CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, dispensing, use and handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this chapter.

This chapter shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that where specific requirements are provided in other chapters, those specific requirements shall apply in accordance with the applicable chapter. Where a material has multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed.

Exceptions:

  1. In retail or wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  3. Application and release of pesticide and agricultural products and materials intended for use in weed abatement, erosion control, soil amendment or similar applications where applied in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and label directions.
  4. The off-site transportation of hazardous materials where in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOTn) regulations.
  5. Building materials not otherwise regulated by this code.
  6. Refrigeration systems (see Section 605).
  7. Stationary storage battery systems regulated by Section 1206.2.
  8. The display, storage, sale or use of fireworks and explosives in accordance with Chapter 56.
  9. Corrosives utilized in personal and household products in the manufacturers' original consumer packaging in Group M occupancies.
  10. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
  11. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids where in accordance with Section 5705.5.
The provisions of this chapter are waived where the fire code official determines that such enforcement is preempted by other codes, statutes or ordinances. The details of any action granting such a waiver shall be recorded and entered in the files of the code enforcement agency.
Hazardous materials are those chemicals or substances defined as such in this code. Definitions of hazardous materials shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code.
Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with hazards of the mixture as a whole. Mixtures of hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with nationally recognized reference standards; by an approved qualified organization, individual, or Safety Data Sheet (SDS); or by other approved methods.
Hazardous materials shall be classified according to hazard categories. The categories include materials regulated by this chapter and materials regulated elsewhere in this code.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as physical hazards. A material with a primary classification as a physical hazard can also pose a health hazard.

  1. Explosives and blasting agents.
  2. Combustible liquids.
  3. Flammable solids, liquids and gases.
  4. Organic peroxide solids or liquids.
  5. Oxidizer, solids or liquids.
  6. Oxidizing gases.
  7. Pyrophoric solids, liquids or gases.
  8. Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids or gases.
  9. Water-reactive materials solids or liquids.
  10. Cryogenic fluids.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as health hazards. A material with a primary classification as a health hazard can also pose a physical hazard.

  1. Highly toxic and toxic materials.
  2. Corrosive materials.
Where approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67.
The objective of Section 5001.3 is to protect people and property from the consequences of unauthorized discharge, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

Performance-based design alternatives are based on the following functional statements:

  1. Provide safeguards to minimize the risk of unwanted releases, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.
  2. Provide safeguards to minimize the consequences of an unsafe condition involving hazardous materials during normal operations and in the event of an abnormal condition.
Where safeguards, systems, documentation, written plans or procedures, audits, process hazards analysis, mitigation measures, engineering controls or construction features are required by Sections 5001.3.3.1 through 5001.3.3.18, the details of the design alternative shall be subject to approval by the fire code official. The details of actions granting the use of the design alternatives shall be recorded and entered in the files of the jurisdiction.
The physical- and health-hazard properties of hazardous materials on site shall be known and shall be made readily available to employees, neighbors and the fire code official.
Equipment and operations involving hazardous materials shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure that they reliably operate as intended.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of an unintentional reaction or release that could endanger people or property.
Spill containment systems or means to render a spill harmless to people or property shall be provided where a spill is determined to be a plausible event and where such an event would endanger people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing hazardous materials to a fire or physical damage whereby such exposure could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of and limit damage from a fire or explosion involving explosive hazardous materials whereby such fire or explosion could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Where a release of hazardous materials gas or vapor would cause immediate harm to persons or property, means of mitigating the dangerous effects of a release shall be provided.
Where a power supply is relied on to prevent or control an emergency condition that could endanger people or property, the power supply shall be from a reliable source.
Where ventilation is necessary to limit the risk of creating an emergency condition resulting from normal or abnormal operations, means of ventilation shall be provided.
Process hazard analyses shall be conducted to ensure reasonably the protection of people and property from dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials.
Written documentation of prestartup safety review procedures shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are initiated in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written documentation of operating procedures and procedures for emergency shut down shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written plan for management of change shall be developed and enforced. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written emergency plan shall be developed to ensure that proper actions are taken in the event of an emergency, and the plan shall be followed if an emergency condition occurs. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written procedures for investigation and documentation of accidents shall be developed, and accidents shall be investigated and documented in accordance with these procedures.
Where an accidental release of hazardous materials could endanger people or property, either on or off-site, an analysis of the expected consequences of a plausible release shall be performed and utilized in the analysis and selection of active and passive hazard mitigation controls.
Safety audits shall be conducted on a periodic basis to verify compliance with the requirements of this section.
For retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 5003.11.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

Where required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to permanently close a storage, use or handling facility. Such application shall be submitted not less than 30 days prior to the termination of the storage, use or handling of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to require that the application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). The HMMP shall include a facility site plan designating the following:

  1. Access to each storage and use area.
  2. Location of emergency equipment.
  3. Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.
  4. Facility evacuation meeting point locations.
  5. The general purpose of other areas within the building.
  6. Location of all above-ground and underground tanks and their appurtenances including, but not limited to, sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems and piping.
  7. The hazard classes in each area.
  8. Locations of all control areas and Group H occupancies.
  9. Emergency exits.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include an HMIS, such as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III, Tier II Report or other approved statement. The HMIS shall include the following information:

  1. Product name.
  2. Component.
  3. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.
  4. Location where stored or used.
  5. Container size.
  6. Hazard classification.
  7. Amount in storage.
  8. Amount in use-closed systems.
  9. Amount in use-open systems.
Facilities shall be placed out of service in accordance with Sections 5001.6.1 through 5001.6.3.
Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected.
Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or is not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner. Where required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to close permanently storage, use or handling facilities. The fire code official is authorized to require that such application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.

Where a facility closure plan is required in accordance with Section 5001.5 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials, it shall be submitted to the fire code official not less than 30 days prior to facility closure. The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that are stored, dispensed, handled or used in the facility will be transported, disposed of or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.

5001.7 Hazardous Material Emergency Planning and Response

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pursuant to SARA Title III and Pennsylvania Hazardous Material Emergency Planning and Response Act 165 of 1990 (Act 165), the requirements of Sections 5001.7.1 through 5001.9.2.2 have been established to provide for hazardous material emergency planning and response.

5001.7.1 Philadelphia Local Emergency Planning Committee

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The Philadelphia Local Emergency Planning Committee (PLEPC) has been established pursuant to subsection 203(a) of Act 165 and is composed as follows:
  1. Mayor or designee.
  2. Managing Director or designee.
  3. Chairperson of the Public Safety Committee of City Council or designee.
  4. Emergency Management Director of the City.
  5. At least one person from each of the following City departments, agencies or offices:
    1. Fire Department.
    2. Police Department.
    3. Department of Public Health.
    4. Law Department.
    5. Department of Licenses and Inspections.
    6. Water Department.
  6. One person representing the following entities or groups is invited to be a member:
    1. United States Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay.
    2. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority.
    3. American Red Cross, Southeastern Pennsylvania Chapter.
    4. Hospitals and/or health care agencies.
    5. Environmental advocacy organizations.
    6. Owners and operators of regulated facilities.
    7. Community groups not affiliated with emergency service groups.
    8. Broadcast and print media.
    9. Railroads and or other transportation carriers.
    10. Streets Department.
    11. City Planning Commissioner.

5001.7.2 Appointment of Members to PLEPC

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pursuant to Act 165, the members of the PLEPC have been appointed by the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. Should a vacancy occur in the PLEPC, the Emergency Management Services Director shall nominate to the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency a successor member who has been nominated by the represented organization or industry in which the vacancy occurs, if applicable. If the vacancy occurs within a represented category (listed in Item 6 of Section 5001.7.1), then the Emergency Management Director shall cause a nominating committee to be formed consisting of PLEPC members to recommend a replacement member, who shall in turn be nominated to the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency.

5001.7.3 Emergency Management Director

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pursuant to Act 165, the City's Emergency Management Director, who is the person designated by the Mayor to perform emergency management functions, shall have the lead responsibility for ensuring that the plans and activities of PLEPC comply with SARA Title III, Act 165 and other applicable statutes, laws and ordinances.

5001.7.4 Emergency Response Plan

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The Comprehensive Local Emergency Response Plan (Emergency Response Plan) required by Section 303 of SARA Title III and Section 203(k) of Act 165 shall include, but not be limited to, each of the following:
  1. Identification of each Regulated Facility within the City, identification of routes likely to be used for the transportation of substances on the list of Extremely Hazardous Substances and identification of additional facilities contributing or subject to additional risk due to their proximity to the Regulated Facility subject to the requirement of this section, such as hospitals or natural gas facilities.
  2. Methods and procedures to be followed by Regulated Facility owners and operators and local emergency and medical personnel to respond to any Release of such substances.
  3. Designation of a community emergency coordinator and Regulated Facility emergency coordinators who shall make determinations necessary to implement the Emergency.
  4. Procedures providing reliable, effective and timely notification by the Regulated Facility emergency coordinators and the City Emergency Management Director to persons designated in the Emergency Response Plan and to the public, that a Release has occurred, consistent with the notification requirements of Section 304 of SARA Title III.
  5. Methods for determining the occurrence of a Release, and the area of population likely to be affected by such Release.
  6. A description of emergency equipment and facilities in the City and at each Regulated Facility and an identification of persons responsible for such equipment and facilities.
  7. Evacuation plans, including provisions for a precautionary evacuation and alternative traffic routes.
  8. Training programs, including schedules for training of local emergency response and medical personnel. Training shall meet the minimum standards outlined in 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1200, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response.
  9. Methods and schedules for exercising the Emergency Response Plan.

F 5001.7.5 Hazardous Material Emergency Response Preparedness Assessment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The City Emergency Management Director shall develop and submit to the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency a Hazardous Material Emergency Response Preparedness Assessment (the Assessment) in accordance with Section 204(a) (3) of Act 165. The Assessment shall be updated annually. The City shall assess the potential dangers and risks that hazardous material Releases from Regulated Facilities and transportation accidents pose to public health and the environment, identify the City's needs and resources for hazardous material response teams to deal with those dangers and risks and outline its plan for implementing City emergency planning functions under Act 165. The Assessment shall include the following:
  1. Potential threats posed by Regulated Facilities required to be included in the City's Emergency Response Plan under Section 303 of SARA Title III, and other concentrations of hazardous material in the City or in areas immediately adjacent to the City that may pose a threat.
  2. Potential threats posed by hazardous material transported by highway and railroad in the City.
  3. Identification of existing capabilities to respond to hazardous material Releases, including personnel, equipment, training, planning and identification of existing hazardous material response zones.
  4. Organization and operation of a certified hazardous material response team under Section 209(e) of Act 165 and identification of the need for personnel, equipment, training and planning needed to respond to potential threats, including the designation of proposed levels of preparedness for the City's hazardous material response team.
  5. Identification of other resources needed to implement the provisions of Act165 and to support the PLEPC.
  6. An audit of the Hazardous Material Emergency Response Account.

5001.7.6 Hazardous Material Emergency Response Account

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A non-lapsing restricted account, known as the Hazardous Material Emergency Response Account (HMER Account) and established within the Grants Revenue Fund by the City Finance Department shall consist of all fees authorized by this subsection, City, federal, or state funds, grants, loans or penalties and any private donations provided to finance the hazardous material safety program established pursuant to Act 165. Expenditures from the HMER Account shall be made pursuant to appropriations from the HMER Account of the Grants Revenue Fund and consistent with the needs identified in the City's Assessment. The PLEPC shall be consulted with respect to the consistency of proposed expenditures with the needs identified in the assessment.

5001.7.7 Hazardous Chemical Fee

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
By March 1 of every year, each owner or operator of a Regulated Facility shall pay to the City Revenue Department (via the PLEPC Tier II Coordinator), to be deposited in the HMER Account, a Hazardous Chemical Fee for each hazardous chemical which is required by Section 312 of SARA Title III to be listed on the hazardous chemical inventory form (Tier II) which the owner or operator of a Regulated Facility submits to the PLEPC, provided that no fee may be applied to additional facilities or hazardous materials because of changes made by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in lists of hazardous materials, threshold planning quantities or other requirements under SARA Title III, unless there has been compliance with the provisions of Section 213 of Act 165. A credit in an amount up to 100 percent of the Hazardous Chemical Fee obligation shall be given to Regulated Facility owners or operators for training, equipment or other in-kind services donated to the City to support the hazardous material safety program, if such training, equipment or inkind services are accepted by the City upon approval of the Emergency Management Director following a review by the PLEPC of a written proposal of donation. The PLEPC shall recommend to the City's Emergency Management Director whether or in what amount a credit for such training, equipment or in-kind services shall be extended to a Regulated Facility owner or operator. Each agreement by the City to accept such a donation in exchange for a credit toward the Hazardous Chemical Fee obligation shall be written, and shall specify the amount of credit to be awarded, based on the fair market value of equipment donated and the agreed-upon value of training or in-kind services donated. The owners or operators of family farm enterprises, service stations (as such terms are defined in Act 165) and Regulated Facilities owned by state and local governments shall be exempt from payment of the fees required in this section.

5001.7.8 Emergency Planning Fee

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
By March 1 of every year, each owner or operator of a Regulated Facility that manufactures, produces, uses, stores, supplies or distributes any Extremely Hazardous Substance in quantities larger than the threshold planning quantities shall pay to the City Revenue Department for each Regulated Facility an Emergency Planning Fee. A credit in the amount of 100 percent of this Emergency Planning Fee shall be available to Regulated Facility owners or operators for training, equipment or other in- kind services donated to the City to support the hazardous material safety program if such training, equipment or in-kind services are accepted by the City in the same manner provided for acceptance of donations credited to the Hazardous Chemical Fee in Section 5001.7.7 and are in addition to those for which credit is claimed under Section 5001.7.7. The owners or operators of family farm enterprises, service stations (as such terms are defined in Act 165) and Regulated Facilities owned by state and local governments shall be exempt from payment of the fees required by this section.

5001.7.9 Limited Liability of Members of the PLEPC

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pursuant to Act 165, no member of the PLEPC shall be liable for the death of, or any injury to persons or loss or damage to property or the environment or any civil damages resulting from any act or omission arising out of the performance of the functions, duties and responsibilities of the PLEPC, except for acts or omissions which constitute willful misconduct.

5001.7.10 Relationship to Federal and State Laws

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The requirements of Section F-5001.7 shall be read in conjunction with federal and state acts, laws or regulations providing for the identification, labeling or reporting of information concerning hazardous material Releases, and any other health and safety matters related to hazardous materials, and is intended to supplement federal and state acts, laws and regulations in the interest of protecting the health and safety of the citizens of this City. In those instances where the provisions of Section F-5001.7 are more comprehensive or stringent than the provisions of an applicable federal or state act, law or regulation, the provisions of Section F-5001.7 shall be controlling.

5001.8 Equipment Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities shall be in compliance with the proper marking, use, storage, disposal and record keeping requirements for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 761. In general, the CFR requires equipment containing PCBs exceeding 500 parts per million (ppm) to be marked: CAUTION - CONTAINS PCBs. Marking of equipment containing between 50 and 500 ppm PCBs is optional, but if marked shall read: PCB CONTAMINATED. The location of equipment marked pursuant to federal regulation shall be reported to the fire department.

5001.8.1 Inspection of PCB Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The fire department is authorized to conduct inspections of equipment containing PCBs for compliance with federal and other safety regulations.

5001.9 Chemical Plant/Refinery Emergency Coordination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chemical plants and refineries shall plan, train and exercise with the fire department, the Managing Director's Office of Emergency Management and other City agencies to establish and maintain operating procedures and equipment to be used during fires or other emergencies at a facility.

5001.9.1 Emergency Procedures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities that have hazardous materials in quantities exceeding 10,000 pounds (4540 kg) or who have extremely hazardous substances as regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title III) and appearing on the EPA's Community Right to Know Chemical List shall prepare procedures to be followed during an emergency at their facility, including the immediate notification of the fire department. A copy of the procedures shall be sent to the fire department and the Philadelphia Local Emergency Planning Committee. Managers shall ensure that employees are knowledgeable of their responsibilities during emergencies. Emergency procedures shall be posted in prominent locations or stored in readily available locations throughout a facility.

5001.9.2 Facilities With In-Plant Fire Brigades

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Petroleum refineries and chemical plants with in-plant fire brigades shall assign knowledgeable personnel to all operating shifts to act as plant emergency coordinators who shall be responsible for coordinating with fire department and other emergency officials during fires or other emergencies.

5001.9.2.1 Review of Emergency Procedures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Annually, the designated coordinator of a facility with an in-plant fire brigade shall meet with the Deputy Commissioner of Operations of the fire department and the Emergency Management Director, or their designees, to review and coordinate plant firefighting and emergency procedures to ensure that their procedures are compatible with fire department operations and the City's emergency management plan. Emergency procedures and training should be consistent with NFPA 30.

5001.9.2.2 Communications During an Emergency

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities with in-plant fire brigades shall have two portable radios capable of receiving and transmitting on the fire department's fire ground radio frequencies. The radios shall be for use by plant emergency coordinators to maintain communications with fire department personnel during emergencies.
The storage, use and handling of all hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this section.

The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be as specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4).

For retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M occupancies and Group S storage, see Section 5003.11.

TABLE 5003.1.1(1)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIALCLASSGROUP WHEN
THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY IS
EXCEEDED
STORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Gas
(cubic feet
at NTP)
Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)
Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
Combustible dustNAH-2See Note qNANASee Note qNANASee Note qNA
Combustible fibersqLooseH-3(100)NANA(100)NANA(20)NA
Baledo(1,000)(1,000)(200)
Combustible liquidc, iIIH-2 or H-3NA120d, eNANA120dNANA30d
IIIAH-2 or H-3330d, e330d80d
IIIBNA13,200e, f13,200f3,300f
Cryogenic FlammableNAH-2NA45dNANA45dNANA10d
Cryogenic InertNANANANANLNANANLNANA
Cryogenic OxidizingNAH-3NA45dNANA45dNANA10d
ExplosivesDivision 1.1H-11e, g(1)e, gNA0.25g(0.25)gNA0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.2H-11e, g(1)e, g0.25g(0.25)g0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.3H-1 or H-25e, g(5)e, g1g(1)g1g(1)g
Division 1.4H-350e, g(50)e, g50g(50)gNANA
Division 1.4GH-3125e, lNANANANANA
Division 1.5H-11e, g(1)e, g0.25g(0.25)g0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.6H-11e, gNANANANANA
Flammable gasGaseousH-2NANA1,000d,eNANA1,000d,eNANA
Liquefied(150)d,eNA(150)d,eNA
Flammable liquidcIAH-2 or H-3NA30d, eNANA30dNANA10d
IB and IC120d, e120d30d
Flammable liquid, combination (IA, IB, IC)NAH-2 or H-3NA120d, e, hNANA120d, hNANA30d, h
Flammable solidNAH-3125d, eNANA125dNANA25dNA
Inert GasGaseousNANANANLNANANLNANA
LiquefiedNANANANLNANANLNANA
Organic peroxideUDH-11e, g(1)e, gNA0.25g(0.25)gNA0.25g(0.25)g
IH-25d, e(5)d, e1d(1)d1d(1)d
IIH-350d, e(50)d, e50d(50)d10d(10)d
IIIH-3125d, e(125)d, e125d(125)d25d(25)d
IVNANLNLNLNLNLNL
VNANLNLNLNLNLNL
Oxidizer4H-11g(1)e, gNA0.25g(0.25)gNA0.25g(0.25)g
3kH-2 or H-310d, e(10)d, e2d(2)d2d(2)d
2H-3250d, e(250)d, e250d(250)d50d(50)d
1NA4,000e, f(4,000)e, f4,000f(4,000)f1,000f(1,000)f
Oxidizing gasGaseousH-3NANA1,500d,eNANA1,500d,eNANA
Liquefied(150)d, eNA(150)d,eNA
PyrophoricNAH-24e, g(4)e, g50e, g1g(1)g10e, g00
Unstable (reactive)4H-11e, g(1)e, g10e, g0.25g(0.25)g2e, g0.25g(0.25)g
3H-1 or H-25d, e(5)d, e50d, e1d(1)d10d, e1d(1)d
2H-350d, e(50)d, e750d, e50d(50)d750d, e10d(10)d
1NANLNLNLNLNLNLNLNL
Water reactive3H-25d, e(5)d, eNA5d(5)dNA1d(1)d
2H-350d, e(50)d, e50d(50)d10d(10)d
1NANLNLNLNLNLNL

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

NA = Not Applicable, NL = Not Limited, UD = Unclassified Detonable.

  1. For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.
  2. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
  4. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, gas rooms, exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9.10. Where Note d applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  6. Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  7. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  8. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB or Class IC flammable liquids.
  9. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2.
  10. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
  11. A maximum quantity of 220 pounds of solid or 22 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment where the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.
  12. Net weight of pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks including packaging shall be used.
  13. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  14. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.
  15. Densely-packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
  16. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:

    1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
    2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.
    3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
    4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.
    5. Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids in dispensers that are installed in accordance with Sections 5705.5 and 5705.5.1. The location of the alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers shall be provided in the construction documents.
  17. Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

TABLE 5003.1.1(2)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, c, f, h, i

MATERIALSTORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid poundsd, eLiquid gallons
(pounds)d, e
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid poundsdLiquid gallons
(pounds)d
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)d
Solid poundsdLiquid gallons
(pounds)d
Corrosives5,000500Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
5,000500Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
1,000100
Highly Toxics10(10)Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
10(10)Gaseous 20g
Liquified (4)g
3(3)
Toxics500(500)Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
500(500)Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
125(125)

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.
  2. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
  4. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. Where Note d applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  6. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.
  7. Allowed only where stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.
  8. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
  9. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
TABLE 5003.1.1(3)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, d
MATERIAL CLASS STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)d Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds(cubic feet) Liquid gallons(pounds)d Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds(cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)d
Flammable gas Gaseous Not Applicable Not Applicable 3,000 Not Applicable Not Applicable 1,500 Not Applicable Not Applicable
Liquefied (300) Not Applicable (150) Not Applicable
Flammable solid Not Applicable 500 Not Applicable Not Applicable 250 Not Applicable Not Applicable 50 Not Applicable
Inert Gas Gaseous Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Liquefied Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Cryogenic inert Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Organic peroxide Unclassified Detonable 1 (1) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25)
Organic peroxide I 20 (20) Not Applicable 10 (10) Not Applicable 2 (2)
II 200 (200) 100 (100) 20 (20)
III 500 (500) 250 (250) 50 (50)
IV 1,000 (1,000) 500 (500) 100 (100)
V Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Oxidizer 4 2 (2) Not Applicable 1 (1) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25)
3 40 (40) 20 (20) 4 (4)
2 1,000 (1,000) 500 (500) 100 (100)
1 Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Oxidizing gas Gaseous  Not Applicable Not Applicable  6,000 Not Applicable Not Applicable 1,500 Not Applicable Not Applicable
Liquefied (600) Not Applicable (300) Not Applicable
Pyrophoric materials Not Applicable 8 (8) 100 4 (4) 10 0 0
Unstable (reactive) 4 2 (2) 20 1 (1) 2 0.25 (0.25)
3 20 (20) 200 10 (10) 10 1 (1)
2 200 (200) 1,000 100 (100) 250 10 (10)
1 Not Limited Not Limited 1,500 Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Water reactive 3 20 (20) Not Applicable 10 (10) Not Applicable 1 (1)
2 200 (200) 100 (100) 10 (10)
1 Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

  1. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  2. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
  4. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

TABLE 5003.1.1(4)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, f

MATERIALSTORAGEUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSUSE-OPEN SYSTEMS
Solid poundsLiquid gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
Solid poundsLiquid gallons
(pounds)
Gas cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
Solid poundsLiquid gallons
(pounds)
Corrosives20,0002,000Gaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)
10,0001,000Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)
1,000100
Highly toxics20(20)Gaseous 40d
Liquefied (8)d
10(10)Gaseous 20d
Liquefied (4)d
3(3)
Toxics1,000(l,000)eGaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)
50050eGaseous 810
Liquefied (150)
125(125)e

For SI:1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,°C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

  1. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  2. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
  4. Allowed only where used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.
  5. The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77°F shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic liquids.
  6. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
Where quantities are indicated in pounds and where the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the fire code official, a conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.
The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
The storage and use of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with this chapter.
Systems, equipment and processes utilized for storage, dispensing, use or handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.1 through 5003.2.9.
Containers, cylinders and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, tanks and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. Pressure vessels not meeting DOTn requirements for transportation shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings conveying hazardous materials shall be designed and installed in accordance with ASME B31 or other approved standards, and shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.2.1 and 5003.2.2.2.

Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components shall be designed and fabricated from materials that are compatible with the material to be contained and shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic stress and exposure to which they are subject.
  2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1 to indicate the material conveyed.
  3. Manual valves or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on supply piping and tubing and provided with ready access at the following locations:

    1. 3.1. The point of use.
    2. 3.2. The tank, cylinder or bulk source.
  4. Manual emergency shutoff valves and controls for remotely activated emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall have access clearly visible and indicated by means of a sign.
  5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided where the backflow of hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials.

Exceptions:

  1. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.
  2. Piping for pressure relief devices.

Supply piping and tubing for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following:

  1. Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic or highly volatile corrosive liquids and gases shall have welded, threaded or flanged connections throughout except for connections located within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for connections if the material is a liquid.
  2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a means of egress required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated construction or in concealed spaces in areas not classified as Group H occupancies.

Exception: Piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies where installed in accordance with Section 415.11.6.4 of the International Building Code for Group H-5 occupancies.

Equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.
Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.4.1 through 5003.2.4.2.1.
Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment. In lieu of providing secondary containment for an underground tank, an above-ground tank in an underground vault complying with Section 5704.2.8 shall be permitted.

Above-ground stationary tanks used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.

Exception: Above-ground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with Section 5303.16 or 5704.2.8 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage.

Above-ground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by Section 5003.5.
Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other regulating authority or maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2.3, equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. Defective containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired or disposed of in an approved manner. Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. Required detection and alarm systems shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained.
Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner.
Defective containers and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired in accordance with approved standards or disposed of in an approved manner.
Atmospheric tanks having a capacity greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) and that contain hazardous material liquids shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic design category in which the machinery or equipment is classified.

The equipment, devices and systems listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at the time of installation and at one of the intervals listed in Section 5003.2.9.2. Records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 108.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Periodic testing shall not be required where approved written documentation is provided stating that testing will damage the equipment, device or system and the equipment, device or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer.
  2. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that fail in a fail-safe manner.
  3. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that self-diagnose and report trouble. Records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting shall be made available to the fire code official.
  4. Periodic testing shall not be required if system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle.
  5. Approved maintenance in accordance with Section 5003.2.6 that is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule shall be allowed to meet the testing requirements set forth in Sections 5003.2.9.1 and 5003.2.9.2.

The following equipment, systems and devices shall be tested in accordance with Sections 5003.2.9 and 5003.2.9.2.

  1. Gas detection systems, alarms and automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 6004.2.2.10 for highly toxic and toxic gases.
  2. Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature and pressure required by Sections 5003.2.7, 5004.8 and 5005.1.4.
  3. Emergency alarm systems and supervision required by Sections 5004.9 and 5005.4.4.
  4. Monitoring and supervisory systems required by Sections 5004.10 and 5005.1.6.
  5. Manually activated shutdown controls required by Section 6403.1.1.1 for compressed gas systems conveying pyrophoric gases.

The equipment, systems and devices listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at one of the following frequencies:

  1. Not less than annually.
  2. In accordance with the approved manufacturer's requirements.
  3. In accordance with approved recognized industry standards.
  4. In accordance with an approved schedule.

Hazardous materials in any quantity shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the atmosphere.

Exceptions:

  1. The release or emission of hazardous materials is allowed where in compliance with federal, state or local governmental agencies, regulations or permits.
  2. The release of pesticides is allowed where used in accordance with registered label directions.
  3. The release of fertilizer and soil amendments is allowed where used in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.
In the event hazardous materials are released in quantities reportable under state, federal or local regulations, the fire code official shall be notified and the following procedures required in accordance with Sections 5003.3.1.1 through 5003.3.1.4.
Records of the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials by the permittee shall be maintained.
Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
Where an unauthorized discharge caused by primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service.
The person, firm or corporation responsible for an unauthorized discharge shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized discharge, whether sudden or gradual, without cost to the jurisdiction. Where deemed necessary by the fire code official, cleanup can be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne by the owner, operator or other person responsible for the unauthorized discharge.

5003.4 Safety Data Sheets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Safety Data Sheets (SDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. Where a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

Exception: Designated hazardous waste.

F 5003.4 Safety Data Sheets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Safety Data Sheets (SDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter and in accordance with Section F5003.4.1. When a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

Exception: Designated hazardous waste.

F 5003.4.1 Storage of Safety Data Sheets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Safety Data Sheets (SDS) shall be stored on the exterior of a facility (building wall, fence, post mounted, etc.) in a storage container at a location readily available to emergency responders on a 24-hour basis. The container shall be weatherresistant and locked by a padlock. Where there is a concern that the storage container may be subject to vandalism, installation of the container is permitted up to a maximum height of 10 feet (3048 mm). The location of the container shall be subject to approval by the fire department.

Exceptions:
  1. Facilities with an emergency control center staffed 24-hours per day are permitted to provide the required information by an alternative means approved by the fire department.
  2. Facilities utilizing an off-site electronic records storage company to maintain their SDS records, provided the arrangement is approved by the fire department.
  3. Where the number of SDS is too large to store in the Emergency Information Container, information in the container shall indicate the location of the on-site SDS, provided they are readily available for utilization by emergency response personnel and the location is approved by the fire department.
Unless otherwise exempted by the fire code official, visible hazard identification signs as specified in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be placed on stationary containers and above-ground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used or handled in quantities requiring a permit and at specific entrances and locations designated by the fire code official.
Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an approved manner. Rooms or cabinets containing compressed gases shall be conspicuously labeled: COMPRESSED GAS.
Signs and markings required by Sections 5003.5 and 5003.5.1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be approved.
Sources of ignition shall comply with Sections 5003.7.1 through 5003.7.3.

Smoking shall be prohibited and "No Smoking" signs provided as follows:

  1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.
  2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor storage, dispensing or open use areas.
  3. Facilities or areas within facilities that have been designated as totally "no smoking" shall have "No Smoking" signs placed at all entrances to the facility or area. Designated areas within such facilities where smoking is permitted either permanently or temporarily, shall be identified with signs designating that smoking is permitted in these areas only.
  4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored, dispensed or used.

Signs required by this section shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code and shall comply with Section 310.

Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition and shall be listed for use with the hazardous materials stored or used.
Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations shall be in accordance with Section 309.2.
Buildings, control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.1 through 5003.8.7.2.
Buildings, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

Group H occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 5003.8.2 shall be in detached buildings.

TABLE 5003.8.2

DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHERE THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
Material ClassSolids and liquids (tons)a, bGases (cubic feet)a, b
ExplosivesDivision 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
OxidizersClass 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
Unstable (reactives) detonableClass 3 or 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizer, liquids and solidsClass 3
Class 2
1,200
2,000
Not Applicable
Organic peroxidesDetonable
Class I
Class II
Class III
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
25
50
Not Applicable
Unstable (reactives) nondetonableClass 3
Class 2
1
25
2,000
10,000
Water reactivesClass 3
Class 2
1
25
Not Applicable
Pyrophoric gasesNot ApplicableNot Applicable2,000

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 ton = 2000 lbs. = 907.2 kg.

  1. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Section 415.6 of the International Building Code or Chapter 56 based on the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material, whichever is greater.
  2. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  3. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

Control areas shall comply with Sections 5003.8.3.1 through 5003.8.3.5.3.

Exception: Higher education laboratories in accordance with Chapter 38 of this code and Section 428 of the International Building Code.

Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area allowed at each story within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.

TABLE 5003.8.3.2

DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

STORYPERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER
CONTROL AREAa
NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER STORY
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade planeHigher than 9
7-9
6
5
4
3
2
1
5
5
12.5
12.5
12.5
50
75
100
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
Below grade plane1
2
Lower than 2
75
50
Not Allowed
3
2
Not Allowed
1
1
Not Allowed
  1. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2), with all increases allowed in the footnotes to those tables.
  2. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The maximum number of control areas per floor within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.

The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area is allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA, IV and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.
Hazardous materials located in Group M and Group S occupancies shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.3.5.1 through 5003.8.3.5.3.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area or a Group S storage area is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Section 5003.11.
In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 5704.3.4.1, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Chapter 57.
The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with Chapter 51.
Where a gas room is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas room shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.4.1 and 5003.8.4.2.
Gas rooms shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system. Gas rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code based on the occupancy group into which it has been classified.
The ventilation system for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Section 6004.2.2.6. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of hazardous materials in exhausted enclosures is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the exhausted enclosure shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5.1 through 5003.8.5.3.
Exhausted enclosures shall be of noncombustible construction.
Exhausted enclosures shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.3. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.6.1 through 5003.8.6.3.

Gas cabinets shall be constructed with the following:

  1. Not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 gage) steel.
  2. Self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls.
  3. Self-closing doors.
  4. Interiors treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.
Gas cabinets shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
The number of cylinders contained in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.
Where storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.7.1 and 5003.8.7.2.

The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a self-latching device.
  2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).

Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read:

HAZARDOUS—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

General precautions for the safe storage, handling or care of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.9.1 through 5003.9.10.
Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill.
Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel to the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identifying the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site's emergency response procedures.
Storage, dispensing, use and handling areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the fire code official.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; dispensing areas; and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70.
Where processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.
Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure.
Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity.

Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials that are incompatible with materials in use shall be separated where the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 pounds (2 kg), 0.5 gallon (2 L) or any amount of compressed gases. Separation shall be accomplished by:

  1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.
  3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets.
  4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5 and 5003.8.6.

Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.

Shelving shall be of substantial construction, and shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic zone in which the material is located. Shelving shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard where used for the storage of individual containers.

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.

Exceptions:

  1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.
  2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.
Safety cans shall be listed in accordance with UL 30 where used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area of flammable or combustible liquids in accordance with Table 5003.1.1(1). Safety cans listed in accordance with UL 1313 are allowed for flammable and combustible liquids where not used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area and for other hazardous material liquids in accordance with the listing.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2, the handling and transportation of hazardous materials in corridors or enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Hazardous material gas containers, cylinders and tanks in transit shall have their protective caps in place. Containers, cylinders and tanks of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in accordance with Chapter 53.

Liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) in a corridor or enclosure for a stairway or ramp shall be transported on a cart or truck. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 and transported within corridors or interior exit stairways and ramps, shall be on a cart or truck. Where carts and trucks are required for transporting hazardous materials, they shall be in accordance with Section 5003.10.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Two hazardous material liquid containers that are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers.
  2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each that are transported by suitable drum trucks.
  3. Containers and cylinders of compressed gases that are transported by approved hand trucks, and containers and cylinders not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg) that are hand carried.
  4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) that are transported by approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) that is hand carried.
Carts and trucks required by Section 5003.10.2 to be used to transport hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.3.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Carts and trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas cylinders placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.
Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that will enable the operator to control safely movement by providing stops or speed-reduction devices.
Construction materials for hazardous material carts or trucks shall be compatible with the material transported. The cart or truck shall be of substantial construction.
Carts and trucks transporting liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the largest single container transported.
Carts and trucks used to transport materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended within any part of a means of egress.
Incompatible materials shall not be transported on the same cart or truck.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy, is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1 where in accordance with Sections 5003.11.1 through 5003.11.3.11.

The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.

TABLE 5003.11.1

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES—NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f

CONDITIONMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
MaterialaClassSolids (pounds)Liquids (gallons)
A. HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Corrosivesb, cNot Applicable9,750975
2. Highly ToxicsNot Applicable20b, c2b, c
3. Toxicsb, cNot Applicable1,000100
B. PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Oxidizersb, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
31,350g135
22,250h225
118,000i, j1,800i, j
2. Unstable (Reactives)b, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
355055
21,150115
1Not LimitedNot Limited
3. Water Reactives3b, c55055
2b, c1,150115
1Not LimitedNot Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

  1. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 5001.2.2.
  2. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note c applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  3. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5003.8. Where Note b applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  4. See Table 5003.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 5003.1.
  6. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
  7. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 2,250 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
  8. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 4,500 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
  9. Quantities are unlimited where protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
  10. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.
Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.11.3.1 through 5003.11.3.11.
Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 pounds per square foot (976 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per square foot (0.50 L/m2) of floor area actually occupied by liquid merchandise.
Display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S occupancies.
Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.
Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in accordance with Section 5003.9.9.
Containers shall be approved for the intended use and identified as to their content.
Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.
Floors shall be in accordance with Section 5004.12.
Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.
Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 5003.5.
A storage plan illustrating the intended storage arrangement, including the location and dimensions of aisles, and storage racks shall be provided.

Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Outdoor control areas shall be kept free from weeds, debris and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for not less than 15 feet (4572 mm).
  2. Outdoor control areas shall be located not closer than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a public street, public alley, public way or lot line that can be built on.

    Exceptions:

    1. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area shall be allowed in lieu of such distance.
    2. For compressed gas hazardous materials, unless otherwise specified, the minimum required distances shall not apply where fire barriers without openings or penetrations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of 2 hours interrupt the line of sight between the storage and the exposure. The configuration of the fire barrier shall be designed to allow natural ventilation to prevent the accumulation of hazardous gas concentrations.
  3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas is allowed where approved and where each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas are allowed where approved and where each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm).
Storage of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003. Retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and Group S storage shall be in accordance with Section 5003.11.

Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Sections 5004.2.1 through 5004.2.3.

Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3.

Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas. Floors in indoor locations and similar surfaces in outdoor locations shall be constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel by one of the following methods:

  1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.
  2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.
  3. Sumps and collection systems.
  4. Other approved engineered systems.

Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes, sumps and collection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible material, and the liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with the material stored. Where liquid-tight sills or dikes are provided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an open-grate trench across the opening that connects to an approved collection system.

Where required by Table 5004.2.2 buildings, rooms or areas used for the storage of hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with this section where the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds both of the following:

  1. Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
  2. Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg).

TABLE 5004.2.2

REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE

MATERIALINDOOR STORAGEOUTDOOR STORAGE
SolidsLiquidsSolidsLiquids
1. Physical-hazard materials
Combustible liquidsClass IINot
Applicable
See Chapter 57Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57
Class IIIASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class IIIBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Cryogenic fluidsSee Chapter 55See Chapter 55
ExplosivesSee Chapter 56See Chapter 56
Flammable liquidsClass IANot
Applicable
See Chapter 57Not
Applicable
See Chapter 57
Class IBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class ICSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Flammable solidsNot RequiredNot ApplicableNot RequiredNot Applicable
Organic peroxidesUnclassified DetonableRequiredRequiredNot RequiredNot Required
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class VNot RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
OxidizersClass 4RequiredRequiredNot RequiredNot Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
PyrophoricsNot RequiredRequiredNot RequiredRequired
Unstable (reactives)Class 4RequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
Water reactivesClass 3RequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
Class 2
Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
2. Health-hazard materials
CorrosivesNot RequiredRequiredNot RequiredRequired
Highly toxicsRequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
Toxics

The building, room or area shall contain or drain the hazardous materials and fire protection water through the use of one of the following methods:

  1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.
  2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.
  3. Sumps and collection systems.
  4. Drainage systems leading to an approved location.
  5. Other approved engineered systems.
Secondary containment for indoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of fire protection water calculated to discharge from the fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller. The containment capacity shall be designed to contain the flow for a period of 20 minutes.
Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater and rainwater.
An approved monitoring method shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment system. The monitoring method is allowed to be visual inspection of the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be connected to approved visual or audible alarms.

Drainage systems shall be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code and all of the following:

  1. The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or similar areas in outdoor locations shall be not less than 1 percent.
  2. Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire protection water as determined by the design density discharged from the automatic fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller.
  3. Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire flow and the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm.
  4. Materials of construction for drainage systems shall be compatible with the materials stored.
  5. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the drainage system.
  6. Drains shall terminate in an approved location away from buildings, valves, means of egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property and storm drains.

Where used as an alternative to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception in Section 5004.2, containment pallets shall comply with all of the following:

  1. A liquid-tight sump with access for visual inspection shall be provided.
  2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).
  3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.
  4. Containment pallets shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the sump.

Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be acceptable for the materials as stored.

Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying with Chapter 59.

Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with all of the following:

  1. Installation shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
  2. Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the storage area.
  3. Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative designs are approved.
  4. A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent to the access door to the room or in an approved location. The switch shall be a break-glass or other approved type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.
  5. Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor. For fumes or vapors that are lighter than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the highest point of the room.
  6. The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of vapors.
  7. Exhaust air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas if the materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors and contaminants have not been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive materials shall not be recirculated.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
Indoor storage rooms, areas and buildings shall be provided with explosion control in accordance with Section 911.

Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 1203.

For storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2.

Standby or emergency power is not required for mechanical ventilation systems for any of the following:

  1. Storage of Class IB and IC flammable liquids and Class II and III combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding a capacity of 61/2 gallons (25 L).
  2. Storage of Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
  3. Storage of Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.
  4. Storage of asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.
Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5004.8.1 and 5004.8.2.
Materials that must be kept at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures to prevent a hazardous reaction shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature control equipment that will operate on failure of the primary temperature control system shall be provided. Where approved, alternative means that prevent a hazardous reaction are allowed.
Stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or internal reaction shall have some form of construction or other approved means that will relieve excessive internal pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an approved location or to an exhaust scrubber or treatment system where required by Chapter 60.
An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
Emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by Section 5004 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervising station or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage areas, such storage shall not be considered indoor storage where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required by the International Building Code.

Exception: Storage of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor storage.

Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005. Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Except for surfacing, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be of noncombustible, liquid-tight construction.
Where required by other provisions of Section 5005, spill control and secondary containment shall be provided for hazardous material liquids in accordance with Section 5004.2.
Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5005.1.4.1 through 5005.1.4.4.
Open tanks in which liquid hazardous materials are used shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Approved safeguards shall be provided to prevent a low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including but not limited to, overheating of a tank or its contents.
Temperature control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.1.
Pressure control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.2.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, manual alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required by this code, such systems shall be provided with emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 1203.
Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.
Manual alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by other provisions of Section 5005 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervisory service or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
Adequate lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.
Indoor rooms or areas in which hazardous materials are dispensed or used shall be protected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinkler system design shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.

Indoor dispensing and use areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 5004.3.

Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.

Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

  1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.
  2. Through an approved closed piping system.
  3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.
  4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve where the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2. Highly toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.
  5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

    Exceptions:

    1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
    2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed by persons competent in such design. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving the process or reaction system at other than the intended time, rate or path. Where failure of an automatic control could result in a dangerous condition or reaction, the automatic control shall be fail-safe.

Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of Health Class 3 or 4, Flammability Class 4 or Instability Class 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa), an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the storage room or area. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

Exceptions:

  1. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.
  2. Piping for pressure relief devices.
Indoor dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the International Building Code and in accordance with Section 5005.1 and Sections 5005.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.1.1 through 5005.2.1.4.

Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

TABLE 5005.2.1.4

REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LIQUIDS USE

MATERIALINDOOR LIQUIDS USEOUTDOOR LIQUIDS USE
1. Physical-hazard materials
Combustible liquidsClass IISee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class IIIASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class IIIBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Cryogenic fluidsSee Chapter 55See Chapter 55
ExplosivesSee Chapter 56See Chapter 56
Flammable liquidsClass IASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class IBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Class ICSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
Flammable solidsNot ApplicableNot Applicable
Organic peroxidesUnclassified DetonableRequiredRequired
Class IRequiredRequired
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class VNot RequiredNot Required
OxidizersClass 4RequiredRequired
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
PyrophoricsRequiredRequired
Unstable (reactives)Class 4RequiredRequired
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1Not RequiredRequired
Water reactivesClass 3RequiredRequired
Class 2
Class 1Not RequiredRequired
2. Health-hazard materials
CorrosivesRequiredRequired
Highly toxics
Toxics
Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 5005.2.1.1.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most likely failure.

Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon (208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in vessels or systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.3.1 through 5005.3.9.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.3.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
The area surrounding an outdoor dispensing or use area shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material use areas, such use shall not be considered indoor use where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the International Building Code.

Exception: Use of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor use.

Handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.4.1 through 5005.4.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005.1. Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps or exit passageways, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall initiate a local audible alarm.
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