This chapter shall apply to locations or areas where any of the following activities are conducted:
- The application of flammable or combustible paint, varnish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass resins or other flammable or combustible liquid applied by means of spray apparatus in continuous or intermittent processes.
- Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are passed through contents of tanks, vats or containers of flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, finishing, treatment and similar processes.
- The application of combustible powders when applied by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds.
- Floor surfacing or finishing operations in areas exceeding 350 square feet (32.5 m2).
- The application of dual-component coatings or Class I or II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities exceeding 1 gallon (4 L).
- Spraying and dipping operations.
This chapter shall not apply to spray finishing utilizing flammable or combustible liquids which do not sustain combustion, including:
- Liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92.
- Liquids with a flashpoint greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field.
ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel coating.
FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the concentration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It shall include:
- The interior of spray booths.
- The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying processes.
- Any area in the direct path of spray or any area containing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, combustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying operations.
- The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, conveying or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods.
The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the material characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations.
FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.
LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet (0.84 m2) or less are conducted.
RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or spray-fabrication methods.
ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid.
SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely.
SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying operations constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and separated from the remainder of the building by a minimum 1-hour fire barrier.
SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying space in any specific case.
Electrical equipment, flammable vapor areas or drying operations that are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors.
- This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.
- This provision shall not apply to electrostatic equipment allowed by Section 1507.
In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equipment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be listed for such exposure and shall be installed as required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary hazard locations.
Electrical equipment in flammable vapor areas located such that deposits of combustible residues could readily accumulate thereon shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors in accordance with NFPA 70.
Open flames and spark-producing devices shall not be located in flammable vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent partition.
Heated surfaces having a temperature sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in flammable vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces in a flammable vapor area shall be located such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of combustible residues.
Welding, cutting and similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted in or adjacent to flammable vapor areas or dipping or coating operations unless precautions have been taken to provide safety. Conspicuous signs with the following warning shall be posted in the vicinity of flammable vapor areas, dipping operations and paint storage rooms:
THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING
EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA
IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE
AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING
AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE
PERSON IN CHARGE.
Spray finishing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I or R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with the International Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing operations shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth or spraying space approved for such use.
- Automobile undercoating spray operations and spray-on automotive lining operations conducted in areas with approved natural or mechanical ventilation shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 1504 when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB combustible liquids.
- In buildings other than Group A, E, I or R occupancies, approved limited spraying space in accordance with Section 1504.9.
- Resin application areas used for manufacturing of reinforced plastics complying with Section 1509 shall not be required to be located in a spray room, spray booth or spraying space.
Means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 10.
Spray booths shall be installed so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall or floor/ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided the wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible material and the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
The aggregate area of spray booths in a building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the area of any floor of a building or the basic area allowed for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set forth in the International Building Code. The area of an individual spray booth in a building shall not exceed the lesser of the aggregate size limit or 1,500 square feet (139 m2).
The spraying apparatus, drying apparatus and ventilating system for the spray booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged to:
- Prevent operation of the spraying apparatus while drying operations are in progress.
- Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or spray room for a period of not less than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus is rendered operable.
- Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmosphere within the spray booth or spray room during the drying process and automatically shut off drying apparatus in the event of a failure of the ventilating system.
- Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the air temperature within the booth exceeds 200°F (93°C).
- Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned spray operations, provided that:
- The solid particulate has been removed.
- The vapor concentration is less than 25 percent of the LFL.
- Approved equipment is used to monitor the vapor concentration.
- When the vapor concentration exceeds 25 percent of the LFL, the following shall occur:
- An alarm shall sound; and
- Spray operations shall automatically shut down.
- In the event of shutdown of the vapor concentration monitor, 100 percent of the air volume specified in Section 510 of the International Mechanical Code is automatically exhausted.
- Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spraying operations where all of the conditions provided in Exception 1 are included in the installation and documents have been prepared to show that the installation does not pose a life safety hazard to personnel inside the spray booth, spraying space or spray room.
- Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal area of 18 square feet (1.67 m2) or less are allowed to have a common exhaust when identical spray finishing material is used in each booth. If more than one fan serves one booth, fans shall be interconnected such that all fans will operate simultaneously.
- Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air pollution control or for energy conservation, ducts shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the following conditions are met:
- The sprayed materials used are compatible and will not react or cause ignition of the residue in the ducts.
- Nitrocellulose-based finishing material shall not be used.
- A filtering system shall be provided to reduce the amount of overspray carried into the duct manifold.
- Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided at the junction of each booth exhaust with the manifold, in addition to the protection required by this chapter.
The termination point for exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall not be less than the following distances:
- Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from the property line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or openings into the building that are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
- Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) from the property line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
Exception: Where the type of fire-extinguishing system used requires such ventilation to be discontinued, air makeup and exhaust systems shall shut down and dampers shall close.
Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in liquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessible location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, automatic pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped and discharged to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an approved outside location.
Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible liquids where the liquids are not heated above room temperature and the process area is protected by automatic sprinklers.
- Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in liquid surface area.
- Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 110°F (43°C) used in such manner that the liquid temperature could equal or be greater than its flash point from artificial or natural causes, and having both a capacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m2).
Powder coating rooms shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Spray booths shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1504.3.2.
Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are constructed of other materials shall be allowed.
Automated powder application equipment shall be protected by the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:
- Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and compressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, transfer and powder collection equipment.
- Closing of segregation dampers in associated ductwork to interrupt airflow from application equipment to powder collectors.
- Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the powder coating room or booth.
A space of at least twice the sparking distance shall be maintained between goods being painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.
Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1, locations.
Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, rigidly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and noncombustible.
Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall be placed about the equipment such that either by their location or character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately grounded, and at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment.
Automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment shall be protected by the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:
- Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying operation and activation of the building alarm system, if such a system is provided.
- Shutting down of the coating material delivery system.
- Termination of all spray application operations.
- Stopping of conveyors into and out of the flammable vapor areas.
- Disconnection of power to the high-voltage elements in the flammable vapor areas and disconnection of power to the system.
Signs shall be posted to provide the following information:
- Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to fire and accident.
- Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically conductive objects in the flammable vapor area, including persons.
- Restrict access to qualified personnel only.
Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay to disconnect the power supply to the high-voltage transformer and signal the operator under any of the following conditions:
- Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause.
- Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the high-voltage grid.
- Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any point of the high-voltage system.
- Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 1507.2.
Mechanical ventilation shall be provided throughout resin application areas in accordance with Section 1504.7. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area at or below 25 percent of the LFL.
Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for buildings that have 75 percent of the perimeter unenclosed.