CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2009 (IFC 2009)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatingsmanufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials - General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Marinas

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids— Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, dispensing, use and handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this chapter.

This chapter shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that when specific requirements are provided in other chapters, those specific requirements shall apply in accordance with the applicable chapter. Where a material has multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed.

Exceptions:

1. The quantities of alcoholic beverages, medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics and consumer or industrial products containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, in retail or wholesale sales occupancies, are unlimited when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Application and release of pesticide and agricultural products and materials intended for use in weed abatement, erosion control, soil amendment or similar applications when applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and label directions.

3. The off-site transportation of hazardous materials when in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOTn) regulations.

4. Building materials not otherwise regulated by this code.

5. Refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

6. Stationary storage battery systems regulated by Section 608.

7. The display, storage, sale or use of fireworks and explosives in accordance with Chapter 33.

8. cryogenics utilized in personal and household products in the manufacturers’ original consumer packaging in Group M occupancies.

9. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

10. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids when in accordance with Section 3405.5.

The provisions of this chapter are waived when the fire code official determines that such enforcement is preempted by other codes, statutes or ordinances. The details of any action granting such a waiver shall be recorded and entered in the files of the code enforcement agency.
Hazardous materials are those chemicals or substances defined as such in this code. Definitions of hazardous materials shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code.
Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with hazards of the mixture as a whole. Mixtures of hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with nationally recognized reference standards; by an approved qualified organization, individual, or Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS); or by other approved methods.
Hazardous materials shall be classified according to hazard categories. The categories include materials regulated by this chapter and materials regulated elsewhere in this code.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as physical hazards. A material with a primary classification as a physical hazard can also pose a health hazard.

1. Explosives and blasting agents.

2. Combustible liquids.

3. Flammable solids, liquids and gases.

4. Organic peroxide solids or liquids.

5. Oxidizer, solids or liquids.

6. Oxidizing gases.

7. Pyrophoric solids, liquids or gases.

8. Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids or gases.

9. Water-reactive materials solids or liquids.

10. Cryogenic fluids.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as health hazards. A material with a primary classification as a health hazard can also pose a physical hazard.

1. Highly toxic and toxic materials.

2. Corrosive materials.

When approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 28 through 44.
The objective of Section 2701.3 is to protect people and property from the consequences of unauthorized discharge, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

Performance-based design alternatives are based on the following functional statements:

1. Provide safeguards to minimize the risk of unwanted releases, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

2. Provide safeguards to minimize the consequences of an unsafe condition involving hazardous materials during normal operations and in the event of an abnormal condition.

When safeguards, systems, documentation, written plans or procedures, audits, process hazards analysis, mitigation measures, engineering controls or construction features are required by Sections 2701.3.3.1 through 2701.3.3.18, the details of the design alternative shall be subject to approval by the fire code official. The details of actions granting the use of the design alternatives shall be recorded and entered in the files of the jurisdiction.
The physical- and health-hazard properties of hazardous materials on site shall be known and shall be made readily available to employees, neighbors and the fire code official.
Equipment and operations involving hazardous materials shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure that they reliably operate as intended.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of an unintentional reaction or release that could endanger people or property.
Spill containment systems or means to render a spill harmless to people or property shall be provided where a spill is determined to be a plausible event and where such an event would endanger people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing hazardous materials to a fire or physical damage whereby such exposure could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of and limit damage from a fire or explosion involving explosive hazardous materials whereby such fire or explosion could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Where a release of hazardous materials gas or vapor would cause immediate harm to persons or property, means of mitigating the dangerous effects of a release shall be provided.
Where a power supply is relied upon to prevent or control an emergency condition that could endanger people or property, the power supply shall be from a reliable source.
Where ventilation is necessary to limit the risk of creating an emergency condition resulting from normal or abnormal operations, means of ventilation shall be provided.
Process hazard analyses shall be conducted to ensure reasonably the protection of people and property from dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials.
Written documentation of pre-startup safety review procedures shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are initiated in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written documentation of operating procedures and procedures for emergency shut down shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written plan for management of change shall be developed and enforced. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written emergency plan shall be developed to ensure that proper actions are taken in the event of an emergency, and the plan shall be followed if an emergency condition occurs. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written procedures for investigation and documentation of accidents shall be developed, and accidents shall be investigated and documented in accordance with these procedures.
Where an accidental release of hazardous materials could endanger people or property, either on or off-site, an analysis of the expected consequences of a plausible release shall be performed and utilized in the analysis and selection of active and passive hazard mitigation controls.
Safety audits shall be conducted on a periodic basis to verify compliance with the requirements of this section.
For retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 2703.11.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

When required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to permanently close a storage, use or handling facility. Such application shall be submitted at least 30 days prior to the termination of the storage, use or handling of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to require that the application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 2701.6.3.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). The HMMP shall include a facility site plan designating the following:

1. Access to each storage and use area.

2. Location of emergency equipment.

3. Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.

4. Facility evacuation meeting point locations.

5. The general purpose of other areas within the building.

6. Location of all above-ground and underground tanks and their appurtenances including, but not limited to, sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems and piping.

7. The hazard classes in each area.

8. Locations of all control areas and Group H occupancies.

9. Emergency exits.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include an HMIS, such as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III, Tier II Report or other approved statement. The HMIS shall include the following information:

1. Product name.

2. Component.

3. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.

4. Location where stored or used.

5. Container size.

6. Hazard classification.

7. Amount in storage.

8. Amount in use-closed systems.

9. Amount in use-open systems.

Facilities shall be placed out of service in accordance with Sections 2701.6.1 through 2701.6.3.
Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected.
Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or is not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner. When required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to close permanently storage, use or handling facilities. The fire code official is authorized to require that such application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 2701.6.3.
When a facility closure plan is required in accordance with Section 2701.5 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials, it shall be submitted to the fire code official at least 30 days prior to facility closure. The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials which are stored, dispensed, handled or used in the facility will be transported, disposed of or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, Chapters 28 through 44 and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value—Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.

CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both.

CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation.

CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid or other device such that liquid, vapor or dusts will not escape from it under ordinary conditions of use or handling.

CONTAINER. A vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks are not considered to be containers.

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of “Outdoor control area.”

CYLINDER. A pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 40 psia (275.6 kPa) and having a circular cross section. It does not include a portable tank, multi-unit tank car tank, cargo tank or tank car.

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33.

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use expected.

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other approved means designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in pressurized piping systems.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:

1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.

GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances which are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classified in this chapter, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the fire code official shall make such determination.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner which generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.

LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point which is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 psia (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See “Lower flammable limit.”

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). Information concerning a hazardous material which is prepared in accordance with the provisions of DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 or in accordance with the provisions of a federally approved state OSHA plan.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a building or an outdoor control area. The maximum allowable quantity per control area is based on the material state (solid, liquid or gas) and the material storage or use conditions.

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that contains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities of Table 2703.1.1(3) or 2703.1.1(4).

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum permitted 8-hour time-weighted-average concentration of an air-borne contaminant. The exposure limits to be utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.

PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating pests and substances or a mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. Products defined as drugs in the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act are not pesticides.

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid).

PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at pressures above 15 psig (103 kPa).

SAFETY CAN. An approved container of not more than 5-gallon (19 L) capacity having a spring-closing lid and spout cover so designed that it will relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. That level of containment that is external to and separate from primary containment.

SEGREGATED. Storage in the same room or inside area, but physically separated by distance from incompatible materials.

SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.

SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment consisting of a tank, container or containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors and connecting piping.

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 1.0 pound per square inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the top of the tank.

TANK, PORTABLE. A packaging of more than 60-gallon (227 L) capacity and designed primarily to be loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or ship and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any cylinder having less than a 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity, cargo tank, tank car tank or trailers carrying cylinders of more than 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity.

TANK, STATIONARY. Packaging designed primarily for stationary installations not intended for loading, unloading or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its normal operation in the process of use. It does not include cylinders having less than a 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity.

TANK VEHICLE. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or boat, with a cargo tank mounted thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids, LP-gas or hazardous chemicals. Tank vehicles include self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and semitrailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load.

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. A release or emission of materials in a manner which does not conform to the provisions of this code or applicable public health and safety regulations.

USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.

VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323.

The storage, use and handling of all hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this section.

The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be as specified in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4).

For retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M occupancies and Group S storage, see Section 2703.11.

TABLE 2703.1.1(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL

CLASS

GROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDED

STORAGEb

USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb

USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Combustible
liquidc, i

II
IIIA
IIIB

H-2 or H-3
H-2 or H-3
Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

120d, e
330d, e
13,200e, f

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

120d
330d
13,200f

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

30d
80d
3,300f

Combustible fiber

Loose

Baledo

H-3

(100)

(1,000)

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

(100)

(1,000)

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

(20)

(200)

Not
Applicable

Cryogenic

Flammable

Not
Applicable

H-2

Not
Applicable

45d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

45d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

10d

Consumer fireworks (Class C Common)

1.4G

H-3

125d, e, l

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Cryogenic

Oxidizing

Not
Applicable

H-3

Not
Applicable

45d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

45d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

10d

Explosives

Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4G
Division 1.5
Division 1.6

H-1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3

H-3
H-1
H-1

1e, g
1e, g
5e, g
50e, g
125d, e, l
1e, g
1d, e, g

(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)e, g
(50)e, g
Not Applicable
(1)e, g
Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

0.25g
0.25g
1g
50g
Not Applicable
0.25g
Not Applicable

(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
(50)g
Not Applicable
(0.25)g
Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

0.25g
0.25g
1g
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
0.25g
Not Applicable

(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
(0.25)g
Not Applicable

Flammable gas

Gaseous

Liquefied

H-2

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(150)d, e

1,000d, e

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(150)d, e

1,000d, e

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Flammable liquidc

IA

IB and IC

H-2

or

H-3

Not
Applicable

30d, e

120d, e

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

30d

120d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

10d

30d

Flammable liquid, combination

(IA, IB, IC)

Not
Applicable

H-2

or

H-3

Not
Applicable

120d, e, h

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

120d, h

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

30d, h

Flammable solid

Not
Applicable

H-3

125d, e

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

125d

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

25d

Not
Applicable

(continued)

TABLE 2703.1.1(1)—continued
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL

CLASS

GROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDED

STORAGEb

USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb

USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid
pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Inert Gas



Cryogenic Inert

Gaseous

Liquefied

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not
Limited
Not
Limited
Not
Limited

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not
Limited
Not
Limited
Not
Limited

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Organic peroxide

UD

I

II

III

IV

V

H-1

H-2

H-3

H-3

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

1e, g

5d, e

50d, e

125d, e

Not Limited

Not Limited

(1)e, g

(5)d, e

(50)d, e

(125)d, e

Not Limited

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

0.25g

1d

50d

125d

Not Limited

Not Limited

(0.25)g

(1)d

(50)d

(125)d

Not Limited

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

0.25g

1d

10d

25d

Not Limited

Not Limited

(0.25)g

(1)d

(10)d

(25)d

Not Limited

Not Limited

Oxidizer

4

3k

2

1

H-1

H-2 or H-3

H-3

Not Applicable

1g

10d, e

250d, e

4,000e,f

(1)e, g

(10)d, e

(250)d, e

(4,000)e,f

Not
Applicable

0.25g

2d

250d

4,000f

(0.25)g

(2)d

(250)d

(4,000)f

Not
Applicable

0.25g

2d

50d

1,000f

(0.25)g

(2)d

(50)d

(1,000)f

Oxidizing gas

Gaseous
Liquefied

H-3

Not Applicable

Not Applicable
(150)d, e

1,500d, e
Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable
(150)d, e

1,500d, e
Not Applicable

Pyrophoric

Not Applicable

H-2

4e, g

(4)e, g

50e, g

1g

(1)g

10e, g

0

0

Unstable (reactive)

4

3

2

1

H-1

H-1 or H-2

H-3

Not Applicable

1e, g

5d, e

50d, e

Not Limited

(1)e, g

(5)d, e

(50)d, e

Not Limited

10e, g

50d, e

250d, e

Not Limited

0.25g

1d

50d

Not Limited

(0.25)g

(1)d

(50)d

Not Limited

2e, g

10d, e

250d, e

Not Limited

0.25g

1d

10d

Not Limited

(0.25)g

(1)d

(10)d

Not Limited

Water reactive

3

2

1

H-2

H-3

Not Applicable

5d,e

50d, e

Not Limited

(5)d, e

(50)d, e

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

5d

50d

Not Limited

(5)d

(50)d

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

1d

10d

Not Limited

(1)d

(10)d

Not Limited

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. For use of control areas, see Section 2703.8.3.

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.

(continued)

TABLE 2703.1.1(1)—(continued)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures, or listed safety cans. Listed safety cans shall be in accordance with Section 2703.9.10. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

f. Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

g. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB or Class IC flammable liquids.

i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2.

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment when the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.

l. Net weight of pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks including packaging shall be used.

m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 2703.11, see Table 2703.11.1.

o. Densely-packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.

p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:

1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.

4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances, regulated by the International Mechanical Code.

TABLE 2703.1.1(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD
a, b, c, h

MATERIAL

STORAGEd

USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSd

USE-OPEN SYSTEMSd

Solid
pounds
e, f

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
e, f

Gas
cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
e

Solid
pounds
e

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)
e

Gas
cubic feet at NTP
(pounds)
e

Solid
pounds
e

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)e

Corrosives

5,000

500

Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)

5,000

500

Gaseous 810f
Liquefied (150)

1,000

100

Highly toxics

10

(10)

Gaseous 20
Liquefied (4)g

10

(10)

Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g

3

(3)

Toxics

500

(500)

Gaseous 810f
Liquefied (150)f

500

(500)

Gaseous 810f
Liquefied (150)f

125

(125)i

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. For use of control areas, see Section 2703.8.3.

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 2703.11, see Table 2703.11.1.

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

f. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

g. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

h. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

i. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.

TABLE 2703.1.1(3)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA
a, b, c, d

MATERIAL

CLASS

STORAGEb

USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb

USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb

Solid pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)d

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)d

Gas
cubic feet
at NTP

Solid pounds
(cubic feet)

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)d

Flammable gas

Gaseous

Liquefied

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(300)

3,000

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(150)

1,500

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Flammable solid

Not
Applicable

500

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

250

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

50

Not
Applicable

Inert Gas

Cryogenic inert

Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Limited

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable

Organic peroxide

Unclassified Detonable

1

(1)

Not
Applicable

0.25

(0.25)

Not
Applicable

0.25

(0.25)

Organic peroxide

I

II

III

IV

V

20

200

500

1,000

Not Limited

(20)

(200)

(500)

(1,000)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

10

100

250

500

Not Limited

(10)

(100)

(250)

(500)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

2

20

50

100

Not Limited

(2)

(20)

(50)

(100)

Not Limited

Oxidizer

4

3

2

1

2

40

1,000

Not Limited

(2)

(40)

(1,000)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

1

20

500

Not Limited

(1)

(20)

(500)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

0.25

4

100

Not Limited

(0.25)

(4)

(100)

Not Limited

Oxidizing gas

Gaseous

Liquefied

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(600)

6,000

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not Applicable
(300)

1,500

Not Applicable

Not
Applicable

Not
Applicable

Pyrophoric materials

Not
Applicable

8

(8)

100

4

(4)

10

0

0

Unstable (reactive)

4

3

2

1

2

20

200

Not Limited

(2)

(20)

(200)

Not Limited

20

200

1,000

1,500

1

10

100

Not Limited

(1)

(10)

(100)

Not Limited

2

10

250

Not Limited

0.25

1

10

Not Limited

(0.25)

1

10

Not Limited

Water reactive

3

2

1

20

200

Not Limited

(20)

(200)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

10

100

Not Limited

(10)

(100)

Not Limited

Not
Applicable

1

10

Not Limited

(1)

(10)

Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.

b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area when such storage is in accordance with Section 2703.11.

d. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

TABLE 2703.1.1(4)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA
a, b, c, f

MATERIAL

STORAGE

USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS

USE-OPEN SYSTEMS

Solid
pounds

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet at NTP
(gallons)

Solid
pounds

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Gas
cubic feet at NTP
(gallons)

Solid
pounds

Liquid
gallons
(pounds)

Corrosives

20,000

2,000

Gaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)

10,000

1,000

Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)

1,000

100

Highly toxics

20

(20)

Gaseous 40d
Liquefied (8)d

10

(10)

Gaseous 20d
Liquefied (4)d

3

(3)

Toxics

1,000

(1,000)e

Gaseous 1,620
Liquefied (300)

500

50e

Gaseous 810
Liquefied (150)

125

(125)e

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,EC = [(EF)-32/1.8].

a. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2.

b. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

c. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area when such storage is in accordance with Section 2703.11.

d. Allowed only when used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.

e. The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77°F shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic liquids.

f. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the fire code official, a conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.
The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
The storage and use of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with this chapter.
Systems, equipment and processes utilized for storage, dispensing, use or handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.2.1 through 2703.2.8.
Containers, cylinders and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, tanks and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. Pressure vessels shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Piping, tubing, valves and fittings conveying hazardous materials shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards and shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.2.2.1 and 2703.2.2.2.

Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:

1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components shall be designed and fabricated from materials that are compatible with the material to be contained and shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic stress and exposure to which they are subject.

2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1 to indicate the material conveyed.

3. Readily accessible manual valves or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on supply piping and tubing at the following locations:

3.1. The point of use.

3.2. The tank, cylinder or bulk source.

4. Manual emergency shutoff valves and controls for remotely activated emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.

5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided when the backflow of hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials.

6. Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of:

Health Class 3 or 4
Flammability Class 4
Instability Class 3 or 4

in accordance with NFPA 704 are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa), an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the storage room or area. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

Exceptions:

1. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.

2. Piping for pressure relief devices.

Supply piping and tubing for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following:

1. Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic or highly volatile corrosive liquids and gases shall have welded, threaded or flanged connections throughout except for connections located within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for connections if the material is a liquid.

2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a means of egress required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated construction or in concealed spaces in areas not classified as Group H occupancies.

Exception: Piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies when installed in accordance with Section 415.8.6.3 of the International Building Code for Group H-5 occupancies.

Equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.
Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.2.4.1 through 2703.2.4.2.1.
Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment. In lieu of providing secondary containment for an underground tank, an above-ground tank in an underground vault complying with Section 3404.2.8 shall be permitted.

Above-ground stationary tanks used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.

Exception: Above-ground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with Section 3003.16 or 3404.2.8 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage.

Above-ground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by Section 2703.5.
Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other regulating authority or maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2703.2.3, equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. Defective containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired or disposed of in an approved manner. Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. Required detection and alarm systems shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained.
Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner.
Defective containers and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired in accordance with approved standards or disposed of in an approved manner.
Atmospheric tanks having a capacity greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) and which contain hazardous material liquids shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic design category in which the machinery or equipment is classified.

The equipment, devices and systems listed in Section 2703.2.9.1 shall be tested at the time of installation and at one of the intervals listed in Section 2703.2.9.2. Written records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 107.2.1.

Exceptions:

1. Periodic testing shall not be required where approved written documentation is provided stating that testing will damage the equipment, device or system and the equipment, device or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer.

2. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that fail in a fail-safe manner.

3. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that self-diagnose and report trouble. Records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting shall be made available to the fire code official.

4. Periodic testing shall not be required if system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle.

5. Approved maintenance in accordance with Section 2703.2.6 that is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule shall be allowed to meet the testing requirements set forth in Sections 2703.2.9.1 and 2703.2.9.2.

The following equipment, systems and devices shall be tested in accordance with Sections 2703.2.9 and 2703.2.9.2.

1. Gas detection systems, alarms and automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 3704.2.2.10 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

2. Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature and pressure required by Sections 2703.2.7, 2704.8 and 2705.1.4.

3. Emergency alarm systems and supervision required by Sections 2704.9 and 2705.4.4.

4. Monitoring and supervisory systems required by Sections 2704.10 and 2705.1.6.

5. Manually activated shutdown controls required by Section 4103.1.1.1 for compressed gas systems conveying pyrophoric gases.

The equipment, systems and devices listed in Section 2703.2.9.1 shall be tested at one of the frequencies listed below:

1. Not less than annually;

2. In accordance with the approved manufacturers’ requirements;

3. In accordance with approved recognized industry standards; or

4. In accordance with an approved schedule.

Hazardous materials in any quantity shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the atmosphere.

Exceptions:

1. The release or emission of hazardous materials is allowed when in compliance with federal, state or local governmental agencies, regulations or permits.

2. The release of pesticides is allowed when used in accordance with registered label directions.

3. The release of fertilizer and soil amendments is allowed when used in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.

When hazardous materials are released in quantities reportable under state, federal or local regulations, the fire code official shall be notified and the following procedures required in accordance with Sections 2703.3.1.1 through 2703.3.1.4.
Accurate records shall be kept of the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials by the permittee.
Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
When an unauthorized discharge caused by primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service.
The person, firm or corporation responsible for an unauthorized discharge shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized discharge, whether sudden or gradual, at no cost to the jurisdiction. When deemed necessary by the fire code official, cleanup may be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne by the owner, operator or other person responsible for the unauthorized discharge.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. When a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

Exception: Designated hazardous waste.

Unless otherwise exempted by the fire code official, visible hazard identification signs as specified in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be placed on stationary containers and above-ground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used or handled in quantities requiring a permit and at specific entrances and locations designated by the fire code official.
Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an approved manner. Rooms or cabinets containing compressed gases shall be conspicuously labeled: COMPRESSED GAS.
Signs and markings required by Sections 2703.5 and 2703.5.1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be approved.
Sources of ignition shall comply with Sections 2703.7.1 through 2703.7.3.

Smoking shall be prohibited and “No Smoking” signs provided as follows:

1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 2701.5.

2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor storage, dispensing or open use areas.

3. Facilities or areas within facilities that have been designated as totally “no smoking” shall have “No Smoking” signs placed at all entrances to the facility or area. Designated areas within such facilities where smoking is permitted either permanently or temporarily, shall be identified with signs designating that smoking is permitted in these areas only.

4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored, dispensed or used.

Signs required by this section shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code and shall comply with Section 310.

Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner which creates a hazardous condition and shall be listed for use with the hazardous materials stored or used.
Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with NFPA 70 shall be listed and labeled for use in the environment intended in accordance with NFPA 505.
Buildings, control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.1 through 2703.8.6.3.
Buildings, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

Group H occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 2703.8.2 shall be in detached buildings.

TABLE 2703.8.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN

Material

Class

Solids and liquids
(tons)
a, b

Gases
(cubic feet)
a, b

Explosives

Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6

Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity

Not Applicable

Oxidizers

Class 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Unstable (reactives) detonable

Class 3 or 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Oxidizer, liquids and solids

Class 3
Class 2

1,200
2,000

Not Applicable

Organic peroxides

Detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III

Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
25
50

Not Applicable

Unstable (reactives) nondetonable

Class 3
Class 2

1
25

2,000
10,000

Water reactives

Class 3
Class 2

1
25

Not Applicable

Pyrophoric gases

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

2,000

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 ton = 2000 lbs. = 907.2 kg.

a. For materials which are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in the International Building Code. For materials classified as explosives, the required separation distances shall be as specified in Chapter 33.

b. “Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1).

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

Control areas shall comply with Sections 2703.8.3.1 through 2703.8.3.5.
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both.

The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area allowed at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 2703.8.3.2.

TABLE 2703.8.3.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL

PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa

NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOOR

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb

Above grade plane

Higher than 9

7-9

6

5

4

3

2

1

5

5

12.5

12.5

12.5

50

75

100

1

2

2

2

2

2

3

4

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

Below grade plane

1

2

Lower than 2

75

50

Not Allowed

3

2

Not Allowed

1

1

Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2), with all increases allowed in the footnotes to those tables.

b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

The maximum number of control areas per floor within a building shall be in accordance with Table 2703.8.3.2.

The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 2703.8.3.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area is allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.

The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area or a Group S storage area is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Section 2703.11.
Where a gas room is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 37, the gas room shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.4.1 and 2703.8.4.2.
Gas rooms shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system. Gas rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code based on the occupancy group into which it has been classified.
The ventilation system for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Section 3704.2.2.6. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or when the location of hazardous materials in exhausted enclosures is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 37, the exhausted enclosure shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.5.1 through 2703.8.5.3.
Exhausted enclosures shall be of noncombustible construction.
The ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 3704.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Exhausted enclosures where flammable materials are used shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9.
Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or when the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 37, the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.6.1 through 2703.8.6.3.

Gas cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Constructed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 gage) steel.

2. Be provided with self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls.

3. Be provided with self-closing doors.

4. Gas cabinet interiors shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.

The ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 3704.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
The number of cylinders contained in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.
Where storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.7.1 and 2703.8.7.2.

The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a self-latching device.

2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).

Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read:

HAZARDOUS—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

General precautions for the safe storage, handling or care of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.9.1 through 2703.9.10.
Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill.
Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel to the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identifying the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site’s emergency response procedures.
Storage, dispensing, use and handling areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the fire code official.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; dispensing areas; and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70.
When processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.
Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure.
Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity.

Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials that are incompatible with materials in use shall be separated when the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 pounds (2 kg) or 0.5 gallon (2 L). Separation shall be accomplished by:

1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.

3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets.

4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 2703.8.5 and 2703.8.6. Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.

Shelving shall be of substantial construction, and shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic zone in which the material is located. Shelving shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard when used for the storage of individual containers.

Exceptions:

1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.

2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance with Section 2701.5.

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.

Safety cans shall be listed in accordance with UL 30 when used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area of flammable or combustible liquids in accordance with Table 2703.1.1(1). Safety cans listed in accordance with UL 1313 are allowed for flammable and combustible liquids when not used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area and for other hazardous material liquids in accordance with the listing.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2703.2, the handling and transportation of hazardous materials in corridors or exit enclosures shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.10.1 through 2703.10.3.6.
Hazardous material gas containers, cylinders and tanks in transit shall have their protective caps in place. Containers, cylinders and tanks of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in accordance with Chapter 30.

Liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) in a corridor or exit enclosure shall be transported on a cart or truck. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 and transported within corridors or exit enclosures, shall be on a cart or truck. Where carts and trucks are required for transporting hazardous materials, they shall be in accordance with Section 2703.10.3.

Exceptions:

1. Two hazardous material liquid containers, which are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers.

2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each, which are transported by suitable drum trucks.

3. Containers and cylinders of compressed gases, which are transported by approved hand trucks, and containers and cylinders not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg), which are hand carried.

4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), which are transported by approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg), which is hand carried.

Carts and trucks required by Section 2703.10.2 to be used to transport hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.10.3.1 through 2703.10.3.6.
Carts and trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas cylinders placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.
Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that will enable the operator to control safely movement by providing stops or speed-reduction devices.
Construction materials for hazardous material carts or trucks shall be compatible with the material transported. The cart or truck shall be of substantial construction.
Carts and trucks transporting liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the largest single container transported.
Carts and trucks used to transport materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended within any part of a means of egress.
Incompatible materials shall not be transported on the same cart or truck.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy, is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 2703.1 when in accordance with Sections 2703.11.1 through 2703.11.3.10.

The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.11.1.

TABLE 2703.11.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND
S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
d, e, f

CONDITION

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

Materiala

Class

Solids
pounds

Liquids
gallons

A. HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

1. Corrosivesb, c

Not Applicable

9,750

975

2. Highly Toxics

Not Applicable

20b, c

2b, c

3. Toxicsb, c

Not Applicable

1,000

100

B. PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

1. Oxidizersb, c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

1,150g

115

2

2,250h

225

1

18,000i, j

1,800i, j

2. Unstable (Reactives)b, c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

550

55

2

1,150

115

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

3. Water (Reactives)

3b, c

550

55

2b, c

1,150

115

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

a. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 2701.2.2.

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 2703.8. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

d. See Table 2703.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.

e. Maximum allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 2703.1.

f. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.

g. Maximum allowable quantities are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

h. Maximum allowable quantities are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

i. Quantities are unlimited where protected by an automatic sprinkler system.

j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.11.1.
Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.11.3.1 through 2703.11.3.10.
Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 pounds per square foot (976 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per square foot (0.50 L/m2) of floor area actually occupied by liquid merchandise.
Display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S occupancies.
Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.
Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in accordance with Section 2703.9.9.
Containers shall be approved for the intended use and identified as to their content.
Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.
Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
Floors shall be in accordance with Section 2704.12.
Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.
Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 2703.5.

Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in accordance with the following:

1. Outdoor control areas shall be kept free from weeds, debris and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for a minimum of 15 feet (4572 mm).

2. Outdoor control areas shall be located not closer than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a lot line that can be built upon, public street, public alley or public way. A 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area is allowed in lieu of such distance.

3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas is allowed when approved and when each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm).

4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas are allowed when approved and when each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm).

Storage of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2704. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703. Retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and Group S storage shall be in accordance with Section 2703.11.

Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Sections 2704.2.1 through 2704.2.3.

Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 2704.2.3.

Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas. Floors in indoor locations and similar surfaces in outdoor locations shall be constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel by one of the following methods:

1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

3. Sumps and collection systems.

4. Other approved engineered systems.

Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes, sumps and collection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible material, and the liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with the material stored. When liquid-tight sills or dikes are provided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an open-grate trench across the opening that connects to an approved collection system.

Where required by Table 2704.2.2 buildings, rooms or areas used for the storage of hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with this section when the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds the following:

1. Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L); and

2. Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg).

TABLE 2704.2.2
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE

MATERIAL

INDOOR STORAGE

OUTDOOR STORAGE

Solids

Liquids

Solids

Liquids

1. Physical-hazard materials

Combustible liquids

Class II

Not
Applicable

See Chapter 34

Not
Applicable

See Chapter 34

Class IIIA

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IIIB

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Cryogenic fluids

See Chapter 32

See Chapter 32

Explosives

See Chapter 33

See Chapter 32

Flammable liquids

Class IA

Not
Applicable

See Chapter 34

Not
Applicable

See Chapter 34

Class IB

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IC

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Flammable solids

Not Required

Not Applicable

Not Required

Not Applicable

Organic peroxides

Unclassified Detonable

Required

Required

Not Required

Not Required

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Class V

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Oxidizers

Class 4

Required

Required

Not Required

Not Required

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Pyrophorics

Not Required

Required

Not Required

Required

Unstable (reactives)

Class 4

Required

Required

Required

Required

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Water reactives

Class 3

Required

Required

Required

Required

Class 2

Class 1

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

Not Required

2. Health-hazard materials

Corrosives

Not Required

Required

Not Required

Required

Highly toxics

Required

Required

Required

Required

Toxics

The building, room or area shall contain or drain the hazardous materials and fire protection water through the use of one of the following methods:

1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

2. Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

3. Sumps and collection systems.

4. Drainage systems leading to an approved location.

5. Other approved engineered systems.

Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the secondary containment system.
Secondary containment for indoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of fire protection water calculated to discharge from the fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller. The containment capacity shall be designed to contain the flow for a period of 20 minutes.
Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater and rainwater.
An approved monitoring method shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment system. The monitoring method is allowed to be visual inspection of the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be connected to approved visual or audible alarms.

Drainage systems shall be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code and all of the following:

1. The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or similar areas in outdoor locations shall not be less than 1 percent.

2. Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire protection water as determined by the design density discharged from the automatic fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller.

3. Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire flow and the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm.

4. Materials of construction for drainage systems shall be compatible with the materials stored.

5. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the drainage system.

6. Drains shall terminate in an approved location away from buildings, valves, means of egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property and storm drains.

When used as an alternative to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception in Section 2704.2, containment pallets shall comply with all of the following:

1. A liquid-tight sump accessible for visual inspection shall be provided.

2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).

3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.

4. Containment pallets shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the sump.

Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be acceptable for the materials as stored.

Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying with Chapter 36.

Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with all of the following:

1. Installation shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

2. Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s × m2)] of floor area over the storage area.

3. Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative designs are approved.

4. A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent to the access door to the room or in an approved location. The switch shall be a break-glass or other approved type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

5. Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor. For fumes or vapors that are lighter than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the highest point of the room.

6. The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of vapors.

7. Exhaust air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas if the materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors and contaminants have not been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive materials shall not be recirculated.

Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.
Indoor storage rooms, areas and buildings shall be provided with explosion control in accordance with Section 911.

Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with NFPA 70 and Section 604.

Exceptions:

1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 61/2 gallons (25 L) capacity.

2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

4. Storage areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.

5. For storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2.

6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2704.8.1 and 2704.8.2.
Materials that must be kept at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures to prevent a hazardous reaction shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature control equipment that will operate on failure of the primary temperature control system shall be provided. Where approved, alternative means that prevent a hazardous reaction are allowed.
Stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or internal reaction shall have some form of construction or other approved means that will relieve excessive internal pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an approved location or to an exhaust scrubber or treatment system where required by Chapter 37.
An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
Emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by Section 2704 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage areas, such storage shall not be considered indoor storage when the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required by the International Building Code.

Exception: Storage of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor storage.

Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705. Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
Separation of incompatible materials shall be in accordance with Section 2703.9.8.
Except for surfacing, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be of noncombustible, liquid-tight construction.
Where required by other provisions of Section 2705, spill control and secondary containment shall be provided for hazardous material liquids in accordance with Section 2704.2.
Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2705.1.4.1 through 2705.1.4.4.
Open tanks in which liquid hazardous materials are used shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means to prevent overfilling of the tank.
Approved safeguards shall be provided to prevent a low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including but not limited to, overheating of a tank or its contents.
Temperature control shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.8.1.
Pressure control shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.8.2.

Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, manual alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with NFPA 70 and Section 604.

Exceptions:

1. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

2. Systems for highly toxic or toxic gases shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2.

Manual alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by other provisions of Section 2705 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
Adequate lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.
Indoor rooms or areas in which hazardous materials are dispensed or used shall be protected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinkler system design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.

Indoor dispensing and use areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 2704.3.

Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.

Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.

2. Through an approved closed piping system.

3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.

4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve when the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2. Highly toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.

5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

Exceptions:

1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 when dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 when dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).

Systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed by persons competent in such design. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving the process or reaction system at other than the intended time, rate or path. Where failure of an automatic control could result in a dangerous condition or reaction, the automatic control shall be fail-safe.
Indoor dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the International Building Code and in accordance with Section 2705.1 and Sections 2705.2.1 through 2705.2.2.4.
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.1.1 through 2705.2.1.4.

Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.6 when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.

Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

TABLE 2705.2.1.4
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LIQUIDS USE

MATERIAL

INDOOR LIQUIDS USE

OUTDOOR LIQUIDS USE

1. Physical-hazard materials

Combustible liquids

Class II

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IIIA

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IIIB

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Cryogenic fluids

See Chapter 32

See Chapter 32

Explosives

See Chapter 33

See Chapter 33

Flammable liquids

Class IA

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IB

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Class IC

See Chapter 34

See Chapter 34

Flammable solids

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Organic peroxides

Unclassified Detonable

Required

Required

Class I

Required

Required

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Class V

Not Required

Not Required

Oxidizers

Class 4

Required

Required

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1

Pyrophorics

Required

Required

Unstable (reactives)

Class 4

Required

Required

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1

Not Required

Required

Water reactives

Class 3

Required

Required

Class 2

Class 1

Not Required

Required

2. Health-hazard materials

Corrosives

Required

Required

Highly toxics

Toxics

Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.2.1 through 2705.2.2.4.
Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 2705.2.1.1.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most likely failure.

Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon (208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.

Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in vessels or systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

Dispensing and use of hazardous materials outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.3.1 through 2705.3.9.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703, 2705.1 and 2705.3.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
Outdoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 2704.
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.

Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1.

Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

The area surrounding an outdoor dispensing or use area shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material use areas, such use shall not be considered indoor use when the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the International Building Code.

Exception: Use of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor use.

Handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.4.1 through 2705.4.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703, 2705.1 and 2705.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705.1. Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 2703.
Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 2704.
Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central station, proprietary supervising station or remote supervising station or a constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
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