CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2009 (IFC 2009)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatingsmanufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials - General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Marinas

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids— Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

Automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities, marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, aircraft motor-vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be in accordance with this chapter and the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code and International Mechanical Code. Such operations shall include both those that are accessible to the public and private operations.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
Construction documents shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the installation or construction of automotive, marine or fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages in accordance with Section 105.4.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings shall comply with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A.
Where motor fuel-dispensing facilities are located inside buildings and the dispensers are located above spaces within the building, openings beneath dispensers shall be sealed to prevent the flow of leaked fuel to lower building spaces.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with Section 605, NFPA 30A and NFPA 70.
Heat-producing appliances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with NFPA 30A and the International Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the fuel tanks of aircraft.

ALCOHOL BLENDED FUELS. Alcohol blended fuels, including those containing 85-percent ethanol and 15-percent unleaded gasoline (E85), are flammable liquids consisting of ethanol or other alcohols blended greater than 15 percent by volume.

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles.

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device that consists of one or more individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within the employ of such businesses.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas.

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities used in connection therewith.

REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles.

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liquid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant.

Dispensing devices shall be located as follows:

1. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings having combustible overhangs.

Exception: Canopies constructed in accordance with the International Building Code providing weather protection for the fuel islands.

3. Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.

4. Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.

5. Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.

An approved, clearly identified and readily accessible emergency disconnect switch shall be provided at an approved location, to stop the transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill or other emergency. An emergency disconnect switch for exterior fuel dispensers shall be located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dispensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, the emergency disconnect switch shall be installed at an approved location. Such devices shall be distinctly labeled as: EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Signs shall be provided in approved locations.
The dispensing of fuel at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be conducted by a qualified attendant or shall be under the supervision of a qualified attendant at all times or shall be in accordance with Section 2204.3.
Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2204.2.1 through 2204.2.5. Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have at least one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open for business. The attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of fuel. The attendant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel into containers that do not comply with Section 2204.4.1, control sources of ignition, give immediate attention to accidental spills or releases, and be prepared to use fire extinguishers.
Approved special-dispensing devices and systems such as, but not limited to, card- or coin-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at motor fuel-dispensing facilities provided there is at least one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open to the public. Remote preset-type devices shall be set in the “off” position while not in use so that the dispenser cannot be activated without the knowledge of the attendant.
Approved emergency controls shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2.
Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved locations on every dispenser.
Dispensing devices shall be in clear view of the attendant at all times. Obstructions shall not be placed between the dispensing area and the attendant.
The attendant shall be able to communicate with persons in the dispensing area at all times. An approved method of communicating with the fire department shall be provided for the attendant.
Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2204.3.1 through 2204.3.7.
Where approved, unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities are allowed. As a condition of approval, the owner or operator shall provide, and be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspection and maintenance.
Dispensing devices shall comply with Section 2206.7. Dispensing devices operated by the insertion of coins or currency shall not be used unless approved.
Approved emergency controls shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. Emergency controls shall be of a type which is only manually resettable.
Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the emergency controls required by Section 2204.3.3.

An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 2205.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall read:

IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE

1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF

2. REPORT THE ACCIDENT!

FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______

FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________

A telephone not requiring a coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means to notify the fire department shall be provided on the site in a location approved by the fire code official.

Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:

1. Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual action to resume delivery.

2. The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved.

The dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids into portable approved containers shall comply with Sections 2204.4.1 through 2204.4.3.
Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed into a portable container unless such container does not exceed a 6-gallon (22.7 L) capacity, is listed or of approved material and construction, and has a tight closure with a screwed or spring-loaded cover so designed that the contents can be dispensed without spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable or cargo tanks.
A hose nozzle valve used for dispensing Class I liquids into a portable container shall be in compliance with Section 2206.7.6 and be manually held open during the dispensing operation.
Portable containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle.
Delivery operations to tanks for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall comply with Sections 2205.1.1 through 2205.1.3 and the applicable requirements of Chapter 34.
Where liquid delivery to above-ground storage tanks is accomplished by positive-pressure operation, tank vehicles shall be positioned a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from tanks receiving Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving Class II and IIIA liquids.
The driver, operator or attendant of a tank vehicle shall, before making delivery to a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such tank by an approved gauging device.
Delivery of flammable liquids to tanks more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) in capacity shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery system, all connections required to be made for the safe and proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.
Motor fuel-dispensing facility equipment shall be maintained in proper working order at all times in accordance with Sections 2205.2.1 through 2205.2.5.
Flammable and combustible liquid fuel-dispensing and containment equipment shall be periodically inspected where required by the fire code official to verify that it is in proper working order and not subject to leakage.
The fire code official is authorized to require damaged or unsafe containment and dispensing equipment to be repaired or serviced in an approved manner including, but not limited to, equipment that shows signs of physical damage, internal and external corrosion, leakage, brittleness, aging or undue wear and tear.

Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:

1. Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.

2. Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.

3. The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.

4. Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.

Automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 2206.7.4 shall be checked not less than once per year by manually tripping the hold-open linkage.
Leak detection devices required by Section 2206.7.7.1 shall be checked and tested at least annually in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure proper installation and operation.
Provisions shall be made to prevent liquids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into buildings. Acceptable methods include, but shall not be limited to, grading driveways, raising doorsills or other approved means.
Smoking and open flames shall be prohibited in areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Approved portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 with a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C shall be provided and located such that an extinguisher is not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from pumps, dispensers or storage tank fill-pipe openings.

Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:

1. No smoking.

2. Shut off motor.

3. Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.

4. To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.

5. If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.

6. It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.

7. No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.

Fenced and diked areas surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vegetation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the proper operation of the tank and piping system.

Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.

Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and Sections 2206.2 through 2206.6.3.
Approved methods of storage for Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.2.1 through 2206.2.5.
Underground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels shall comply with Chapter 34.
Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and reconciled on underground fuel storage tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The records shall be kept at the premises or made available for inspection by the fire code official within 24 hours of a written or verbal request and shall include records for each product showing daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand. Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks serving separate pumps or dispensers for a product, the reconciliation shall be ascertained separately for each tank system. A consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immediately reported to the fire code official.
Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels are allowed to be located in buildings. Such tanks shall be located in special enclosures complying with Section 2206.2.6, in a liquid storage room or a liquid storage warehouse complying with Chapter 34, or shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks.

Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels except as provided by this section.

1. Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks and be in accordance with Chapter 34. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2206.2.3.

2. Above-ground tanks used for above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to be protected above-ground tanks or, when approved by the fire code official, other above-ground tanks that comply with Chapter 34. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2206.2.3.

3. Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

TABLE 2206.2.3
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS

CLASS OF LIQUID AND TANK TYPE

INDIVIDUAL TANK CAPACITY
(gallons)

MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST IMPORTANT BUILDING ON SAME PROPERTY
(feet)

MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST FUEL DISPENSER (feet)

MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE THAT IS OR CAN BE BUILT UPON, INCLUDING THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF A PUBLIC WAY (feet)

MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST SIDE OF ANY PUBLIC WAY
(feet)

MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN TANKS (feet)

Class I protected above-ground tanks

Less than or equal to 6,000

5

25a

15

5

3

Greater than 6,000

15

25a

25

15

3

Class II and III protected above-ground tanks

Same as Class I

Same as Class I

Same as Class I

Same as Class I

Same as Class I

Same as Class I

Tanks in vaults

0-20,000

0b

0

0b

0

Separate compartment required for each tank

Other tanks

All

50

50

100

50

3

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, no minimum separation distance is required.

b. Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.

4. Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 3406.2.

Above-ground tanks used for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in vaults located above grade or below grade in accordance with Section 3404.2.8 and shall comply with Sections 2206.2.4.1 and 2206.2.4.2. Tanks in above-grade vaults shall also comply with Table 2206.2.3.
Tanks storing Class I and Class II liquids at an individual site shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 15,000 gallons (56 775 L) and an aggregate capacity of 48,000 gallons (181 680 L).
Tanks storing Class II and Class IIIA liquids at a fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 20,000 gallons (75 700 L) and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gallons (302 800 L).
Where approved by the fire code official, portable tanks are allowed to be temporarily used in conjunction with the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or motorized equipment on premises not normally accessible to the public. The approval shall include a definite time limit.

Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 3404.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:

1. The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.

2. The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.

3. Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.

4. Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.

5. Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors which might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.

6. Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.

7. Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.

Above-ground tanks for the storage of liquid motor fuels shall be safeguarded from public access or unauthorized entry in an approved manner.
Guard posts complying with Section 312 or other approved means shall be provided to protect above-ground tanks against impact by a motor vehicle unless the tank is listed as a protected above-ground tank with vehicle impact protection.
Above-ground tanks shall be provided with drainage control or diking in accordance with Chapter 34. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks. Secondary containment systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. Enclosed secondary containment systems shall be provided with emergency venting in accordance with Section 2206.6.2.5.
The design, fabrication, assembly, testing and inspection of piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for use with flammable or combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and Sections 2206.6.1 through 2206.6.3.
Piping shall be located such that it is protected from physical damage.
Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for above-ground tanks shall comply with Sections 2206.6.2.1 through 2206.6.2.6.
Tank openings for above-ground tanks shall be through the top only.
The fill pipe for above-ground tanks shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle’s fuel-delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill-hose connection.
Overfill protection shall be provided for above-ground flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks in accordance with Sections 3404.2.7.5.8 and 3404.2.9.7.6.
An approved antisiphon method shall be provided in the piping system to prevent flow of liquid by siphon action.
Above-ground storage tanks, tank compartments and enclosed secondary containment spaces shall be provided with emergency relief venting in accordance with Chapter 34.
A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container is allowed.
Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with Chapter 34 and NFPA 30A.
The design, fabrication and installation of fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combustible liquid fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.7.1 through 2206.7.9.2.4. Alcohol blended fuel-dispensing systems shall also comply with Section 2206.8.
Electrical equipment, dispensers, hose, nozzles and submersible or subsurface pumps used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed.
Class I and II liquids shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or accidental discharge.
Dispensing devices, except those installed on top of a protected above-ground tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312. Dispensing devices shall be installed and securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer’s instructions. Dispensing devices installed indoors shall be located in an approved position where they cannot be struck by an out-of-control vehicle descending a ramp or other slope.
An approved automatic emergency shutoff valve designed to close in the event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the liquid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a remote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear groove is flush with or within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance provided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid supply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where installed, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible connector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, tested at the time of initial installation and at least yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2205.2.4.
Dispenser hoses shall be a maximum of 18 feet (5486 mm) in length unless otherwise approved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. When not in use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from damage.
Dispenser hoses for Class I and II liquids shall be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of a breakaway point. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the point of attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to the hose.

A listed automatic-closing- type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for dispensing Class I, II or IIIA liquids.

Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.

Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a driveway.

Where dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids is performed, a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used incorporating all of the following features:

1. The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.

2. When the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall close automatically.

Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporating insertion interlock devices designed to achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle fill pipe.

3. The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.

4. The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.

Remote pumping systems for liquid fuels shall comply with Sections 2206.7.7.1 and 2206.7.7.2.
Where remote pumps are used to supply fuel dispensers, each pump shall have installed on the discharge side a listed leak detection device that will detect a leak in the piping and dispensers and provide an indication. A leak detection device is not required if the piping from the pump discharge to under the dispenser is above ground and visible.
Remote pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from lines of adjoining property that can be built upon and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from any building opening. Where an outside pump location is impractical, pumps are permitted to be installed inside buildings as provided for dispensers in Section 2201.4 and Chapter 34. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage.
Flammable liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks, drums, barrels or similar containers. Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be dispensed by a device operating through pressure within a storage tank, drum or container.
Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.7.9.1 through 2206.7.9.2.4.
Vapor-balance systems shall comply with Sections 2206.7.9.1.1 through 2206.7.9.1.5.

Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.

Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.

An acceptable method shall be provided to close off the vapor return line from dispensers when the product is not being dispensed.

Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6, 3404.2.9 and 3404.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6 and 3404.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.

Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 3403.6.9.

An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which the dispenser is mounted.

Vapor return lines and vent piping shall be tested in accordance with Section 3403.6.3.
Vapor-processing systems shall comply with Sections 2206.7.9.2.1 through 2206.7.9.2.4.

Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.

Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the intended use.

Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property which can be built upon.

Exception: Where the required distances to buildings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include but not be limited to:

1. Approved protective enclosures, which extend at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or noncombustible materials; or

2. Fire protection using an approved water- spray system.

Vapor-processing equipment shall be located a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing devices. Processing equipment shall be protected against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, protective enclosures or fencing. Where approved protective enclosures are used, approved means shall be provided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure to prevent pocketing of flammable vapors.

Where a downslope exists toward the location of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, the fire code official is authorized to require additional separation by distance and height.

Vapor-processing units shall be securely mounted on concrete, masonry or structural steel supports on concrete or other noncombustible foundations. Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing equipment is allowed to be installed on roofs when approved.
Piping in a mechanical-assist system shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6.
The design, fabrication and installation of alcohol blended fuel-dispensing systems shall also be in accordance with Section 2206.7 and Sections 2206.8.1 through 2206.8.5.
Dispensers, hoses, nozzles, breakaway fittings, swivels, flexible connectors or dispenser emergency shutoff valves, vapor recovery systems and pumps used in alcohol blended fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed or approved for the specific purpose.
Fuel-dispensing systems subject to change in contents from gasoline to alcohol blended fuels shall be subject to fire code official review and approval prior to commencing dispensing operations.
Facilities dispensing alcohol blended fuels shall be identified by an approved means.
Dispensers shall be marked in an approved manner to identify the types of alcohol blended fuels to be dispensed.
Equipment shall be maintained and inspected in accordance with Section 2205.2.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) fuel shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 38.
Storage vessels and equipment used for the storage or dispensing of LP-gas shall be approved or listed in accordance with Sections 2207.2.1 and 2207.2.2.
Containers, pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), pressure regulators and piping for LP-gas shall be approved.
Hoses, hose connections, vehicle fuel connections, dispensers, LP-gas pumps and electrical equipment used for LP-gas shall be listed.
Motor fuel-dispensing operations for LP-gas shall be conducted by qualified attendants or in accordance with Section 2207.6 by persons trained in the proper handling of LP-gas.

In addition to the requirements of Section 2206.7, the point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces, buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly, or buildings having combustible overhangs, lot lines of property which could be built on, public streets, or sidewalks and railroads; and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from driveways and buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or more.

Exception: The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and which provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.

LP-gas containers shall be located in accordance with Chapter 38. LP-gas storage and dispensing equipment shall be located outdoors and in accordance with Section 2206.7.

The installation and operation of LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2207.5.1 through 2207.5.3 and Chapter 38. LP-gas dispensers and dispensing stations shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and their listing.

A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.

An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping. A differential backpressure valve shall be considered equivalent protection.

A listed shutoff valve shall be located at the discharge end of the transfer hose.

Hoses and piping for the dispensing of LP-gas shall be provided with hydrostatic relief valves. The hose length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). An approved method shall be provided to protect the hose against mechanical damage.
Vehicle impact protection for LP-gas storage containers, pumps and dispensers shall be provided in accordance with Section 2206.4.

Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall not be open to the public and shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on LP-gas powered vehicles.

In addition to the requirements of Sections 2205 and 2206.7, self-service LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance with the following:

1. The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers.

2. The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the training of users.

LP-gas containers shall not be filled in excess of the fixed outage installed by the manufacturer or the weight stamped on the tank.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 30.
Storage vessels and equipment used for the storage, compression or dispensing of CNG shall be approved or listed in accordance with Sections 2208.2.1 and 2208.2.2.
Containers, compressors, pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), and pressure regulators and piping used for CNG shall be approved.
Hoses, hose connections, dispensers, gas detection systems and electrical equipment used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections shall be listed and labeled.

Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outside.

Exceptions:

1. Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, which are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.

2. Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 30.

In addition to the requirements of Section 2203.1, compression, storage and dispensing equipment not located in vaults complying with Chapter 30 shall be installed as follows:

1. Not beneath power lines.

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building or lot line that could be built on, public street, sidewalk or source of ignition.

Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and that provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.

3. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.

4. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.

Self-service CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles.

In addition to the requirements in Section 2205, the owner of a self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility shall ensure the safe operation of the system and the training of users.

Pressure regulators shall be designed and installed or protected so that their operation will not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or ice), mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral part of the regulator.
Gas piping to equipment shall be provided with a remote, readily accessible manual shutoff valve.
An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and shall also be provided in the compressor area. Upon activation, the emergency shutdown system shall automatically shut off the power supply to the compressor and close valves between the main gas supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensers.
The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel cylinders for the purposes of maintenance, cylinder certification, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in accordance with Sections 2208.8.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6.
The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel cylinders shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 2208.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section 2208.8.1.2.
A documented procedure that explains the logical sequence for discharging the cylinder shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The procedure shall include what actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure natural gas release during the discharging activity. A drawing illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The drawing shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.
Atmospheric venting of CNG shall comply with Sections 2208.8.1.2.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6.
A drawing illustrating the location of the vessel support, piping, the method of grounding and bonding, and other requirements specified herein shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval.
A method of rigidly supporting the vessel during the venting of CNG shall be provided. The selected method shall provide not less than two points of support and shall prevent the horizontal and lateral movement of the vessel. The system shall be designed to prevent the movement of the vessel based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the vessel’s rated pressure and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be separated from the site equipment, features and exposures and shall be located in accordance with Table 2208.8.1.2.3.

TABLE 2208.8.1.2.3
SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG

EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE

MINIMUM SEPARATION
(feet)

Buildings

25

Building openings

25

CNG compressor and storage vessels

25

CNG dispensers

25

Lot lines

15

Public ways

15

Vehicles

25

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

The structure or appurtenance used for supporting the cylinder shall be grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. The cylinder valve shall be bonded prior to the commencement of venting operations.

A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 30.

The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature which would limit or obstruct the gas flow.

At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame arrester shall be provided.

Approved “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the cylinder support structure or appurtenance. Approved CYLINDER SHALL BE BONDED signs shall be posted on the cylinder support structure or appurtenance.
Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 35. Where a fuel-dispensing facility also includes a repair garage, the repair operation shall comply with Section 2211.
Equipment used for the generation, compression, storage or dispensing of hydrogen shall be designed for the specific application in accordance with Sections 2209.2.1 through 2209.2.3.
Cylinders, containers and tanks; pressure relief devices, including pressure valves; hydrogen vaporizers; pressure regulators; and piping used for gaseous hydrogen systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 3003, 3203 or NFPA 55.
Hoses, hose connections, compressors, hydrogen generators, dispensers, detection systems and electrical equipment used for hydrogen shall be listed for use with hydrogen. Hydrogen motor fueling connections shall be listed and labeled for use with hydrogen.
Electrical installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2203.1, generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sections 2209.3.1 through Section 2209.3.3.

Generation, compression and dispensing equipment shall be separated from other fuels or equivalent risks to life, safety and buildings or public areas in accordance with Table 2209.3.1.

Exception: Closed systems with a hydrogen capacity of 3,000 cubic feet (85 m3) or less at NTP.

TABLE 2209.3.1
MINIMUM SEPARATION FOR GASEOUS
HYDROGEN DISPENSERS, COMPRESSORS,
GENERATORS AND STORAGE VESSELS

OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE

DISTANCEa
(feet)

Building—Noncombustible walls

10b, c

Building—Combustible walls

25b, c

Public sidewalks and parked vehicles

15b, c

Lot line

10b

Air intake openings

25d

Wall openings located less than 25 feet above grade

20d

Wall openings located 25 feet or more above grade

25d

Outdoor public assembly

25b

Ignition sourcee

10

Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage—diked in accordance with Section 3404.2.9.7, distance to dike wall

20

Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage—not diked in accordance with Section 3404.2.9.7, distance to tank

50

Underground flammable or combustible liquid storage—distance to vent or fill opening

20

Flammable gas storage (other than hydrogen)— with emergency shutoff interconnected with the hydrogen system

25

Above-ground flammable gas storage (other than hydrogen)—without emergency shutoff interconnected with the hydrogen system

50

Combustible waste material (see Section 304.1.1)

50b

Vertical plane of the nearest overhead electric wire of an electric trolley, train or bus line

50

Vertical plane of the nearest wire of overhead electrical power distribution lines

5

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

a. The applicability of tabular distance is in terms of a radius that defines a hemisphere from the source when not interrupted by an intervening fire barrier without through penetrations.

b. See Section 2209.3.1.1.

c. The dispenser and point of transfer for dispensing need not be separated from canopies constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code and constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

d. Measured along the natural and unobstructed line of travel (e.g., around protective walls, around corners of buildings).

e. Ignition sources include appliance burner igniters, hot work and hot surfaces capable of igniting flammable vapors.

The outdoor separation shall be allowed to be reduced to 5 feet (1524 mm) where a 2-hour fire barrier interrupts the line of sight between equipment, other than dispensers, and the exposure within the radial distance as indicated by the tabular value. The height of the barrier shall be a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm), but not less than 1.5 times the height of the equipment, measured vertically. The length of the wall shall be not less than 1.5 times the maximum diameter or length of the tank.
Equipment shall be located from the enclosing walls at a distance not less than one tank diameter. When horizontal tanks are used, the distance from any one enclosing wall shall be not less than one-half the length of the tank or a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm).
Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sections 2209.3.2.1 through 2209.3.2.6.3.
Generation, compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed outdoors in accordance with Section 2209.3.1.
Generation, compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed under weather protection in accordance with the requirements of Section 2704.13 and constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in indoor rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:

1. Inside a building in a hydrogen cutoff room designed and constructed in accordance with Section 420 of the International Building Code.

2. Inside a building not in a hydrogen cutoff room where the gaseous hydrogen system is listed and labeled for indoor installation and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

3. Inside a building in a dedicated hydrogen fuel dispensing area having an aggregate hydrogen delivery capacity no greater than 12 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) and designed and constructed in accordance with Section 703.1 of the International Fuel Gas Code.

Gaseous hydrogen systems and detection devices shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Smoking shall be prohibited in hydrogen cutoff rooms. “No Smoking” signs shall be provided at all entrances to hydrogen cutoff rooms.
Open flames, flame-producing devices and other sources of ignition shall be controlled in accordance with Chapter 35.
Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be kept free from combustible debris and storage.
Storage of gaseous hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapters 30 and 35.
Storage of liquefied hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapters 32 and 35.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2203.1, above-ground liquefied hydrogen storage containers, compression and vaporization equipment serving motor fuel-dispensing operations shall be located 25 feet (7620 mm) from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces; buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly; wall openings; lot lines of property that could be built on; public streets and parked vehicles.
The outdoor separation distance shall be permitted to be reduced to 5 feet (1524 mm) where a 2-hour fire barrier interrupts the line of sight between equipment, other than dispensers, and the exposure within the radial distance as indicated by the tabular value. The height of the barrier shall be a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) but no less than 1.5 times the height of equipment, other than the cryogenic storage vessel, measured vertically. The length of the wall shall be no less than 1.5 times the maximum diameter or length of the tank. The 2-hour fire barrier shall not have more than two sides at approximately 90-degree (1.57 rad) directions, or three sides with connecting angles of approximately 135 degrees (2.36 rad). When fire barrier walls on three sides are used, piping and control systems serving stationary tanks shall be located at the open side of the enclosure created by the barrier walls.
Equipment shall be located from the enclosing walls at a distance not less than one tank diameter. When horizontal tanks are used the distance from any one enclosing wall shall be not less than one-half the length of the tank or a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm).
Gaseous hydrogen compression and storage equipment located on top of motor fuel-dispensing facility canopies shall be in accordance with Sections 2209.3.2.6.1 through 2209.3.2.6.3, Chapters 30 and 35 and the International Fuel Gas Code.
Canopies shall be constructed in accordance with the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy requirements of Section 406 of the International Building Code.
Fuel-dispensing areas under canopies shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required for Extra Hazard Group 2 occupancies. Operation of the sprinkler system shall activate the emergency functions of Sections 2209.3.2.6.2.1 and 2209.3.2.6.2.2.
Operation of the automatic sprinkler system shall activate an automatic emergency discharge system, which will discharge the hydrogen gas from the equipment on the canopy top through the vent pipe system.
Operation of the automatic sprinkler system shall activate the emergency shutdown control required by Section 2209.5.3.
Approved signage having 2-inch (51 mm) block letters shall be affixed at approved locations on the exterior of the canopy structure stating: CANOPY TOP HYDROGEN STORAGE.
Dispensing equipment need not be separated from canopies of Type I or II construction that are constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas and in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.

In addition to the requirements in Section 2211, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.

Dispensing systems shall be equipped with an overpressure protection device set at 140 percent of the service pressure of the fueling nozzle it supplies.
Safety precautions at hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2209.5.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect hydrogen storage systems and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology specified in EN 1081.
A manual emergency shutoff valve shall be provided to shut down the flow of gas from the hydrogen supply to the piping system.
Manual emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.
In addition to the manual emergency shutoff valve required by Section 2209.5.2, a remotely located, manually activated emergency shutdown control shall be provided. An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and hydrogen generators.
Activation of the emergency shutdown control shall automatically shut off the power supply to all hydrogen storage, compression and dispensing equipment; shut off natural gas or other fuel supply to the hydrogen generator; and close valves between the main supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensing equipment.
Hydrogen systems shall be equipped with pressure relief devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure in accordance with Sections 2209.5.4.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6.
Hydrogen vented from vent pipe systems serving pressure relief devices or purging systems shall not be discharged inside buildings or under canopies used for weather protection.
Portions of the system subject to overpressure shall be protected by pressure relief devices designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of CGA S-1.1, S-1.2, S-1.3 or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, as applicable. Containers used for the storage of liquefied hydrogen shall be provided with pressure relief devices in accordance with Section 3203.2.
The minimum flow capacity of pressure relief devices on hydrogen storage containers shall be at least the capacity required by Section 2209.5.4.2 or the capacity required to accommodate a hydrogen compressor that fails to shut down or unload, whichever is greater.
Stationary containers and tanks shall be provided with a vent pipe system that will divert gas discharged from pressure relief devices to the atmosphere. Vent pipe systems serving pressure relief devices and purging systems used for operational control shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 2209.5.4.3.1 through 2209.5.4.3.6.
The vent pipe system shall be constructed of materials approved for hydrogen service in accordance with ASME B31.3 for the rated pressure, volume and temperature of gas to be transported. The vent piping shall be designed for the maximum backpressure within the pipe, but not less than 335 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (2310 kPa).
The vent pipe system shall be supported to prevent structural collapse and shall be provided with a rain cap or other feature that would not limit or obstruct the gas flow from venting vertically upward.
A means shall be provided to prevent water, ice and other debris from accumulating inside the vent pipe or obstructing the vent pipe.

The height (H) and separation distance (D) of the vent pipe shall meet the criteria set forth in Table 2209.5.4.3.4 for the combinations of maximum hydrogen flow rates and vent stack opening diameters listed. Alternative venting systems shall be allowed when in accordance with Section 2209.5.4.3.6.

TABLE 2209.5.4.3.4
VENT PIPE HEIGHT AND SEPARATION DISTANCE
VERSUS HYDROGEN FLOW RATE AND VENT PIPE DIAMETER a,b,c,d,e,f

HYDROGEN
FLOW RATE

≤ 500
CFM at NTP
g

> 500 to ≤ 1,000
CFM at NTP
g

> 1,000 to ≤ 2,000 CFM at NTPg

> 2,000 to ≤ 5,000 CFM at NTPh

> 5,000 to ≤ 10,000 CFM at NTPh

> 10,000 to ≤ 20,000 CFM at NTPh

Height (ft)

8

8

12

17

25

36

Distance (ft)

13

17

26

40

53

81

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 Btu/hr. ft2 = 3.153W/m2, 1 foot/second = 304.8 mm/sec.

a. Minimum distance to property line is 1.25D.

b. Designs seeking to achieve greater heights with commensurate reductions in separation distances shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

c. With this table personnel on the ground or on the building and/or equipment are exposed to a maximum of 1,500 Btu/hr. ft2,and are assumed to be provided with a means to escape to a shielded area within 3 minutes, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind.

d. Designs seeking to achieve greater radiant exposures to noncombustible equipment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

e. The analysis reflected in this table does not permit hydrogen air mixtures that would exceed one-half of the lower flammable limit (LFL) for hydrogen (2 percent by volume) at the building or equipment, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind.

f. See Figure 2209.5.4.3.4.

g. For vent pipe diameters up to and including 2 inches.

h. For vent pipe diameters up to and including 3 inches.


FIGURE 2209.5.4.3.4
HYDROGEN VENT PIPE HEIGHT (H) VERSUS DISTANCE (D) REQUIREMENTS

The vent pipe system shall be sized based on the maximum flow rate for the system served and be specified on the construction documents. The maximum flow rate shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of CGA S-1.3 using the aggregate gas flow rate from all connected vent, purge and relief devices that operate simultaneously during a venting operation, purging operation or emergency relief event.

Where alternative venting systems are used in lieu of the requirements of Section 2209.5.4.3.5, an analysis of radiant heat exposures and hydrogen concentrations shall be provided. The analysis of exposure to radiant heat shall assume a wind speed of 30 feet/second (9.14 m/sec) and provide a design that limits radiant heat exposure to the maximum values shown in Table 2209.5.4.3.6(1). The analysis of exposure to hydrogen concentration shall provide a design that limits the maximum hydrogen concentration to the values shown in Table 2209.5.4.3.6(2).

TABLE 2209.5.4.3.6(1)
MAXIMUM RADIANT HEAT EXPOSURE

EXPOSED OBJECT

MAXIMUM RADIANT HEAT

TIME DURATION (minutes)

Personnel

1,500 Btu/hr • ft2 (4732 W/m2)

3

Noncombustible equipment

8,000 Btu/hr • ft2 (25 237 W/m2)

Any

Lot line

500 Btu/hr • ft2 (1577 W/m2)

Any


TABLE 2209.5.4.3.6(2)
MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION EXPOSURE

EXPOSED OBJECT

MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION

Personnel, buildings or equipment

50% LFL within a distance of D and H of Table 2209.5.4.3.4

Lot line

50% LFL within 1.25 times the distance of D and H of Table 2209.5.4.3.4

H = Minimum height in feet (mm) of vent pipe above the ground or above any structure or equipment within distance (D) where personnel might be present.

D = Distance in feet (mm) to adjacent structure or equipment where personnel might be present.

The construction of marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A. The storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 34.
The storage and handling of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2210.2.1 through 2210.2.3.

Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).

Exception: Storage in liquid storage rooms in accordance with Section 3404.3.7.

Class II or IIIA liquids stored or dispensed inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in and dispensed from approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class II and IIIA liquids shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).
Heating equipment installed in Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage or dispensing areas shall comply with Section 2201.6.
The dispensing of liquid fuels at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2210.3.1 through 2210.3.5.
Wharves, piers or floats at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be used exclusively for the dispensing or transfer of petroleum products to or from marine craft, except that transfer of essential ship stores is allowed.
Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have an attendant or supervisor who is fully aware of the operation, mechanics and hazards inherent to fueling of boats on duty whenever the facility is open for business. The attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids or flammable gases.

Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall be by means of an approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-closing nozzle without a latch-open device.

Hoses used for dispensing or transferring Class I, II or IIIA liquids, when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechanical damage.

Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into containers, other than fuel tanks, shall be in accordance with Section 2204.4.1.
Liquefied petroleum gas cylinders shall not be filled at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities unless approved. Approved storage facilities for LP-gas cylinders shall be provided. See also Section 2207.

Fueling of floating marine craft with Class I fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility is prohibited. Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:

1. The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.

2. Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 3406.6.

3. The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.

4. Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.

5. The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.

6. Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.

General fire safety regulations for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2210.5.1 through 2210.5.7.
Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be maintained in a neat and orderly manner. Accumulations of rubbish or waste oils in excessive amounts shall be prohibited.
Spills of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at or on the water shall be reported immediately to the fire department and jurisdictional authorities.
Metal containers with tight-fitting or self-closing metal lids shall be provided for the temporary storage of combustible trash or rubbish.
Vessels or craft shall not be made fast to fuel docks serving other vessels or craft occupying a berth at a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility.
Construction, maintenance, repair and reconditioning work involving the use of open flames, arcs or spark-producing devices shall not be performed at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dispensing facilities, including piers, wharves or floats, except for emergency repair work approved in writing by the fire code official. Fueling shall not be conducted at the pier, wharf or float during the course of such emergency repairs.
Smoking or open flames shall be prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of fueling operations. “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted conspicuously about the premises. Such signs shall have letters not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color.
Boat owners and operators shall not offer their craft for fueling unless the tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate fumes to the outside atmosphere.

Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:

WARNING
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING, SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY.

DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.

Fire protection features for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2210.6.1 through 2210.6.4.
Fire hose, where provided, shall be enclosed within a cabinet, and hose stations shall be labeled: FIRE HOSE—EMERGENCY USE ONLY.
Materials shall not be placed on a pier in such a manner as to obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or piping system control valves.
Where the pier is accessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access by fire apparatus.

Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:

1. One on each float.

2. One on the pier or wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway to the float, unless the office is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the float and an extinguisher is provided thereon.

Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.

Where a repair garage also includes a motor fuel-dispensing facility, the fuel-dispensing operation shall comply with the requirements of this chapter for motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

The storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids in repair garages shall comply with Chapter 34 and Sections 2211.2.1 through 2211.2.4.
Cleaning of parts shall be conducted in listed and approved parts-cleaning machines in accordance with Chapter 34.
Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids shall be stored in approved tanks or containers, which are allowed to be stored and dispensed from inside repair garages.
Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids in repair garages are allowed to be located at, below or above grade, provided that adequate drainage or containment is provided.
Crankcase drainings shall be classified as Class IIIB liquids unless otherwise determined by testing.
Garage floor drains, where provided, shall drain to approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in accordance with the International Plumbing Code. Contents of oil separators, traps and floor drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent intervals and removed from the premises to prevent oil from being carried into the sewers.
Crankcase drainings and liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, streams or on the ground, but shall be stored in approved tanks or containers in accordance with Chapter 34 until removed from the premises.
Self-closing metal cans shall be used for oily waste.
Spray finishing with flammable or combustible liquids shall comply with Chapter 15.
Sources of ignition shall not be located within 18 inches (457 mm) of the floor and shall comply with Chapters 3 and 26.
Appliances and equipment installed in a repair garage shall comply with the provisions of the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 70.
Smoking shall not be allowed in repair garages except in approved locations.
Pits and below-grade work areas in repair garages shall comply with Sections 2211.4.1 through 2211.4.3.
Pits and below-grade work areas shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
Pits and below-grade work areas shall be provided with means of egress in accordance with Chapter 10.
Where Class I liquids or LP-gas are stored or used within a building having a basement or pit wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the International Mechanical Code, at a minimum rate of 11/2 cubic feet per minute per square foot (cfm/ft2) [0.008 m3/(s × m2)] to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors.

For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.

Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.

Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.

Repair garages for the conversion and repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2211.7 through 2211.7.2.3 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2211.

Exception: Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame or welding.

Repair garages used for the repair of natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 2211.7.1.1 and 2211.7.1.2.

Exception: Repair garages with natural ventilation when approved.

Indoor locations shall be ventilated utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or the roof.

Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical ventilation system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system or, for hydrogen, a continuously monitoring flammable gas detection system, each activating at a gas concentration of not more than 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). In all cases, the system shall shut down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventilation system.

The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 cubic foot per minute per 12 cubic feet [0.00139 m3 ´ (s • m3)] of room volume.

The mechanical ventilation system shall operate continuously.

Exceptions:

1. Mechanical ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2211.7.2 through 2211.7.2.3.

2. Mechanical ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.

Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.
The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. Gas detectors or sensors shall be listed in accordance with UL 2075 and shall indicate the gases they are intended to detect. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, when the system is interlocked with gas detection.

Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system and where the system is interlocked with gas detection and causes a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.
The discharge or defueling of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage tanks for the purpose of maintenance, cylinder certification, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in accordance with Sections 2211.8.1 through 2211.8.1.2.4.
The discharge of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage tanks shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 2211.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section 2211.8.1.2.
A documented procedure that explains the logic sequence for discharging the storage tank shall be provided to the code official for review and approval. The procedure shall include what actions the operator is required to take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen release during discharging activity. Schematic design documents shall be provided illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings. The construction documents shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.
When atmospheric venting is used for the discharge of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel storage tanks , such venting shall be in accordance with Sections 2211.8.1.2.1 through 2211.8.1.2.4.
All facilities for repairing hydrogen systems on hydrogen- fueled vehicles shall have equipment to defuel vehicle storage tanks. Equipment used for defueling shall be listed and labeled for the intended use.
Equipment supplied by the vehicle manufacturer shall be used to connect the vehicle storage tanks to be defueled to the vent pipe system.
Defueling vent pipes shall have a maximum inside diameter of 1 inch (25 mm) and be installed in accordance with Section 2209.5.4.
The maximum rate of hydrogen flow through the vent pipe system shall not exceed 1,000 cfm at NTP (0.47 m3/s) and shall be controlled by means of the manufacturer’s equipment, at low pressure and without adjustment.
The vent pipe used for defueling shall not be connected to another venting system used for any other purpose.
Construction documents shall be provided illustrating the defueling system to be utilized. Plan details shall be of sufficient detail and clarity to allow for evaluation of the piping and control systems to be utilized and include the method of support for cylinders, containers or tanks to be used as part of a closed transfer system, the method of grounding and bonding, and other requirements specified herein.
A method of rigidly supporting cylinders, containers or tanks used during the closed transfer system discharge or defueling of hydrogen shall be provided. The method shall provide not less than two points of support and shall be designed to resist lateral movement of the receiving cylinder, container or tank. The system shall be designed to resist movement of the receiver based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the receiver’s rated service pressure and volume. Supporting structure or appurtenance used to support receivers shall be constructed of noncombustible materials in accordance with the International Building Code.
Cylinders, containers or tanks and piping systems used for defueling shall be bonded and grounded. Structures or appurtenances used for supporting the cylinders, containers or tanks shall be grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. The valve of the vehicle storage tank shall be bonded with the defueling system prior to the commencement of discharge or defueling operations.
Piping systems containing hydrogen shall not be opened to the atmosphere for repair without first purging the piping with an inert gas to achieve 1 percent hydrogen or less by volume. Defueling operations and exiting purge flow shall be vented in accordance with Section 2211.8.1.2.

Each individual manufactured component of a hydrogen generating, compression, storage or dispensing system shall have a label affixed as well as a description in the installation and owner’s manuals describing the procedure for purging air from the system during startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from the system prior to disassembly (to admit air).

For the interconnecting piping between the individual manufactured components, the pressure rating must be at least 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen meets any air.

After installation, repair or maintenance, the hydrogen piping system shall be purged of air in accordance with the manufacturer’s procedure for purging air from the system.
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