alignment with reference to adjacent walls.
A water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, partition, vanity or other obstruction. Where partitions or other obstructions do not separate adjacent fixtures, fixtures shall not be set closer than 30 inches (762 mm) center to center between adjacent fixtures. There shall be not less than a 21-inch (533 mm) clearance in front of a water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet to any wall, fixture or door. Water closet compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width and not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in depth for floor-mounted water closets and not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width and 56 inches (1422 mm) in depth for wall-hung water closets.
Exception: An accessible children's water closet shall be set not closer than 12 inches (305 mm) from its center to the required partition or to the wall on one side.
In employee and public toilet rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same room as the required water closet.
Piping, fixtures or equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere with the normal operation of windows, doors or other means of egress openings.
Each water closet utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compartment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures to ensure privacy.
- Water closet compartments shall not be required in a single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more water closets shall be permitted to have one water closet without an enclosing compartment.
- This provision is not applicable to toilet areas located within Group I-3 housing areas.
Each urinal utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions to provide privacy. The horizontal dimension between walls or partitions at each urinal shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm). The walls or partitions shall begin at a height not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) from and extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall surface at each side of the urinal not less than 18 inches (457 mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished backwall surface, whichever is greater.
- Urinal partitions shall not be required in a single-occupant or family/assisted-use toilet room with a lockable door.
- Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities and containing two or more urinals shall be permitted to have one urinal without partitions.
Connections between the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be made with a floor flange or a waste connector and sealing gasket. The waste connector and sealing gasket joint shall comply with the joint tightness test of ASME A112.4.3 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The flange shall be attached to the drain and anchored to the structure. Connections between the drain and wall-hung water closets shall be made with an approved extension nipple or horn adaptor. The water closet shall be bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or screws. Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric gasket, flange-to-fixture connection complying with ASME A112.4.3 or an approved setting compound.
Floor flanges for water closets or similar fixtures shall be not less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) thick for copper alloy, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic and 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) caulking depth for cast iron or galvanized malleable iron.
Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead alloy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. Closet screws and bolts shall be of copper alloy. Flanges shall be secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant screws or bolts.
Floor outlet fixtures shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by screws or bolts of corrosion-resistant material.
Joints formed where fixtures come in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed.
In mental health centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall be bolted through walls.
Where any fixture is provided with an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so that standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow when the stopper is closed, and water will not remain in the overflow when the fixture is empty.
Slip joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with concealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access panel or utility space not less than 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide access to the slip joint connections for inspection and repair.
The waste from an automatic clothes washer shall discharge through an air break into a standpipe in accordance with Section 802.3.3 or into a laundry sink. The trap and fixture drain for an automatic clothes washer standpipe shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter. The fixture drain for the standpipe serving an automatic clothes washer shall connect to a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger diameter fixture branch or stack. Automatic clothes washers that discharge by gravity shall be permitted to drain to a waste receptor or an approved trench drain.
Bathtubs shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Windows and doors within a bathtub enclosure shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the International Building Code.
Doors in a bathtub enclosure shall conform to ASME A112.19.15.
Bidets shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1.
The discharge water temperature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to not greater than 110°F (43°C) by a water-temperature-limiting device conforming to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70 or CSA B125.3.
Commercial dishwashing machines shall conform to ASSE 1004 and NSF 3. Residential dishwashers shall conform to NSF 184.
The waste connection of a residential dishwasher shall connect directly to a wye branch fitting on the tailpiece of the kitchen sink, directly to the dishwasher connection of a food waste disposer, or through an air break to a standpipe. The waste line of a residential dishwasher shall rise and be securely fastened to the underside of the sink rim or counter top.
Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2 or ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 and water coolers shall conform to ASHRAE 18. Drinking fountains, water coolers and water dispensers shall conform to NSF 61, Section 9. Electrically operated, refrigerated drinking water coolers and water dispensers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 399.
Drinking fountains shall not be required for an occupant load of 15 or fewer.
Where drinking fountains are required, not fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided. One drinking fountain shall comply with the requirements for people who use a wheelchair and one drinking fountain shall comply with the requirements for standing persons.
- A single drinking fountain with two separate spouts that complies with the requirements for people who use a wheelchair and standing persons shall be permitted to be substituted for two separate drinking fountains.
- Where drinking fountains are primarily for children's use, the drinking fountains for people using wheelchairs shall be permitted to comply with the children's provisions in ICC A117.1 and drinking fountains for standing children shall be permitted to provide the spout at 30 inches (762 mm) minimum above the floor.
Where restaurants provide drinking water in a container free of charge, drinking fountains shall not be required in those restaurants. In other occupancies where drinking fountains are required, water dispensers shall be permitted to be substituted for not more than 50 percent of the required number of drinking fountains.
Emergency showers and eyewash stations shall conform to ISEA Z358.1.
Waste connections shall not be required for emergency showers and eyewash stations.
Where hot and cold water is supplied to an emergency shower or eyewash station, the temperature of the water supply shall only be controlled by a temperature actuated mixing valve complying with ASSE 1071.
Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Faucets and fixture fittings that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water connectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to the requirements of Section 605.6.
Individual shower and tubshower combination valves shall be balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016/ASME A112.1016/CSA B125.16 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 and shall be installed at the point of use. Shower and tub-shower combination valves required by this section shall be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. In-line thermostatic valves shall not be utilized for compliance with this section.
Multiple (gang) showers supplied with a single-tempered water supply pipe shall have the water supply for such showers controlled by an approved automatic temperature control mixing valve that conforms to ASSE 1069 or CSA B125.3, or each shower head shall be individually controlled by a balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valve that conforms to ASSE 1016/ASME A112.1016/CSA B125.16 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 and is installed at the point of use. Such valves shall be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.
The hot water supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs shall be limited to not greater than 120°F (49°C) by a water-temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70 or CSA B125.3, except where such protection is otherwise provided by a combination tub/shower valve in accordance with Section 412.3.
Temperature-actuated, flow-reduction devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, shall conform to ASSE 1062. A temperature-actuated, flow-reduction device shall be an approved method for limiting the water temperature to not greater than 120° F (49° C) at the outlet of a faucet or fixture fitting. Such devices shall not be used alone as a substitute for the balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required in Section 412.3 or as a substitute for bathtub or whirlpool tub water-temperature-limiting valves required in Section 412.5.
Deck-mounted bath/shower transfer valves containing an integral atmospheric vacuum breaker shall conform to the requirements of ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Personal hygiene devices integral to water closets or water closet seats shall conform to the requirements of ASME A112.4.2/CSA B45.16.
Head shampoo sink faucets shall be supplied with hot water that is limited to not more than 120°F (49°C) by a water-temperature-limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70. Each faucet shall have integral check valves to prevent crossover flow between the hot and cold water supply connections.
Floor drains shall have removable strainers. The floor drain shall be constructed so that the drain is capable of being cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. Ready access shall be provided to floor drains.
In public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing facilities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing automatic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall have an outlet of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter.
Each water closet, urinal, clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage system shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water in quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture, cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap.
A flushing device shall not serve more than one fixture.
Flushometer valves and tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037/ASME A112.1037/CSA B125.37 or CSA B125.3. Vacuum breakers on flushometer valves shall conform to the performance requirements of ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Access shall be provided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer valves shall be of the water conservation type and shall not be used where the water pressure is lower than the minimum required for normal operation. When operated, the valve shall automatically complete the cycle of operation, opening fully and closing positively under the water supply pressure. Each flushometer valve shall be provided with a means for regulating the flow through the valve. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each flushing cycle.
Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to the tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for automatic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or sensor control devices.
Flush tanks shall be provided with overflows discharging to the water closet or urinal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent flooding the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied with water according to the manufacturer's design conditions. The opening of the overflow pipe shall be located above the flood level rim of the water closet or urinal or above a secondary overflow in the flush tank.
Sheet copper utilized for flush tank linings shall conform to ASTM B152 and shall not weigh less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m2).
Flush pipes and fittings shall be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME A112.19.5/CSA B45.15.
Laundry trays shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Lavatories shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Group wash-up equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 402. Every 20 inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be considered as one lavatory.
Cultured marble vanity tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Moveable lavatory systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.
Tempered water shall be delivered from lavatories and group wash fixtures located in public toilet facilities provided for customers, patrons and visitors. Tempered water shall be delivered through an approved water-temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70 or CSA B125.3.
Manual food and beverage dispensing equipment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18.
Prefabricated showers and shower compartments shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Shower valves for individual showers shall conform to the requirements of Section 412.3.
Water supply risers from the shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or concealed, shall be attached to the structure. The attachment to the structure shall be made by the use of support devices designed for use with the specific piping material or by fittings anchored with screws.
Waste outlets serving showers shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter and, for other than waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable strainers not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with strainer openings not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in least dimension. Where each shower space is not provided with an individual waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be located and the floor pitched so that waste from one shower does not flow over the floor area serving another shower. Waste outlets shall be fastened to the waste pipe in an approved manner.
Shower compartments shall be not less than 900 square inches (0.58 m2) in interior crosssectional area. Shower compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in least dimension as measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, exclusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes and safety grab bars or rails. Except as required in Section 404, the minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the shower drain outlet.
Exception: Shower compartments having not less than 25 inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, provided that the shower compartment has not less than 1,300 square inches (0.838 m2) of cross-sectional area.
Bathtub floors, shower floors, wall areas above built-in tubs that have installed shower heads and walls in shower compartments shall be constructed of smooth, corrosion-resistant and nonabsorbent waterproof materials. Wall materials shall extend to a height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the room floor level, and not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the drain of the tub or shower. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each other and with either the tub or shower floor.
Floor surfaces shall be constructed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and waterproof materials.
Floors or receptors under shower compartments shall be laid on, and supported by, a smooth and structurally sound base.
Floors under shower compartments, except where prefabricated receptors have been provided, shall be lined and made water tight utilizing material complying with Sections 418.104.22.168 through 422.214.171.124. Such liners shall turn up on all sides not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above the finished threshold level. Liners shall be recessed and fastened to an approved backing so as not to occupy the space required for wall covering, and shall not be nailed or perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the finished threshold. Liners shall be pitched one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) and shall be sloped toward the fixture drains and be securely fastened to the waste outlet at the seepage entrance, making a water-tight joint between the liner and the outlet. The completed liner shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.9.
- Floor surfaces under shower heads provided for rinsing laid directly on the ground are not required to comply with this section.
- Where a sheet-applied, load-bearing, bonded, waterproof membrane is installed as the shower lining, the membrane shall not be required to be recessed.
Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets shall meet the requirements of ASTM D4551. Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall meet the requirements of ASTM D4068. The liner shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Sheet lead shall weigh not less than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m2) and shall be coated with an asphalt paint or other approved coating. The lead sheet shall be insulated from conducting substances other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or an equivalent. Sheet lead shall be joined by burning.
Sheet copper shall conform to ASTM B152 and shall weigh not less than 12 ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m2). The copper sheet shall be insulated from conducting substances other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or an equivalent. Sheet copper shall be joined by brazing or soldering.
Sheet-applied, load-bearing, bonded, waterproof membranes shall meet requirements of TCNA A118.10 and shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Liquid-type, trowelapplied, load-bearing, bonded waterproof materials shall meet the requirements of TCNA A118.10 and shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Sinks shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Moveable sink systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.
The water supplied to specialty plumbing fixtures, such as pedicure chairs having an integral foot bathtub and footbaths, shall be limited to not greater than 120°F (49°C) by a water-temperature-limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070/ASME A112.1070/CSA B125.70 or CSA B125.3.
Urinals shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.19 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Urinals shall conform to the water consumption requirements of Section 604.4. Water-supplied urinals shall conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.
Water closets shall conform to the water consumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1. Water closet tanks shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Electro-hydraulic water closets shall comply with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1. Water closets equipped with a dual flushing device shall comply with ASME A112.19.14.
Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of the elongated type.
Water closets shall be equipped with seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. Seats of water closets provided for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet seats shall be of the same material as the fixture. Water closet seats shall be sized for the water closet bowl type.
A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3-inch (76 mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive the fixture horn.
Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME A112.19.7/CSA B45.10 and shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1795.
Suction fittings for whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME A112.19.7/CSA B45.10.
Access shall be provided to circulation pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufacturer's installation instructions. Where the manufacturer's instructions do not specify the location and minimum size of field-fabricated access openings, an opening not less than 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm) shall be installed to provide access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are located more than 2 feet (609 mm) from the access opening, an opening not less than 18 inches by 18 inches (457 mm by 457 mm) shall be installed. A door or panel shall be permitted to close the opening. In all cases, the access opening shall be unobstructed and of the size necessary to permit the removal and replacement of the circulation pump.
Doors within a whirlpool enclosure shall conform to ASME A112.19.15.