Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents).
DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms.
DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry cleaning solvents.
DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles.
SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following classes:
Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).
Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).
Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).
Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable.
Dry cleaning solvents shall be classified according to their flash points as follows:
- Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).
- Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).
- Class IIIA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).
- Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
- Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable.
Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the solvents used as follows:
- Type I—systems using Class I solvents.
- Type II—systems using Class II solvents.
- Type III-A—systems using Class IIIA solvents.
- Type III-B—systems using Class IIIB solvents.
- Type IV—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is not conducted by the public.
- Type V—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is conducted by the public.
Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accordance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry cleaning plant.
Dry cleaning plants using more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be classified based on the numerically lowest solvent class.
The occupancy classification, design and construction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applicable requirements of the International Building Code.
Type I dry cleaning plants shall be prohibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry cleaning plants.
Building services and systems shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and Chapter 6.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 502 of the International Mechanical Code and DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, where applicable.
In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil only.
Electrical wiring and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.
Written instructions covering the proper installation and safe operation and use of equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer.
In Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, machines shall be operated in accordance with the operating instructions furnished by the machinery manufacturer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards involved in their departments and in the work they perform.
Operating instructions for customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emergency assistance.
The manufacturer shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicating the class of solvent for which each machine is designed.
Dry cleaning by immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited.
The use of solvents with a flash point below that for which a machine is designed or listed shall be prohibited.
Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material generated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Class I and II liquids shall not be used for cleaning floors.
Filter residue and other residues containing solvent shall be handled and disposed of in covered metal containers.
Lint and refuse shall be removed from traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other times, traps shall be held securely in place.
In Type V dry cleaning systems, customer areas shall be kept clean.
Materials to be dry cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, including matches and metallic substances, shall be removed.
In removing materials from the washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the dripping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the cylinder of the washer.
A mechanical ventilation system which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 m3/(s × m2)] shall be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual controls at an approved location.
Type IV and V dry cleaning systems shall be provided with an automatically activated exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equipment shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.
Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be provided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is installed immediately outside of and above the loading door which operates at an airflow rate as follows:
Q = 100 × ALD (Equation 12-1)
Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per minute (m3/s).
ALD = area of the loading door, square feet (m2).
Scouring, brushing, and spotting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III solvents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of solvents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open system.
Scouring, brushing or spotting tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure thorough draining to a 11/2-inch (38 mm) drain connected to an approved container.
When approved, articles that cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall comply with the following:
- Only Class II or III liquids shall be used.
- The total amount of solvent used in such open containers shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L).
- Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor.
- Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 11/2- inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided with a trap and shall be connected to an approved container.
Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating system.
Metal scouring, brushing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be permanently and effectively bonded and grounded.
Flammable and combustible liquids used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
Spotting operations using flammable or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning systems.
Dry cleaning systems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, drying cabinets, tumblers and their appurtenances, including pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The construction of buildings in which such systems are located shall comply with the requirements of this section and the International Building Code.
Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sections 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3.
Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 34.
Type II dry cleaning plants shall be located so that access is provided and maintained from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in accordance with Section 503.
Type II dry cleaning rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which shall lead directly to the outside.
Curbs, drains or other provisions for spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection water and direct it to a safe location.
Solvent storage tanks for Class II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above ground.
Exception: As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or treatment tanks.
Where required by this section, fire protection systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type II, Type III-A or Type III-B dry cleaning systems.
Type II dry cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type II dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Exception: Where approved, a manual steam jet not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the automatic fire-extinguishing system.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of two 2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems.