CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall apply to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of this code.
The intent of this chapter is to provide a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying existing buildings by providing minimum construction requirements where such existing buildings do not comply with the minimum requirements of the International Building Code.

1101.3 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7 and the International Building Code.

1101.3 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105 and the Philadelphia Administrative Code.
When a building is found to be in noncompliance with this chapter, the fire code official shall duly notify the owner of the building. Upon receipt of such notice, the owner shall, subject to the following time limits, take necessary actions to comply with the provisions of this chapter.
Construction documents necessary to comply with this chapter shall be completed and submitted within a time schedule approved by the fire code official.
Work necessary to comply with this chapter shall be completed within a time schedule approved by the fire code official.

The fire code official is authorized to grant necessary extensions of time where it can be shown that the specified time periods are not physically practical or pose an undue hardship. The granting of an extension of time for compliance shall be based on the showing of good cause and subject to the filing of an acceptable systematic plan of correction with the fire code official.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

DUTCH DOOR.

EXISTING.

Existing buildings shall comply with not less than the minimum provisions specified in Table 1103.1 and as further enumerated in Sections 1103.2 through 1103.10.

The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to allow the elimination of fire protection systems or a reduction in the level of fire safety provided in buildings constructed in accordance with previously adopted codes.

Exceptions:

  1. Where a change in fire-resistance rating has been approved in accordance with Section 501.2 or 802.6 of the International Existing Building Code.
  2. Group U occupancies.

TABLE 1103.1

OCCUPANCY AND USE REQUIREMENTSa

SECTIONUSE OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
High-riseAtrium
or
covered
Under-
ground
building
Tire
storage
ABEFH-1H-2H-3H-4H-5I-1I-2I-3I-4MR-1R-2R-3R-4S
1103.2RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.3RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.1RRRR
1103.4.2RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.3RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.4R
1103.4.5RR
1103.4.6RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.7RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.8RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.4.9RR
1103.4.10RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.5.1Rc
1103.5.2R
1103.5.3Rb
1103.5.4RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.6.1RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.6.2RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1103.7.1R
1103.7.2R
1103.7.3R
1103.7.4R
1103.7.5R
1103.7.6R
1103.7.7R
1103.8RRRRR
1103.9RRRRRRRR
1103.10RR
1104RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
1105R
1106R

R = The building is required to comply.

  1. Existing buildings shall comply with the sections identified as "Required" (R) based on occupancy classification or use, or both, whichever is applicable.
  2. Only applies to Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies as established by the adopting ordinance or legislation of the jurisdiction.
  3. Only applies to Group A-2 occupancies where alcoholic beverages are consumed.

1103.1.1 Historic Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities designated as historic buildings shall develop a fire protection plan in accordance with NFPA 914. The fire protection plans shall comply with the maintenance and availability provisions in Sections 404.3 and 404.4.

F 1103.1.1 Historic Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities designated as historic buildings may be required by the fire code official to develop a fire protection plan in accordance with NFPA 914. Where required such fire protection plans shall comply with the maintenance and availability provisions in Sections 404.3 and 404.4.

F 1103.1.2 Fire Resistance Rating of Existing Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The following existing construction materials shall be permitted where a 1-hour fire resistance rating is required by this code:
  1. Wood or metal studding with 5/8-inch fire rated (Type X) gypsum wall board on each side.
  2. Wood lathe and plaster.
  3. Six-inch or greater hollow or solid CMU (cinder block).
  4. Construction having a 1-hour listing by Underwriters Laboratories or other approved testing agency.

1103.2 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Existing buildings other than Group R-3, that do not have approved radio coverage for emergency responders in the building based on existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems, shall be equipped with such coverage according to one of the following:

  1. Where an existing wired communication system cannot be repaired or is being replaced, or where not approved in accordance with Section 510.1, Exception 1.
  2. Within a time frame established by the adopting authority.

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the radio coverage system is not needed.

F 1103.2 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing buildings, other than Group R-3, that do not have approved radio coverage for emergency responders in the building based on existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems shall be equipped with an approved and operational wired communication system.

Exception: Buildings constructed under a Building Code in effect prior to January 1, 2010.
In other than Group R-3, existing elevators, escalators and moving walks shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1103.3.1 and 1103.3.2.
Existing elevators, escalators and moving walks in Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies and serving ambulatory care facilities shall comply with ASME A17.3.

Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings without occupied floors located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above or 25 feet (7620 mm) below the lowest level of fire department vehicle access where protected at the elevator shaft openings with additional fire doors in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.1. The doors shall be provided with vision panels of approved fire protection rated glazing so located as to furnish clear vision of the approach to the elevator. Such glazing shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m2) in area.
    2. 1.2. The doors shall be held open but be automatic-closing by activation of a fire alarm initiating device installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 72 as for Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, and shall be located at each floor served by the elevator; in the associated elevator machine room, control space, or control room; and in the elevator hoistway, where sprinklers are located in those hoistways.
    3. 1.3. The doors, when closed, shall have signs visible from the approach area stating: WHEN THESE DOORS ARE CLOSED OR IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRWAYS.
  2. Buildings without occupied floors located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above or 25 feet (7620 mm) below the lowest level of fire department vehicle access where provided with automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Freight elevators in buildings provided with both automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and not less than one ASME 17.3-compliant elevator serving the same floors.

Elimination of previously installed Phase I emergency recall or Phase II emergency in-car systems shall not be permitted.

1103.3.3 Elevator Emergency Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Elevator emergency signs shall be in accordance with Section 606.3.

1103.3.4 Elevator Keys

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department. Elevator keys for emergency use for door access (shaftway door access) and override of normal operations (Phase I recall and Phase II firefighter use) shall be marked as such and readily available at the fire command center or main lobby desk for use by the fire department and other emergency personnel. In buildings without a fire command center or main lobby desk, the keys shall be stored in a break-glass container at the main entrance. There shall be at least two door access keys and at least 6 override keys available for emergency use.
Interior vertical openings, including but not limited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building, shall be enclosed or protected as specified in Sections 1103.4.1 through 1103.4.10.

In Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting two or more stories shall be protected with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Exceptions:

  1. In Group I-2, unenclosed vertical openings not exceeding two connected stories and not concealed within the building construction shall be permitted as follows:

    1. 1.1. The unenclosed vertical openings shall be separated from other unenclosed vertical openings serving other floors by a smoke barrier.
    2. 1.2. The unenclosed vertical openings shall be separated from corridors by smoke partitions.
    3. 1.3. The unenclosed vertical openings shall be separated from other fire or smoke compartments on the same floors by a smoke barrier.
    4. 1.4. On other than the lowest level, the unenclosed vertical openings shall not serve as a required means of egress.
  2. In Group I-2, atriums connecting three or more stories shall not require 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3, and all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. For other than existing approved atriums with a smoke control system, where the atrium was constructed and is maintained in accordance with the code in effect at the time the atrium was created, the atrium shall have a smoke control system that is in compliance with Section 909.
    2. 2.2. Glass walls forming a smoke partition or a glass-block wall assembly shall be permitted where in compliance with Condition 2.2.1 or 2.2.2.

      1. 2.2.1. Glass walls forming a smoke partition shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are met:

        1. 2.2.1.1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway or occupied space on the atrium side.
        2. 2.2.1.2. The sprinklers shall be not more than 12 inches (305 mm) away from the face of the glass and at intervals along the glass of not greater than 72 inches (1829 mm).
        3. 2.2.1.3. Windows in the glass wall shall be non-operating type.
        4. 2.2.1.4. The glass wall and windows shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
        5. 2.2.1.5. The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction.
      2. 2.2.2. A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 of the International Building Code and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.
    3. 2.3. Where doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing and shall be constructed to resist the passage of smoke.
  3. In Group I-3 occupancies, exit stairways or ramps and exit access stairways or ramps constructed in accordance with Section 408 in the International Building Code.

In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting three to five stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages.
  3. Vertical opening protection for escalators shall be in accordance with Section 1103.4.5, 1103.4.6 or 1103.4.7.
  4. Exit access stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Section 1103.4.8.

In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting more than five stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Exceptions:

  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages.
  3. Vertical opening protection for escalators shall be in accordance with Section 1103.4.5, 1103.4.6 or 1103.4.7.
  4. Exit access stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Section 1103.4.8.

In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, interior vertical openings in a covered mall building or a building with an atrium shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Section 1103.4.8.
In Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting any number of stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 installed throughout the building, with a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers around the escalator opening.
In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting four or fewer stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall be installed throughout the building, and a draft curtain with closely spaced sprinklers shall be installed around the escalator opening.
In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting five or more stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

In other than Group I-2 and I-3 occupancies, floor openings containing exit access stairways or ramps that do not comply with one of the conditions listed in this section shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

  1. Exit access stairways and ramps that serve, or atmospherically communicate between, only two stories. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories.
  2. In Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies, exit access stairways and ramps connecting four stories or less serving and contained within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit or live/work unit.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where the area of the vertical opening between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the stairway or ramp, and the opening is protected by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13. In other than Group B and M occupancies, this provision is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories.
  4. Exit access stairways and ramps within an atrium complying with the provisions of Section 404 of the International Building Code.
  5. Exit access stairways and ramps in open parking garages that serve only the parking garage.
  6. Exit access stairways and ramps serving open-air seating complying with the exit access travel distance requirements of Section 1029.7 of the International Building Code.
  7. Exit access stairways and ramps serving the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of religious worship, auditoriums and sports facilities.

1103.4.9 Waste and Linen Chutes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In Group I-2 occupancies, existing waste and linen chutes shall comply with Sections 1103.4.9.1 through 1103.4.9.5.

1103.4.9 Waste and Linen Chutes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing waste and linen chutes shall comply with Sections F-1103.4.9.1 through F-1103.4.9.5 in the following occupancies:
  1. Group I-2 occupancies, and
  2. High-rise buildings of Group R-2 occupancy.

1103.4.9.1 Enclosure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chutes shall be enclosed with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Opening protectives shall be in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and have a fire protection rating of not less than1 hour.

1103.4.9.2 Chute Intakes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chute intakes shall comply with Section F-1103.4.9.2.1 or F-1103.4.9.2.2.

1103.4.9.2.1 Chute Intake Direct From Corridor

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where intake to chutes is direct from a corridor, the intake opening shall be equipped with a chute-intake door in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour.

1103.4.9.2.2 Chute Intake via a Chute-Intake Room

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where the intake to chutes is accessed through a chute-intake room, the room shall be enclosed with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Opening protectives for the intake room shall be in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and have a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. Opening protectives for the chute enclosure shall be in accordance with Section F-1103.4.9.1. In buildings where an automatic fire extinguishing system is not required throughout the building and where the chute-intake room is not used for the temporary or permanent storage of combustible materials, the automatic fire extinguishing system is not required in the chute-intake room.

1103.4.9.3 Automatic Sprinkler System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chutes shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.11.2.

1103.4.9.4 Chute Discharge Rooms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chutes shall terminate in a dedicated chute discharge room. Such rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Opening protectives shall be in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and have a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour.

1103.4.9.5 Chute Discharge Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Chute discharges shall be equipped with a self-closing or automatic-closing opening protective in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour.
Existing flue-fed incinerator rooms and associated flue shafts shall be protected with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and shall not have other vertical openings connected with the space other than the associated flue. Opening protectives shall be in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code and have a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour.

1103.5 Sprinkler Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings in accordance with Sections 1103.5.1 through 1103.5.4.

1103.5 Sprinkler Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings in accordance with Sections F-1103.5.1 through F-1103.5.8.2.
Where alcoholic beverages are consumed in a Group A-2 occupancy having an occupant load of 300 or more, the fire area containing the Group A-2 occupancy shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

1103.5.2 Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In Group I-2, an automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Section 1105.9.

1103.5.2 Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout existing Group I-2 occupancies.

1103.5.3 Group I-2, Condition 2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In addition to the requirements of Section 1103.5.2, existing buildings of Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancy shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be installed as established by the adopting ordinance. [DATE BY WHICH SPRINKLER SYSTEM MUST BE INSTALLED].

1103.5.3 Group I-4 Child Care Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout existing Group I-4 child care facilities.

Exception: Group I-4 child care facilities legally in existence prior to January 1, 1984, where all children less than 2 1/2 years of age are kept on the level of exit discharge.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout existing buildings where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). Vaults located within buildings for the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of discharging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 L/min/m2) over the area of the vault.

1103.5.5 High-Hazard Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout existing high-hazard occupancies.

1103.5.6 High-Rise Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout existing high-rise buildings.

Exception: Portions of high-rise buildings occupied by Group R-2 occupancies without a change in occupancy since December 18, 1991.

1103.5.6.1 High-Rise Group R-2 Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the following areas of existing Group R-2 occupancies in the portions of the highrise building to which the requirements of Section F-1103.5.6 do not apply:
  1. Basements in accordance with Section F-1103.5.7.
  2. Rooms used for storage where the floor area exceeds 120 square feet (11 m2).
  3. Trash and incinerator chutes and rooms in accordance with F-1103.4.9.

1103.5.7 Basements Without Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Basements in existing buildings exceeding 2500 square feet (232 m2) without openings shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.

Exceptions:
  1. Basements containing no occupancy or storage, excluding permanently installed building service equipment, but not excluding oil cooled electrical equipment.
  2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies.
  3. Basements with openings meeting one of the following conditions:
    1. Doorway openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway or outside ramp. The door openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the linear distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240mm), and all portions of the basement are located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of a door opening.
    2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of the exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) and all portions of the basement are located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of an opening. The openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm).

1103.5.7.1 Accessible Basement Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Basement openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that will impede fire fighting or rescue operations from the exterior. Materials permitted to be used to cover openings that will not impede fire department fire fighting and rescue are as follows:

  1. Doorway openings with doors of metal or wood.
  2. Doorway or other openings covered by any of the following materials:
    1. Wood not exceeding 3/4 inches (1905 mm) in thickness.
    2. Glass, Plexiglas, fiberglass or plastic not exceeding 1/4 inches (6 mm) in thickness.
    3. Metal sheeting not exceeding 1/8 inches (3 mm) in thickness.

1103.5.8 Buildings 45 Feet or More in Height

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the following areas of existing buildings that have one or more occupied floors located 45 feet (13 716 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access:
  1. Basements.
  2. The level of exit discharge.
Exceptions:
  1. Open parking structures.
  2. Occupancies in Group F-2.
  3. Occupancies in Group R-2.
  4. Buildings where all exterior walls have a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or greater.

1103.5.8.1 Retrofit of Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Buildings required by Section F-1103.5.8 to have automatic sprinkler systems installed shall complete the required installation by December 31, 2021.

1103.5.8.1.1 Required Compliance Documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of every building of 5 stories or more in height shall submit to the Department of Licenses and Inspections for approval one of the following by July 1, 2019:
  1. A written description of the methods and schedule for compliance with this section.
  2. A site plan prepared by a registered design professional indicating that the fire separation distance of all exterior walls of the building are 5 feet (1524 mm) or greater and therefore the building is not subject to Section F-1103.5.8.
  3. An elevation plan prepared by a registered design professional indicating that the existing building does not have one or more occupied floors located 45 feet (13 716 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  4. A statement sealed by a registered design professional indicating that the existing building meets an exception for occupancy and therefore the building is not subject to Section F- 1103.5.8.
  5. Proof that automatic sprinklers were previously installed in the areas required by Section F-1103.5.8 and have been certified pursuant to Section 901.

1103.5.8.2 Retrofit Schedule

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Proof of compliance with the automatic sprinkler system installation requirements of this Section shall be submitted to the Department of Licenses and Inspections in the form of a certification pursuant to Section 901. The required certification shall be submitted prior to January 1, 2022.

1103.6 Standpipes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905 where required in Sections 1103.6.1 and 1103.6.2. The fire code official is authorized to approve the installation of manual standpipe systems to achieve compliance with this section where the responding fire department is capable of providing the required hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet.

1103.6 Standpipes Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Standpipes systems in existing buildings shall be in accordance with Section F-1103.6. Where standpipes in an existing building exceed the requirements of this section, as a result of installation requirements by the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Building Code, the level of standpipe protection shall not be reduced, except as permitted by Section F-1103.6.3.

1103.6.1 Existing Multiple-Story Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing buildings with occupied floors located more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the lowest level of fire department access or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) below the highest level of fire department access shall be equipped with standpipes.

1103.6.1 Class I Standpipes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Class I standpipes shall be installed in existing buildings with occupied floors located more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above or below the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. The standpipes shall have hose connections in each required exit stairway (stair tower, or vestibule where egress width requirements are not violated). Fire department connections shall be in accordance with Section F-912. These requirements shall also apply to buildings that were granted variances prior to January 1, 2004, to omit standpipes from the required exit stairways or to have manual dry standpipes.

1103.6.1.1 Installation Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Class I standpipes required to be installed to comply with this section shall be installed in accordance with Section 905. Class I manual dry standpipes are not permitted, except in open parking garages or by variance granted on or after January 1, 2004. The following are exceptions to the 100 pounds per square inch pressure requirement of NFPA 14 at the most remote hose connection. The exceptions do not apply to the flow requirements.

Exceptions:
  1. In existing buildings having the highest occupied floors located not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, Class I standpipe systems are permitted to be manual wet systems.
  2. Standpipe systems installed prior to January 1, 1995, that provide a residual pressure of 65 psi (448 kPa) or greater at the most remote hose connection are exempt from the requirement to provide a residual pressure of 100 psi (690 kPa) at the most remote hose connection.
  3. Standpipe systems with a residual pressure of less than 100 psi (690 kPa) at the most remote hose connection are permitted provided that the pressure is sufficient to fill the system and the building is in accordance with Conditions 3.1 through 3.3.
    1. The building existed prior to January 1, 2004.
    2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic fire extinguishing system.
    3. The floor level of the highest floor is not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

1103.6.1.2 Standpipe Hose Connection Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing Class I standpipe hose connections within required exit stairways (stair tower or vestibule) are permitted to be located on the floor level landing or alternate floor level landing. Existing hose connections outside of exit stairways shall be relocated to within the exit stairway.

1103.6.1.3 Orientation of Hose Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall have a minimum clearance of 8 inches (2032 mm) measured from the center of the hose connection in at least one plane to permit the fire department the option of attaching a wye fitting to use two 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) hoses in lieu of one 2-1/2 inch (63 mm) hose.
Existing buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department access to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located shall be equipped with standpipes in accordance with Section 2007.5.

1103.6.3 Class II Standpipe Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing Class II standpipes (also known as occupant use standpipes) shall be maintained. Removal of the hose or the entire system shall be permitted in accordance with the following:

1103.6.3.1 Removal of Class II Hose

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Removal of hose from a Class II or Class III standpipe system is permitted in buildings equipped with a manual wet or automatic or semiautomatic dry Class I standpipe system or the building is not required to have a Class I system based on Section F-1103.6.1.

1103.6.3.2 Removal of Class II System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Removal of a Class II standpipe system is permitted in buildings equipped with a manual wet or automatic or semi-automatic dry Class I standpipe system or the building is not required to have a Class I standpipe system based on Section F-1103.6.1 and not required to have a Class II standpipe system in the locations where they exist based on the current Philadelphia Building Code.

1103.7 Fire Alarm Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

An approved fire alarm system shall be installed in existing buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 1103.7.1 through 1103.7.6 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5 unless other requirements are provided by other sections of this code.

Exception: Occupancies with an existing, previously approved fire alarm system.

1103.7 Fire Alarm Systems in Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire alarm systems shall be installed in existing buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 1103.7.1 through 1103.7.6 and Sections F-1103.7.7 through F-1103.7.11. Where an existing building or structure does not have the fire alarm system required by this section, a fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate subsection of Section 907.

A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group E occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.3.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in a building with a maximum area of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) that contains a single classroom and is located not closer than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from another building.
  2. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load less than 50.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-1 facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.6.1.

Exception: Where each sleeping room has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior egress balcony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with Section 1021, and the building is not more than three stories in height.

In Group I-2, an automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Section 1105.10.
An automatic and manual fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.
A fire alarm system and smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R-1 occupancies in accordance with Sections 1103.7.5.1 through 1103.7.5.2.1.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels more than three stories or with more than 20 sleeping units.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where the following conditions are met:

    1. 2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. 2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.
    3. 2.3. Not less than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping rooms not equipped with an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses.

Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, egress court or yard.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units not equipped with an approved, supervised sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.

Exception: Buildings equipped with single-station smoke alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Section 907.2.10.1 and where the fire alarm system includes not less than one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the alarm.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling or sleeping units.


Exceptions:

  1. Where each living unit is separated from other contiguous living units by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3/4 hour, and where each living unit has either its own independent exit or its own independent stairway or ramp discharging at grade.
  2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in buildings that are equipped throughout with an approved supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and having a local alarm to notify all occupants.
  3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
  4. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units, do not exceed three stories in height and comply with both of the following:
    1. Each dwelling unit is separated from other contiguous dwelling units by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
    2. Each dwelling unit is provided with smoke alarms complying with the requirements of Section 907.2.10.

1103.7.7 Group a Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed throughout existing Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies with an occupant load of 300 or more and in all Special Assembly Occupancies. In Special Assembly Occupancies a shut-off (shunt trip) device shall be provided to shut off electricity to circuits controlling audio equipment in the facility upon activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system.

1103.7.8 Group I-4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic and manual fire alarm system shall be installed throughout existing Group I-4 occupancies.

1103.7.9 Group R-1, R-2 and R-3 Congregate Living Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing Group R-l and R-2 congregate living facilities shall have hard-wired, interconnected smoke alarms installed in accordance with Section F-1103.8. (Group R-l congregate living is more than 10 residents and Group R-2 congregate living is more than 16 residents. See Chapter 2 under Occupancy Classifications for the complete definition of Group R-1 and R-2 congregate living facilities). Existing Group R-3 congregate living facilities shall have hard-wired, interconnected smoke alarms installed in accordance with F-1103.7.9.1.
In addition to the requirements of Section F-1103.8, hard-wired, interconnected smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections F- 1103.7.9.1.1 through F-1103.7.9.1.3 and NFPA 72 on each floor, including basements, of existing Group R-3 congregate living facilities.

Exceptions:
  1. Buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Buildings equipped with hard-wired smoke alarms installed in compliance with the Building Code.

1103.7.9.1.1 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The smoke alarms required by this Section F-1103.7.9 shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the hard-wired alarms in the facility. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

1103.7.9.1.2 Power Source

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The smoke alarms required by this Section F-1103.7.9 shall receive their primary power from the building wiring, provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

1103.7.9.1.3 Retrofit of R-3 Congregate Living Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The smoke alarms required by this Section F-1103.7.9.1 shall be installed prior to December 31, 2019. Electrical permits for such installations shall be secured prior to July 1, 2019.

1103.7.10 Group R-4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R-4 residential care/assisted living facilities (6 to16 residents) in accordance with Section 1103.8.

1103.7.11 Mixed Residential and Nonresidential Use

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a nonresidential occupancy is located below a residential occupancy, a manual and automatic (smoke detection) fire alarm system shall be installed with smoke detectors installed throughout the nonresidential occupancy, manual fire alarm boxes installed at the exits in the nonresidential areas and alarm notification appliances installed throughout the building. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the dwelling units of the residential portions of the building in accordance with Section 1103.8.

Exception: The fire alarm system is not required where an automatic sprinkler system is installed throughout the non-residential portions of the building.

1103.8 Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group I-1 and R occupancies in accordance with Sections 1103.8.1 through 1103.8.3.

1103.8 Single-And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Single- and multiple-station (singlestation wired together to enable all to sound an alarm when one activates) smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R occupancies in accordance with Sections F-1103.8.1 through F1103.8.3.

1103.8.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Existing Group I-1 and R occupancies shall be provided with single-station smoke alarms in accordance with Section 907.2.10. Interconnection and power sources shall be in accordance with Sections 1103.8.2 and 1103.8.3, respectively.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the code that was in effect at the time of construction required smoke alarms and smoke alarms complying with those requirements are already provided.
  2. Where smoke alarms have been installed in occupancies and dwellings that were not required to have them at the time of construction, additional smoke alarms shall not be required provided that the existing smoke alarms comply with requirements that were in effect at the time of installation.
  3. Where smoke detectors connected to a fire alarm system have been installed as a substitute for smoke alarms.

1103.8.1 Location of Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing Group R occupancies and dwellings shall be provided with single-station smoke alarms. Where installation is required to meet the requirements of this section the smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.10, except as permitted in this section.

Exceptions:
  1. Smoke alarms are not required in sleeping rooms in existing Group R-2 occupancies in high-rise buildings equipped throughout with an automatic fire extinguishing system.
  2. Smoke alarms are not required in sleeping rooms in Group R-2 or R-3 occupancies in buildings built prior to January 1, 1988, and not classified as high-rise.
  3. Where a smoke alarm installed in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms would result in its installation within 3 feet (914 mm) of a door to a bathroom or kitchen, installation beyond the immediate vicinity is permitted, provided that it does not exceed 15 feet (4572 mm) from all bedroom doors.

1103.8.2 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

Exceptions:

  1. Interconnection is not required in buildings that are not undergoing alterations, repairs or construction of any kind.
  2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required to be interconnected where alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available that could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.

1103.8.2 Interconnection of Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

Exceptions:
  1. Interconnection is not required in buildings built prior to January 1, 1988, that are not undergoing alterations, repairs or construction of any kind.
  2. Smoke alarms in existing areas of buildings built prior to January 1, 1988, are not required to be interconnected where repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.
  3. Pursuant to the PA Uniform Construction Code, interconnected smoke alarms are not required in one-family and two-family dwellings constructed prior to January 1, 1988 undergoing alterations, repairs or additions. Non-interconnected battery-operated smoke alarms shall be installed in these dwellings. This exception does not apply to multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses).

1103.8.3 Power Source

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Single-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing buildings where construction is not taking place.
  2. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in buildings that are not served from a commercial power source.
  3. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in existing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or repairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available that could provide access for building wiring without the removal of interior finishes.

1103.8.3 Power Source for Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Single-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exceptions:
  1. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery powered with 10-year non-removable (sealed) batteries in existing one- and two-family dwellings built prior to January 1, 1988, where no construction is taking place.
  2. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery powered with 10-year non-removable (sealed) batteries in one- and two-family dwellings that are not served from a commercial power source.
  3. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery powered with 10-year non-removal (sealed) batteries in existing one- and two-family dwellings built prior to January 1, 1988, undergoing alterations or repairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for building wiring without the removal of interior finishes.
Pursuant to the PA Uniform Construction Code, smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery powered with 10-year non-removal (sealed) batteries in existing detached and semi-detached single-family dwellings constructed prior to January 1, 1988 undergoing alterations, repairs or additions.

1103.8.4 Verification of Smoke Alarms Upon Sale of Building

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Upon the sale of a building containing a Group R-3 occupancy, the seller shall certify in writing to the buyer that smoke alarms required by Section F-1103.8 are installed and in proper operating condition.

1103.9 Carbon Monoxide Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing dwelling units and sleeping units where those units include any of the conditions identified in Sections 915.1.2 through 915.1.6. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in the locations specified in Section 915.2 and the installation shall be in accordance with Section 915.4.

Exceptions:

  1. Carbon monoxide alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated where the code that was in effect at the time of construction did not require carbon monoxide detectors to be provided.
  2. Carbon monoxide alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated in dwelling units that are not served from a commercial power source.
  3. A carbon monoxide detection system in accordance with Section 915.5 shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms.

1103.9 Carbon Monoxide Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Sections F-1103.9.1 through F-1103.9.3 where any of the conditions in Sections 915.1.2 through 915.1.6 exist. A carbon monoxide detection system installed in accordance with Section 915.5 shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms.

Exception: Carbon monoxide alarms are not required in dwelling units and sleeping units of I-1, I-2, I-4, R-1 and R-2 occupancies constructed before April 1, 2019.

1103.9.1 Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 915.2. Where the alarm is a combination smoke and carbon monoxide alarm, it shall be located in accordance with the installation instructions for the smoke alarm.

Exception: Carbon monoxide alarms installed prior to January 1, 2010, are permitted to be installed not more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the entrance to each bedroom or each bed in sleeping areas where there is no enclosed bedroom.

1103.9.2 Power Source

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall have a power source in accordance with Section 915.4.1.

Exception: Carbon monoxide alarms installed in existing Group R-3 and Group R-4 occupancies constructed prior to January 1, 2010, are permitted to be battery powered or electrical plug-in type. Such alarms are not required to be interconnected.

1103.9.3 Verification of Carbon Monoxide Alarms/Systems Upon Sale of Building

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Upon the sale of a building containing Group R-3 occupancy, the seller shall certify to the buyer that the carbon monoxide devices required by Section F-1103.9 or Section 915 are installed and in proper operating condition.
Medical gases stored and transferred in health-care-related facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 53.
Means of egress in existing buildings shall comply with the minimum egress requirements where specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.25, and the building code that applied at the time of construction. Where the provisions of this chapter conflict with the building code that applied at the time of construction, the most restrictive provision shall apply. Existing buildings that were not required to comply with a building code at the time of construction shall comply with the minimum egress requirements where specified in Table 1103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1104.2 through 1104.25.

Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress.

Exceptions:

  1. Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where allowed by Section 1009.4.
  2. Previously approved elevators, escalators and moving walks in existing buildings.

Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m2).

Where emergency illumination is required in Section 1104.5, exit signs shall be visible under emergency illumination conditions.

Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.

Where means of egress illumination is provided, the power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require two or more means of egress:

  1. Group A having 50 or more occupants.

    Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a place of worship and having an occupant load of less than 300.

  2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, buildings with 100 or more occupants above or below a level of exit discharge serving the occupants or buildings with 1,000 or more total occupants.
  3. Group E in interior exit access and exit stairways and ramps, corridors, windowless areas with student occupancy, shops and laboratories.
  4. Group F having more than 100 occupants.

    Exception: Buildings used only during daylight hours and that are provided with windows for natural light in accordance with the International Building Code.

  5. Group I.
  6. Group M.

    Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mezzanines.

  7. Group R-1.

    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.

  8. Group R-2.

    Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.

Emergency power for means of egress illumination shall be provided in accordance with Section 1203. In other than Group I-2, emergency power shall be provided for not less than 60 minutes for systems requiring emergency power.
Guards complying with this section shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.

Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing guards on the open side of exit access and exit stairways and ramps shall be not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high.
  2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not less than 36 inches (910 mm) high.
  3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas.

Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
  2. In occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, the clear distance between intermediate rails measured at right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches (533 mm).
  3. Approved existing open guards.

The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The minimum clear opening height of doorways shall be 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Group R-2 and R-3 units that are not required to be an Accessible Type A unit or Type B unit.
  2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum clear opening width.
  3. The width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 shall not be limited.
  4. The maximum width of door leaves in power-operated doors that comply with Section 1010.1.4.2 shall not be limited.
  5. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall have a minimum clear opening height of 78 inches (1981 mm).
  6. In dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, exterior door openings, other than the required exit door, shall have a minimum clear opening height of 76 inches (1930 mm).
  7. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall have a minimum door leaf width of 24 inches (610 mm).
  8. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to doors for nonaccessible showers or sauna compartments.
  9. The minimum clear opening width shall not apply to the doors for nonaccessible toilet stalls.
  10. Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.

In Group I-2 occupancies, means of egress doors where used for the movement of beds shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 411/2 inches (1054 mm).

Doors serving as means of egress doors and not used for movement of beds shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm).

In ambulatory care facilities, doors serving as means of egress from patient treatment rooms shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm).
The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. The opening forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 pounds (133 N). The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side.

Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

  1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairways or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairways or escalators and the revolving doors.
  2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1104.9.
  3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an adjacent swinging door for street-floor elevator lobbies provided that a stairway, escalator or door from other parts of the building does not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or use other than as a means of travel between elevators and a street.
  2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolving doors does not exceed the number of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm).

TABLE 1104.9

REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS

INSIDE DIAMETER
(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
MANUAL-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
6-61112
7-01011
7-6911
8-0910
8-689
9-089
9-678
10-078

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1104.9 and all of the following conditions:

  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.

Existing stairways in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not exceed 81/4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches (229 mm). Existing stairways can be rebuilt.

Exception: Other stairways approved by the fire code official.

The replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not be required to comply with the new stairway requirements of Section 1011 where the existing space and construction will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.
Existing winders shall be allowed to remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge.
Existing curved stairways shall be allowed to continue in use, provided that the minimum depth of tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall be not less than twice the width of the stairway.

Stairways shall have handrails on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail.

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are not required to have additional handrails.

Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm).
Ramp runs utilized as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).
Existing ramps are permitted to have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than the width required for the number of occupants served as determined by Section 1005.1. In Group I-2, ramps serving as a means of egress and used for the movement of patients in beds shall comply with Section 1105.6.3.

[BE] 1104.16 Fire Escape Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escape stairways shall comply with Sections 1104.16.1 through 1104.16.7.

1104.16 Fire Escape Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escape stairways and associated fire escape balconies shall comply with Sections 1104.16.1 through 1104.16.7.
Fire escape stairways shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity.

Doors and windows within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fire escape stairways shall be protected with 3/4-hour opening protectives.

Exception: Opening protectives shall not be required in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

Fire escape stairways shall meet the minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as specified in Section 1104.10.
Access to a fire escape stairway from a corridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire escape stairway shall be from a door or window meeting the criteria of Section 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stairway shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall not be higher than the floor or window sill level and not lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill.
Components of fire escape stairways shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Fire escape stairways and balconies shall support the dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot (4.78 kN/m2). Fire escape stairways and balconies shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side.

[BE] 1104.16.5.1 Examination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escape stairways and balconies shall be examined for structural adequacy and safety in accordance with Section 1104.16.5 by a registered design professional or others acceptable to the fire code official every 5 years, or as required by the fire code official. An inspection report shall be submitted to the fire code official after such examination.

1104.16.5.1 Examination and Certification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escape stairways and balconies shall be examined for structural adequacy and safety and certified in accordance with Section 1104.16.5 and Sections F-1104.16.5.1.1 through F-1104.16.5.1.10.

1104.16.5.1.1 Definitions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The following definitions shall apply to this Section F1104.16:

FIRE ESCAPE. A system of metal landings, balconies, stairs or ladders attached to a building that are not classified as an exterior stairway and are intended or designed to aid in egress from a building in an emergency.

FIRE ESCAPE BALCONY. A balcony that projects from the building face and is intended for use in conjunction with a fire escape, an exit stair or an area of refuge.

FIRE ESCAPE INSPECTION BUSINESS. A business entity that uses a Professional to perform inspections of fire escapes and fire escape balconies.

PROFESSIONAL. A professional engineer, licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and experienced in the practice of structural engineering.

SAFE. A condition of a fire escape or a fire escape balcony that is neither an Unsafe condition nor Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.

SAFE WITH A REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM. A condition of a fire escape or a fire escape balcony that is not determined to be Unsafe, at the time of inspection, but that requires maintenance or repair within a time period designated by a Professional in order to prevent further deterioration into an unsafe condition.

UNSAFE. A condition of any part of a fire escape or fire escape balcony that is dangerous to persons or property and requires prompt remedial action.

1104.16.5.1.2 Inspection Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of a building with a fire escape or fire escape balcony shall be responsible for retaining a Professional to conduct periodic inspections of the fire escape or fire escape balcony for structural adequacy and safety and to file a report on such inspection as required by this Section.

1104.16.5.1.3 Initial Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The initial inspection required by this Section shall be conducted, and the required report shall be filed, on or before July 1, 2017. If the construction of the fire escape or fire escape balcony was completed after July 1, 2007, the first inspection shall be conducted within ten years after construction of the fire escape was completed.

1104.16.5.1.4 Extensions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where fire escapes and fire escape balconies have undergone a restoration within one year prior to July 1, 2017, the owner may apply to the fire code official for an extension of the required initial inspection. With the application for extension, the owner shall submit such other information determined by the fire code official to be necessary to evaluate the extension request. The fire code official shall grant an extension if he or she determines that the restoration obviates the need for the initial inspection until a date established by the fire code official.

1104.16.5.1.5 Subsequent Inspections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Following the initial inspection, and every inspection thereafter, a fire escape and fire escape balcony shall be re-inspected, and the required report shall be filed within five years of the filing of the report concerning the previous inspection.

1104.16.5.1.6 Timing of Report in Relation to Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All reports shall be filed within three months of the inspection that is the subject of the report.

1104.16.5.1.7 Inspection Procedures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. Before conducting an inspection, the Professional shall review previous reports, inspections, and evidence of repairs made in the five (5) year period prior to the inspection, including confirmation that all areas previously determined to require repair (as noted in any previous report) have been addressed.
  2. The inspection shall be conducted by or under the supervision of the Professional.
  3. The Professional shall employ the appropriate Professional standard of care in order to detect structural defects, rust, corrosion or any other condition affecting the structural integrity of the fire escape and fire escape balconies. If a distressed condition is identified, the Professional shall order any other inspections or tests that may be required to determine the significance and cause of the distress as well as measures appropriate to remediate the distress.
  4. During the course of the inspection, photographs shall be taken or sketches made of the fire escape and fire escape balconies, including documentation of the location of all conditions that are Unsafe or Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program.
  5. To be considered Safe or Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program, the fire escape and fire escape balconies shall be capable of meeting or exceeding the load requirements of Section F-1104.16.5. This load requirement can be met by either an engineering analysis by the Professional or by conducting a load test. Any load test shall be witnessed by the Professional and shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 17 of the Philadelphia Building Code.
  6. Upon discovery of any Unsafe condition, the Professional shall immediately notify the owner of the building by electronic mail or fax and shall within twelve (12) hours of such discovery, notify the fire code official, in writing, and in an electronic format determined by the fire code official.
  7. Once the Professional has determined that the condition is safe, the Professional shall post, upon the fire escape, a tag or placard (made of weatherresistant reflective material) that clearly and legibly states the date of the inspection and the date by which a new inspection is required (5 years after the date of inspection), and the name, address and telephone number of the Professional or fire escape inspection business on the tag or placard.

1104.16.5.1.8 Report Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. The Professional who performs the inspection shall submit a written report to the owner of the building. The Professional shall also submit a summary of the written report to the fire code official in a form determined by the fire code official. The fire code official may by regulation impose a fee to cover the reasonable costs of processing that must be paid upon the submission of the summary of the written report. If the report identifies an unsafe condition, then within twenty-four (24) hours of the completion of the report, the Professional shall file the full report with the fire code official, in writing and in an electronic format to be determined by the fire code official. The owner or owner's agent shall retain all written reports submitted pursuant to this Section and keep them readily available for inspection by the fire code official.
  2. The report shall include, on the front page, the name and license number of the Professional and the date of the report, and shall include the following information:
    1. The address of the building.
    2. The name, mailing address and telephone number of the owner of the building, or where applicable, the owner's agent or person in charge, possession or control of the building.
    3. A description of the building, including the number of stories and height.
    4. The date of the start and completion of the inspection and a detailed description of the procedures used in making the inspection.
    5. A report of all conditions, including, but not limited to, significant deterioration, and movement, and mechanical operations. The report shall classify each such condition as Safe, Unsafe, or Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.
    6. The probable causes of the reported conditions.
    7. The status of ongoing maintenance efforts.
    8. For any conditions listed in any previously filed report, whether such conditions have been repaired or maintained as recommended in that report.
    9. Recommendations for repairs or maintenance, if appropriate, including the recommended time frame for the repairs or maintenance to be performed.
    10. The classification of the fire escape and fire escape balconies overall according to the following scheme:
      1. "Unsafe," if there is at least one unsafe condition.
      2. "Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program," if there is a condition that is "Safe with Repair and Maintenance Program" and there are no Unsafe conditions.
      3. "Safe," in all cases other than a or b.
    11. Photographs or sketches documenting the locations of any conditions that are either Unsafe or Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.
    12. A statement by the Professional indicating which repairs or maintenance require work permits prior to their commencement.
    13. A statement signed by the owner or agent of the building, acknowledging receipt of a copy of the report and acknowledging any required repairs or maintenance and the recommended time frame for performing such repairs or maintenance.
    14. The Professional's certification that, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, the physical inspection was performed in accordance with applicable rules and regulations, including the provisions of this Section, and within the appropriate professional standard of care.
    15. The Professional's seal and signature in accordance with the professional registration laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
    16. Such other matters as the code official may require by regulation.
  3. The Professional may submit an amended report. The amended report shall clearly identify any change from the initial report and all reasons for such changes.

1104.16.5.1.9 Unsafe Conditions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. Within twenty-four (24) hours of being notified of an Unsafe condition by a Professional, the owner of the building shall take any and all actions necessary to protect public safety including, but not limited to, posting notice of the unsafe condition in a prominent location inside the building near every exit to an exterior fire escape. If the fire escape or fire escape balcony encroaches upon a public right-of-way, such notice shall be posted in a prominent location visible from the right-of-way and the right-of-way shall be protected by installation of a sidewalk shed or other approved means. Such actions shall be considered part of an effort to remedy an emergency situation, and applications for any required permit shall be filed with the Department of Licenses and Inspections within three (3) days of notification.
  2. Within ten (10) days of the receipt of a report identifying an unsafe condition, the owner of a building shall commence work to correct the condition, and work shall continue without interruption until the unsafe condition has been corrected. Within two (2) weeks after the unsafe condition has been corrected, the Professional shall re-inspect the fire escape and fire escape balconies and file with the fire code official a detailed amended report concerning their condition.
  3. When a fire escape or fire escape balcony is determined to be unsafe and such condition is considered imminently dangerous by the Professional, the Professional shall notify the fire code official immediately. Signage shall be posted by the owner at each entry point to the fire escape or fire escape balcony and at the lowest balcony. Where required, the building shall either be evacuated, or an approved fire watch shall be provided until the fire escape has been made safe and approved for use.
  4. Upon completion of the work necessary to correct the Unsafe condition, the Professional shall submit an amended inspection report to the owner and the Department reflecting the completion of the repairs and the reclassification to Safe.

1104.16.5.1.10 Conditions That Are Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of a building is responsible for ensuring that the conditions described in the report as Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program are repaired and the actions identified by the Professional are completed within the time frame designated in the report, or by such time necessary to prevent a condition from becoming an unsafe condition, whichever is sooner.

The lowest balcony shall not be more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape stairways shall extend to the ground or be provided with counterbalanced stairs reaching the ground.

Exception: For fire escape stairways serving 10 or fewer occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to serve as the termination.

Fire escape stairways shall be kept clear and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in good working order.

Corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept closed or be self-closing. In Group I-2, corridors in areas housing patient sleeping or care rooms shall comply with Section 1105.5.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, that are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each room utilized for instruction or assembly has not less than one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior of the building at ground level.
  3. Corridors that are in accordance with the International Building Code.

Openings in corridor walls shall comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are required, solid wood doors not less than 1.75 inches (44 mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed.
  2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in steel frames.
  3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood on the room side.
  4. Opening protection is not required where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in Table 1104.18.

Exceptions:

  1. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor.
  2. In existing buildings, existing dead-end corridors shall be permitted to comply with lengths established in Section 805.6 of the International Existing Building Code. Any newly constructed dead-end corridors within an existing building shall be limited to the lengths allowed by the International Building Code.

TABLE 1104.18

COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy)

OCCUPANCYCOMMON PATH OF EGRESS
TRAVEL LIMIT
DEAD-END LIMITEGRESS ACCESS TRAVEL
DISTANCE LIMIT
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Unsprinklered
(feet)
Sprinklered
(feet)
Group A7520/7520a20a200250
Group Bh75g1005050200300
Group E75752050200250
Group F-1, S-175g1005050200c250c, h
Group F-2, S-275g1005050300400
Group H-12525007575
Group H-2501000075100
Group H-3501002020100150
Group H-475752020150175
Group H-575752050150200
Group I-175752050200250
Group I-2Notes d, e, fNotes d, e, fNote eNote e150200b
Group I-3100100NRNR150b200b
Group I-4NRNR2020200250
Group M751005050200250i
Group R-175755050200250
Group R-2751255050200250
Group R-3NRNRNRNRNRNR
Group R-4NRNRNRNRNRNR
Group U75g1002050300400

NR = No Requirements.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

  1. See Section 1029.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies.
  2. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter.
  3. See Section 412.7 of the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars.
  4. Separation of exit access doors within a care recipient sleeping room, or any suite that includes care recipient sleeping rooms, shall comply with Section 1105.5.6.
  5. Smoke compartments containing care recipient sleeping rooms and treatment rooms, dead-end corridors shall comply with Section 1105.6.5.
  6. In Group I-2, Condition 2, care recipient sleeping rooms or any suite that includes care recipient sleeping rooms shall comply with Section 1105.7.
  7. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupancies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the length of a common path of egress travel shall not be more than 100 feet.
  8. Where the building, or portion of the building, is limited to one story and the height from the finished floor to the bottom of the ceiling or roof slab or deck is 24 feet or more, the exit access travel distance is increased to 400 feet.
  9. For covered and open malls, the exit access travel distance is increased to 400 feet.
Exits shall be located so that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point to an approved exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not exceed the distances given in Table 1104.18.

An interior exit stairway or ramp that continues below its level of exit discharge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of egress to a public way readily identifiable.

Exception: Stairways that continue one-half story beyond their levels of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers where the exit discharge is obvious.

Exterior exit stairways shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1027.6. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.

Exceptions:

  1. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for buildings that are two stories or less above grade where the level of exit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade.
  2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior stairway is served by an exterior balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be not less than 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.
  3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior stairway located in a building or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1023.
  4. Separation from the open-ended corridors of the building is not required for exterior stairways provided that:

    1. 4.1. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1020.
    2. 4.2. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit stairway complying with Section 1027.
    3. 4.3. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3 m2) or an exterior stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

The minimum clear width of aisles shall comply with the following:

  1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for stepped aisles having seating on each side.

    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the stepped aisle serves fewer than 50 seats.

  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having seating on only one side.

    Exceptions:

    1. Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.
    2. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped aisle handrail and seating where a stepped aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side.
  3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is subdivided by a mid-aisle handrail.
  4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides.

    Exceptions:

    1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves fewer than 50 seats.
    2. Thirty inches (760 mm) where the aisle serves fewer than 15 seats and does not serve as part of an accessible route.
  5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side.

    Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats and not serving as part of an accessible route.

  6. In Group I-2, where aisles are used for movement of patients in beds, aisles shall comply with Section 1105.6.7.

1104.24 Stairway Floor Number Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing stairways shall be marked in accordance with Section 1023.9.

1104.24 Stairway Identification Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing stairways shall be marked in accordance with Section 1023.9 and Section F-1104.24.1.

1104.24.1 Stairway Roof Access

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where access to the roof from the exit stair enclosure is not direct, but is available through a room or corridor accessed from the exit stair enclosure, the stairway identification sign shall include the words "Indirect Roof Access." A properly oriented floor diagram shall be provided at the exit stair landing at the floor level that provides the indirect roof access. The floor diagram shall indicate the route to the door, stair or ladder that leads to the roof and be located at approximately eye level near the stairway identification sign.

1104.25 Egress Path Markings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Existing high-rise buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M and R-1 occupancies shall be provided with luminous egress path markings in accordance with Section 1025.

Exception: Open, unenclosed stairwells in historic buildings designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program.

1104.25 Egress Path Markings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing high-rise buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M and R-1 occupancies shall be provided with luminous egress path markings in accordance with Section 1025.

Exceptions:
  1. Buildings existing, or where plans for the construction of the building were approved, prior to February 17, 2010, are exempt provided the building has a sprinkler system installed throughout and the exit signs and egress lighting are connected to a primary power supply and an emergency generator or other secondary power supply.
  2. Open, unenclosed stairwells in historic buildings designated as historical under a state or local historic preservation program.

1104.26 Means of Egress Door Operation and Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Doors in the means of egress shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. Surface mounted manual slide bolt locks are not permitted

Exception: Locking devices permitted by the current or past edition of the Philadelphia Building Code.

1104.27 Stairways in the Means of Egress

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stairways in the means of egress shall be free of obstructions. There shall be no storage under the stairways unless the area is enclosed with construction having at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating.

1104.28 Exit Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit doors in existing buildings shall be self-closing and latching and in accordance with Sections F-1104.28.1 and F-1104.28.2

1104.28.1 Exit Door Rating

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit doors shall maintain the fire resistance rating required by the building code in effect at the time of construction, but at a minimum shall have a fire resistance rating of one hour. Where a door is replaced in an existing exit enclosure, the replacement door shall be a labeled fire door with a fire resistance rating of at least one hour. Existing door frames shall be maintained in good repair with no gaps between the door and the door frame exceeding 1/2 inches (16 mm).

Exceptions:
  1. Where an existing exit enclosure is required to have a fire-resistance rating of up to one hour, existing self-closing and latching doors shall be accepted provided they are solid core wood with a minimum thickness of 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).
  2. Where an existing exit enclosure is required to have a one-hour fire-resistance rating, existing self-closing and latching panel doors (not hollow core) shall be accepted provided the panels on one side are filled with a non-combustible material (example: mineral wool) and the entire surface of the door on that side is covered with a sheathing to provide a minimum door thickness of 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) measured at the stiles.

1104.28.2 Exit Stairways Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit stairway doors in existing buildings shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exceptions:
  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. Exit doors arranged in accordance with the current or a past edition of the Philadelphia Building Code.
  3. In stairways serving not more than 4 stories doors are permitted to be locked on the side opposite egress (stairway side).
  4. In stairways serving more than 4 stories the doors are permitted to be locked from the stairway side provided they unlock, but not un-latch, upon the loss of power to the door locks and are in accordance with 4.1 or 4.2:
    1. Unlock upon the activation of the building fire alarm system.
    2. Unlocked remotely from a constantly attended location, and telephones or a two-way communication system connected to the constantly attended location are installed in the stairway at not less than every fifth floor.

1104.29 Buildings With One Exit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a building with one exit was constructed in conformance with the building code in effect at the time the building was constructed, the single exit is acceptable provided it is in accordance with one of the following conditions:
  1. A nonresidential building not exceeding 6 stories above grade.
  2. A residential building, other than Group R-3, not exceeding 3 stories above grade.
  3. A Group R-3 building of any height.
  4. A building equipped with a fire suppression system and fire alarm system throughout the building with smoke detectors in all corridors, lobbies and other common areas.
  5. A building equipped with an automatic fire alarm system with smoke detectors installed throughout the building (smoke alarms in dwelling units) and the single exit is a smokeproof enclosure (access to the stairway via a vestibule or open exterior balcony) or a pressurized stairway.
  6. Compliance with the current Philadelphia Building Code.

1104.30 Occupant Load Sign

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy (50 or more) shall have the occupant load of the room or space, as determined by the Department of Licenses and Inspections, posted on a sign in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space.

Exception: The nave or worship area of a place of worship area with fixed seating in existence prior to 2010.

1104.31 Panic Hardware

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Swinging doors in Group A or E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more and Group H occupancies of any number shall be provided with panic hardware on the egress side of the door.

Exception: Where permitted by the current or past edition of the Philadelphia Building Code.

1104.32 Security Grilles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The security grilles in buildings shall be secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. When a building is occupied, but not by the general public, security grilles are permitted to be in the closed position provided they are openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Existing Group I-2 shall meet all of the following requirements:

  1. The minimum fire safety requirements in Section 1103.
  2. The minimum mean of egress requirements in Section 1104.
  3. The additional egress and construction requirements in Section 1105.

Where the provisions of this chapter conflict with the construction requirements that applied at the time of construction, the most restrictive provision shall apply.

The provisions of Sections 1105.3 through 1105.8, 1105.10 and 1105.11 shall apply to the existing Group I-2 fire area.

Group I-2, Condition 2 shall not be located on a floor level higher than the floor level limitation in Table 1105.3 based on the type of construction.

TABLE 1105.3

FLOOR LEVEL LIMITATIONS FOR GROUP I-2, CONDITION 2

CONSTRUCTION TYPEAUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMALLOWABLE FLOOR LEVELa
1234 or more
IANote bPPPP
Note cPPPP
IBNote bPPPP
Note cPPPP
IIANote bPPPNP
Note cPNPNPNP
IIBNote bPPNPNP
Note cNPNPNPNP
IIIANote bPPNPNP
Note cPNPNPNP
IIIBNote bPNPNPNP
Note cNPNPNPNP
IVNote bPPNPNP
Note cNPNPNPNP
VANote bPPNPNP
Note cNPNPNPNP
VBNote bPNPNPNP
Note cNPNPNPNP

P = Permitted; NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Floor level shall be counted based on the number of stories above grade.
  2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. The building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 1105.8.

Incidental uses associated with and located within existing single-occupancy or mixed-occupancy Group I-2 buildings and that generally pose a greater level of risk to such occupancies shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1105.4.1 through 1105.4.3.2.1. Incidental uses in Group I-2 occupancies are limited to those listed in Table 1105.4.

TABLE 1105.4

INCIDENTAL USES IN EXISTING GROUP I-2 OCCUPANCIES

ROOM OR AREASEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION
Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per hour
input
1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 psi and 10
horsepower
1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Refrigerant machinery room1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Hydrogen fuel gas rooms, not classified as Group H2 hours
Incinerator rooms2 hours and provide automatic sprinkler system
Paint shops not classified as Group H2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system
Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Laundry rooms over 100 square feet1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Patient rooms equipped with padded surfaces1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Physical plant maintenance shops1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Waste and linen collection rooms with containers with total volume of 10
cubic feet or greater
1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Storage rooms greater than 100 square feet1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more
than 50 gallons for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium or VRLA, or more than
1,000 pounds for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer used for facility
standby power, emergency power or uninterruptable power supplies
2 hours

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

Incidental uses shall not be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1 of the International Building Code. Incidental uses shall be included in the building occupancies within which they are located.
Incidental uses shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in which they are located.
The incidental uses listed in Table 1105.4 shall be separated from the remainder of the building or equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, or both, in accordance with the provisions of that table.
Where Table 1105.4 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with Section 509.4.1 of the International Building Code.
Where Table 1105.4 permits an automatic sprinkler system without a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke in accordance with Section 509.4.2 of the International Building Code.
Except as otherwise specified in Table 1105.4 for certain incidental uses, where an automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance with Table 1105.4, only the space occupied by the incidental use need be equipped with such a system.
In Group I-2, in areas housing patient sleeping or care rooms, corridor walls and the opening protectives therein shall provide a barrier designed to resist the passage of smoke in accordance with Sections 1105.5.1 through 1105.5.7.
The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.
Unless required elsewhere in this code, corridor walls are not required to have a fire-resistance rating. Corridor walls that were installed as fire-resistance-rated assemblies in accordance with the applicable codes under which the building was constructed, remodeled or altered shall be maintained unless modified in accordance with the International Existing Building Code.

Corridor walls shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor below to one of the following:

  1. The underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above.
  2. The underside of a ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the passage of smoke.
  3. The underside of a lay-in ceiling system where the ceiling system is constructed to limit the passage of smoke and where the ceiling tiles weigh not less than 1 pound per square foot (4.88 kg/m2) of tile.
Openings in corridor walls shall provide protection in accordance with Sections 1105.5.4.1 through 1105.5.4.3.

Windows in corridor walls shall be sealed to limit the passage of smoke, or the window shall be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke, or the window opening shall be protected by an automatic closing device that closes upon detection of smoke.

Exception: In smoke compartments not containing patient sleeping rooms, pass-through windows or similar openings shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1105.5.4.3.

Doors in corridor walls shall comply with Sections 1105.5.4.2.1 through 1105.5.4.2.3.

Doors in corridor walls shall not include louvers, transfer grills or similar openings.

Exception: Doors shall be permitted to have louvers, transfer grills or similar openings at toilet rooms or bathrooms; storage rooms that do not contain storage of flammable or combustible material; and storage rooms that are not required to be separated as incidental uses.

Doors in corridor walls shall limit the transfer of smoke by complying with the following:

  1. Doors shall be constructed of not less than 13/4 inch-thick (44 mm) solid bonded-core wood or capable of resisting fire not less than 1/3 hour.

    Exception: Corridor doors in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

  2. Frames for side-hinged swinging doors shall have stops on the sides and top to limit transfer of smoke.
  3. Where provided, vision panels in doors shall be a fixed glass window assembly installed to limit the passage of smoke. Existing wired glass panels with steel frames shall be permitted to remain in place.
  4. Door undercuts shall not exceed 1 inch (25 mm).
  5. Doors shall be positive latching with devices that resist not less than 5 pounds (22.2 N). Roller latches are prohibited.
  6. Mail slots or similar openings shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1105.5.4.3.
Where provided, dutch doors shall comply with Section 1105.5.4.2.2. In addition, dutch doors shall be equipped with latching devices on either the top or bottom leaf to allow leaves to latch together. The space between the leaves shall be protected with devices such as astragals to limit the passage of smoke.
Where self- or automatic-closing doors are required, closers shall be maintained in operational condition.
In other than smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms, mail slots, pass-through windows or similar openings shall not be required to be protected where the aggregate area of the openings between the corridor and a room are not greater than 80 square inches (51 613 mm2) and are located with the top edge of any opening not higher than 48 inches above the floor.
The space around penetrating items shall be filled with an approved material to limit the passage of smoke.
Joints shall be filled with an approved material to limit the passage of smoke.

The space around a duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an approved material to limit the passage of smoke. Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 717.3.2.2 of the International Building Code.

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.

In addition to the means of egress requirements in Section 1104, Group I-2 facilities shall meet the means of egress requirements in Sections 1105.6.1 through 1105.6.7.

Means of egress doors used for the movement of patients in beds shall provide a minimum clear width of 411/2 inches (1054 mm). The height of the door opening shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum above the floor.
  2. In Group I-2, Condition 1, existing means of egress doors used for the movement of patients in beds that provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) shall be permitted to remain.

In Group I-2, where a door serves as an opening protective in a fire barrier, smoke barrier or fire wall and where the door is equipped with a hold-open device, such door shall automatically close upon any of the following conditions:

  1. Actuation of smoke detectors initiating the hold-open device.
  2. Activation of the fire alarm system within the zone.
  3. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system within the zone.
In areas where ramps are used for movement of patients in beds, the clear width of the ramp shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm).
In areas where corridors are used for movement of patients in beds, the clear width of the corridor shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm).
In smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms and treatment rooms, dead-end corridors shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) unless approved by the fire code official.
Patient sleeping rooms, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2) shall have not less than two exit access doors placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the patient sleeping room or suite to be served, measured in a straight line between exit access doors.
In areas where aisles are used for movement of patients in beds, the clear width of the aisle shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm).
Smoke compartments shall be provided in existing Group I-2, Condition 2, in accordance with Sections 1105.7.1 through 1105.7.6.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide each story used for patients sleeping with an occupant load of more than 30 patients into not fewer than two smoke compartments.

Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments.

The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

  1. Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to a bed or stretcher.
  2. Not less than 15 square feet (1.4 m2) for each resident in a Group I-2 using mobility assistance devices.
  3. Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) for each occupant not addressed in Items 1 and 2.

Areas of spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of the refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.

Smoke barriers shall be constructed in accordance with Section 709 of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing smoke barriers are permitted to remain where the existing smoke barrier has a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1/2 hour.
  2. Smoke barriers shall be permitted to terminate at an atrium enclosure in accordance with Section 404.6 of the International Building Code.

Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code. Opening protectives shall have a minimum fire protection rating of 1/3 hour.

Exceptions:

  1. Existing wired glass vision panels in doors shall be permitted to remain.
  2. Existing nonlabeled protection plates shall be permitted to remain.

Penetrations of smoke barriers shall comply with the International Building Code.

Exception: Approved existing materials and methods of construction.

Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall comply with the International Building Code.

Exception: Approved existing materials and methods of construction.

Penetrations in a smoke barrier by duct and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717 of the International Building Code.

Exception: Where existing duct and air transfer openings in smoke barriers exist without smoke dampers, they shall be permitted to remain. Any changes to existing smoke dampers shall be submitted for review and approved in accordance with Section 717 of the International Building Code.

Care suites in existing Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 407.4.4 through 407.4.4.6.2 of the International Building Code.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided throughout the floor containing the Group I-2 fire area. The sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor where the Group I-2 occupancy is located, on all floors between the Group I-2 occupancy fire area and the level of exit discharge, the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge.

Exception: Floors classified as an open parking garage are not required to be sprinklered.

An automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-2 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such that manual fire alarm boxes are visible, are provided with ready access, and travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

Essential electrical systems in Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Sections 1105.11.1 and 1105.11.2.
Where required by NFPA 99, Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall be provided with an essential electrical system in accordance with NFPA 99.
In Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies, the installation and duration of operation of existing essential electrical systems shall be based on a hazard vulnerability analysis conducted in accordance with NFPA 99.
Existing tire storage yards shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Sections 1106.1.1 and 1106.1.2.
Access roadways shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of any point in the storage yard where storage piles are located not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any storage pile.
Fire apparatus access roads shall be located within all pile clearances identified in Section 3405.4 and within all fire breaks required in Section 3405.5.

1106.2 Vehicle Salvage and Wrecking Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Facilities conducting vehicle salvage or wrecking operations shall comply with Sections 1106.2.1 through 1106.2.8.

1106.2.1 Control of Combustibles to Prevent Fire

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Combustible rubbish (trash, debris, etc.) on the exterior of a property performing vehicle salvage or wrecking operations shall be stored in containers with lids. Vegetation (bushes, shrubs, grass, weeds, etc.) shall be kept trimmed to prevent it from becoming a fire hazard. Dead and dying vegetation shall be removed.

F 1106.2.2 Cutting and Welding

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cutting and welding operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 35.

1106.2.3 Portable Fire Extinguishers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906.

1106.2.4 Tire Storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tire storage shall be neat and orderly. The exterior storage of tires shall be in accordance with Section 1106.1

1106.2.5 Vehicle Fluids

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Fuel shall be removed from vehicle fuel tanks scheduled for salvage or wrecking within 24 hours of the arrival of a vehicle. Other fluids shall be removed if leaking, but not later than the start of further salvage or wrecking operations.

1106.2.6 Lead-Acid Batteries

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Lead-acid batteries shall be removed from vehicles if leaking, but not later than the start of further salvage or wrecking operations.

1106.2.7 Burning of Vehicle Parts

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The burning of vehicle parts is prohibited.

1106.2.8 Fire Access Roads

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire access roads of at least 15 feet in width shall be provided between storage piles and vehicle (whole or in parts) storage areas.
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