About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purpose of the code.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.
[BG] 24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.
[M] ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction [see also "Ready access (to)"].
AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or plastic container up to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml) or a glass bottle up to a maximum size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml) designed and intended to dispense an aerosol.
AEROSOL COOKING SPRAY PRODUCTS. Aerosol cooking spray products are those aerosol products designed to deliver a vegetable oil or a solid or nonflammable liquid to reduce sticking on cooking and baking surfaces, or to be applied to food, or both. These products have a chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8600 Btu/lb. (20 kJ/g) and contain no more than 18 percent by weight of flammable propellant.
AEROSOL PRODUCT. A combination of a container, a propellant and a material that is dispensed. Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3.
AGENCY. Any emergency responder department within the jurisdiction that utilizes radio frequencies for communication. This could include, but not be limited to, various public safety agencies such as fire departments, emergency medical services and law enforcement.
AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner.
[BG] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.
[BG] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized areas used to support the structure.
[BG] AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure, and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air supported structures are of two basic types:
Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin.
AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the fuel tanks of aircraft.
AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for airport buildings and other airport facilities.
ALARM DEVICE, MULTIPLE STATION. See "Multiple-station alarm device."
ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. See also "Audible alarm notification appliance" or "Visible alarm notification appliance."
ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.
ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.
ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcohol-containing preparation designed for application to the hands for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands and containing ethanol or isopropanol in an amount not exceeding 95-percent by volume.
[BE] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
[BG] AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less-than-24-hour basis to persons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.
[BG] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
[BG] ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the International Building Code.
AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.
AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.
AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and a distribution piping system with attached nozzles which, at or above a minimum operating pressure, defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wet-pipe, dry-pipe and pre-action types. The systems are designed as engineered, preengineered, local-application or total flooding systems.
AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles.
AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.
[BG] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.
[BE] BALANCED DOOR. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced swing action when opening.
BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.
Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment with a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).
Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.
BARRICADED. The effective screening of a building containing explosive materials from the magazine or other building, railway or highway by a natural or an artificial barrier. A straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any magazine or other building or to a point 12 feet (3658 mm) above the center of a railway or highway shall pass through such barrier.
BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY STORAGE. A rechargeable energy storage system consisting of electrochemical storage batteries, battery chargers, controls and associated electrical equipment designed to provide electrical power to a building. The system is typically used to provide standby or emergency power, an uninterruptable power supply, load shedding, load sharing or similar capabilities.
Flow battery. A type of storage battery that includes chemical components dissolved in two different liquids. Ion exchange, which provides the flow of electrical current, occurs through the membrane while both liquids circulate in their respective spaces.
Lead-acid battery. A storage battery that is comprised of lead electrodes immersed in sulphuric acid electrolyte.
Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery with lithium ions serving as the charge carriers of the battery. The electrolyte is a polymer mixture of carbonates with an inorganic salt and can be in a liquid or a gelled polymer form. Lithiated metal oxide is typically a cathode and forms of carbon or graphite typically form the anode.
Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is similar to the lithium ion battery except that it has a lithium metal anode in the place of the traditional carbon or graphite anode
Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.
Preengineered stationary storage battery system. An energy storage system consisting of batteries, a battery management system, components and modules that are produced in a factory, designed to comprise the system when assembled on the job site.
Prepackaged stationary storage battery system. An energy storage system consisting of batteries, a battery management system, components and modules that is factory assembled and shipped as a complete unit for installation at the job site.
Sodium-beta storage battery. A storage battery, also referred to as a Na-beta battery or NBB, which uses a solid beta-alumina electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode such as metal halide and a negative sodium electrode.
Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location.
BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes.
BIOMASS. Plant- or animal-based material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geologic formations or transformed into fossils.
BLAST SITE. The area in which explosive materials are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) in all directions.
BLASTER. A person qualified in accordance with Section 3301.4 to be in charge of and responsible for the loading and firing of a blast.
BLASTING AGENT. A material or mixture consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined. Blasting agents are labeled and placarded as Class 1.5 material by US DOTn.
[BG] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.
BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes.
[A] BUILDING. Any structure utilized or intended for supporting or sheltering any occupancy.
BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds and interconnecting piping, that has a storage capacity of more than 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) of oxygen at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers can be stationary or movable, and the oxygen can be stored as a gas or liquid.
BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. That portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, portable tank or container.
BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (fps) (824 mps) when fired from a 30-caliber rifle at a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm), measured perpendicular to the target.
CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.
CAPACITOR ARRAY. An arrangement of individual capacitor modules in close proximity to each other, mounted on storage racks or in cabinets or other enclosures.
CAPACITOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM. A stationary, rechargeable energy storage system consisting of capacitors, chargers, controls and associated electrical equipment designed to provide electrical power to a building or facility. The system is typically used to provide standby or emergency power, an uninterruptable power supply, load shedding, load sharing or similar capabilities.
Preengineered capacitor energy storage system. A capacitor energy storage system consisting of capacitors, an energy management system, components and modules that are produced in a factory, designed to comprise the system when assembled on the job site.
Prepackaged capacitor energy storage system. A capacitor energy storage system consisting of capacitors, an energy management system, components and modules that is factory assembled and then shipped as a complete unit for installation at the job site.
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm intended to detect carbon monoxide gas and alert occupants by a distinct audible signal. It incorporates a sensor, control components and an alarm notification appliance in a single unit.
[BG] CARE SUITE. In Group I-2 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.4 of the International Building Code.
CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.
CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.
CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation.
[M] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere.
CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.
[BG] CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on a less-than-24-hour basis to persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.
CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.
COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs.
COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve.
COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.
COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTOR. An instrument that samples the local atmosphere and indicates the presence of ignitable vapors or gases within the flammable or explosive range expressed as a volume percent in air.
[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food. For the purpose of this definition, a commercial food service establishment is where food is prepared for sale or is prepared on a scale that is by volume and frequency not representative of domestic household cooking.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property where the motor vehicle:
- Has a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds (454 kg) or more; or
- Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver.
[BE] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point of each room, area or space to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways.
COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials that:
- Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) of pressure; and
- Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:
- Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
- Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.
COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases. It can consist of a compressed gas container or containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing.
CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.
[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit.
CONTAINER. A vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks are not considered to be containers.
CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. A gas-tight recovery system comprised of equipment or devices which can be placed over a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking container.
CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control area."
CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR 173.137, such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
Baled cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).
Baled cotton, densely packed. Cotton, made into banded bales, with a packing density of not less than 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).
[BG] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.
[BG] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term "covered mall building" shall include open mall buildings as defined below.
Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined below.
Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.
Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.
CRITICAL CIRCUIT. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants.
CRYOGENIC VESSEL. A pressure vessel, low-pressure tank or atmospheric tank designed to contain a cryogenic fluid on which venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combination of these is used in order to maintain the operating pressure within the design pressure and the contents in a liquid phase.
[BG] CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. Custodial care includes persons receiving care who have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications.
CYLINDER. A pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 40 psia (275.6 kPa) and having a circular cross section. It does not include a portable tank, multiunit tank car tank, cargo tank or tank car.
DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, paintings, batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.
DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.
DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.
DESOLVENTIZING. The act of removing a solvent from a material.
DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field.
DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat, either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.
DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.
DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive that is used for initiating detonation. A detonator shall not contain more than 154.32 grains (10 grams) of total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay charges. The term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. 8 cap should be rated at 11/2 pounds (0.68 kg) of explosives per 1,000 caps. For strengths higher than No. 8 cap, consult the manufacturer.
DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device that consists of one or more individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.
DISPLAY SITE. The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted. The display area includes the discharge site, the fallout area and the required separation distance from the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas.
DOOR, LOW ENERGY POWER-OPERATED. See "Low energy power-operated door."
[BG] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.
DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof.
[BF] DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.
DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.
DUTCH DOOR. A door divided horizontally so that the top can be operated independently from the bottom.
EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast-response performance.
ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.
ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that respond to a common hall call button(s).
EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise performed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation procedures.
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required life safety, fire alarm, detection and ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Emergency power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could result in loss of human life or serious injuries.
EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. An electronic system that protects stationary storage batteries from operating outside their safe operating parameters, and generates an alarm and trouble signal for off normal conditions.
[BG] EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairways, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.3 of the International Building Code).
EXCESS FLOW VALVE. A valve inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its predetermined flow is exceeded.
EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.
[BE] EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways and ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits.
[BE] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stairway or ramp.
[BE] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge.
EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.
EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:
EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord and igniters.
The term "Explosive" includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.
Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks and propellants, 1.3C.
Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.
UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (for example, the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).
Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.
Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
[BE] EXTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.
[BE] EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.
[BF] EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.
EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height.
FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.
[A] FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible substances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots.
FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automatically for a failure or malfunction.
FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells are fired. The shells burst over the area, and unsafe debris and malfunctioning aerial shells fall into this area. The fallout area is the location where a typical aerial shell dud falls to the ground depending on the wind and the angle of mortar placement.
FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of fire when no such danger exists.
FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that will pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen.
FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such information.
FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.
FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot lane and access roadway.
[BF] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.
FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the code, or a duly authorized representative. For the purpose of this code, members of the fire department and the Department of Licenses and Inspections are fire code officials.
FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled.
[BF] FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.
[BF] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.
[BF] FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 716 of the International Building Code. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.
FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire.
[BF] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:
The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.
[BF] FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire department.
[BF] FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International Building Code.
[BF] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.
FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.3G fireworks or 1.4G fireworks.
Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as Fireworks, UN 0335 by the DOTn.
Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion or deflagration that complies with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for Fireworks, UN 0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1500 and 1507.
[BG] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.
[BF] FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
[BF] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Coatings to articles or materials in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder, fiberglass resin or flammable or combustible gel coating.
FLAMMABLE GAS. A material which is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which:
- Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
- Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of not less than 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit.
The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with ASTM E681.
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:
FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.
FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.0866 inch (2.2 mm) per second along its major axis.
FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the concentration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It shall include:
- The interior of spray booths.
- The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying processes.
- Any area in the direct path of spray or any area containing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, combustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying operations.
- The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, conveying or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods.
The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the material characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations.
FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D56, ASTM D93 or ASTM D3278.
FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within the employ of such businesses.
FLOAT. A floating structure normally used as a point of transfer for passengers and goods, or both, for mooring purposes.
[BE] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, ramps, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.
Longitudinal flue space. The flue space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading.
Transverse flue space. The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading.
FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.
[BE] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.
FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEM, STATIONARY. A stationary energy generation system that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant to electric energy (DC or AC electricity) by an electrochemical process.
FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride.
FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable volatiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the furnace.
Note: Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials can, for instance, originate from the following:
- Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and impregnated materials.
- The substrate material.
- Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging materials.
- Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements.
Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, waterborne finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that present a hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards.
FURNACE CLASS B. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combustible materials being heated.
FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a potential hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being used for treatment of material in process. This type of furnace can use any type of heating system and includes a special atmosphere supply system. Also included in the Class C classification are integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces.
FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type of heating system. These furnaces can include the use of special processing atmospheres.
GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.
GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system that utilizes one or more stationary sensors to detect the presence of a specified gas at a specified concentration and initiate one or more responses required by this code, such as notifying a responsible person, activating an alarm signal, or activating or deactivating equipment. A self-contained gas detection and alarm device is not classified as a gas detection system.
GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.
GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture having not less than 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls.
GLOVE BOX. A sealed enclosure in which items inside the box are handled exclusively using long gloves sealed to ports in the enclosure.
[BG] GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.
[BG] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.
[BG] GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation, substance abuse or mental health problems that contains a group housing arrangement that provides custodial care but does not provide medical care.
[BE] GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.
[BG] GUESTROOM. A room used or intended to be used by one or more guests for living or sleeping purposes.
[BS] GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International Building Code.
[BG] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
[BE] HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have, as their end product, materials that are not hazardous.
HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive.
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facilities.
HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a roof.
HIGHER EDUCATION LABORATORY. Laboratories in Group B occupancies used for educational purposes above the 12th grade. Storage, use and handling of chemicals in such laboratories shall be limited to purposes related to testing, analysis, teaching, research or developmental activities on a nonproduction basis.
HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration which falls within any of the following categories:
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons.
HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. Where required by the fire code official, high-piled combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts.
HIGHWAY. A public street, public alley or public road.
[A] HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following:
- Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the state historic preservation officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places.
- Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law.
- Certified as a contributing resource within a national register, state designated or locally designated historic district.
HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced from the lumber production process.
[BE] HORIZONTAL EXIT. An exit component consisting of fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives intended to compartmentalize portions of a building thereby creating refuge areas that afford safety from fire and smoke from the area of fire origin.
[BG] HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatient care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation.
HOT WORK. Operations including cutting, welding, Thermit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, thawing pipe, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any other similar activity.
HOT WORK PERMITS. Permits issued by the responsible person at the facility under the hot work permit program permitting welding or other hot work to be done in locations referred to in Section 3503.3 and prepermitted by the fire code official.
HOT WORK PROGRAM. A permitted program, carried out by approved facilities-designated personnel, allowing them to oversee and issue permits for hot work conducted by their personnel or at their facility. The intent is to have trained, on-site, responsible personnel ensure that required hot work safety measures are taken to prevent fires and fire spread.
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of airborne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Where adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the fire code official shall make such determination.
[BG] INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons who, because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, chemical dependency or medical treatment, cannot respond as an individual to an emergency situation.
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner which generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.
INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.
INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for people, or any place of religious worship, schoolhouse, railroad station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except any building or structure occupied in connection with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials.
INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal liquids passed through fog-generating units where, by means of pressure and turbulence, with or without the application of heat, such liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or mist blown into an area to be treated.
INTEGRATED TESTING (FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY SYSTEM). A testing procedure to establish the operational status, interaction and coordination of two or more fire protection and safety systems.
[BE] INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
[BE] INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
[BG] INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the intersection of walls and floors.
[BG] INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.
IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques.
[A] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code.
[A] LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of such labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LABORATORY SUITE. A fire-rated enclosed laboratory area that will provide one or more laboratory spaces, within a Group B educational occupancy, that are permitted to include ancillary uses such as offices, bathrooms and corridors that are contiguous with the laboratory area, and are constructed in accordance with Chapter 38.
LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet (0.84 m2) or less are conducted.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas.
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). A material which is composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane) and butylenes.
LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point which is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). Where not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids.
LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 0.396 gallons (1.5 liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended for portable therapeutic use and to be filled from its companion base unit, a liquid oxygen home care container.
LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 15.8 gallons (60 liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended to deliver gaseous oxygen for therapeutic use in a home environment.
[A] LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a Group I-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be sheltered and secured in place within a building when normal evacuation would put occupants at risk.
LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See "Flue space—longitudinal."
[A] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.
[A] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.
[BE] LOW ENERGY POWER-OPERATED DOOR. Swinging, sliding or folding door which opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian such as pressing a push plate or waving a hand in front of a sensor. The door closes automatically, and operates with decreased forces and decreased speeds. See also "Power-assisted door" and "Power-operated door."
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit.
Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 magazines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555 so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant.
Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or igloo, that is bullet resistant, fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555.
Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, skid-magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555 that is fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated. If used outdoors, a Type 2 magazine is also bullet resistant.
Type 3. A fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant "day box" or portable structure constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555 used for the temporary storage of explosive materials.
Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, semitrailer or other mobile container that is fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant and constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555.
Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile container that is theft resistant, which is constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 555.
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move stock.
MARINA. Any portion of the ocean or inland water, either naturally or artificially protected, for the mooring, servicing or safety of vessels and shall include artificially protected works, the public or private lands ashore, and structures or facilities provided within the enclosed body of water and ashore for the mooring or servicing of vessels or the servicing of their crews or passengers.
MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities used in connection therewith.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a building or an outdoor control area. The maximum allowable quantity per control area is based on the material state (solid, liquid or gas) and the material storage or use conditions.
[BE] MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.
MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move stock.
[BG] MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes.
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-supported, cable or frame-covered structure as defined by the International Building Code and not otherwise defined as a tent. See Chapter 31 of the International Building Code.
[BF] MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling, roof-ceiling or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items installed into or passing through the breach in one side of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire into the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
[BE] MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 of the International Building Code from which customers browse or shop.
METAL HYDRIDE. A generic name for compounds composed of metallic element(s) and hydrogen.
METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. A closed system consisting of a group of components assembled as a package to contain metal-hydrogen compounds for which there exists an equilibrium condition where the hydrogen-absorbing metal alloy(s), hydrogen gas and the metal-hydrogen compound(s) coexist and where only hydrogen gas is released from the system in normal use.
MISCELLA. A mixture, in any proportion, of the extracted oil or fat and the extracting solvent.
MOBILE FOOD PREPARATION VEHICLES. Vehicles that contain cooking equipment that produce smoke or grease-laden vapors for the purpose of preparing and serving food to the public. Vehicles intended for private recreation shall not be considered mobile food preparation vehicles.
MOBILE FUELING. The operation of dispensing liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. Mobile fueling may also be known by the terms "Mobile fleet fueling," "Wet fueling" and "Wet hosing."
MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. A multiple-station alarm device can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.
MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.
NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed gas cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three-point contact system whereby all cylinders within a group have not less than three points of contact with other cylinders, walls or bracing.
NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of explosive material expressed in pounds. The net explosive weight is the aggregate amount of explosive material contained within buildings, magazines, structures or portions thereof, used to establish quantity-distance relationships.
NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].
NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.
OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows:
[BG] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation.
[BG] Small assembly spaces. The following rooms and spaces shall not be classified as assembly occupancies:
- A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
- A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
[BG] Accessory with places of religious worship. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space are not considered separate occupancies
[BG] Assembly Group A-1. Group A occupancy includes assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:
- Motion picture theaters
- Symphony and concert halls
- Television and radio studios admitting an audience Theaters
- Banquet halls
- Casinos (gaming areas)
- Night clubs
- Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities (including associated commercial kitchens)
- Taverns and bars
[BG] Assembly Group A-3. Group A-3 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but not limited to:
- Amusement arcades
- Art galleries
- Bowling alleys
- Community halls
- Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)
- Exhibition halls
- Funeral parlors
- Greenhouses with public access for the conservation and exhibition of plants
- Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
- Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
- Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
- Lecture halls
- Places of religious worship
- Pool and billiard parlors
- Waiting areas in transportation terminals
- Skating rinks
- Swimming pools
- Tennis courts
[BG] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Airport traffic control towers
- Ambulatory care facilities
- Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
- Barber and beauty shops
- Car wash
- Civic administration
- Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service
- Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade
- Electronic data processing
- Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities not more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.
- Laboratories: testing and research
- Motor vehicle showrooms
- Post offices
- Print shops
- Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
- Radio and television stations
- Telephone exchanges
- Training and skill development not in a school or academic program (This shall include, but not be limited to, tutoring centers, martial arts studios, gymnastics and similar uses regardless of the ages served, and where not classified as a Group A occupancy).
[BG] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade.
[BG] Accessory to places of religious worship. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1.4 of the International Building Code and have occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies.
[BG] Group E, day care facilities. This group includes buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more than five children older than 21/2 years of age who receive educational, supervision or personal care services for less than 24 hours per day.
[BG] Five or fewer children in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer children receiving such care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.
[BG] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy.
[BG] Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard occupancy. Factory industrial uses that are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)
- Athletic equipment
- Automobiles and other motor vehicles
- Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content
- Brooms or brushes
- Business machines
- Cameras and photo equipment
- Canvas or similar fabric
- Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)
- Construction and agricultural machinery
- Dry cleaning and dyeing
- Electric generation plants
- Engines (including rebuilding)
- Food processing and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.
- Hemp products
- Jute products
- Leather products
- Millwork (sash and door)
- Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)
- Musical instruments
- Optical goods
- Paper mills or products
- Photographic film
- Plastic products
- Printing or publishing
- Refuse incineration
- Soaps and detergents
- Wood; distillation
- Woodworking (cabinet)
[BG] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials that, during finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Beverages; up to and including 16-percent alcohol content
- Brick and masonry
- Ceramic products
- Glass products
- Metal products (fabrication and assembly)
High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 5003.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of the International Building Code. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this code.
Uses other than Group H. The storage, use or handling of hazardous materials as described in one or more of the following items shall not cause the occupancy to be classified as Group H, but it shall be classified as the occupancy that it most nearly resembles:
- Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Chapter 24 of this code and Section 416 of the International Building Code.
- Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to Chapter 57.
- Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.
- Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
- Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
- Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.
- Refrigeration systems.
- The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.
- Stationary storage battery systems installed in accordance with Section 1206.2.
- Corrosive personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display.
- Commonly used corrosive building materials.
- Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol product storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Chapter 51.
- Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 5003.8.3.5.1.
- The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements of this code.
- Stationary fuel cell power systems installed in accordance with this code.
- Capacitor energy storage systems in accordance with this code.
- Group B higher education laboratory occupancies complying with Section 428 of the International Building Code and Chapter 38 of this code.
High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
Occupancies containing explosives not classified as H-1. The following occupancies containing explosive materials shall be classified as follows:
- Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire hazard to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in Group H-2 occupancies.
- Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 occupancies.
High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa)
- Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the International Building Code
- Cryogenic fluids, flammable
- Flammable gases
- Organic peroxides, Class I
- Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa)
- Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable Water-reactive materials, Class 3
High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less.
- Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton, where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the International Building Code
- Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)
- Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing
- Flammable solids
- Organic peroxides, Class II and III
- Oxidizers, Class 2
- Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less
- Oxidizing gases
- Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2
- Water-reactive materials, Class 2
High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.11 of the International Building Code.
[BG] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self-preservation without physical assistance or in which persons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.
[BG] Institutional Group I-1. Institutional Group I-1 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Alcohol and drug centers
- Assisted living facilities
- Congregate care facilities
- Group homes
- Halfway houses
- Residential board and care facilities
- Residential board and custodial care facilities
- Social rehabilitation facilities
[BG] Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
[BG] Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
[BG] Five or fewer persons receiving custodial care. A facility with five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
[BG] Institutional Group I-2. Institutional Group I-2 occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24-hour basis for more than five persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
[BG] Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, nursing homes and foster care facilities.
[BG] Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or inpatient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, hospitals.
[BG] Five or fewer persons receiving medical care. A facility with five or fewer persons receiving medical care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
[BG] Institutional Group I-3. Institutional Group I-3 occupancy shall include buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Correctional centers
- Detention centers
- Prerelease centers
[BG] Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.
[BG] Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.
[BG] Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
[BG] Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
[BG] Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
[BG] Institutional Group I-4, day care facilities. Institutional Group I-4 shall include buildings and structures occupied by more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by persons other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Adult day care
- Child day care
[BG] Classification as Group E. A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but not more than 100 children 21/2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.
[BG] Five or fewer occupants receiving care in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.
[BG] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
[BG] Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code.
- Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units
- Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons receiving care
Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occupants
- Lodging houses (transient) with five or fewer guestrooms and 10 or fewer occupants
[BG] Care facilities within a dwelling. Care facilities for five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a single-family dwelling are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
[BG] Lodging houses. Owner-occupied lodging houses with five or fewer guestrooms and 10 or fewer total occupants shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.
[BG] Residential Group R-4. Residential Group R-4 shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five but not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised residential environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group R-4 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Alcohol and drug centers
- Assisted living facilities
- Congregate care facilities
- Group homes
- Halfway houses
- Residential board and care facilities
- Social rehabilitation facilities
[BG] Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
[BG] Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
[BG] Accessory storage spaces. A room or space used for storage purposes that is accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as part of that occupancy.
[BG] Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Storage Group S-1 occupancies are buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:
- Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3
- Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)
- Bags: cloth, burlap and paper
- Bamboos and rattan
- Belting: canvas and leather
- Books and paper in rolls or packs
- Boots and shoes
- Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone
- Cardboard and cardboard boxes
- Clothing, woolen wearing apparel
- Dry boat storage (indoor)
- Glues, mucilage, pastes and size
- Horns and combs, other than celluloid
- Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 5003.1.1(1) (see Section 406.8 of the International Building Code)
- Photo engravings
- Resilient flooring
- Self-service storage facility (mini-storage)
- Tires, bulk storage of Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff
- Upholstery and mattresses
- Wax candles
[BG] Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Storage Group S-2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:
- Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers
- Cement in bags
- Chalk and crayons
- Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers
- Dry cell batteries
- Electrical coils
- Electrical motors
- Empty cans
- Food products
- Foods in noncombustible containers
- Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
- Frozen foods
- Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids
- Gypsum board
- Inert pigments
- Metal cabinets
- Metal desks with plastic tops and trim
- Metal parts
- Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers
- Parking garages, open or enclosed
- Porcelain and pottery
- Talc and soapstones
- Washers and dryers
[BG] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Agricultural buildings
- Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.4 of the International Building Code)
- Communication equipment structures with a gross floor area of less than 1,500 square feet (139 m3)
- Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high
- Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
- Livestock shelters
- Private garages
- Retaining walls
OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, smudgepots and similar devices associated with safety or occupational uses typically considered open flames, recreational fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open.
[BG] OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 of the International Building Code on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.
OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.
OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances.
OPERATING LINE. A group of buildings, facilities or workstations so arranged as to permit performance of the steps in the manufacture of an explosive or in the loading, assembly, modification and maintenance of ammunition or devices containing explosive materials.
ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and combustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decorative finish.
ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can present an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time.
Class II. Describes those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.
Class III. Describes those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.
Class IV. Describes those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.
Class V. Describes those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.
OUTDOOR ASSEMBLY EVENT. An outdoor gathering of persons for any purpose.
OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of egress.
[A] OWNER. Any person, agent, operator, entity, firm or corporation having any legal or equitable interest in the property; or recorded in the official records of the state, county or municipality as holding an interest or title to the property; or otherwise having possession or control of the property, including the guardian of the estate of any such person, and the executor or administrator of the estate of such person if ordered to take possession of real property by a court.
OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition.
Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles.
Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.
Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.
Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials.
OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials more than air does.
OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. Equipment which causes the production of ozone.
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum permitted 8-hour time-weighted-average concentration of an airborne contaminant. The exposure limits to be utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.
[A] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating pests and substances or a mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. Products defined as drugs in the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act are not pesticides.
[BE] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.
PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid).
PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. A concentration of airborne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological responses. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of "Permissible exposure limit (PEL)."
PIER. A structure built over the water, supported by pillars or piles, and used as a landing place, pleasure pavilion or similar purpose.
[M] PLENUM. An enclosed portion of the building structure, other than an occupiable space being conditioned, that is designed to allow air movement and thereby serve as part of an air distribution system.
PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. Two or more unmixed, commercially manufactured, prepackaged chemical substances including oxidizers, flammable liquids or solids, or similar substances that are not independently classified as explosives but which, when mixed or combined, form an explosive that is intended for blasting.
PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, outdoor, solid-fuel-burning fireplace that may be constructed of steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A portable outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or chimney opening in the top.
[BE] POWER-ASSISTED DOOR. Swinging door that opens by reduced pushing or pulling force on the door-operating hardware. The door closes automatically after the pushing or pulling force is released, and functions with decreased forces. See also "Low energy power-operated door" and "Power-operated door."
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for highway use.
[BE] POWER-OPERATED DOOR. Swinging, sliding, or folding door that opens automatically when approached by a pedestrian or opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian. The door closes automatically and includes provisions such as presence sensors to prevent entrapment. See also "Low energy power-operated door" and "Power-assisted door."
[BG] PRIVATE GARAGE. A building or portion of a building in which motor vehicles used by the owner or tenants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored or kept, without provisions for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit.
PROPELLANT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an aerosol container that expels the contents from an aerosol container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is considered flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if a flame is self-propagating in a mixture with air.
PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123.
[B] PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See "Hospitals."
[A] PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
[BE] PUBLIC-USE AREAS. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces that are made available to the general public.
PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. A chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such a chemical mixture predominantly consists of solids capable of producing a controlled, self-sustaining and self-contained exothermic chemical reaction that results in heat, gas sound, light or a combination of these effects. The chemical reaction functions without external oxygen.
PYROTECHNICS. Controlled exothermic chemical reactions timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least volume of pyrotechnic composition.
QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). The quantity of explosive material and separation distance relationships providing protection. These relationships are based on levels of risk considered acceptable for the stipulated exposures and are tabulated in the appropriate Q-D tables. The separation distances specified afford less than absolute safety:
Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). The distance to be maintained between any two operating buildings on an explosives manufacturing site when at least one contains or is designed to contain explosives, or the distance between a magazine and an operating building.
[BE] RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).
RAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as tree, brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps.
[M] READY ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appliance or equipment to be directly reached, without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction [see "Access (to)"].
[A] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.
RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials other than rubbish, for pleasure, religious, ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes, where the fuel being burned is contained in an outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height.
REDUCED FLOW VALVE. A valve equipped with a restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to reduce the maximum flow from the valve under full-flow conditions. The maximum flow rate from the valve is determined with the valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no other piping or fittings attached.
[M] REFRIGERATING (REFRIGERATION) SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.
[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state in which the project is to be constructed.REGULATED FACILITY. All buildings, structures and other stationary items which are located on a single site or on a contiguous or adjacent site and which are owned or operated by the same person and which actually manufacture, produce, use, transfer, store, supply or distribute any hazardous material and which are subject to the requirements of Section 303 of SARA Title III. The term includes railroad yards and truck terminals, but does not include individual trucks, rolling stock, water vessels, airplanes or other transportation vehicles.
RELEASE. Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping or disposing into the environment of a hazardous material, including, but not limited to, the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers and other receptacles containing a hazardous material.
[BG] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.
REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. The combination of an operator-carried signaling device and a mechanism on the tank vehicle. Activation of the remote emergency shutoff device sends a signal to the tanker-mounted mechanism and causes fuel flow to cease.
REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square inches (10 322 mm2). Such return allows pump-cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area.
REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manually activated from a point located some distance from the delivery system.
REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles.REPORTABLE QUANTITY. The quantity of a hazardous material stated on the various lists of hazardous substances and extremely hazardous substances as defined in this Section, the release of which has been deemed to constitute a substantial danger to the public health or welfare or environment and is therefore designated as the threshold quantity necessitating reports of releases pursuant to Section 102 of CERCLA and the HazMat Act.
RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or spray-fabrication methods.
RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the safety and fire safety considerations concerned with hot work. Responsible for reviewing the sites prior to issuing permits as part of the hot work permit program and following up as the job progresses.
RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occupancy open for the purpose of viewing or purchasing merchandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments are free to circulate among the items offered for sale which are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the floor.
ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid.
RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type appliances.
SAFETY CAN. An approved container of not more than 5-gallon (19 L) capacity having a spring-closing lid and spout cover so designed that it will relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
SAFETY DATA SHEET (SDS). Information concerning a hazardous material which is prepared in accordance with the provisions of DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 or in accordance with the provisions of a federally approved state OSHA plan. A document titled as a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is equivalent to an SDS for the purposes of this code.
[BE] SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.
SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See "Incapable of self-preservation."
SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liquid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant.
SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A building or a portion of a building in which electrical circuits or devices are created on solid crystalline substances having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as semiconductors.
SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) vertically. For other shelving arrangements, see the requirements for rack storage.
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
- A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other material used to hold fabric in place.
- A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application).
- An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame.
SKY LANTERN. An unmanned device with a fuel source that incorporates an open flame in order to make the device airborne.
[BG] SLEEPING UNIT. A single unit providing rooms or spaces for one or more persons that includes permanent provisions for sleeping and can include provisions for living, eating and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol cartridge and any cartridge for propellant-actuated devices. This definition does not include military ammunition containing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyrotechnic projectiles.
[BF] SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.
[BF] SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.
SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
SMOKE PARTITION. A wall assembly that extends from the top of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke.
[BG] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84.
[BF] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An interior exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.
[BE] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure for a specified design time by means of passive design or by mechanical ventilation.SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENT. Provision for dancing by patrons, entertainment by live or recorded music or a disc jockey, a theatrical or other performance act or similar activities. The term shall not include the consumption of food or beverages, listening to a speaker or lecture, watching television programming, watching or participating in athletic events, or other similar activities.
SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).
Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable.
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.SPECIAL ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCY. One of the following if 50 or more people congregate primarily for social entertainment purposes at such location at one or more times during the course of a year: bar, banquet hall, cabaret, discotheque, nightclub, private club, restaurant, tavern and similar places of assembly without primarily fixed seating.
[A] SPECIAL EXPERT. An individual who has demonstrated qualifications in a specific area, outside the practice of architecture or engineering, through education, training and experience.
SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An explosive power pack containing an explosive charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device. The term includes but is not limited to explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosive-actuated power tools and charges of explosives used in automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth furnaces and jet perforation of oil well casings.
SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely.
SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying space in any specific case.
[BE] STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.
[BE] STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.
STANDBY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required building, hazardous materials or ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Standby power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could create hazards or hamper rescue or fire-fighting operations.
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:
Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to supply the system demand.
Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but which does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to supply the system demand.
Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.
[BG] STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (see "Basement," "Building height," "Grade plane" and "Mezzanine"). A story is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
- More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
- More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.
SUBORDINATE (FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY SYSTEM). A system that is activated by another fire protection or life safety system. For example, where a fire alarm system activates a smoke removal or elevator recall system, the smoke removal or elevator recall system is considered to be "subordinate" to the fire alarm system.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features of related systems.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of related systems.
TANK, PORTABLE. A packaging of more than 60-gallon (227 L) capacity and designed primarily to be loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or ship and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any cylinder having less than a 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity, cargo tank, tank car tank or trailers carrying cylinders of more than 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity.
TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank provided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an assembly of components, or a combination thereof.
TANK, STATIONARY. Packaging designed primarily for stationary installations not intended for loading, unloading or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its normal operation in the process of use. It does not include cylinders having less than a 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity.
TANK VEHICLE. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or boat, with a cargo tank mounted thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids, LP-gas or hazardous chemicals. Tank vehicles include self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and semitrailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load.
TEMPORARY SPECIAL EVENT STRUCTURE. Any temporary ground-supported structure, platform, stage, stage scaffolding or rigging, canopy, tower supporting audio or visual effects equipment or similar structures not regulated within the scope of the International Building Code.
TENT. A structure, enclosure, umbrella structure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects (see "Umbrella structure").
[BF] THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor, floor-ceiling or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items passing through the breaches in both sides of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire through the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).
[A] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on not less than two sides.
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. Traffic calming devices are design elements of fire apparatus access roads such as street alignment, installation of barriers, and other physical measures intended to reduce traffic and cut-through volumes, and slow vehicle speeds.
TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See "Flue space—Transverse."
TRASH. See "Rubbish."
TUBE TRAILER. A semitrailer on which a number of tubular gas cylinders have been mounted. A manifold is typically provided that connects the cylinder valves enabling gas to be discharged from one or more tubes or cylinders through a piping and control system.
TWENTY-FOUR HOUR BASIS. See "24-hour basis" before the "A" entries.
UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows:
Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.
Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure.
UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal operations of the property.
VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid as determined in accordance with ASTM D323.
VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
VESSEL. A motorized watercraft, other than a seaplane on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation. Nontransportation vessels, such as houseboats and boathouses, are included in this definition.
VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows:
Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.
Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases, or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture.
Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.
WET FUELING. See "Mobile fueling."
WET HOSING. See "Mobile fueling."
WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult job of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official.
[BE] WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.
WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.
[BG] YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by the International Building Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.
ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.