About this chapter: Chapter 28 provides requirements that are intended to prevent fires and explosions, facilitate fire control and reduce exposures to and from facilities storing, selling or processing wood and forest products, including sawdust, wood chips, shavings, bark mulch, shorts, finished planks, sheets, posts, poles, timber and raw logs and the hazard they represent once ignited. Also included are solid biomass feedstock and raw products associated with agro-industrial facilities and the outdoor storage of pallets at pallet manufacturing and recycling facilities. This chapter requires active and passive fire protection features to reduce on- and off-site exposures, limit fire size and development and facilitate fire fighting by employees and the fire service.
Equipment or machinery located inside buildings that generates or emits combustible dust shall be provided with an approved dust collection and exhaust system installed in accordance with Chapter 22 and the International Mechanical Code. Equipment or systems that are used to collect, process or convey combustible dusts shall be provided with an approved explosion control system.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with NFPA 70.
Static electricity shall be prevented from accumulating on machines and equipment subject to static electricity buildup by permanent grounding and bonding wires or other approved means.
A manual fire alarm system complying with Section 907.2 shall be installed in areas of timber and lumber production mills and for plywood and veneer mills that contain product dryers.
Portable fire extinguishers or standpipes and hose supplied from an approved water system shall be provided within a 50-foot (15 240 mm) distance of travel from any machine producing shavings or sawdust. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906 for extra-high hazards.
Dryers shall be protected throughout by an approved, automatic deluge water-spray suppression system complying with Chapter 9. Deluge heads shall be inspected quarterly for pitch buildup. Deluge heads shall be flushed during regular maintenance for functional operation. Manual activation valves shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the drying equipment.
Cold decks shall not exceed 500 feet (152.4 m) in length, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. Cold decks shall be separated from adjacent cold decks or other exposures by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Exception: The size of cold decks shall be determined by the fire code official where the decks are protected by special fire protection including, but not limited to, additional fire flow, portable turrets and deluge sets, and hydrant hose houses equipped with approved fire-fighting equipment capable of reaching the entire storage area in accordance with Chapter 9.
Piles shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 500 feet (152 m) in length. Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles or other exposures by approved fire apparatus access roads.
Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in width and 250 feet (76 200 mm) in length.
Exception: The fire code official is authorized to allow the pile size to be increased where a fire protection plan is provided for approval that includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Storage yard areas and materials-handling equipment selection, design and arrangement shall be based on sound fire prevention and protection principles.
- Factors that lead to spontaneous heating shall be identified in the plan, and control of the various factors shall be identified and implemented, including provisions for monitoring the internal condition of the pile.
- The plan shall include means for early fire detection and reporting to the public fire department; and facilities needed by the fire department for fire extinguishment including a water supply and fire hydrants.
- Fire apparatus access roads around the piles and access roads to the top of the piles shall be established, identified and maintained.
- Regular yard inspections by trained personnel shall be included as part of an effective fire prevention maintenance program.
Additional fire protection called for in the plan shall be provided and shall be installed in accordance with this code. The increase of the pile size shall be based on the capabilities of the installed fire protection systems and features.
Static piles shall be monitored by an approved means to measure temperatures within the static piles. Internal pile temperatures shall be monitored and recorded weekly. Such records shall be maintained. An operational plan indicating procedures and schedules for the inspection, monitoring and restricting of excessive internal temperatures in static piles shall be submitted to the fire code official for review and approval.
Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and with a minimum rating of 4-A:60-B:C shall be provided on all vehicles and equipment operating on piles and at all processing equipment.
Exterior storage shall be arranged to form stable piles with a maximum height of 20 feet (6096 mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3) in volume.
Permanent storage areas shall be surrounded with an approved fence. Fences shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
An approved hydrant and hose system or portable fire-extinguishing equipment suitable for the fire hazard involved shall be provided for open storage yards. Hydrant and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24. Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be located so that the distance of travel from the nearest unit does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm).
Each site shall maintain a current site plan that includes a general description of the property, the boundaries of the lot, the size and location of buildings, and all of the following:
- Type of construction and presence of sprinkler protection for other buildings on the site.
- Water supply sources for fire-fighting purposes.
- Location of hazardous material storage areas.
- Location of pallet storage.
- Equipment protected with a dust collection system.
- Fire apparatus access roads.
- Designated smoking areas.
- Location of fire alarm control panels.
The owner or owner's authorized representative shall prepare an approved fire prevention plan that includes all of the following:
Stacks of pallets shall not be stored within 0.75 times the stack height or 8 feet (2438 mm) of the property line, whichever is greater, or shall comply with Section 2810.11.
Pallet stacks shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of any pallet stack.
Where approved by the fire code official, pallet stacks located closer to a property line or structure than as required by Sections 2810.6 and 2810.7 shall be provided with additional fire protection including, but not limited to, the following: