The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the fuel tanks of aircraft.
ALCOHOL BLENDED FUELS. Alcohol blended fuels, including those containing 85-percent ethanol and 15-percent unleaded gasoline (E85), are flammable liquids consisting of ethanol or other alcohols blended greater than 15 percent by volume.
AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles.
DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device that consists of one or more individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.
FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within the employ of such businesses.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas.
MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities used in connection therewith.
REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles.
SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liquid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings having combustible overhangs.
- Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.
- Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.
- Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.
IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE
- USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF
- REPORT THE ACCIDENT!
FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______
FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________
Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:
- Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual action to resume delivery.
- The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved.
Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.
- Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.
Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:
- No smoking.
- Shut off motor.
- Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
- To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
- If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.
- It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
- No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.
Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.
Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels except as provided by this section.
- Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks and be in accordance with Chapter 34. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2206.2.3.
- Above-ground tanks used for above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to be protected above-ground tanks or, when approved by the fire code official, other above-ground tanks that comply with Chapter 34. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2206.2.3.
- Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
- Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 3406.2.
|CLASS OF LIQUID AND TANK TYPE||INDIVIDUAL TANK CAPACITY(gallons)||MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST IMPORTANT BUILDING ON SAME PROPERTY (feet)||MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST FUEL DISPENSER (feet)||MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE THAT IS OR CAN BE BUILT UPON, INCLUDING THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF A PUBLIC WAY (feet)||MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST SIDE OF ANY PUBLIC WAY (feet)||MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN TANKS (feet)|
|Class I protected above-ground tanks||Less than or equal to 6,000||5||25a||15||5||3|
|Greater than 6,000||15||25a||25||15||3|
|Class II and III protected above-ground tanks||Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class I|
|Tanks in vaults||0-20,000||0b||0||0b||0||Separate compartment required for each tank|
- At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, no minimum separation distance is required.
- Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.
Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 3404.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:
- The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.
- The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.
- Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.
- Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.
- Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors which might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.
- Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.
- Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.
2206.6 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Use With Flammable or Combustible Liquids
2206.6.2 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Above-Ground Tanks for Class I, II and IIIA Liquids
A listed automatic-closing- type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for dispensing Class I, II or IIIA liquids.
Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.
- The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.
- When the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall close automatically.
Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporating insertion interlock devices designed to achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle fill pipe.
- The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.
- The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.
Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.
Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.
Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6, 3404.2.9 and 3404.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6 and 3404.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.
Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 3403.6.9.
An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which the dispenser is mounted.
Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.
Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the intended use.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property which can be built upon.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing devices. Processing equipment shall be protected against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, protective enclosures or fencing. Where approved protective enclosures are used, approved means shall be provided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure to prevent pocketing of flammable vapors.
Where a downslope exists toward the location of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, the fire code official is authorized to require additional separation by distance and height.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2206.7, the point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces, buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly, or buildings having combustible overhangs, lot lines of property which could be built on, public streets, or sidewalks and railroads; and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from driveways and buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or more.
A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.
An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping. A differential backpressure valve shall be considered equivalent protection.
A listed shutoff valve shall be located at the discharge end of the transfer hose.
Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall not be open to the public and shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on LP-gas powered vehicles.
Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outside.
- Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, which are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.
- Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 30.
- Not beneath power lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building or lot line that could be built on, public street, sidewalk or source of ignition.
- Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.
- Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.
Self-service CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles.
The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be separated from the site equipment, features and exposures and shall be located in accordance with Table 2126.96.36.199.3.
|EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE||MINIMUM SEPARATION (feet)|
|CNG compressor and storage vessels||25|
A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 30.
The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature which would limit or obstruct the gas flow.
At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame arrester shall be provided.
Generation, compression and dispensing equipment shall be separated from other fuels or equivalent risks to life, safety and buildings or public areas in accordance with Table 2209.3.1.
|OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE||DISTANCEa (feet)|
|Building—Noncombustible walls||10b, c|
|Building—Combustible walls||25b, c|
|Public sidewalks and parked vehicles||15b, c|
|Air intake openings||25d|
|Wall openings located less than 25 feet above grade||20d|
|Wall openings located 25 feet or more above grade||25d|
|Outdoor public assembly||25b|
|Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage—diked in accordance with Section 3404.2.9.7, distance to dike wall||20|
|Above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage—not diked in accordance with Section 3404.2.9.7, distance to tank||50|
|Underground flammable or combustible liquid storage—distance to vent or fill opening||20|
|Flammable gas storage (other than hydrogen)— with emergency shutoff interconnected with the hydrogen system||25|
|Above-ground flammable gas storage (other than hydrogen)—without emergency shutoff interconnected with the hydrogen system||50|
|Combustible waste material (see Section 304.1.1)||50b|
|Vertical plane of the nearest overhead electric wire of an electric trolley, train or bus line||50|
|Vertical plane of the nearest wire of overhead electrical power distribution lines||5|
- The applicability of tabular distance is in terms of a radius that defines a hemisphere from the source when not interrupted by an intervening fire barrier without through penetrations.
- See Section 2188.8.131.52.
- The dispenser and point of transfer for dispensing need not be separated from canopies constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code and constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
- Measured along the natural and unobstructed line of travel (e.g., around protective walls, around corners of buildings).
- Ignition sources include appliance burner igniters, hot work and hot surfaces capable of igniting flammable vapors.
Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in indoor rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:
- Inside a building in a hydrogen cutoff room designed and constructed in accordance with Section 420 of the International Building Code.
- Inside a building not in a hydrogen cutoff room where the gaseous hydrogen system is listed and labeled for indoor installation and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
- Inside a building in a dedicated hydrogen fuel dispensing area having an aggregate hydrogen delivery capacity no greater than 12 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) and designed and constructed in accordance with Section 703.1 of the International Fuel Gas Code.
Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2211, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.
The height (H) and separation distance (D) of the vent pipe shall meet the criteria set forth in Table 2184.108.40.206.4 for the combinations of maximum hydrogen flow rates and vent stack opening diameters listed. Alternative venting systems shall be allowed when in accordance with Section 2220.127.116.11.6.
CFM at NTPg
> 500 to ≤ 1,000
CFM at NTPg
|> 1,000 to ≤ 2,000 CFM at NTPg||> 2,000 to ≤ 5,000 CFM at NTPh||> 5,000 to ≤ 10,000 CFM at NTPh||> 10,000 to ≤ 20,000 CFM at NTPh|
- Minimum distance to property line is 1.25D.
- Designs seeking to achieve greater heights with commensurate reductions in separation distances shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
- With this table personnel on the ground or on the building and/or equipment are exposed to a maximum of 1,500 Btu/hr. ft2,and are assumed to be provided with a means to escape to a shielded area within 3 minutes, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind.
- Designs seeking to achieve greater radiant exposures to noncombustible equipment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
- The analysis reflected in this table does not permit hydrogen air mixtures that would exceed one-half of the lower flammable limit (LFL) for hydrogen (2 percent by volume) at the building or equipment, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind.
- See Figure 218.104.22.168.4.
- For vent pipe diameters up to and including 2 inches.
- For vent pipe diameters up to and including 3 inches.
Where alternative venting systems are used in lieu of the requirements of Section 222.214.171.124.5, an analysis of radiant heat exposures and hydrogen concentrations shall be provided. The analysis of exposure to radiant heat shall assume a wind speed of 30 feet/second (9.14 m/sec) and provide a design that limits radiant heat exposure to the maximum values shown in Table 2126.96.36.199.6(1). The analysis of exposure to hydrogen concentration shall provide a design that limits the maximum hydrogen concentration to the values shown in Table 2188.8.131.52.6(2).
|EXPOSED OBJECT||MAXIMUM RADIANT HEAT||TIME DURATION (minutes)|
|Personnel||1,500 Btu/hr • ft2 (4732 W/m2)||3|
|Noncombustible equipment||8,000 Btu/hr • ft2 (25 237 W/m2)||Any|
|Lot line||500 Btu/hr • ft2 (1577 W/m2)||Any|
|EXPOSED OBJECT||MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION|
|Personnel, buildings or equipment||50% LFL within a distance of D and H of Table 2184.108.40.206.4|
|Lot line||50% LFL within 1.25 times the distance of D and H of Table 2220.127.116.11.4|
|H||=||Minimum height in feet (mm) of vent pipe above the ground or above any structure or equipment within distance (D) where personnel might be present.|
|D||=||Distance in feet (mm) to adjacent structure or equipment where personnel might be present.|
Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
Hoses used for dispensing or transferring Class I, II or IIIA liquids, when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechanical damage.
Fueling of floating marine craft with Class I fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility is prohibited. Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:
- The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.
- Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 3406.6.
- The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
- Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.
- The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.
- Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.
Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING, SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY.
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:
- One on each float.
- One on the pier or wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway to the float, unless the office is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the float and an extinguisher is provided thereon.
Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.
For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.
Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.
Repair garages for the conversion and repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2211.7 through 218.104.22.168 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2211.
Repair garages used for the repair of natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 222.214.171.124 and 2126.96.36.199.
The mechanical ventilation system shall operate continuously.
- Mechanical ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2211.7.2 through 2188.8.131.52.
- Mechanical ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all the following:
- Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.
- Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
- Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, when the system is interlocked with gas detection.
Each individual manufactured component of a hydrogen generating, compression, storage or dispensing system shall have a label affixed as well as a description in the installation and owner's manuals describing the procedure for purging air from the system during startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from the system prior to disassembly (to admit air).
For the interconnecting piping between the individual manufactured components, the pressure rating must be at least 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen meets any air.