ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2009 (IFC 2009)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Section 1001 Administration General

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1001.1 General

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1001.1 Scope

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Existing buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the arrangement and maintenance of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof. Where the means of egress of a building exceed the requirements of this chapter because of compliance with the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Building Code, they shall be maintained.
It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.

AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Grandstands").

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit.

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced swing action when opening.

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits.

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, unenclosed exit access stair or unenclosed exit access ramp.

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Bleachers").

GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 of the International Building Code from which customers browse or shop.

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure.

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway need not be open.

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the definition of an exterior stairway.

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting column.

SUITE. A group of patient treatment rooms or patient sleeping rooms within Group I-2 occupancies where staff are in attendance within the suite, for supervision of all patients within the suite and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7.

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.

Section 1003 General Means of Egress

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1003.1 Applicability

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1003.2 Ceiling Height

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1003.3 Protruding Objects

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1003.3.1 Headroom

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1003.3.2 Post-Mounted Objects

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1003.3.3 Horizontal Projections

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1003.3.4 Clear Width

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1003.4 Floor Surface

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1003.5 Elevation Change

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1003.6 Means of Egress Continuity

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1003.7 Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walks

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Section 1003 General Means of Egress

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1003.1 Applicability

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Means of egress in existing buildings shall comply with Section 1003. The general requirements specified in Section 1003 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.

1003.2 Minimum Required Means of Egress Width

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The means of egress width in existing buildings shall not be less than that required by the code under which the building was constructed, but at a minimum it shall not be less than that required by this section. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by the factors in Table F-1003.2 and not less than that specified elsewhere in Section 1003. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of egress.

TABLE F-1003.2
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED
OCCUPANCY WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM a
Stairways (inches per occupant) Other egress components (inches per occupant) Stairways (inches per occupant) Other egress components (inches per occupant)
Occupancies other than those listed below 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.15
Hazardous: H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 Not permitted Not permitted 0.3 0.2
Institutional: I-2 Not permitted Not permitted 0.3 0.2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a    Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance.

1003.3 Obstruction of Means of Egress

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The means of egress from every point in a building to the public way shall not be reduced, blocked, locked or obstructed.

1003.3.1 Exterior Means of Egress

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Exterior means of egress in existing buildings shall be maintained and provide a clear pathway, of at least 36 inches, to a public way.

1003.4 Means of Egress Doors

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Means of egress doors in existing buildings shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exception: As permitted by Section 1008.

1003.5 Readily Distinguishable Doors

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Means of egress doors in existing buildings shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.

Section 1004 Occupant Load

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1004.1 Design Occupant Load

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1004.1.1 Areas Without Fixed Seating

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1004.2 Increased Occupant Load

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1004.3 Posting of Occupant Load

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1004.4 Exiting From Multiple Levels

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1004.5 Egress Convergence

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1004.6 Mezzanine Levels

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1004.7 Fixed Seating

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1004.8 Outdoor Areas

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1004.9 Multiple Occupancies

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Section 1004 Occupant Load

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1004.1 Occupant Load

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The occupant load of rooms and spaces in existing buildings shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Philadelphia Building Code in effect at the time the building was constructed or a change of occupancy classification occurred in the building.

1004.2 Posting of Occupant Load Sign

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Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy (50 or more) shall have the occupant load of the room or space, as determined by the Department of Licenses and Inspections, posted on a sign in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space.

Exception: The nave or worship area of a place of worship with fixed seating.

Section 1005 Egress Width

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1005.1 Minimum Required Egress Width

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1005.2 Door Encroachment

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1005.3 Door Hardware Encroachment

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Section 1005 Corridors and Aisles

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1005.1 Corridors and Aisles

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Corridors and aisles in existing buildings shall be in accordance with Section 1005. The required width of corridors and aisles shall not be reduced or obstructed.

1005.1.1 Corridors

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Corridors serving an occupant load greater than 30 and any occupant load in high-rise buildings of Group R-2 occupancy that have openings therein shall provide an effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept permanently closed or self-closing.

Exceptions:
  1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, which are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 where smoke barriers are provided in accordance with the Philadelphia Building Code.
  3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior of the building at ground level.
  4. Corridors that are in accordance with the Philadelphia Building Code.

1005.1.2 Corridor Openings

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Openings in corridor walls shall comply with the requirements of the Philadelphia Building Code.

Exceptions:
  1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are required, solid wood doors at least 1.75 inches (44 mm) thick or insulated steel doors are allowed.
  2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in steel frames.
  3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood on the room side.
  4. Opening protection is not required when the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

1005.1.3 Corridor Fire Resistance Rating

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Where a corridor was constructed as a fire resistance rated assembly, the rating shall be maintained. All penetrations shall be sealed with fire stopping material having the fire resistance rating of the floor-wall or wall-ceiling assembly penetrated.

1005.1.4 Dead Ends

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Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in Table F-1005.1.4.

Exception: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end passageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end passageway or corridor.


TABLE F-1005.1.4
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS (by occupancy)
OCCUPANCY COMMON PATH LIMIT DEAD-END LIMIT TRAVEL DISTANCE
Unsprinklered (feet) Sprinklered (feet) Unsprinklered (feet) Sprinklered (feet) Unsprinklered (feet) Sprinklered (feet)
Group A 20/75a 20/75a 20b 20b 200 250
Group B 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group E 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group F-1, S-1d 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group F-2, S-2d 75 100 50 50 300 400
Group H-1 25 25 0 0 75 75
Group H-2 50 100 0 0 75 100
Group H-3 50 100 20 20 100 150
Group H-4 75 75 20 20 150 175
Group H-5 75 75 20 50 150 200
Group I-1 75 75 20 50 200 250
Group I-2 (Health Care) NRe NRe NR NR 150 200c
Group I-3 (Detention and Correctional — Use Conditions II, III, IV, V) 100 100 NR NR 150c 200c
Group I-4 (Day Care Center) NR NR 20 20 200 250
Group M (Covered Mall) 75 100 50 50 200 400
Group M (Mercantile) 75 100 50 50 200 250
Group R-1 (Hotels) 75 75 50 50 200 250
Group R-2 (Apartments) 75 75 50 50 200 250
Group R-3 (One- and Two- Family) NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group R-4 (Residential Care/Assisted Living) NR NR NR NR NR NR
Group U 75 75 20 50 200 250

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. 20 feet for common path serving 50 or more persons, 75 feet for common path serving less than 50 persons.
  2. See Section 1028.9.5 for dead end aisles in Group A occupancies.
  3. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized allowable maximums. For travel distances within the room, and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter.
  4. See the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars.
  5. Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the patient sleeping room or suite to be served, measured in a straight line between exit access doors.
NR = No requirements.

1005.1.5 Exit Access Travel Distance

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Exits shall be located so that the length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point to an approved exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not exceed the distances given in Table F-1005.1.4.

1005.1.6 Common Path of Egress Travel

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The path of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given in Table F-1005.1.4.

1005.2 Aisles

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The minimum clear width of aisles in existing buildings shall be as follows:
  1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seating on each side.

    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.
  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having seating on only one side.

    Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.
  3. Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle handrail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by the handrail.
  4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides.

    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.
  5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side.

    Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas serving not more than 60 seats.
  6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side.

The means of egress, including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building space served by the means of egress is occupied.

Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group U.
  2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3.
  4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies.

The means of egress illumination level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface.

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system where such system is provided.

1006.3 Illumination Emergency Power

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1006.3 Illumination Emergency Power

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The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system for the following occupancies where such occupancies require 2 or more means of egress:
  1. Group A - having 50 or more occupants.

    Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a place of worship and having an occupant less than 300.
  2. Group B - buildings 3 or more stories in height, buildings with 100 or more occupants above or below a level of exit discharge serving the occupants or buildings with 1,000 or more total occupants.
  3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas with student occupancy, shops and laboratories.
  4. Group F - having more than 100 occupants.

    Exception: Buildings used only during daylight hours which are provided with windows for natural light in accordance with the Philadelphia Building Code.
  5. Group I.
  6. Group M.

    Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mezzanines.
  7. Group R-1.

    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
  8. Group R-2.

    Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at grade.
  9. Group R-4.

    Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct access to the outside of the building at ground level.

1006.3.1 Emergency Power Duration and Installation

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In other than Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. In Group I-2, the emergency power system shall provide power for not less than 90 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system necessary to comply with this section shall be in accordance with Philadelphia Building Code.

1006.4 Performance of System

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Section 1007 Accessible Means of Egress

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1007.1 Accessible Means of Egress Required

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1007.2 Continuity and Components

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1007.2.1 Elevators Required

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1007.3 Stairways

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1007.4 Elevators

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1007.5 Platform Lifts

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1007.5.1 Openness

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1007.6 Areas of Refuge

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1007.6.1 Size

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1007.6.2 Separation

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1007.6.3 Two-Way Communication

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1007.7 Exterior Area for Assisted Rescue

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1007.7.1 Openness

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1007.7.2 Exterior Exit Stairway

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1007.8 Two-Way Communication

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1007.8.1 System Requirements

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1007.8.2 Directions

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1007.9 Signage

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1007.10 Directional Signage

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1007.11 Instructions

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Section 1007 Exit Signs

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1007.1 Exit Signs

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Exit and exit access doors in existing buildings shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.

Exceptions:
  1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that require only one exit or exit access.
  2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit signs where approved by the fire code official.
  3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3.
  4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group I-3.
  5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are not required on the seating side of vomitories or openings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an emergency.

1007.2 Exit Sign Illumination

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Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times, including times during the loss of primary electrical power to the room or space. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than five foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose.

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m2).

1007.2.1 Power Source

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Where emergency illumination is required by Section F-1006.3, exit signs shall be visible under emergency illumination conditions.

Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.

1007.3 Lack of Exit Signs

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Areas of buildings not in compliance with this section shall have exit signs installed in accordance with the Philadelphia Building Code.

Section 1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles

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1008.1 Doors

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1008.1.1 Size of Doors

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1008.1.1.1 Projections Into Clear Width

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1008.1.2 Door Swing

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1008.1.3 Door Opening Force

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1008.1.3.1 Location of Applied Forces

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1008.1.4 Special Doors

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1008.1.4.1 Revolving Doors

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1008.1.4.1.1 Egress Component

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1008.1.4.1.2 Other Than Egress Component

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1008.1.4.2 Power-Operated Doors

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1008.1.4.3 Horizontal Sliding Doors

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1008.1.4.4 Access-Controlled Egress Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.4.5 Security Grilles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.5 Floor Elevation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.6 Landings at Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.7 Thresholds

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.8 Door Arrangement

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9 Door Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.1 Hardware

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.2 Hardware Height

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.3 Locks and Latches

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.4 Bolt Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.5 Unlatching

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.5.1 Closet and Bathroom Doors in Group R-4 Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.6 Special Locking Arrangements in Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.7 Delayed Egress Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.8 Electromagnetically Locked Egress Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.9 Locking Arrangements in Correctional Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.9.10 Stairway Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.10 Panic and Fire Exit Hardware

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.10.1 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1.10.2 Balanced Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.2 Gates

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.2.1 Stadiums

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.3 Turnstiles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.3.1 High Turnstile

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.3.2 Additional Door

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1008.1 Means of Egress Doors, Gates and Turnstiles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Means of egress doors, gates and turnstiles in existing buildings and structures shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 1008.

1008.2 Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The minimum width of each door opening in an existing building shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (7 11 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in an occupancy in Group I-2 used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:
  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
  3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply with Section F-1008.3 shall not be limited.
  4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
  5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
  6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in door width.

1008.2.1 Door Swing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Doors in the means of egress in existing buildings shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving an occupant load of 50 or more or a Group H occupancy.

Exception: Horizontal sliding doors.

1008.2.2 Door Opening Force

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers in existing buildings shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 pounds (133 N). The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side.

1008.2.3 Door Operation and Locking Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Doors in the means of egress of existing buildings shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge, except as permitted by Sections F-1008.2.3.1 through F-1008.2.3.8.

1008.2.3.1 Locks and Latches

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Approved locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following conditions exists:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, and in places of religious worship, the main exterior door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided that they are in accordance with 2.1 through 2.3.
    1. The locking device is readily distinguishable as locked.
    2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background.
    3. The use of the key-operated locking device is revocable by the fire code official for due cause.
  3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.
  5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures.
  6. Where an elevator lobby is separated from the remainder of the floor by partitions and doors and where the elevator lobby does not provide access to the required exits, the doors in the lobby partitions are permitted to be locked from the lobby side provided that the doors conform to Section F-1008.2.3.3 (access controlled doors) or F-1008.2.3.4 (delayed egress doors).
  7. Exit stairway doors in accordance with Section 1014.
  8. Egress door locking arrangements in accordance with the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Building Code.

1008.2.3.2 Bolts Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts on means of egress doors are not permitted.

Exceptions:
  1. On the inactive leaf of a pair of doors and the inactive leaf contains no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  2. As permitted by Section F-1008.2.3.1.

1008.2.3.3 Access-Controlled Egress Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, I-2, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, I-2, M R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria:
  1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.
  2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.
  3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock — independent of the access control system electronics — and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds.
  4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public.

1008.2.3.4 Delayed Egress Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system or an automatic smoke or heat detection system, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.
  1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center or a constantly attended location.
  4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only.

    Exception: Where approved, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted.
  5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

1008.2.3.5 Electromagnetically Locked Egress Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Doors in the means of egress that are not otherwise required to have panic hardware in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, M, R-l or R-2 shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked if equipped with listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch and meets all of the following requirements:
  1. The hardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions.
  2. The hardware is capable of being operated with one hand.
  3. Operation of the hardware releases to the electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door immediately.
  4. Loss of power to the hardware automatically unlocks the door.

1008.2.3.6 Power-Operated Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where means of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section F-1008.2.2, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made.

Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group I-3.
  2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section F-1008.2.3.7.
  3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.

1008.2.3.7 Horizontal Sliding Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors shall be permitted to be a component of a means of egress when in accordance with all of the following requirements:
  1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.
  2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.
  3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.
  4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.
  5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection.
  6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.

1008.2.3.8 Special Locking Arrangements in Group I-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Approved delayed egress locks shall be permitted in a Group I-2 occupancy where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require such locking. Delayed egress locks shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system or an automatic smoke or heat detection system, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.
  1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center, a nursing station or a constantly attended location.
  4. The procedures for the operation(s) of the unlocking system shall be described and approved as part of the emergency planning and preparedness required by Chapter 4.
  5. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking devices.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.
Exception: Items 1 through 3 shall not apply to doors to areas where persons, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a mental hospital.

1008.2.4 Panic and Fire Exit Hardware

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy shall have panic hardware on the egress side of the door.

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in compliance with Section F-1008.2.3.1, Item 2.

1008.2.5 Exit Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit doors in existing buildings shall be self-closing and latching and the fire resistance rating required by the building code at the time of construction shall be maintained, but at a minimum shall have a fire resistance rating of one hour. Where a door is replaced in an existing exit enclosure, the replacement door shall be a labeled fire door with a fire resistance rating of at least one hour. Existing door frames shall be maintained in good repair with no gaps between the door and the door frame exceeding 1/2 inches (16 mm).

Exceptions:
  1. Where an existing exit enclosure is required to have a fire-resistance rating of up to one hour, existing self-closing and latching doors shall be accepted provided they are solid core wood with a minimum thickness of 1 3/4 inches (44 mm).
  2. Where an existing exit enclosure is required to have a one-hour fire-resistance rating, existing self-closing and latching panel doors (not hollow core) shall be accepted provided the panels on one side are filled with a non-combustible material (example: mineral wool) and the entire surface of the door on that side is covered with a sheathing to provide a minimum door thickness of 1 3/4 inches (44 mm) measured at the stiles.

1008.2.5.1 Exit Stairways Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit stairway doors in existing buildings shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exceptions:
  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. Exit doors arranged in accordance with the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Building Code.
  3. In stairways serving not more than 4 stories, doors are permitted to be locked on the side opposite egress (stairway side).
  4. In stairways serving more than 4 stories, the doors are permitted to be locked from the stairway side provided they unlock, but not un-latch, upon the loss of power to the door locks and are in accordance with A or B:
    1. Unlock upon the activation of the building fire alarm system.
    2. Unlocked remotely from a constantly attended location and telephones or a two-way communication system connected to the constantly attended location are installed in the stairway at not less than every fifth floor.

1008.3 Revolving Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Revolving doors in existing buildings shall comply with the following:
  1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.
  2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table F-1008.3.
  3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm).
Exceptions:
  1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an adjacent swinging door for street-floor elevator lobbies provided a stairway, escalator or door from other parts of the building does not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or use other than as a means of travel between elevators and a street.
  2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolving doors does not exceed the number of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm).

1008.3.1 Revolving Door Egress Component

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section F-1008.3 and all of the following conditions:
  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.
TABLE F-1008.3
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
INSIDE DIAMETER POWER-DRIVEN- TYPE SPEED CONTROL (RPM) MANUAL- TYPE SPEED CONTROL (RPM)
6'6" 11 12
7'0" 10 11
7'6" 9 11
8'0" 9 10
8'6" 8 9
9'0" 8 9
9'6" 7 8
10'0" 7 8

For SI:1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

1008.4 Gates

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Gates in existing buildings used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.

Exception: Stadium doors in compliance with the building code in effect at the time of construction.

1008.5 Turnstiles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Turnstiles or similar devices in existing buildings that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress.

1008.6 Security Grilles

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The security grilles in existing buildings shall be secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. When a building is occupied, but not by the general public, security grilles are permitted to be in the closed position, provided they are openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Section 1009 Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.1 Stairway Width

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.2 Headroom

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.3 Walkline

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4 Stair Treads and Risers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4.1 Dimension Reference Surfaces

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4.2 Riser Height and Tread Depth

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4.3 Winder Treads

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4.4 Dimensional Uniformity

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.4.5 Profile

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.5 Stairway Landings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.6 Stairway Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.6.1 Stairway Walking Surface

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.6.2 Outdoor Conditions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.6.3 Enclosures Under Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.7 Vertical Rise

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.8 Curved Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.9 Spiral Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.10 Alternating Tread Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.10.1 Handrails of Alternating Tread Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.10.2 Treads of Alternating Tread Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.11 Ship Ladders

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.12 Handrails

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.13 Stairway to Roof

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.13.1 Roof Access

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.13.2 Protection at Roof Hatch Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.14 Stairway to Elevator Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1009 Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1009.1 Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stairways in the means of egress in existing buildings shall be in accordance with Section 1009. Exit stairways shall also be in accordance with this section and Section 1014. Stairways and landings shall be maintained in good condition and shall have no obstructions, including storage.

1009.1.1 Storage Under Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
There shall be no storage under stairways unless the area is enclosed with construction having at least a one hour fire resistance rating.

1009.2 Dimensions for Existing Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing stairways in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not exceed 8 1/4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt.

Exception: Other stairways approved by the fire code official.

1009.2.1 Dimensions for Replacement Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not be required to comply with new stairway requirements of the Philadelphia Building Code where the existing space and construction will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.

1009.3 Winders

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing winders shall be allowed to remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge.

1009.4 Circular Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing circular stairs shall be allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the width of the stairway.

1009.5 Stairway Handrails

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stairways shall have handrails on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail.

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are not required to have additional handrails.

1009.5.1 Height

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosing, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm).

Section 1010 Ramps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
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1010.2 Slope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.3 Cross Slope

AMENDMENT
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1010.4 Vertical Rise

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.5 Minimum Dimensions

AMENDMENT
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1010.5.1 Width

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.5.2 Headroom

AMENDMENT
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1010.5.3 Restrictions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6 Landings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6.1 Slope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6.2 Width

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6.3 Length

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6.4 Change in Direction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.6.5 Doorways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.7 Ramp Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.7.1 Ramp Surface

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.7.2 Outdoor Conditions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.8 Handrails

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.9 Edge Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.9.1 Curb, Rail, Wall or Barrier

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.9.2 Extended Floor or Ground Surface

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.10 Guards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 1010 Ramps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1010.1 Ramps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Ramps inside or outside of existing buildings shall be in accordance with Section 1010 and maintained in good operating condition.

1010.1.1 Slope of Ramps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Ramp runs utilized as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).

1010.1.2 Width of Ramps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Ramps are permitted to have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm), but not less than the width required for the number of occupants served by the area.

Section 1011 Exit Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.2 Illumination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.3 Tactile Exit Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.4 Internally Illuminated Exit Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.5 Externally Illuminated Exit Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.5.1 Graphics

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.5.2 Exit Sign Illumination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.5.3 Power Source

AMENDMENT
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Section 1011 Fire Escapes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

1011.1 Fire Escapes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escapes and fire escape balconies shall comply with this section.

1011.1.1 Definitions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The following definitions shall apply to this Section F-1011:

FIRE ESCAPE. A system of metal landings, balconies, stairs or ladders attached to a building that are not classified as an exterior stairway and are intended or designed to aid in egress from a building in an emergency.

FIRE ESCAPE BALCONY. A balcony that projects from the building face and is intended for use in conjunction with a fire escape, an exit stair or an area of refuge.

FIRE ESCAPE INSPECTION BUSINESS. A business entity that uses a Professional to perform inspections of fire escapes and fire escape balconies.

PROFESSIONAL. A professional engineer, licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and experienced in the practice of structural engineering.

SAFE. A condition of a fire escape or a fire escape balcony that is neither an Unsafe condition nor Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.

SAFE WITH A REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM. A condition of a fire escape or a fire escape balcony that is not determined to be Unsafe, at the time of inspection, but that requires maintenance or repair within a time period designated by a Professional in order to prevent further deterioration into an unsafe condition.

UNSAFE. A condition of any part of a fire escape or fire escape balcony that is dangerous to persons or property and requires prompt remedial action.

1011.1.2 Materials and Strength

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Components of fire escapes shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Fire escapes and balconies shall support the dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square foot (4.78 kN/m2). Fire escapes and balconies shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side.

1011.1.3 Access

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Access to a fire escape from a corridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire escape stair shall be from a door or window. Windows shall have a minimum clear height of at least 24 inches and a minimum clear width of 20 inches. If the bottom of the window or door is not within 12 inches of the floor level, steps shall be provided to access the door or window. Access to a fire escape stair shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill.

1011.1.4 Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire escapes shall be kept clear and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in good working order. Broken or missing parts shall be replaced.

1011.1.5 Inspection Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of a building with a fire escape or fire escape balcony shall be responsible for retaining a Professional to conduct periodic inspections of the fire escape or fire escape balcony for structural adequacy and safety and to file a report on such inspection as required by this Section.

1011.1.6 Initial Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The initial inspection required by this Section shall be conducted, and the required report shall be filed, on or before July 1, 2017. If the construction of the fire escape or fire escape balcony was completed after July 1, 2007, the first inspection shall be conducted within ten years after construction of the fire escape was completed.

1011.1.7 Extensions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where fire escapes and fire escape balconies have undergone a restoration within one year prior to July 1, 2017, the owner may apply to the fire code official for an extension of the required initial inspection. With the application for extension, the owner shall submit such other information determined by the fire code official to be necessary to evaluate the extension request. The fire code official shall grant an extension if he or she determines that the restoration obviates the need for the initial inspection until a date established by the fire code official.

1011.1.8 Subsequent Inspections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Following the initial inspection, and every inspection thereafter, a fire escape and fire escape balcony shall be re-inspected, and the required report shall be filed within five years of the filing of the report concerning the previous inspection.

1011.1.9 Timing of Report in Relation to Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All reports shall be filed within three months of the inspection that is the subject of the report.

1011.1.10 Inspection Procedures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. Before conducting an inspection, the Professional shall review previous reports, inspections, and evidence of repairs made in the five (5) year period prior to the inspection, including confirmation that all areas previously determined to require repair (as noted in any previous report) have been addressed.
  2. The inspection shall be conducted by or under the supervision of the Professional.
  3. The Professional shall employ the appropriate Professional standard of care in order to detect structural defects, rust, corrosion or any other condition affecting the structural integrity of the fire escape and fire escape balconies. If a distressed condition is identified, the Professional shall order any other inspections or tests that may be required to determine the significance and cause of the distress as well as measures appropriate to remediate the distress.
  4. During the course of the inspection, photographs shall be taken or sketches made of the fire escape and fire escape balconies, including documentation of the location of all conditions that are Unsafe or Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program.
  5. To be considered Safe or Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program, the fire escape and fire escape balconies shall be capable of meeting or exceeding the load requirements of Section F-1011.1.2. This load requirement can be met by either an engineering analysis by the Professional or by conducting a load test. Any load test shall be witnessed by the Professional.
  6. Upon discovery of any Unsafe condition, the Professional shall immediately notify the owner of the building by electronic mail or fax and shall within twelve (12) hours of such discovery, notify the fire code official, in writing, and in an electronic format determined by the fire code official.
  7. Once the Professional has determined that the condition is safe, the Professional shall post, upon the fire escape, a tag or placard (made of weather-resistant reflective material) that clearly and legibly states the date of the inspection and the date by which a new inspection is required (5 years after the date of inspection), and the name, address and telephone number of the Professional or fire escape inspection business on the tag or placard.

1011.1.11 Report Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. The Professional who performs the inspection shall submit a written report to the owner of the building. The Professional shall also submit a summary of the written report to the fire code official in a form determined by the fire code official. The fire code official may by regulation impose a fee to cover the reasonable costs of processing that must be paid upon the submission of the summary of the written report. If the report identifies an unsafe condition, then within twenty-four (24) hours of the completion of the report, the Professional shall file the full report with the fire code official, in writing and in an electronic format to be determined by the fire code official. The owner or owner's agent shall retain all written reports submitted pursuant to this Section and keep them readily available for inspection by the fire code official.
  2. The report shall include, on the front page, the name and license number of the Professional and the date of the report, and shall include the following information:
    1. The address of the building.
    2. The name, mailing address and telephone number of the owner of the building, or where applicable, the owner's agent or person in charge, possession or control of the building.
    3. A description of the building, including the number of stories and height.
    4. The date of the start and completion of the inspection and a detailed description of the procedures used in making the inspection.
    5. A report of all conditions, including, but not limited to, significant deterioration, and movement, and mechanical operations. The report shall classify each such condition as Safe, Unsafe, or Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.
    6. The probable causes of the reported conditions.
    7. The status of ongoing maintenance efforts.
    8. For any conditions listed in any previously filed report, whether such conditions have been repaired or maintained as recommended in that report.
    9. Recommendations for repairs or maintenance, if appropriate, including the recommended time frame for the repairs or maintenance to be performed.
    10. The classification of the fire escape and fire escape balconies overall according to the following scheme:
      1. "Unsafe," if there is at least one unsafe condition.
      2. "Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program," if there is a condition that is "Safe with Repair and Maintenance Program" and there are no Unsafe conditions.
      3. "Safe," in all cases other than a or b.
    11. Photographs or sketches documenting the locations of any conditions that are either Unsafe or Safe with a Repair and Maintenance Program.
    12. A statement by the Professional indicating which repairs or maintenance require work permits prior to their commencement.
    13. A statement signed by the owner or agent of the building, acknowledging receipt of a copy of the report and acknowledging any required repairs or maintenance and the recommended time frame for performing such repairs or maintenance.
    14. The Professional's certification that, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, the physical inspection was performed in accordance with applicable rules and regulations, including the provisions of this Section, and within the appropriate professional standard of care.
    15. The Professional's seal and signature in accordance with the professional registration laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
    16. Such other matters as the code official may require by regulation.
  3. The Professional may submit an amended report. The amended report shall clearly identify any change from the initial report and all reasons for such changes.

1011.1.12 Unsafe Conditions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
  1. Within twenty-four (24) hours of being notified of an Unsafe condition by a Professional, the owner of the building shall take any and all actions necessary to protect public safety including, but not limited to, posting notice of the unsafe condition in a prominent location inside the building near every exit to an exterior fire escape. If the fire escape or fire escape balcony encroaches upon a public right-of-way, such notice shall be posted in a prominent location visible from the right-of-way and the right-of-way shall be protected by installation of a sidewalk shed or other approved means. Such actions shall be considered part of an effort to remedy an emergency situation, and applications for any required permit shall be filed with the Department of Licenses and Inspections within three (3) days of notification.
  2. Within ten (10) days of the receipt of a report identifying an unsafe condition, the owner of a building shall commence work to correct the condition, and work shall continue without interruption until the unsafe condition has been corrected. Within two (2) weeks after the unsafe condition has been corrected, the Professional shall re-inspect the fire escape and fire escape balconies and file with the fire code official a detailed amended report concerning their condition.
  3. When a fire escape or fire escape balcony is determined to be unsafe and such condition is considered imminently dangerous by the Professional, the Professional shall notify the fire code official immediately. Signage shall be posted by the owner at each entry point to the fire escape or fire escape balcony and at the lowest balcony. Where required, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided until the fire escape has been made safe and approved for use.

1011.1.13 Conditions That Are Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of a building is responsible for ensuring that the conditions described in the report as Safe With a Repair and Maintenance Program are repaired and the actions identified by the Professional are completed within the time frame designated in the report, or by such time necessary to prevent a condition from becoming an unsafe condition, whichever is sooner.

Section 1012 Handrails

AMENDMENT
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1012.1 Where Required

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1012.2 Height

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1012.3 Handrail Graspability

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1012.3.1 Type I

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1012.3.2 Type II

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1012.4 Continuity

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1012.5 Fittings

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1012.6 Handrail Extensions

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1012.7 Clearance

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1012.8 Projections

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1012.9 Intermediate Handrails

AMENDMENT
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Section 1012 Vertical Openings

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1012.1 Vertical Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Interior vertical shafts, including but not limited to stairways, hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect 2 or more stories of a building, shall be enclosed or protected as specified in this section. (Note: The requirements of Section F-1012.1 are duplicated in Section F-704.1 as Chapter 7 also relates to vertical enclosures.)

1012.1.1 Group I Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting 2 or more stories shall be protected with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

1012.1.2 Three Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting 3 stories shall either be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building.

Exceptions:
  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.
  3. Vertical opening protection is not required for escalators provided they are in accordance with Section F-1012.1.5, F-1012.1.6 or F-1012.1.7.

1012.1.3 More Than Three Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting more than 3 stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Exceptions:
  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.
  3. Vertical opening protection is not required for escalators provided they are in accordance with Section F-1012.1.5, F-1012.1.6 or F-1012.1.7.

1012.1.4 Atriums and Covered Malls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings in a covered mall building or a building with an atrium shall either be protected by one hour fire-resistance-rated construction, or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building.

Exceptions:
  1. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies.
  2. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps.

1012.1.5 Escalators in Group B and M Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Escalators creating vertical openings connecting any number of stories in Group B and M occupancies shall be protected by either one hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout the building, a draft curtain at least 18 inches (457 mm) in depth and closely spaced sprinklers installed around the perimeter of the escalator opening.

1012.1.6 Escalators Connecting Four or Fewer Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting 4 or fewer stories shall be protected by either one hour fire-resistance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout the building, a draft curtain at least 18 inches (457 mm) in depth and closely spaced sprinklers installed around the perimeter of the escalator opening.

1012.1.7 Escalators Connecting More Than Four Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creating vertical openings connecting 5 or more stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Section 1013 Guards

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1013.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
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1013.1.1 Glazing

AMENDMENT
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1013.2 Height

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1013.3 Opening Limitations

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1013.4 Screen Porches

AMENDMENT
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1013.5 Mechanical Equipment

AMENDMENT
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1013.6 Roof Access

AMENDMENT
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Section 1013 Guards

AMENDMENT
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1013.1 Guards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Guards complying with this section shall be provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.

1013.1.1 Height of Guards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high.

Exceptions:
  1. Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high.
  2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not less than 36 inches (910 mm) high.
  3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas.

1013.1.2 Opening Limitations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diameter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm).
  1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
  2. In occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, the clear distance between intermediate rails measured at right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches (533 mm).
  3. Approved existing open guards.

Section 1014 Exit Access

AMENDMENT
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1014.1 General

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1014.2 Egress Through Intervening Spaces

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1014.2.1 Multiple Tenants

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1014.2.2 Group I-2

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1014.2.3 Suites in Patient Sleeping Areas

AMENDMENT
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1014.2.3.1 Area

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1014.2.3.2 Exit Access

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1014.2.3.3 Travel Distance

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1014.2.4 Suites in Areas Other Than Patient Sleeping Areas

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1014.2.4.1 Area

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1014.2.4.2 Exit Access

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1014.2.4.3 One Intervening Room

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1014.2.4.4 Two Intervening Rooms

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1014.2.5 Exit Access Through Suites

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1014.2.6 Travel Distance

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1014.2.7 Separation

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1014.3 Common Path of Egress Travel

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Section 1014 Exits and Exit Enclosures

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1014.1 Exits and Exit Enclosures

AMENDMENT
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Exits and exit stairway enclosures in existing buildings shall be in accordance with Section 1014. All portions of an exit shall remain clear and unobstructed. Penetrations in exit enclosures shall be sealed in accordance with Section F-704.1.8.

1014.2 Buildings With One Exit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a building with one exit was constructed in conformance with the building code in effect at the time the building was constructed, the single exit is acceptable provided it is in accordance with one of the following conditions:
  1. A nonresidential building not exceeding 6 stories above grade.
  2. A residential building, other than Group R-3, not exceeding 3 stories above grade.
  3. A Group R-3 building of any height.
  4. A building equipped with a fire suppression system and fire alarm system throughout the building with smoke detectors in all corridors, lobbies and other common areas.
  5. A building equipped with an automatic fire alarm system with smoke detectors installed throughout the building (smoke alarms in dwelling units) and the single exit is a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway installed in accordance with Section 1022.9 of the Philadelphia Building Code.
  6. Buildings in compliance with the Philadelphia Building Code.

1014.3 Floor Identification Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A floor identification sign shall be provided in existing buildings at each floor landing in exit enclosures connecting more than 3 stories designating the floor level and the identification of the stair or ramp. The signage shall also state the story of, and the direction to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof access from the enclosure for possible use by the fire department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions.

1014.3.1 Signage Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Stairway identification signs shall comply with all of the following requirements:
  1. The letters designating the identification of the stair enclosure shall be a minimum of 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) in height.
  2. The number designating the floor level shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in the center of the sign.
  3. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum of one inch (25 mm) in height.
  4. Characters shall contrast with their background, with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.
  5. Where access to the roof from the exit stair enclosure is not direct, but is available through a room or corridor accessed from the exit stair enclosure, the sign shall include the words "Indirect Roof Access." A properly oriented floor diagram shall be provided at the exit stair landing at the floor level that provides the indirect roof access. The floor diagram shall indicate the route to the door, stair or ladder that leads to the roof and be located at approximately eye level near the stair floor landing sign.

1014.4 Egress Path Markings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Existing buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M and R-1 having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with luminous egress path markings in accordance with Section 1024 of the Philadelphia Building Code.

Exception: Buildings existing, or where plans for the construction of the building were approved, prior to February 17, 2010, are exempt from the requirements for luminous egress path markings provided the building has a sprinkler system installed throughout and the exit egress lighting is connected to a primary power supply and an emergency generator or other secondary power supply.

1014.5 Exit Discharge Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An exit stairway enclosure shall not continue below its level of exit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below.

1014.6 High-Rise Building Exit Stairways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exit stairway enclosures in existing high-rise buildings shall be smokeproof (having an interior or exterior ventilated vestibule) or have stairway pressurization in accordance with Section 1022.9 of the Philadelphia Building Code. The enclosures and related equipment shall be maintained in an operable condition.

Section 1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways

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1015.1 Exits or Exit Access Doorways From Spaces

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1015.1.1 Three or More Exits or Exit Access Doorways

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1015.2 Exit or Exit Access Doorway Arrangement

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1015.2.1 Two Exits or Exit Access Doorways

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1015.2.2 Three or More Exits or Exit Access Doorways

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1015.3 Boiler, Incinerator and Furnace Rooms

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1015.4 Refrigeration Machinery Rooms

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1015.5 Refrigerated Rooms or Spaces

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1015.6 Stage Means of Egress

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1015.6.1 Gallery, Gridiron and Catwalk Means of Egress

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Section 1015 Areas of Refuge

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1015.1 Areas of Refuge

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Areas of refuge required by the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Building Code, including all equipment required in the room or space, shall be maintained.

1015.2 Communications in Areas of Refuge

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Areas of refuge shall have a means to communicate to a constantly attended location or a telephone to call 911.

1015.2.1 All Two-Way Communication Systems for Areas of Refuge

AMENDMENT
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All two-way communication systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested on an annual basis to verify that all components are operational. A record of all tests shall be maintained on the premises and available for inspection by the fire code official.

1015.3 Identification of Area of Refuge Rooms

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Doors to areas of refuge shall be posted with a sign stating "Areas of Refuge" to identify the room or space.

Section 1016 Exit Access Travel Distance

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1016.1 Travel Distance Limitations

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1016.2 Exterior Egress Balcony Increase

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Section 1016 Maintenance of Means of Egress

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1016.1 Maintenance of Means of Egress

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All portions of means of egress shall be continuously maintained free from obstructions or impediments, including snow and ice, to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency when the areas served by such exits are occupied. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be subject to approval of the fire code official.

1016.2 Maintenance of Exit Signs and Egress Lighting

AMENDMENT
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All exit signs and egress lighting and the primary and secondary power supplies for exit signs and egress lighting shall be maintained and in proper operating condition.

1016.3 Obscuring or Obstructing Exit Doors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exits and exit doors shall not be obscured from visibility or obstructed by furnishing, decorations or other objects. Hangings or draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or otherwise located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to exits in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit travel.

1016.4 Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Emergency escape and rescue openings required by the current or a previous edition of the Philadelphia Fire Code or Philadelphia Building Code shall be maintained. They shall be operational from inside the room without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with the code in effect at the time of construction, and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening.

Section 1017 Aisles

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1017.1 General

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1017.2 Aisles in Groups B and M

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1017.3 Aisle Accessways in Group M

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1017.4 Seating at Tables

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1017.4.1 Aisle Accessway for Tables and Seating

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1017.4.2 Table and Seating Accessway Width

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1017.4.3 Table and Seating Aisle Accessway Length

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Section 1018 Corridors

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1018.1 Construction

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1018.2 Corridor Width

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1018.3 Corridor Obstruction

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1018.4 Dead Ends

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1018.5 Air Movement in Corridors

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1018.5.1 Corridor Ceiling

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1018.6 Corridor Continuity

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Section 1019 Egress Balconies

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1019.1 General

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1019.2 Wall Separation

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1019.3 Openness

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Section 1020 Exits

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1020.1 General

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1020.2 Exterior Exit Doors

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1020.2.1 Detailed Requirements

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1020.2.2 Arrangement

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Section 1021 Number of Exits and Continuity

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1021.1 Exits From Stories

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1021.1.1 Exits Maintained

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1021.1.2 Parking Structures

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1021.1.3 Helistops

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1021.2 Single Exits

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1021.3 Exit Continuity

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1021.4 Exit Door Arrangement

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Section 1022 Exit Enclosures

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1022.1 Enclosures Required

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1022.2 Termination

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1022.2.1 Extension

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1022.3 Openings and Penetrations

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1022.4 Penetrations

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1022.5 Ventilation

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1022.6 Exit Enclosure Exterior Walls

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1022.7 Discharge Identification

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1022.8 Floor Identification Signs

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1022.8.1 Signage Requirements

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1022.9 Smokeproof Enclosures and Pressurized Stairways

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1022.9.1 Termination and Extension

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1022.9.2 Enclosure Access

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Section 1023 Exit Passageways

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1023.1 Exit Passageway

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1023.2 Width

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1023.3 Construction

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1023.4 Termination

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1023.5 Openings and Penetrations

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1023.6 Penetrations

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Section 1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings

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1024.1 General

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1024.2 Markings Within Exit Enclosures

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1024.2.1 Steps

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1024.2.2 Landings

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1024.2.3 Handrails

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1024.2.4 Perimeter Demarcation Lines

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1024.2.4.1 Floor-Mounted Demarcation Lines

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1024.2.4.2 Wall-Mounted Demarcation Lines

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1024.2.4.3 Transition

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1024.2.5 Obstacles

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1024.2.6 Doors From Exit Enclosures

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1024.2.6.1 Emergency Exit Symbol

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1024.2.6.2 Door Hardware Markings

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1024.2.6.3 Door Frame Markings

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1024.3 Uniformity

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1024.4 Self-Luminous and Photoluminescent

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1024.5 Illumination

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Section 1025 Horizontal Exits

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1025.1 Horizontal Exits

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1025.2 Separation

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1025.3 Opening Protectives

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1025.4 Capacity of Refuge Area

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Section 1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways

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1026.1 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways

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1026.2 Use in a Means of Egress

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1026.3 Open Side

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1026.4 Side Yards

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1026.5 Location

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1026.6 Exterior Ramps and Stairway Protection

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Section 1027 Exit Discharge

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1027.1 General

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1027.2 Exit Discharge Capacity

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1027.3 Exit Discharge Location

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1027.4 Exit Discharge Components

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1027.5 Egress Courts

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1027.5.1 Width

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1027.5.2 Construction and Openings

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1027.6 Access to a Public Way

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Section 1028 Assembly

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1028.1 General

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1028.1.1 Bleachers

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1028.2 Assembly Main Exit

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1028.3 Assembly Other Exits

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1028.4 Foyers and Lobbies

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1028.5 Interior Balcony and Gallery Means of Egress

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1028.5.1 Enclosure of Openings

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1028.6 Width of Means of Egress for Assembly

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1028.6.1 Without Smoke Protection

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1028.6.2 Smoke-Protected Seating

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1028.6.2.1 Smoke Control

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1028.6.2.2 Roof Height

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1028.6.2.3 Automatic Sprinklers

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1028.6.3 Width of Means of Egress for Outdoor Smoke-Protected Assembly

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1028.7 Travel Distance

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1028.8 Common Path of Egress Travel

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1028.8.1 Path Through Adjacent Row

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1028.9 Assembly Aisles Are Required

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1028.9.1 Minimum Aisle Width

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1028.9.2 Aisle Width

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1028.9.3 Converging Aisles

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1028.9.4 Uniform Width

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1028.9.5 Assembly Aisle Termination

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1028.9.6 Assembly Aisle Obstructions

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1028.10 Clear Width of Aisle Accessways Serving Seating

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1028.10.1 Dual Access

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1028.10.2 Single Access

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1028.11 Assembly Aisle Walking Surfaces

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1028.11.1 Treads

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1028.11.2 Risers

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1028.11.3 Tread Contrasting Marking Stripe

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1028.12 Seat Stability

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1028.13 Handrails

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1028.13.1 Discontinuous Handrails

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1028.13.2 Intermediate Handrails

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1028.14 Assembly Guards

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1028.14.1 Cross Aisles

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1028.14.2 Sightline-Constrained Guard Heights

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1028.14.3 Guards at the End of Aisles

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1028.15 Bench Seating

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Section 1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue

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1029.1 General

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1029.2 Minimum Size

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1029.2.1 Minimum Dimensions

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1029.3 Maximum Height From Floor

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1029.4 Operational Constraints

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1029.5 Window Wells

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1029.5.1 Minimum Size

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1029.5.2 Ladders or Steps

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Section 1030 Maintenance of the Means of Egress

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1030.1 General

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1030.2 Reliability

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1030.3 Obstructions

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1030.4 Exit Signs

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1030.5 Nonexit Identification

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1030.6 Furnishings and Decorations

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1030.7 Emergency Escape Openings

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1030.8 Testing and Maintenance

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