The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have the meanings shown herein.
- The building or structure has collapsed, partially collapsed, moved off its foundation or lacks the support of ground necessary to support it.
- There exists a significant risk of collapse, detachment or dislodgment of any portion, member, appurtenance or ornamentation of the building or structure under service loads.
PRIMARY FUNCTION. A primary function is a major activity for which the facility is intended. Areas that contain a primary function include, but are not limited to, the customer service lobby of a bank, the dining area of a cafeteria, the meeting rooms in a conference center, as well as offices and other work areas in which the activities of the public accommodation or other private entity using the facility are carried out. Mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, entrances, corridors and restrooms are not areas containing a primary function.
SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. A condition where:
- In any story, the vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system have suffered damage such that the lateral load-carrying capacity of the structure in any horizontal direction has been reduced by more than 20 percent from its pre-damage condition; or
- The capacity of any vertical gravity load-carrying component, or any group of such components, that supports more than 30 percent of the total area of the structure's floor(s) and roof(s) has been reduced more than 20 percent from its pre-damage condition and the remaining capacity of such affected elements, with respect to all dead and live loads, is less than 75 percent of that required by this code for new buildings of similar structure, purpose and location.
TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a building or a facility that has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural conditions require the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction and which are necessary to provide accessibility.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any addition that constitutes substantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, shall comply with the flood design requirements for new construction, and all aspects of the existing structure shall be brought into compliance with the requirements for new construction for flood design.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any additions that do not constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, are not required to comply with the flood design requirements for new construction.
- An existing stairway shall not be required to comply with the requirements of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction does not allow a reduction in pitch or slope.
- Handrails otherwise required to comply with Section 1009.12 shall not be required to comply with the requirements of Section 1012.6 regarding full extension of the handrails where such extensions would be hazardous due to plan configuration.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any alteration that constitutes substantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, shall comply with the flood design requirements for new construction, and all aspects of the existing structure shall be brought into compliance with the requirements for new construction for flood design.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any alterations that do not constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, are not required to comply with the flood design requirements for new construction.
- The altered structure and the altered nonstructural elements are no less in compliance with the provisions of this code with respect to earthquake design than they were prior to the alteration.
- New structural elements are detailed and connected to the existing structural elements as required by Chapter 16.
- New or relocated nonstructural elements are detailed and connected to existing or new structural elements as required by Chapter 16.
- The alterations do not create a structural irregularity as defined in ASCE 7 or make an existing structural irregularity more severe.
Wind loads for this evaluation shall be those prescribed in Section 1609. Earthquake loads for this evaluation, if required, shall be permitted to be 75 percent of those prescribed in Section 1613. Values of R, ΩO and Cd for the existing seismic force-resisting system shall be those specified by this code for an ordinary system unless it is demonstrated that the existing system will provide performance equivalent to that of an intermediate or special system.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any repair that constitutes substantial improvement of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, shall comply with the flood design requirements for new construction, and all aspects of the existing structure shall be brought into compliance with the requirements for new construction for flood design.
For buildings and structures in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3, any repairs that do not constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage of the existing structure, as defined in Section 1612.2, are not required to comply with the flood design requirements for new construction.
- Specific seismic detailing requirements of Section 1613 for a new structure shall not be required to be met where the seismic performance is shown to be equivalent to that of a new structure. A demonstration of equivalence shall consider the regularity, over strength, redundancy and ductility of the structure.
- When a change of use results in a structure being reclassified from Occupancy Category I or II to Occupancy Category III and the structure is located where the seismic coefficient SDS is less than 0.33, compliance with the seismic requirements of Section 1613 is not required.
- Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places;
- Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined to qualify as an historic district; or
- Designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program that is approved by the Department of Interior.
- At least one accessible building entrance.
- At least one accessible route from an accessible building entrance to primary function areas.
- Signage complying with Section 1110.
- Accessible parking, where parking is being provided.
- At least one accessible passenger loading zone, when loading zones are provided.
- At least one accessible route connecting accessible parking and accessible passenger loading zones to an accessible entrance.
- The altered element or space is not required to be on an accessible route, unless required by Section 3411.7.
- Accessible means of egress required by Chapter 10 are not required to be provided in existing buildings and facilities.
- The alteration to Type A individually owned dwelling units within a Group R-2 occupancy shall meet the provision for a Type B dwelling unit and shall comply with the applicable provisions in Chapter 11 and ICC A117.1.
- The costs of providing the accessible route are not required to exceed 20 percent of the costs of the alterations affecting the area of primary function.
- This provision does not apply to alterations limited solely to windows, hardware, operating controls, electrical outlets and signs.
- This provision does not apply to alterations limited solely to mechanical systems, electrical systems, installation or alteration of fire protection systems and abatement of hazardous materials.
- This provision does not apply to alterations undertaken for the primary purpose of increasing the accessibility of an existing building, facility or element.
|Steeper than 1:10 but not steeper than 1:8||3 inches|
|Steeper than 1:12 but not steeper than 1:10||6 inches|
- If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, an accessible nonpublic entrance that is unlocked while the building is occupied shall be provided; or
- If a main entrance cannot be made accessible, a locked accessible entrance with a notification system or remote monitoring shall be provided.
Where a portion of the building is changed to a new occupancy classification, and that portion is separated from the remainder of the building with fire barriers or horizontal assemblies having a fire-resistance rating as required by Table 508.4 for the separate occupancies, or with approved compliance alternatives, the portion changed shall be made to comply with the provisions of this section.
Where a portion of the building is changed to a new occupancy classification, and that portion is not separated from the remainder of the building with fire barriers or horizontal assemblies having a fire-resistance rating as required by Table 508.4 for the separate occupancies, or with approved compliance alternatives, the provisions of this section which apply to each occupancy shall apply to the entire building. Where there are conflicting provisions, those requirements which secure the greater public safety shall apply to the entire building or structure.
The evaluation process specified herein shall be followed in its entirety to evaluate existing buildings. Table 3412.7 shall be utilized for tabulating the results of the evaluation. References to other sections of this code indicate that compliance with those sections is required in order to gain credit in the evaluation herein outlined. In applying this section to a building with mixed occupancies, where the separation between the mixed occupancies does not qualify for any category indicated in Section 3412.6.16, the score for each occupancy shall be determined and the lower score determined for each section of the evaluation process shall apply to the entire building.
Where the separation between mixed occupancies qualifies for any category indicated in Section 3412.6.16, the score for each occupancy shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of the space.
The following formulas shall be used in computing the building height value.
AH = Allowable height in feet (mm) from Table 503.
EBH = Existing building height in feet (mm).
CF = 1 if (AH) — (EBH) is positive.
CF = Construction-type factor shown in Table 3412.6.6(2) if (AH) — (EBH) is negative.
Note: Where mixed occupancies are separated and individually evaluated as indicated in Section 3412.6, the values AH, AS, EBH and EBS shall be based on the height of the occupancy being evaluated.
|At||=||Tabular area per story in accordance with Table 503 (square feet).|
|Is||=||Area increase factor for sprinklers (Section 506.3).|
|If||=||Area increase factor for frontage (Section 506.2).|
i = Value for an individual separated occupancy on a floor.
n = Number of separated occupancies on a floor.
equal to or greater than
15,000 square feet
10,000 square feet
7,500 square feet
5,000 square feet
2,500 square feet or less
|A-4, B, E, S-2||0||5||10||15||20|
|F, M, R, S-1||0||4||10||16||22|
- For areas between categories, the compartmentation value shall be obtained by linear interpolation.
|A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, S-1||-4||-3||0||2||4|
- Category a—No fire partitions; incomplete fire partitions; no doors; doors not self-closing or automatic-closing.
- Category b—Fire partitions or floor assemblies with less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating or not constructed in accordance with Sections 709 and 712, respectively.
- Category c—Fire partitions with a 1-hour or greater fire-resistance rating constructed in accordance with Section 709 and floor assemblies with a 1-hour but less than 2-hour fire-resistance rating constructed in accordance with Section 712, or with only one tenant within the floor area.
- Category d—Fire barriers with a 1-hour but less than 2-hour fire-resistance rating constructed in accordance with Section 707 and floor assemblies with a 2-hour or greater fire-resistance rating constructed in accordance with Section 712.
- Category e—Fire barriers and floor assemblies with a 2-hour or greater fire-resistance rating and constructed in accordance with Sections 707 and 712, respectively.
|A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-7||-3||0||2|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-5||-2||0||5|
- Category a—No fire partitions; incomplete fire partitions; no doors; or doors not self-closing.
- Category b—Less than 1-hour fire-resistance rating or not constructed in accordance with Section 709.4.
- Category c—1-hour to less than 2-hour fire-resistance rating, with doors conforming to Section 715 or without corridors as permitted by Section 1018.
- Category d—2-hour or greater fire-resistance rating, with doors conforming to Section 715.
|None (unprotected opening)||-2 times number floors connected|
|Less than 1 hour||-1 times number floors connected|
|1 to less than 2 hours||1|
|2 hours or more||2|
|FACTOR||TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
- Category a—Plenums not in accordance with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. -10 points.
- Category b—Air movement in egress elements not in accordance with Section 1018.5. -5 points.
- Category c—Both categories a and b are applicable. -15 points.
- Category d—Compliance of the HVAC system with Section 1018.5 and Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. 0 points.
- Category e—Systems serving one story; or a central boiler/chiller system without ductwork connecting two or more stories. 5 points.
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-10||-5||0||2||6|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-4||-2||0||4||8|
- Category a—None.
- Category b—Existing smoke detectors in HVAC systems and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
- Category c—Smoke detectors in HVAC systems. The detectors are installed in accordance with the requirements for new buildings in the International Mechanical Code.
- Category d—Smoke detectors throughout all floor areas other than individual sleeping units, tenant spaces and dwelling units.
- Category e—Smoke detectors installed throughout the floor area.
|A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, R||-10||-5||0||5|
|F, M, S||0||5||10||15|
- For buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, add 2 points for activation by a sprinkler waterflow device.
- Category a—None.
- Category b—Fire alarm system with manual fire alarm boxes in accordance with Section 907.4 and alarm notification appliances in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
- Category c—Fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.
- Category d—Category c plus a required emergency voice/alarm communications system and a fire command center that conforms to Section 403.4.5 and contains the emergency voice/alarm communications system controls, fire department communication system controls and any other controls specified in Section 911 where those systems are provided.
|A-1, A-2, A-3||0||1||2||3||6||6|
|B, M, R||0||2a||3a||3a||3a||4a|
- This value shall be 0 if compliance with Category d or e in Section 3418.104.22.168 has not been obtained.
- Category a—None.
- Category b—The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. Openings are provided in exterior walls at the rate of 20 square feet (1.86 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of exterior wall in each story and distributed around the building perimeter at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such openings shall be readily openable from the inside without a key or separate tool and shall be provided with ready access thereto. In lieu of operable openings, clearly and permanently marked tempered glass panels shall be used.
- Category c—One enclosed exit stairway, with ready access thereto, from each occupied floor of the building. The stairway has operable exterior windows and the building has openings in accordance with Category b.
- Category d—One smokeproof enclosure and the building has openings in accordance with Category b.
- Category e—The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system. Each floor area is provided with a mechanical air-handling system designed to accomplish smoke containment. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other floor areas of the building under fire conditions. The system shall exhaust not less than six air changes per hour from the floor area. Supply air by mechanical means to the floor area is not required. Containment of smoke shall be considered as confining smoke to the fire area involved without migration to other floor areas. Any other tested and approved design which will adequately accomplish smoke containment is permitted.
- Category f—Each stairway shall be one of the following: a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Section 1022.9; pressurized in accordance with Section 909.20.5 or shall have operable exterior windows.
|OCCUPANCY||WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM||WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEMa|
(inches per occupant)
|Other egress components
(inches per occupant)
(inches per occupant)
|Other egress components
(inches per occupant)
|Occupancies other than those listed
|Hazardous: H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4||Not Permitted||Not Permitted||0.3||0.2|
|Institutional: I-2||Not Permitted||Not Permitted||0.3||0.2|
|A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, E||-10||0||2||8||10|
|B, F, S||-1||0||0||0||0|
- Category a—Compliance with the minimum required means of egress capacity or number of exits is achieved through the use of a fire escape in accordance with Section 3406.
- Category b—Capacity of the means of egress complies with Section 1004 and the number of exits complies with the minimum number required by Section 1021.
- Category c—Capacity of the means of egress is equal to or exceeds 125 percent of the required means of egress capacity, the means of egress complies with the minimum required width dimensions specified in the code and the number of exits complies with the minimum number required by Section 1021.
- Category d—The number of exits provided exceeds the number of exits required by Section 1021. Exits shall be located a distance apart from each other equal to not less than that specified in Section 1015.2.
- Category e—The area being evaluated meets both Categories c and d.
|A-1, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, R, S||-2||0||2|
- For dead-end distances between categories, the dead-end value shall be obtained by linear interpolation.
- Category a—Dead end of 35 feet (10 670 mm) in nonsprinklered buildings or 70 feet (21 340 mm) in sprinklered buildings.
- Category b—Dead end of 20 feet (6096 mm); or 50 feet (15 240 mm) in Group B in accordance with Section 1018.4, exception 2.
- Category c — No dead ends; or ratio of length to width (l/w) is less than 2.5:1.
|Less than 25 feet of travel above or below the primary level of elevator access for emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel||-2||0||0||+2|
|Travel of 25 feet or more above or below the primary level of elevator access for emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel||-4||NP||0||+4|
The categories for elevator controls are:
- Category a—No elevator.
- Category b—Any elevator without Phase I and II recall.
- Category c—All elevators with Phase I and II recall as required by the International Fire Code.
- Category d—All meet Category c; or Category b where permitted to be without recall; and at least one elevator that complies with new construction requirements serves all occupied floors.
|NUMBER OF EXITS
|Two or more exits||NP||0||4|
|Minimum of one exit||0||1||1|
- Category a—Means of egress lighting and exit signs not provided with emergency power in accordance with Chapter 27.
- Category b—Means of egress lighting and exit signs provided with emergency power in accordance with Chapter 27.
- Category c—Emergency power provided to means of egress lighting and exit signs which provides protection in the event of power failure to the site or building.
|A-1, A-2, R||-10||0||10|
|A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, S||-5||0||5|
- For fire-resistance ratings between categories, the value shall be obtained by linear interpolation.
- Category a—Occupancies separated by minimum 1-hour fire barriers or minimum 1-hour horizontal assemblies, or both.
- Category b—Separations between occupancies in accordance with Section 508.4.
- Category c—Separations between occupancies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than twice that required by Section 508.4.
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-6||-3||0||2||4||6|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-12||-6||0||3||6||12|
- Category a—Sprinklers are required throughout; sprinkler protection is not provided or the sprinkler system design is not adequate for the hazard protected in accordance with Section 903.
- Category b—Sprinklers are required in a portion of the building; sprinkler protection is not provided or the sprinkler system design is not adequate for the hazard protected in accordance with Section 903.
- Category c—Sprinklers are not required; none are provided.
- Category d—Sprinklers are required in a portion of the building; sprinklers are provided in such portion; the system is one which complied with the code at the time of installation and is maintained and supervised in accordance with Section 903.
- Category e—Sprinklers are required throughout; sprinklers are provided throughout in accordance with Chapter 9.
- Category f—Sprinklers are not required throughout; sprinklers are provided throughout in accordance with Chapter 9.
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-6||0||4||6|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-12||0||6||12|
- This option cannot be taken if Category a or b in Section 3412.6.17 is used.
- Category a—Standpipes are required; standpipe is not provided or the standpipe system design is not in compliance with Section 905.3.
- Category b—Standpipes are not required; none are provided.
- Category c—Standpipes are required; standpipes are provided in accordance with Section 905.
- Category d—Standpipes are not required; standpipes are provided in accordance with Section 905.
|2 Hours||2 Hours and AFSS|
|2 Hours and AFSS||-4||-3||-2||-2||-1||-2||0|
2 Hours, or 1 Hour and AFSS
|1 Hour and AFSS||-3||-2||-1||-1||0||-1||0|
1 Hour, or AFSS with SP
|AFSS with SP||-1||-1||-1||0||0||-1||0|
|1 Hour or AFSS||-1||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Existing occupancy: _________________________________________________||Proposed occupancy: _________________________________________________|
|Year building was constructed: _________________________________________||Number of stories: ___________________ Height in feet: _____________________|
|Type of construction: _________________________________________________||Area per floor: _______________________________________________________|
|Percentage of open perimeter increase: ______%|
|Completely suppressed: Yes _________ No _________||Corridor wall rating: ___________________________________________________|
|Compartmentation: Yes _________ No _________||Required door closers: Yes ________________ No __________________|
|Fire-resistance rating of vertical opening enclosures: _____________________________________________________________________________________________|
|Type of HVAC system: ______________________________________________________ , serving number of floors: _________________________________________|
|Automatic fire detection: Yes _________ No _________||Type and location: ____________________________________________________|
|Fire alarm system: Yes _________ No _________||Type: ______________________________________________________________|
|Smoke control: Yes _________ No _________||Type: ______________________________________________________________|
|Adequate exit routes: Yes _________ No _________||Dead ends: ______________________ Yes _______________ No _____________|
|Maximum exit access travel distance: ____________________________________||Elevator controls: Yes _______________ No _________________|
|Means of egress emergency lighting: Yes _________ No _________||Mixed occupancies: Yes _______________ No _________________|
|SAFETY PARAMETERS||FIRE SAFETY (FS)||MEANS OF EGRESS (ME)||GENERAL SAFETY (GS)|
|3412.6.1 Building Height|
|3412.6.2 Building Area|
|3412.6.4 Tenant and Dwelling Unit Separations|
|3412.6.5 Corridor Walls|
|3412.6.6 Vertical Openings|
|3412.6.7 HVAC Systems|
|3412.6.8 Automatic Fire Detection|
|3412.6.9 Fire Alarm Systems|
|3412.6.10 Smoke Control||* * * *|
|3412.6.11 Means of Egress Capacity||* * * *|
|3412.6.12 Dead Ends||* * * *|
|3412.6.13 Maximum Exit Access Travel Distance||* * * *|
|3412.6.14 Elevator Control|
|3412.6.15 Means of Egress Emergency Lighting||* * * *|
|3412.6.16 Mixed Occupancies||* * * *|
|3412.6.17 Automatic Sprinklers||÷ 2 =|
|3412.6.19 Incidental Accessory Occupancy|
|Building score — total value|
* * * *No applicable value to be inserted.
- MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety;
MME = Mandatory Means of Egress;
MGS = Mandatory General Safety.
|FS-MFS ≥ 0||_____||(FS)||-||_____ (MFS) =||_____||_____||_____|
|ME-MME ≥ 0||_____||(ME)||-||_____ (MME) =||_____||_____||_____|
|GS-MGS ≥ 0||_____||(GS)||-||_____ (MGS) =||_____||_____||_____|
|a.||FS = Fire Safety||MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety|
|ME = Means of Egress||MME = Mandatory Means of Egress|
|GS = General Safety||MGS = Mandatory General Safety|
- Where the separation between mixed occupancies does not qualify for any category indicated in Section 3412.6.16, the mandatory safety scores for the occupancy with the lowest general safety score in Table 3412.8 shall be utilized (see Section 3412.6.)
- Where the separation between mixed occupancies qualifies for any category indicated in Section 3412.6.16, the mandatory safety scores for each occupancy shall be placed against the evaluation scores for the appropriate occupancy.