Subpart A General

Subpart B General Interpretations

Subpart C General Safety and Health Provisions

Subpart D Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

Subpart E Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment

Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention

Subpart G Signs, Signals, and Barricades

Subpart H Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

Subpart I Tools - Hand and Power

Subpart J Welding and Cutting

Subpart K Electrical

Subpart L Scaffolds

Subpart M Fall Protection

Subpart N Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

Subpart O Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

Subpart P Excavations

Subpart Q Concrete and Masonry Construction

Subpart R Steel Erection

Subpart S Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air

Subpart T Demolition

Subpart U Blasting and the Use of Explosives

Subpart V Electric Power Transmission and Distribution

Subpart W Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection

Subpart X Stairways and Ladders

Subpart Y Commercial Diving Operations

Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

Subpart AA Confined Spaces in Construction

Subpart BB [Reserved]

Subpart CC Cranes & Derricks in Construction

Authority: 40 U.S.C. 3704; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912); 29 CFR part 1911; and 5 U.S.C. 553, as applicable.

[58 FR 35190, June 30, 1993; 59 FR 215, Jan. 3, 1994; 59 FR 40964, Aug. 10, 1994; 60 FR 9624, Feb. 21, 1995; 60 FR 33343, June 28, 1995; 60 FR 50411, Sept. 29, 1995; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996; 61 FR 43454, August 23, 1996; 61 FR 56746, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1493, Jan. 10, 1997; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 35138, June 29, 1998; 70 FR 1143, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16675, April 3, 2006; 71 FR 50191, August 24, 2006; 73 FR 75589, Dec. 12, 2008; 75 FR 12686, March 17, 2010; 76 FR 33612, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17894, March 26, 2012; 78 FR 9315, Feb. 8, 2013; 81 FR 16875, March 25, 2016; 82 FR 2751, Jan. 9, 2017]
This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b), including but not limited to the following:
Demolition or salvage of structures where asbestos is present;
Removal or encapsulation of materials containing asbestos;
Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain asbestos;
Installation of products containing asbestos;
Asbestos spill/emergency cleanup; and
Transportation, disposal, storage, containment of and housekeeping activities involving asbestos or products containing asbestos, on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.
Coverage under this standard shall be based on the nature of the work operation involving asbestos exposure.
This section does not apply to asbestos-containing asphalt roof coatings, cements and mastics.
Aggressive method means removal or disturbance of building material by sanding, abrading, grinding or other method that breaks, crumbles, or disintegrates intact ACM.

Amended water means water to which surfactant (wetting agent) has been added to increase the ability of the liquid to penetrate ACM.

Asbestos includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that has been chemically treated and/or altered. For purposes of this standard, "asbestos" includes PACM, as defined below.

Asbestos-containing material (ACM), means any material containing more than one percent asbestos.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas.

Building/facility owner is the legal entity, including a lessee, which exercises control over management and record keeping functions relating to a building and/or facility in which activities covered by this standard take place.

Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) means one certified in the practice of industrial hygiene by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.

Class I asbestos work means activities involving the removal of TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM.

Class II asbestos work means activities involving the removal of ACM which is not thermal system insulation or surfacing material. This includes, but is not limited to, the removal of asbestos-containing wallboard, floor tile and sheeting, roofing and siding shingles, and construction mastics.

Class III asbestos work means repair and maintenance operations, where "ACM", including TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM, is likely to be disturbed.

Class IV asbestos work means maintenance and custodial activities during which employees contact but do not disturb ACM or PACM and activities to clean up dust, waste and debris resulting from Class I, II, and III activities.

Clean room means an uncontaminated room having facilities for the storage of employees' street clothing and uncontaminated materials and equipment.

Closely resemble means that the major workplace conditions which have contributed to the levels of historic asbestos exposure, are no more protective than conditions of the current workplace.

Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32 (f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work who is specially trained in a training course which meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accreditation Plan (40 CFR 763) for supervisor, or its equivalent and, for Class III and Class IV work, who is trained in a manner consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92 (a)(2).

Critical barrier means one or more layers of plastic sealed over all openings into a work area or any other similarly placed physical barrier sufficient to prevent airborne asbestos in a work area from migrating to an adjacent area.

Decontamination area means an enclosed area adjacent and connected to the regulated area and consisting of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room, which is used for the decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment that are contaminated with asbestos.

Demolition means the wrecking or taking out of any load-supporting structural member and any related razing, removing, or stripping of asbestos products.

Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Disturbance means activities that disrupt the matrix of ACM or PACM, crumble or pulverize ACM or PACM, or generate visible debris from ACM or PACM. Disturbance includes cutting away small amounts of ACM and PACM, no greater than the amount which can be contained in one standard sized glove bag or waste bag in order to access a building component. In no event shall the amount of ACM or PACM so disturbed exceed that which can be contained in one glove bag or waste bag which shall not exceed 60 inches in length and width.

Employee exposure means that exposure to airborne asbestos that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Equipment room (change room) means a contaminated room located within the decontamination area that is supplied with impermeable bags or containers for the disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.

Fiber means a particulate form of asbestos, 5 micrometers or longer, with a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1.

Glovebag means not more than a 60 x 60 inch impervious plastic bag-like enclosure affixed around an asbestos-containing material, with glove-like appendages through which material and tools may be handled.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of all mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Homogeneous area means an area of surfacing material or thermal system insulation that is uniform in color and texture.

Industrial hygienist means a professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards.

Intact means that the ACM has not crumbled, been pulverized, or otherwise deteriorated so that the asbestos is no longer likely to be bound with its matrix.

Modification for purposes of paragraph (g)(6)(ii), means a changed or altered procedure, material or component of a control system, which replaces a procedure, material or component of a required system. Omitting a procedure or component, or reducing or diminishing the stringency or strength of a material or component of the control system is not a "modification" for purposes of paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

Negative Initial Exposure Assessment means a demonstration by the employer, which complies with the criteria in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, that employee exposure during an operation is expected to be consistently below the PELs.

PACM means "presumed asbestos containing material".

Presumed Asbestos Containing Material means thermal system insulation and surfacing material found in buildings constructed no later than 1980. The designation of a material as "PACM" may be rebutted pursuant to paragraph (k)(5) of this section.

Project Designer means a person who has successfully completed the training requirements for an abatement project designer established by 40 U.S.C. Sec. 763.90(g).

Regulated area means: an area established by the employer to demarcate areas where Class I, II, and III asbestos work is conducted, and any adjoining area where debris and waste from such asbestos work accumulate; and a work area within which airborne concentrations of asbestos, exceed or there is a reasonable possibility they may exceed the permissible exposure limit. Requirements for regulated areas are set out in paragraph (e) of this section.

Removal means all operations where ACM and/or PACM is taken out or stripped from structures or substrates, and includes demolition operations.

Renovation means the modifying of any existing structure, or portion thereof.

Repair means overhauling, rebuilding, reconstructing, or reconditioning of structures or substrates, including encapsulation or other repair of ACM or PACM attached to structures or substrates.

Surfacing material means material that is sprayed, troweled-on or otherwise applied to surfaces (such as acoustical plaster on ceilings and fireproofing materials on structural members, or other materials on surfaces for acoustical, fireproofing, and other purposes).

Surfacing ACM means surfacing material which contains more than 1% asbestos.

Thermal system insulation (TSI) means ACM applied to pipes, fittings, boilers, breeching, tanks, ducts or other structural components to prevent heat loss or gain.

Thermal system insulation ACM is thermal system insulation which contains more than 1% asbestos.

The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an eight (8) hour time-weighted average (TWA), as determined by the method prescribed in Appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.
The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (1 f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of thirty (30) minutes, as determined by the method prescribed in Appendix A to this section, or by an equivalent method.
On multi-employer worksites, an employer performing work requiring the establishment of a regulated area shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the employer's work with asbestos and/or PACM, of the existence of and requirements pertaining to regulated areas, and the measures taken to ensure that employees of such other employers are not exposed to asbestos.
Asbestos hazards at a multi-employer work site shall be abated by the contractor who created or controls the source of asbestos contamination. For example, if there is a significant breach of an enclosure containing Class I work, the employer responsible for erecting the enclosure shall repair the breach immediately.
In addition, all employers of employees exposed to asbestos hazards shall comply with applicable protective provisions to protect their employees. For example, if employees working immediately adjacent to a Class I asbestos job are exposed to asbestos due to the inadequate containment of such job, their employer shall either remove the employees from the area until the enclosure breach is repaired; or perform an initial exposure assessment pursuant to (f) of this section.
All employers of employees working adjacent to regulated areas established by another employer on a multi-employer work-site, shall take steps on a daily basis to ascertain the integrity of the enclosure and/or the effectiveness of the control method relied on by the primary asbestos contractor to assure that asbestos fibers do not migrate to such adjacent areas.
All general contractors on a construction project which includes work covered by this standard shall be deemed to exercise general supervisory authority over the work covered by this standard, even though the general contractor is not qualified to serve as the asbestos "competent person" as defined by paragraph (b) of this section. As supervisor of the entire project, the general contractor shall ascertain whether the asbestos contractor is in compliance with this standard, and shall require such contractor to come into compliance with this standard when necessary.
All Class I, II and III asbestos work shall be conducted within regulated areas. All other operations covered by this standard shall be conducted within a regulated area where airborne concentrations of asbestos exceed, or there is a reasonable possibility they may exceed a PEL. Regulated areas shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3),(4) and (5) of this section.
The regulated area shall be demarcated in any manner that minimizes the number of persons within the area and protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne asbestos. Where critical barriers or negative pressure enclosures are used, they may demarcate the regulated area. Signs shall be provided and displayed pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (k)(7) of this section.
Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons and to persons authorized by the Act or regulations issued pursuant thereto.
All persons entering a regulated area where employees are required pursuant to paragraph (h)(1) of this section to wear respirators shall be supplied with a respirator selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the regulated area.
The employer shall ensure that all asbestos work performed within regulated areas is supervised by a competent person, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. The duties of the competent person are set out in paragraph (o) of this section.
Each employer who has a workplace or work operation where exposure monitoring is required under this section shall perform monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of asbestos to which employees may be exposed.
Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for employees in each work area. Representative 30-minute short-term employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing 30 minute exposures associated with operations that are most likely to produce exposures above the excursion limit for employees in each work area.
Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee.
Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall ensure that a "competent person" conducts an exposure assessment immediately before or at the initiation of the operation to ascertain expected exposures during that operation or workplace. The assessment must be completed in time to comply with requirements which are triggered by exposure data or the lack of a "negative exposure assessment," and to provide information necessary to assure that all control systems planned are appropriate for that operation and will work properly.
For any one specific asbestos job which will be performed by employees who have been trained in compliance with the standard, the employer may demonstrate that employee exposures will be below the PELs by data which conform to the following criteria;
Objective data demonstrating that the product or material containing asbestos minerals or the activity involving such product or material cannot release airborne fibers in concentrations exceeding the TWA and excursion limit under those work conditions having the greatest potential for releasing asbestos; or
Where the employer has monitored prior asbestos jobs for the PEL and the excursion limit within 12 months of the current or projected job, the monitoring and analysis were performed in compliance with the asbestos standard in effect; and the data were obtained during work operations conducted under workplace conditions "closely resembling" the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the operations were conducted by employees whose training and experience are no more extensive than that of employees performing the current job, and these data show that under the conditions prevailing and which will prevail in the current workplace there is a high degree of certainty that employee exposures will not exceed the TWA and excursion limit; or
The results of initial exposure monitoring of the current job made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee covering operations which are most likely during the performance of the entire asbestos job to result in exposures over the PELs.
Unless a negative exposure assessment has been made pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the initial exposure assessment shall, if feasible, be based on monitoring conducted pursuant to paragraph (f)(1)(iii) of this section. The assessment shall take into consideration both the monitoring results and all observations, information or calculations which indicate employee exposure to asbestos, including any previous monitoring conducted in the workplace, or of the operations of the employer which indicate the levels of airborne asbestos likely to be encountered on the job. For Class I asbestos work, until the employer conducts exposure monitoring and documents that employees on that job will not be exposed in excess of the PELs, or otherwise makes a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the employer shall presume that employees are exposed in excess of the TWA and excursion limit.
The employer shall conduct daily monitoring that is representative of the exposure of each employee who is assigned to work within a regulated area who is performing Class I or II work, unless the employer pursuant to (f)(2)(iii) of this section, has made a negative exposure assessment for the entire operation.
When all employees required to be monitored daily are equipped with supplied-air respirators operated in the pressure demand mode, or other positive pressure mode respirator, the employer may dispense with the daily monitoring required by this paragraph. However, employees performing Class I work using a control method which is not listed in paragraph (g)(4)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section or using a modification of a listed control method, shall continue to be monitored daily even if they are equipped with supplied-air respirators.
All operations under the standard other than Class I and II operations. The employer shall conduct periodic monitoring of all work where exposures are expected to exceed a PEL, at intervals sufficient to document the validity of the exposure prediction.
If the periodic monitoring required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by statistically reliable measurements, are below the permissible exposure limit and excursion limit the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (f)(2) and (3), and (f)(4) of this section, the employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraph (f)(3) of this section whenever there has been a change in process, control equipment, personnel or work practices that may result in new or additional exposures above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit or when the employer has any reason to suspect that a change may result in new or additional exposures above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit. Such additional monitoring is required regardless of whether a "negative exposure assessment" was previously produced for a specific job.
The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
The employer shall provide affected employees and their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with this section.
When observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, the observer shall be provided with and be required to use such clothing and equipment and shall comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
Engineering controls and work practices for all operations covered by this section. The employer shall use the following engineering controls and work practices in all operations covered by this section, regardless of the levels of exposure:
Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters to collect all debris and dust containing ACM and PACM, except as provided in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section in the case of roofing material.
Prompt clean-up and disposal of wastes and debris contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers except in roofing operations, where the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section apply.
Wet methods, or wetting agents, to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, mixing, removal, cutting, application, and cleanup, except where employers demonstrate that the use of wet methods is infeasible due to for example, the creation of electrical hazards, equipment malfunction, and, in roofing, except as provide in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section; and
In addition to the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the employer shall use the following control methods to achieve compliance with the TWA permissible exposure limit and excursion limit prescribed by paragraph (c) of this section;
Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;
Ventilation of the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees and toward a filtration or collection device equipped with a HEPA filter;
Use of other work practices and engineering controls that the Assistant Secretary can show to be feasible.
Wherever the feasible engineering and work practice controls described above are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels attainable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.
Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust;
The following work practices and engineering controls shall not be used for work related to asbestos or for work which disturbs ACM or PACM, regardless of measured levels of asbestos exposure or the results of initial exposure assessments:
High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with point of cut ventilator or enclosures with HEPA filtered exhaust air.
Dry sweeping, shoveling or other dry clean-up of dust and debris containing ACM and PACM.
Employee rotation as a means of reducing employee exposure to asbestos.
Compressed air used to remove asbestos, or materials containing asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.
In addition to the provisions of paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section, the following engineering controls and work practices and procedures shall be used.
All Class I work, including the installation and operation of the control system shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section;
For all Class I jobs, HVAC systems shall be isolated in the regulated area by sealing with a double layer of 6 mil plastic or the equivalent;
For all Class I jobs, impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;
For all Class I jobs, all objects within the regulated area shall be covered with impermeable dropcloths or plastic sheeting which is secured by duct tape or an equivalent.
For all Class I jobs where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment, or where exposure monitoring shows that a PEL is exceeded, the employer shall ventilate the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.
For all Class I jobs involving the removal of more than 25 linear or 10 square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material; for all other Class I jobs, where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, or where employees are working in areas adjacent to the regulated area, while the Class I work is being performed, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:
Critical barriers shall be placed over all the openings to the regulated area, except where activities are performed outdoors; or
The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area surveillance during each work shift at each boundary of the regulated area, showing no visible asbestos dust; and perimeter area monitoring showing that clearance levels contained in 40 CFR Part 763, Subpt. E, of the EPA Asbestos in Schools Rule are met, or that perimeter area levels, measured by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) are no more than background levels representing the same area before the asbestos work began. The results of such monitoring shall be made known to the employer no later than 24 hours from the end of the work shift represented by such monitoring. Exception: For work completed outdoors where employees are not working in areas adjacent to the regulated areas, this paragraph (g)(4)(ii) is satisfied when the specific control methods in paragraph (g)(5) of this section are used.
In addition, Class I asbestos work shall be performed using one or more of the following control methods pursuant to the limitations stated below:
Negative Pressure Enclosure (NPE) systems: NPE systems may be used where the configuration of the work area does not make the erection of the enclosure infeasible, with the following specifications and work practices.
The negative pressure enclosure (NPE) may be of any configuration,
At least 4 air changes per hour shall be maintained in the NPE,
A minimum of -0.02 column inches of water pressure differential, relative to outside pressure, shall be maintained within the NPE as evidenced by manometric measurements,
The NPE shall be kept under negative pressure throughout the period of its use, and
Air movement shall be directed away from employees performing asbestos work within the enclosure, and toward a HEPA filtration or a collection device.
Before beginning work within the enclosure and at the beginning of each shift, the NPE shall be inspected for breaches and smoke-tested for leaks, and any leaks sealed.
Electrical circuits in the enclosure shall be deactivated, unless equipped with ground-fault circuit interrupters.
Negative pressure glove bag systems may be used to remove ACM or PACM from piping.
In addition to specifications for glove bag systems above, negative pressure glove bag systems shall attach HEPA vacuum systems or other devices to bag to prevent collapse during removal.
The employer shall comply with the work practices for glove bag systems in paragraph (g)(5)(ii)(B)(4) of this section.
The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run continually during the operation until it is completed at which time the bag shall be collapsed prior to removal of the bag from the pipe.
Where a separate waste bag is used along with a collection bag and discarded after one use, the collection bag may be reused if rinsed clean with amended water before reuse.
Negative pressure glove boxes may be used to remove ACM or PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices.
Glove boxes shall be constructed with rigid sides and made from metal or other material which can withstand the weight of the ACM and PACM and water used during removal:
A negative pressure generator shall be used to create negative pressure in the system:
An air filtration unit shall be attached to the box:
The box shall be fitted with gloved apertures:
An aperture at the base of the box shall serve as a bagging outlet for waste ACM and water:
A back-up generator shall be present on site:
Waste bags shall consist of 6 mil thick plastic double-bagged before they are filled or plastic thicker than 6 mil.
At least two persons shall perform the removal:
The box shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to each use:
Loose or damaged ACM adjacent to the box shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of 6 mil plastic prior to the job, or otherwise made intact prior to the job.
A HEPA filtration system shall be used to maintain pressure barrier in box.
A water spray process system may be used for removal of ACM and PACM from cold line piping if, employees carrying out such process have completed a 40-hour separate training course in its use, in addition to training required for employees performing Class I work. The system shall meet the following specifications and shall be performed by employees using the following work practices.
Piping shall be surrounded on 3 sides by rigid framing,
A 360 degree water spray, delivered through nozzles supplied by a high pressure separate water line, shall be formed around the piping.
The spray shall collide to form a fine aerosol which provides a liquid barrier between workers and the ACM and PACM.
The system shall be run for at least 10 minutes before removal begins.
All removal shall take place within the water barrier.
The system shall be operated by at least three persons, one of whom shall not perform removal, but shall check equipment, and ensure proper operation of the system.
After removal, the ACM and PACM shall be bagged while still inside the water barrier.
A small walk-in enclosure which accommodates no more than two persons (mini-enclosure) may be used if the disturbance or removal can be completely contained by the enclosure with the following specifications and work practices.
The fabricated or job-made enclosure shall be constructed of 6 mil plastic or equivalent:
The enclosure shall be placed under negative pressure by means of a HEPA filtered vacuum or similar ventilation unit:
Before use, the mini-enclosure shall be inspected for leaks and smoke-tested to detect breaches, and breaches sealed.
Before reuse, the interior shall be completely washed with amended water and HEPA-vacuumed.
During use, air movement shall be directed away from the employee's breathing zone within the mini-enclosure.
Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of piping and elbows and other connections with the following specifications and work practices:
Glovebags shall be made of 6 mil thick plastic and shall be seamless at the bottom.
Glovebags used on elbows and other connections must be designed for that purpose and used without modifications.
Each glovebag shall be installed so that it completely covers the circumference of pipe or other structure where the work is to be done.
Glovebags shall be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to use.
Glovebags may be used only once and may not be moved.
Glovebags shall not be used on surfaces whose temperature exceeds 150 deg. F.
Prior to disposal, glovebags shall be collapsed by removing air within them using a HEPA vacuum.
Before beginning the operation, loose and friable material adjacent to the glovebag/box operation shall be wrapped and sealed in two layers of six mil plastic or otherwise rendered intact,
Where system uses attached waste bag, such bag shall be connected to collection bag using hose or other material which shall withstand pressure of ACM waste and water without losing its integrity:
Sliding valve or other device shall separate waste bag from hose to ensure no exposure when waste bag is disconnected:
At least two persons shall perform Class I glovebag removal operations.
Class I work may be performed using a control method which is not referenced in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, or which modifies a control method referenced in paragraph (g)(5)of this section, if the following provisions are complied with:
The control method shall enclose, contain or isolate the processes or source of airborne asbestos dust, or otherwise capture or redirect such dust before it enters the breathing zone of employees.
A certified industrial hygienist or licensed professional engineer who is also qualified as a project designer as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls and shall certify in writing that the planned control method is adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under worst-case conditions of use, and that the planned control method will prevent asbestos contamination outside the regulated area, as measured by clearance sampling which meets the requirements of EPA's Asbestos in Schools rule issued under AHERA, or perimeter monitoring which meets the criteria in paragraph (g)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.
Where the TSI or surfacing material to be removed is 25 linear or 10 square feet or less , the evaluation required in paragraph (g)(6) of this section may be performed by a "competent person", and may omit consideration of perimeter or clearance monitoring otherwise required.
The evaluation of employee exposure required in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, shall include and be based on sampling and analytical data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under worst-case conditions and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.
Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Class II work.
All Class II work shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.
All Class II asbestos work shall be performed using the work practices and requirements set out above in paragraph (g)(1)(i) through (g)(1)(iii) of this section.
For all indoor Class II jobs, where the employer has not produced a negative exposure assessment pursuant to paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, or where during the job, changed conditions indicate there may be exposure above the PEL or where the employer does not remove the ACM in a substantially intact state, the employer shall use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area;
Critical barriers shall be placed over all openings to the regulated area; or,
The employer shall use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area monitoring or clearance monitoring which meets the criteria set out in paragraph (g)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.
Impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;
Class II asbestos work shall also be performed by complying with the work practices and controls designated for each type of asbestos work to be performed, set out in this paragraph. Where more than one control method may be used for a type of asbestos work, the employer may choose one or a combination of designated control methods. Class II work also may be performed using a method allowed for Class I work, except that glove bags and glove boxes are allowed if they fully enclose the Class II material to be removed.
For removing vinyl and asphalt flooring materials which contain ACM or for which in buildings constructed no later than 1980, the employer has not verified the absence of ACM pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section. The employer shall ensure that employees comply with the following work practices and that employees are trained in these practices pursuant to paragraph (k)(9):
Flooring or its backing shall not be sanded.
Vacuums equipped with HEPA filter, disposable dust bag, and metal floor tool (no brush) shall be used to clean floors.
Resilient sheeting shall be removed by cutting with wetting of the snip point and wetting during delamination. Rip-up of resilient sheet floor material is prohibited.
All scraping of residual adhesive and/or backing shall be performed using wet methods.
Dry sweeping is prohibited.
Mechanical chipping is prohibited unless performed in a negative pressure enclosure which meets the requirements of paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section.
Tiles shall be removed intact, unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.
When tiles are heated and can be removed intact, wetting may be omitted.
Resilient flooring material including associated mastic and backing shall be assumed to be asbestos-containing unless an industrial hygienist determines that it is asbestos-free using recognized analytical techniques.
When removing cementitious asbestos-containing siding and shingles or transite panels containing ACM on building exteriors (other than roofs, where paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section applies) the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:
Cutting, abrading or breaking siding, shingles, or transite panels, shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release cannot be used.
Each panel or shingle shall be sprayed with amended water prior to removal.
Unwrapped or unbagged panels or shingles shall be immediately lowered to the ground via covered dust-tight chute, crane or hoist, or placed in an impervious waste bag or wrapped in plastic sheeting and lowered to the ground no later than the end of the work shift.
Nails shall be cut with flat, sharp instruments.
When removing gaskets containing ACM, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:
If a gasket is visibly deteriorated and unlikely to be removed intact, removal shall be undertaken within a glovebag as described in paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section.
The gasket shall be immediately placed in a disposal container.
Any scraping to remove residue must be performed wet.
When performing any other Class II removal of asbestos containing material for which specific controls have not been listed in paragraph (g)(8)(iv)(A) through (D) of this section, the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are complied with.
The material shall be thoroughly wetted with amended water prior to and during its removal.
The material shall be removed in an intact state unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.
Cutting, abrading or breaking the material shall be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release are not feasible.
Asbestos-containing material removed, shall be immediately bagged or wrapped, or kept wetted until transferred to a closed receptacle, no later than the end of the work shift.
Instead of the work practices and controls listed in paragraph (g)(8)(i) through (v) of this section, the employer may use different or modified engineering and work practice controls if the following provisions are complied with.
The employer shall demonstrate by data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used, that employee exposure will not exceed the PELs under any anticipated circumstances.
A competent person shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and shall certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce direct and indirect employeeexposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions of use and that the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation shall include and be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.
For removing roofing material which contains ACM the employer shall ensure that the following work practices are followed:
Roofing material shall be removed in an intact state to the extent feasible.
Wet methods shall be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact, or that will be rendered not intact during removal, unless such wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.
Cutting machines shall be continuously misted during use, unless a competent person determines that misting substantially decreases worker safety.
When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and an aggregate surface using a power roof cutter, all dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected by a HEPA dust collector, or shall be HEPA vacuumed by vacuuming along the cut line. When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and a smooth surface using a power roof cutter, the dust resulting from the cutting operation shall be collected either by a HEPA dust collector or HEPA vacuuming along the cut line, or by gently sweeping and then carefully and completely wiping up the still-wet dust and debris left along the cut line.
Asbestos-containing material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist:
Any ACM that is not intact shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains on the roof it shall either be kept wet, placed in an impermeable waste bag, or wrapped in plastic sheeting.
Intact ACM shall be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.
Upon being lowered, unwrapped material shall be transferred to a closed receptacle in such manner so as to preclude the dispersion of dust.
Roof level heating and ventilation air intake sources shall be isolated or the ventilation system shall be shut down.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, removal or repair of sections of intact roofing less than 25 square feet in area does not require use of wet methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods which do not render the material non-intact are used to remove the material and no visible dust is created by the removal method used. In determining whether a job involves less than 25 square feet, the employer shall include all removal and repair work performed on the same roof on the same day.
Class III asbestos work shall be conducted using engineering and work practice controls which minimize the exposure to employees performing the asbestos work and to bystander employees.
The work shall be performed using wet methods.
Where the disturbance involves drilling, cutting, abrading, sanding, chipping, breaking, or sawing of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, the employer shall use impermeable dropcloths, and shall isolate the operation using mini-enclosures or glove bag systems pursuant to paragraph (g)(5) of this section or another isolation method.
Where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" for a job, or where monitoring results show the PEL has been exceeded, the employer shall contain the area using impermeable dropcloths and plastic barriers or their equivalent, or shall isolate the operation using a control system listed in and in compliance with paragraph (g)(5) of this section.
Employees performing Class III jobs, which involve the disturbance of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, or where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" or where monitoring results show a PEL has been exceeded, shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.
To the extent feasible, the work shall be performed using local exhaust ventilation.
Class IV asbestos jobs shall be conducted by employees trained pursuant to the asbestos awareness training program set out in paragraph (k)(9) of this section. In addition, all Class IV jobs shall be conducted in conformity with the requirements set out in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, mandating wet methods, HEPA vacuums, and prompt clean up of debris containing ACM or PACM.
Employees cleaning up debris and waste in a regulated area where respirators are required shall wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted pursuant to provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.
Employers of employees who clean up waste and debris in, and employers in control of, areas where friable thermal system insulation or surfacing material is accessible, shall assume that such waste and debris contain asbestos.
Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer who complies with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section. If an employer does not comply with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) or if during the course of the job the material does not remain intact, the provisions of paragraph (g)(8) of this section apply instead of this paragraph (g)(11).
Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person who is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.
The material shall not be sanded, abraded, or ground. Manual methods which do not render the material non-intact shall be used.
Material that has been removed from a roof shall not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it shall be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material shall be removed from the roof as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.
Where roofing products which have been labeled as containing asbestos pursuant to paragraph (k)(8) of this section are installed on non-residential roofs during operations covered by this paragraph (g)(11), the employer shall notify the building owner of the presence and location of such materials no later than the end of the job.
All removal or disturbance of pipeline asphaltic wrap shall be performed using wet methods.
All employees performing work covered by this paragraph (g)(11) shall be trained in a training program that meets the requirements of paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section.
For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:
Class II and III asbestos work that is not performed using wet methods, except for removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative-exposure assessment has been conducted and ACM is removed in an intact state.
Class II and III asbestos work for which a negative-exposure assessment has not been conducted.
Class III asbestos work when TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.
Class IV asbestos work performed within regulated areas where employees who are performing other work are required to use respirators.
Work operations covered by this section for which employees are exposed above the TWA or excursion limit.
Class II asbestos work when ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state.
The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
No employee shall be assigned to asbestos work that requires respirator use if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally while using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the employee's respirator use. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position that they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, it must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, rate of pay, and other job benefits the employee had just prior to such transfer.
Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers must not select or use filtering facepiece respirators for use against asbestos fibers.
Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.
Employers must provide employees with an air-purifying half mask respirator, other than a filtering facepiece respirator, whenever the employees perform:
Class II or Class III asbestos work for which no negative exposure assessment is available.
Class III asbestos work involving disturbance of TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM.
A tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirator or a full facepiece, supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode and equipped with either HEPA egress cartridges or an auxiliary positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment is not available and the exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be at or below 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
A full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in the pressure-demand mode and equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure SCBA whenever the employees are in a regulated area performing Class I asbestos work for which a negative exposure assessment is not available and the exposure assessment indicates that the exposure level will be above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour TWA.
Employers must provide an employee with tight-fitting, powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative pressure respirator selected according to paragraph (h)(3)(i)(A) of this standard when the employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.
The employer shall provide and require the use of protective clothing, such as coveralls or similar whole-body clothing, head coverings, gloves, and foot coverings for any employee exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos that exceed the TWA and/or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, or for which a required negative exposure assessment is not produced, or for any employee performing Class I operations which involve the removal of over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM.
The employer shall ensure that laundering of contaminated clothing is done so as to prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the TWA or excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section to effectively prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the TWA and excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
Contaminated clothing shall be transported in sealed impermeable bags, or other closed, impermeable containers, and be labeled in accordance with paragraph (k) of this section.
The competent person shall examine worksuits worn by employees at least once per workshift for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.
When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working, rips and tears shall be immediately mended, or the worksuit shall be immediately replaced.
Requirements for employees performing Class I asbestos jobs involving over 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM.
The employer shall establish a decontamination area that is adjacent and connected to the regulated area for the decontamination of such employees. The decontamination area shall consist of an equipment room, shower area, and clean room in series. The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the decontamination area.
The equipment room shall be supplied with impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and disposal of contaminated protective equipment.
Shower facilities shall be provided which comply with 29 CFR 1910.141(d)(3), unless the employer can demonstrate that they are not feasible. The showers shall be adjacent both to the equipment room and the clean room, unless the employer can demonstrate that this location is not feasible. Where the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to locate the shower between the equipment room and the clean room, or where the work is performed outdoors, the employers shall ensure that employees:
Remove asbestos contamination from their worksuits in the equipment room using a HEPA vacuum before proceeding to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area; or
Remove their contaminated worksuits in the equipment room, then don clean worksuits, and proceed to a shower that is not adjacent to the work area.
The clean room shall be equipped with a locker or appropriate storage container for each employee's use. When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to provide a clean change area adjacent to the work area or where the work is performed outdoors, the employer may permit employees engaged in Class I asbestos jobs to clean their protective clothing with a portable HEPA-equipped vacuum before such employees leave the regulated area. Following showering, such employees however must then change into street clothing in clean change areas provided by the employer which otherwise meet the requirements of this section.
Before leaving the regulated area, employees shall remove all gross contamination and debris from their protective clothing.
Employees shall remove their protective clothing in the equipment room and deposit the clothing in labeled impermeable bags or containers.
Employees shall not remove their respirators in the equipment room.
Employees shall shower prior to entering the clean room.
After showering, employees shall enter the clean room before changing into street clothes.
Whenever food or beverages are consumed at the worksite where employees are performing Class I asbestos work, the employer shall provide lunch areas in which the airborne concentrations of asbestos are below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit.
The employer shall ensure that employees:
Enter the decontamination area through the clean room;
Remove and deposit street clothing within a locker provided for their use; and
Put on protective clothing and respiratory protection before leaving the clean room.
Before entering the regulated area, the employer shall ensure that employees pass through the equipment room.
Requirements for Class I work involving less than 25 linear or 10 square feet of TSI or surfacing ACM and PACM, and for Class II and Class III asbestos work operations where exposures exceed a PEL or where there is no negative exposure assessment produced before the operation.
The employer shall establish an equipment room or area that is adjacent to the regulated area for the decontamination of employees and their equipment which is contaminated with asbestos which shall consist of an area covered by a impermeable drop cloth on the floor or horizontal working surface.
Work clothing must be cleaned with a HEPA vacuum before it is removed.
All equipment and surfaces of containers filled with ACM must be cleaned prior to removing them from the equipment room or area.
The employer shall ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area through the equipment room or area.
The area must be of sufficient size as to accommodate cleaning of equipment and removing personal protective equipment without spreading contamination beyond the area (as determined by visible accumulations).
Employers shall ensure that employees performing Class IV work within a regulated area comply with the hygiene practice required of employees performing work which has a higher classification within that regulated area. Otherwise employers of employees cleaning up debris and material which is TSI or surfacing ACM or identified as PACM shall provide decontamination facilities for such employees which are required by paragraph (j)(2) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationally exposed to asbestos because of activities in that work area.
This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in construction activities to facilitate compliance with this standard. Most asbestos-related construction activities involve previously installed building materials. Building owners often are the only and/or best sources of information concerning them. Therefore, they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section. Installed Asbestos Containing Building Material. Employers and building owners shall identify TSI and sprayed or troweled on surfacing materials in buildings as asbestos-containing, unless they determine in compliance with paragraph (k)(5) of this section that the material is not asbestos-containing. Asphalt and vinyl flooring material installed no later than 1980 must also be considered as asbestos containing unless the employer, pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section determines that it is not asbestos-containing. If the employer/building owner has actual knowledge, or should have known through the exercise of due diligence, that other materials are asbestos-containing, they too must be treated as such. When communicating information to employees pursuant to this standard, owners and employers shall identify "PACM" as ACM. Additional requirements relating to communication of asbestos work on multi-employer worksites are set out in paragraph (d) of this section.
The employer shall include asbestos in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of asbestos and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraphs (k)(9) and (10) of this section. The employer shall provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer and lung effects.
Before work subject to this standard is begun, building and facility owners shall determine the presence, location, and quantity of ACM and/or PACM at the work site pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.
Building and/or facility owners shall notify the following persons of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at the work sites in their buildings and facilities. Notification either shall be in writing, or shall consist of a personal communication between the owner and the person to whom notification must be given or their authorized representatives:
Prospective employers applying or bidding for work whose employees reasonably can be expected to work in or adjacent to areas containing such material;
Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material:
On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials;
Tenants who will occupy areas containing such material.
Duties of employers whose employees perform work subject to this standard in or adjacent to areas containing ACM and PACM. Building/facility owners whose employees perform such work shall comply with these provisions to the extent applicable.
Before work in areas containing ACM and PACM is begun; employers shall identify the presence, location, and quantity of ACM, and/or PACM therein pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.
Within 10 days of the completion of such work, the employer whose employees have performed work subject to this standard, shall inform the building/facility owner and employers of employees who will be working in the area of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the area and final monitoring results, if any.
Before work under this standard is performed employers of employees who will perform such work shall inform the following persons of the location and quantity of ACM and/or PACM present in the area and the precautions to be taken to insure that airborne asbestos is confined to the area.
Employees who will perform such work and employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas.
In addition to the above requirements, all employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a worksite shall convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of such newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the owner and to other employers of employees working at the work site, within 24 hours of the discovery.
At any time, an employer and/or building owner may demonstrate, for purposes of this standard, that PACM does not contain asbestos. Building owners and/or employers are not required to communicate information about the presence of building material for which such a demonstration pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (k)(5)(ii) of this section has been made. However, in all such cases, the information, data and analysis supporting the determination that PACM does not contain asbestos, shall be retained pursuant to paragraph (n) of this section.
The employer and/or building owner may demonstrate that flooring material including associated mastic and backing does not contain asbestos, by a determination of an industrial hygienist based upon recognized analytical techniques showing that the material is not ACM.
An employer or owner may demonstrate that PACM does not contain more than 1 percent asbestos by the following:
Having a completed inspection conducted pursuant to the requirements of AHERA (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E) which demonstrates that the material is not ACM; or
Performing tests of the material containing PACM which demonstrate that no ACM is present in the material. Such tests shall include analysis of bulk samples collected in the manner described in 40 CFR 763.86. The tests, evaluation and sample collection shall be conducted by an accredited inspector or by a CIH. Analysis of samples shall be performed by persons or laboratories with proficiency demonstrated by current successful participation in a nationally recognized testing program such as the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) or the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) or the Round Robin for bulk samples administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) or an equivalent nationally-recognized round robin testing program.
At the entrance to mechanical rooms/areas in which employees reasonably can be expected to enter and which contain ACM and/or PACM, the building owner shall post signs which identify the material which is present, its location, and appropriate work practices which, if followed, will ensure that ACM and/or PACM will not be disturbed. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.
Warning signs that demarcate the regulated area shall be provided and displayed at each location where a regulated area is required to be established by paragraph (e) of this section. Signs shall be posted at such a distance from such a location that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area marked by the signs.
The employer shall ensure that employees working in and contiguous to regulated areas comprehend the warning signs required to be posted by paragraph (k)(7)(i) of this section. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs and graphics.
The warning signs required by paragraph (k)(7) of this section shall bear the following information.

DANGER
ASBESTOS
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
In addition, where the use of respirators and protective clothing is required in the regulated area under this section, the warning signs shall include the following:

WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN THIS AREA
Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (k)(7)(ii)(A) of this section:

DANGER
ASBESTOS
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (k)(7)(ii)(B) of this section:

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
Labels shall be affixed to all products containing asbestos and to all containers containing such products, including waste containers. Where feasible, installed asbestos products shall contain a visible label.
The employer shall ensure that labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers bear the following information:

DANGER
CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS
DO NOT BREATHE DUST
AVOID CREATING DUST
Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on raw materials, mixtures or labels of bags or containers of protective clothing and equipment, scrap, waste, and debris containing asbestos fibers in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraphs (k)(8)(ii) and (k)(8)(iii) of this section:

DANGER
CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS
AVOID CREATING DUST
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
Labels shall also contain a warning statement against breathing asbestos fibers.
The provisions for labels required by paragraphs (k)(8)(i) through (k)(8)(iii) of this section do not apply where:
Asbestos fibers have been modified by a bonding agent, coating, binder, or other material, provided that the manufacturer can demonstrate that, during any reasonably foreseeable use, handling, storage, disposal, processing, or transportation, no airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers in excess of the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit will be released, or
Asbestos is present in a product in concentrations less than 1.0 percent.
When a building owner or employer identifies previously installed PACM and/or ACM, labels or signs shall be affixed or posted so that employees will be notified of what materials contain PACM and/or ACM. The employer shall attach such labels in areas where they will clearly be noticed by employees who are likely to be exposed, such as at the entrance to mechanical room/areas. Signs required by paragraph (k)(6) of this section may be posted in lieu of labels so long as they contain information required for labelling. The employer shall ensure, to the extent feasible, that employees who come in contact with these signs or labels can comprehend them. Means to ensure employee comprehension may include the use of foreign languages, pictographs, graphics, and awareness training.
The employer shall ensure that such labels comply with paragraphs (k) of this section.
The employer shall train each employee who is likely to be exposed in excess of a PEL, and each employee who performs Class I through IV asbestos operations, in accordance with the requirements of this section. Such training shall be conducted at no cost to the employee. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.
Training for Class I operations and for Class II operations that require the use of critical barriers (or equivalent isolation methods) and/or negative pressure enclosures under this section shall be the equivalent in curriculum, training method and length to the EPA Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) asbestos abatement workers training (40 CFR Part 763, subpart E, appendix C).
For work with asbestos containing roofing materials, flooring materials, siding materials, ceiling tiles, or transite panels, training shall include at a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to that category. Such course shall include "hands-on" training and shall take at least 8 hours.
An employee who works with more than one of the categories of material specified in paragraph (k)(9)(iv)(A) of this section shall receive training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee removes and each removal method that the employee uses.
For Class II operations not involving the categories of material specified in paragraph (k)(9)(iv)(A) of this section, training shall be provided which shall include at a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to the category of material being removed, and shall include "hands-on" training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee removes and each removal method that the employee uses.
Training for Class III employees shall be consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2). Such a course shall also include "hands-on" training and shall take at least 16 hours. Exception: For Class III operations for which the competent person determines that the EPA curriculum does not adequately cover the training needed to perform that activity, training shall include as a minimum all the elements included in paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section and in addition, the specific work practices and engineering controls set forth in paragraph (g) of this section which specifically relate to that activity, and shall include "hands-on" training in the work practices applicable to each category of material that the employee disturbs.
Training for employees performing Class IV operations shall be consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(1). Such a course shall include available information concerning the locations of thermal system insulation and surfacing ACM/PACM, and asbestos-containing flooring material, or flooring material where the absence of asbestos has not yet been certified; and instruction in recognition of damage, deterioration, and delamination of asbestos containing building materials. Such course shall take at least 2 hours.
Training for employees who are likely to be exposed in excess of the PEL and who are not otherwise required to be trained under paragraph (k)(9)(iii) through (vi) of this section, shall meet the requirements of paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section.
The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. In addition to the content required by provisions in paragraphs (k)(9)(iii) through (vi) of this section, the employer shall ensure that each such employee is informed of the following:
Methods of recognizing asbestos, including the requirement in paragraph (k)(1) of this section to presume that certain building materials contain asbestos;
The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;
The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer;
The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the importance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as applicable, engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures, and any necessary instruction in the use of these controls and procedures; where Class III and IV work will be or is performed, the contents of EPA 20T-2003, "Managing Asbestos In-Place" July 1990 or its equivalent in content;
The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions, and limitations of respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134;
The appropriate work practices for performing the asbestos job;
Medical surveillance program requirements;
The content of this standard including appendices;
The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in Appendix J to this section, to comply with this requirement; and
The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels.
Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
The employer shall make readily available to affected employees without cost, written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this regulation.
The employer shall inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer shall distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No, 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in Appendix J to this section.
The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information and training program.
Where vacuuming methods are selected, HEPA filtered vacuuming equipment must be used. The equipment shall be used and emptied in a manner that minimizes the reentry of asbestos into the workplace.
Asbestos waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and contaminated clothing consigned for disposal shall be collected and disposed of in sealed, labeled, impermeable bags or other closed, labeled, impermeable containers except in roofing operations where the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section apply.
All vinyl and asphalt flooring material shall be maintained in accordance with this paragraph unless the building/facility owner demonstrates, pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i)(I) of this section that the flooring does not contain asbestos.
Stripping of finishes shall be conducted using low abrasion pads at speeds lower than 300 rpm and wet methods.
Burnishing or dry buffing may be performed only on flooring which has sufficient finish so that the pad cannot contact the flooring material.
Sanding of flooring material is prohibited.
Waste and debris and accompanying dust in an area containing accessible thermal system insulation or surfacing ACM/PACM or visibly deteriorated ACM:
Shall not be dusted or swept dry, or vacuumed without using a HEPA filter;
Shall be promptly cleaned up and disposed of in leak tight containers.
The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who for a combined total of 30 or more days per year are engaged in Class I, II and III work or are exposed at or above a permissible exposure limit. For purposes of this paragraph, any day in which a worker engages in Class II or Class III operations or a combination thereof on intact material for one hour or less (taking into account the entire time spent on the removal operation, including cleanup) and, while doing so, adheres fully to the work practices specified in this standard, shall not be counted.
For employees otherwise required by this standard to wear a negative pressure respirator, employers shall ensure employees are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. This determination shall be made under the supervision of a physician.
The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, and are provided at no cost to the employee and at a reasonable time and place.
Persons other than such licensed physicians who administer the pulmonary function testing required by this section shall complete a training course in spirometry sponsored by an appropriate academic or professional institution.
The employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under paragraph (m)(1)(i) of this section on the following schedules:
Prior to assignment of the employee to an area where negative-pressure respirators are worn;
When the employee is assigned to an area where exposure to asbestos may be at or above the permissible exposure limit for 30 or more days per year, or engage in Class I, II, or III work for a combined total of 30 or more days per year, a medical examination must be given within 10 working days following the thirtieth day of exposure;
And at least annually thereafter.
If the examining physician determines that any of the examinations should be provided more frequently than specified, the employer shall provide such examinations to affected employees at the frequencies specified by the physician.
No medical examination is required of any employee if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with this paragraph within the past 1-year period.
Medical examinations made available pursuant to paragraphs (m)(2)(i)(A) through (m)(2)(i)(C) of this section shall include:
A medical and work history with special emphasis directed to the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems.
On initial examination, the standardized questionnaire contained in Part 1 of Appendix D to this section, and, on annual examination, the abbreviated standardized questionnaire contained in Part 2 of Appendix D to this section.
A physical examination directed to the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, including a chest roentgenogram to be administered at the discretion of the physician, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV(1)). Interpretation and classification of chest shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix E to this section.
Any other examinations or tests deemed necessary by the examining physician.
The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
A copy of this standard and Appendices D, E, and I to this section;
The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure level;
A description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used; and
Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee that is not otherwise available to the examining physician.
A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the examining physician. This written opinion shall contain the results of the medical examination and shall include:
The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to asbestos;
Any recommended limitations on the employee or on the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators; and
A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos exposure.
A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the increased risk of lung cancer attributable to the combined effect of smoking and asbestos exposure.
The employer shall provide a copy of the physician's written opinion to the affected employee within 30 days from its receipt.
The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to asbestos.
Objective data relied on pursuant to paragraph (f) to this section.
Where the employer has relied on objective data that demonstrates that products made from or containing asbestos or the activity involving such products or material are not capable of releasing fibers of asbestos in concentrations at or above the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (f), the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
The record shall include at least the following information:
The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of asbestos;
A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and
Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to asbestos as prescribed in paragraph (f) of this section. NOTE: The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.
The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.
The operation involving exposure to asbestos that is being monitored;
Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
Type of protective devices worn, if any; and
Name, social security number, and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented.
The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by paragraph (m) of this section, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.
The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.20.
The record shall include at least the following information:
The name and social security number of the employee;
A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physician's recommendations.
Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to asbestos; and
A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (m) of this section.
The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment by that employer.
Where the building owner and employer have relied on data to demonstrate that PACM is not asbestos-containing, such data shall be maintained for as long as they are relied upon to rebut the presumption.
Where the building owner has communicated and received information concerning the identification, location and quantity of ACM and PACM, written records of such notifications and their content shall be maintained by the building owner for the duration of ownership and shall be transferred to successive owners of such buildings/facilities.
The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.
The employer must comply with the requirements concerning availability of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020.
The employer must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).
On all construction worksites covered by this standard, the employer shall designate a competent person, having the qualifications and authorities for ensuring worker safety and health required by Subpart C, General Safety and Health Provisions for Construction (29 CFR 1926.20 through 1926.32).
Section 1926.20(b)(2) which requires health and safety prevention programs to provide for frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by competent persons, is incorporated.
In addition, the competent person shall make frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, in order to perform the duties set out below in paragraph (o)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section. For Class I jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at least once during each work shift, and at any time at employee request. For Class II, III, and IV jobs, on-site inspections shall be made at intervals sufficient to assess whether conditions have changed, and at any reasonable time at employee request.
On all worksites where employees are engaged in Class I or II asbestos work, the competent person designated in accordance with paragraph (e)(6) of this section shall perform or supervise the following duties, as applicable:
Set up the regulated area, enclosure, or other containment;
Ensure (by on-site inspection) the integrity of the enclosure or containment;
Set up procedures to control entry to and exit from the enclosure and/or area;
Supervise all employee exposure monitoring required by this section and ensure that it is conducted as required by paragraph (f) of this section;
Ensure that employees working within the enclosure and/or using glove bags wear respirators and protective clothing as required by paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section;
Ensure through on-site supervision, that employees set up, use and remove engineering controls, use work practices and personal protective equipment in compliance with all requirements;
Ensure that employees use the hygiene facilities and observe the decontamination procedures specified in paragraph (j) of this section;
Ensure that through on-site inspection, engineering controls are functioning properly and employees are using proper work practices; and,
Ensure that notification requirement in paragraph (k) of this section are met.
For Class I and II asbestos work the competent person shall be trained in all aspects of asbestos removal and handling, including: abatement, installation, removal and handling; the contents of this standard; the identification of asbestos; removal procedures, where appropriate; and other practices for reducing the hazard. Such training shall be obtained in a comprehensive course for supervisors that meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accredited Plan (40 CFR part 763, subpart E, Appendix C), such as a course conducted by an EPA-approved or state-approved training provider, certified by EPA or a state, or a course equivalent in stringency, content, and length.
For Class III and IV asbestos work, the competent person shall be trained in aspects of asbestos handling appropriate for the nature of the work, to include procedures for setting up glove bags and mini-enclosures, practices for reducing asbestos exposures, use of wet methods, the contents of this standard, and the identification of asbestos. Such training shall include successful completion of a course that is consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92(a)(2), or its equivalent in stringency, content, and length. Competent persons for Class III and IV work, may also be trained pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (o)(4)(i) of this section.
Appendices A, C, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.
Appendices B, F, H, I, J, and K to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

[59 FR 40964, Aug. 10, 1994; 60 FR 9624, Feb. 21, 1995; 60 FR 33343, June 28, 1995; 60 FR 33972, June 29, 1995; 60 FR 36043, July 13, 1995; 60 FR 50411, Sept. 29, 1995; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 43454, August 23, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20098, April 23, 1998; 63 FR 35138, June 29, 1998; 70 FR 1143, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16675, April 3, 2006; 71 FR 50191, August 24, 2006; 73 FR 755889, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33612, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17895, March 26, 2012]
This mandatory appendix specifies the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis. The sampling and analytical methods described below represent the elements of the available monitoring methods (such as Appendix B of this regulation, the most current version of the OSHA method ID-160, or the most current version of the NIOSH Method 7400). All employers who are required to conduct air monitoring under paragraph (f) of the standard are required to utilize analytical laboratories that use this procedure, or an equivalent method, for collecting and analyzing samples.

Sampling and Analytical Procedure
  1. The sampling medium for air samples shall be mixed cellulose ester filter membranes. These shall be designated by the manufacturer as suitable for asbestos counting. See below for rejection of blanks.
  2. The preferred collection device shall be the 25-mm diameter cassette with an open-faced 50-mm electrically conductive extension cowl. The 37-mm cassette may be used if necessary but only if written justification for the need to use the 37-mm filter cassette accompanies the sample results in the employee's exposure monitoring record. Do not reuse or reload cassettes for asbestos sample collection.
  3. An air flow rate between 0.5 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected for the 25/mm cassette. If the 37-mm cassette is used, an air flow rate between 1 liter/min and 2.5 liters/min shall be selected.
  4. Where possible, a sufficient air volume for each air sample shall be collected to yield between 100 and 1,300 fibers per square millimeter on the membrane filter. If a filter darkens in appearance or if loose dust is seen on the filter, a second sample shall be started.
  5. Ship the samples in a rigid container with sufficient packing material to prevent dislodging the collected fibers. Packing material that has a high electrostatic charge on its surface (e.g., expanded polystyrene) cannot be used because such material can cause loss of fibers to the sides of the cassette.
  6. Calibrate each personal sampling pump before and after use with a representative filter cassette installed between the pump and the calibration devices.
  7. Personal samples shall be taken in the "breathing zone" of the employee (i.e., attached to or near the collar or lapel near the worker's face).
  8. Fiber counts shall be made by positive phase contrast using a microscope with an 8 to 10 X eyepiece and a 40 to 45 X objective for a total magnification of approximately 400 X and a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75. The microscope shall also be fitted with a green or blue filter.
  9. The microscope shall be fitted with a Walton-Beckett eyepiece graticule calibrated for a field diameter of 100 micrometers (+/- 2 micrometers).
  10. The phase-shift detection limit of the microscope shall be about 3 degrees measured using the HSE phase shift test slide as outlined below.
    1. Place the test slide on the microscope stage and center it under the phase objective.
    2. Bring the blocks of grooved lines into focus.

      Note: The slide consists of seven sets of grooved lines (ca. 20 grooves to each block) in descending order of visibility from sets 1 to 7, seven being the least visible. The requirements for asbestos counting are that the microscope optics must resolve the grooved lines in set 3 completely, although they may appear somewhat faint, and that the grooved lines in sets 6 and 7 must be invisible. Sets 4 and 5 must be at least partially visible but may vary slightly in visibility between microscopes. A microscope that fails to meet these requirements has either too low or too high a resolution to be used for asbestos counting.
    3. If the image deteriorates, clean and adjust the microscope optics. If the problem persists, consult the microscope manufacturer.
  11. Each set of samples taken will include 10% field blanks or a minimum of 2 field blanks. These blanks must come from the same lot as the filters used for sample collection. The field blank results shall be averaged and subtracted from the analytical results before reporting. A set consists of any sample or group of samples for which an evaluation for this standard must be made. Any samples represented by a field blank having a fiber count in excess of the detection limit of the method being used shall be rejected.
  12. The samples shall be mounted by the acetone/triacetin method or a method with an equivalent index of refraction and similar clarity.
  13. Observe the following counting rules.
    1. Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 micrometers. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.
    2. In the absence of other information, count all particles as asbestos that have a length-to-width ratio (aspect ratio) of 3:1 or greater.
    3. Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle, shall receive the count of one half (1/2). Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area.
    4. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be identified by observing both ends of an individual fiber.
    5. Count enough graticule fields to yield 100 fibers. Count a minimum of 20 fields; stop counting at 100 fields regardless of fiber count.
  14. Blind recounts shall be conducted at the rate of 10 percent.


Quality Control Procedures
  1. Intralaboratory program. Each laboratory and/or each company with more than one microscopist counting slides shall establish a statistically designed quality assurance program involving blind recounts and comparisons between microscopists to monitor the variability of counting by each microscopist and between microscopists. In a company with more than one laboratory, the program shall include all laboratories, and shall also evaluate the laboratory-to-laboratory variability.
    1. Interlaboratory program. Each laboratory analyzing asbestos samples for compliance determination shall implement an interlaboratory quality assurance program that, as a minimum, includes participation of at least two other independent laboratories. Each laboratory shall participate in round robin testing at least once every 6 months with at least all the other laboratories in its interlaboratory quality assurance group. Each laboratory shall submit slides typical of its own workload for use in this program. The round robin shall be designed and results analyzed using appropriate statistical methodology.
    2. All laboratories should also participate in a national sample testing scheme such as the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program (PAT), or the Asbestos Registry sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).
  2. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos dust or an equivalent course.
  3. When the use of different microscopes contributes to differences between counters and laboratories, the effect of the different microscope shall be evaluated and the microscope shall be replaced, as necessary.
  4. Current results of these quality assurance programs shall be posted in each laboratory to keep the microscopists informed.
Matrix
Matrix:
  OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits:
Time Weighted Average
Excursion Level (30 minutes)


0.1fiber/cc
1.0 fiber/cc
Collection Procedure:
A known volume of air is drawn through a 25-mm diameter cassette
containing a mixed-cellulose ester filter. The cassette must be
equipped with an electrically conductive 50-mm extension cowl.
The sampling time and rate are chosen to give a fiber density of
between 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm2 on the filter.

Recommended Sampling Rate 0.5 to 5.0 liters/
minute (L/min)
Recommended Air Volumes:
Minimum
25 L
Maximum
2,400 L


Analytical Procedure:

A portion of the sample filter is cleared and prepared for asbestos fiber counting by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) at 400X.

Commercial manufacturers and products mentioned in this method are for descriptive use only and do not constitute endorsements by USDOL-OSHA. Similar products from other sources can be substituted.
  1. Introduction

    This method describes the collection of airborne asbestos fibers using calibrated sampling pumps with mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters and analysis by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). Some terms used are unique to this method and are defined below: Asbestos: A term for naturally occurring fibrous minerals. Asbestos includes chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos), tremolite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered. The precise chemical formulation of each species will vary with the location from which it was mined. Nominal compositions are listed:

    Chrysotile Mg(3)Si(2)O(5)(OH)(4)
    Crocidolite Na(2)Fe(3)(2)+Fe(2)(3)+Si(8)O(22)(OH)(2)
    Amosite (Mg,Fe)(7)Si(8)O(22)(OH)(2)
    Tremolite-actinolite Ca(2)(Mg,Fe)(5)Si(8)O(22)(OH)(2)
    Anthophyllite (Mg,Fe)(7)Si(8)O(22)(OH)(2)


    Asbestos Fiber: A fiber of asbestos which meets the criteria specified below for a fiber.

    Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the length of a fiber to it's diameter (e.g. 3:1, 5:1 aspect ratios).

    Cleavage Fragments: Mineral particles formed by comminution of minerals, especially those characterized by parallel sides and a moderate aspect ratio (usually less than 20:1).

    Detection Limit: The number of fibers necessary to be 95% certain that the result is greater than zero.

    Differential Counting: The term applied to the practice of excluding certain kinds of fibers from the fiber count because they do not appear to be asbestos.

    Fiber: A particle that is 5 um or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of 3 to 1 or longer.

    Field: The area within the graticule circle that is superimposed on the microscope image.

    Set: The samples which are taken, submitted to the laboratory, analyzed, and for which, interim or final result reports are generated.

    Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite: The non-asbestos form of these minerals which meet the definition of a fiber. It includes any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

    Walton-Beckett Graticule: An eyepiece graticule specifically designed for asbestos fiber counting. It consists of a circle with a projected diameter of 100 plus or minus 2 um (area of about 0.00785 mm(2)) with a crosshair having tic-marks at 3-um intervals in one direction and 5-um in the orthogonal direction. There are marks around the periphery of the circle to demonstrate the proper sizes and shapes of fibers. This design is reproduced in Figure 1. The disk is placed in one of the microscope eyepieces so that the design is superimposed on the field of view.

    1. 1.1. History

      Early surveys to determine asbestos exposures were conducted using impinger counts of total dust with the counts expressed as million particles per cubic foot. The British Asbestos Research Council recommended filter membrane counting in 1969. In July 1969, the Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health published a filter membrane method for counting asbestos fibers in the United States. This method was refined by NIOSH and published as P & CAM 239. On May 29, 1971, OSHA specified filter membrane sampling with phase contrast counting for evaluation of asbestos exposures at work sites in the United States. The use of this technique was again required by OSHA in 1986. Phase contrast microscopy has continued to be the method of choice for the measurement of occupational exposure to asbestos.
    2. 1.2. Principle

      Air is drawn through a MCE filter to capture airborne asbestos fibers. A wedge shaped portion of the filter is removed, placed on a glass microscope slide and made transparent. A measured area (field) is viewed by PCM. All the fibers meeting defined criteria for asbestos are counted and considered a measure of the airborne asbestos concentration.
    3. 1.3. Advantages and Disadvantages

      There are four main advantages of PCM over other methods:
      1. The technique is specific for fibers. Phase contrast is a fiber counting technique which excludes non-fibrous particles from the analysis.
      2. The technique is inexpensive and does not require specialized knowledge to carry out the analysis for total fiber counts.
      3. The analysis is quick and can be performed on-site for rapid determination of air concentrations of asbestos fibers.
      4. The technique has continuity with historical epidemiological studies so that estimates of expected disease can be inferred from long-term determinations of asbestos exposures.

      The main disadvantage of PCM is that it does not positively identify asbestos fibers. Other fibers which are not asbestos may be included in the count unless differential counting is performed. This requires a great deal of experience to adequately differentiate asbestos from non-asbestos fibers. Positive identification of asbestos must be performed by polarized light or electron microscopy techniques. A further disadvantage of PCM is that the smallest visible fibers are about 0.2 um in diameter while the finest asbestos fibers may be as small as 0.02 um in diameter. For some exposures, substantially more fibers may be present than are actually counted.
    4. 1.4. Workplace Exposure

      Asbestos is used by the construction industry in such products as shingles, floor tiles, asbestos cement, roofing felts, insulation and acoustical products. Non-construction uses include brakes, clutch facings, paper, paints, plastics, and fabrics. One of the most significant exposures in the workplace is the removal and encapsulation of asbestos in schools, public buildings, and homes. Many workers have the potential to be exposed to asbestos during these operations.

      About 95% of the asbestos in commercial use in the United States is chrysotile. Crocidolite and amosite make up most of the remainder. Anthophyllite and tremolite or actinolite are likely to be encountered as contaminants in various industrial products.
    5. 1.5. Physical Properties

      Asbestos fiber possesses a high tensile strength along its axis, is chemically inert, non-combustible, and heat resistant. It has a high electrical resistance and good sound absorbing properties. It can be weaved into cables, fabrics or other textiles, and also matted into asbestos papers, felts, or mats.
  2. Range and Detection Limit
    1. 2.1. The ideal counting range on the filter is 100 to 1,300 fibers/mm(2). With a Walton-Beckett graticule this range is equivalent to 0.8 to 10 fibers/field. Using NIOSH counting statistics, a count of 0.8 fibers/field would give an approximate coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13.
    2. 2.2. The detection limit for this method is 4.0 fibers per 100 fields or 5.5 fibers/mm(2). This was determined using an equation to estimate the maximum CV possible at a specific concentration (95% confidence) and a Lower Control Limit of zero. The CV value was then used to determine a corresponding concentration from historical CV vs fiber relationships. As an example:

      Lower Control Limit (95% Confidence) = AC -- 1.645(CV)(AC)

      Where:
      AC
      = Estimate of the airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc) Setting the
      Lower Control Limit = 0 and solving for CV:
      O
      = AC -- 1.645(CV)(AC)
      CV = 0.61


      This value was compared with CV vs. count curves. The count at which CV = 0.61 for Leidel-Busch counting statistics or for an OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center (OSHA-SLTC) CV curve (see Appendix A for further information) was 4.4 fibers or 3.9 fibers per 100 fields, respectively. Although a lower detection limit of 4 fibers per 100 fields is supported by the OSHA-SLTC data, both data sets support the 4.5 fibers per 100 fields value.
  3. Method Performance -- Precision and Accuracy

    Precision is dependent upon the total number of fibers counted and the uniformity of the fiber distribution on the filter. A general rule is to count at least 20 and not more than 100 fields. The count is discontinued when 100 fibers are counted, provided that 20 fields have already been counted. Counting more than 100 fibers results in only a small gain in precision. As the total count drops below 10 fibers, an accelerated loss of precision is noted.

    At this time, there is no known method to determine the absolute accuracy of the asbestos analysis. Results of samples prepared through the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program and analyzed by the OSHA-SLTC showed no significant bias when compared to PAT reference values. The PAT samples were analyzed from 1987 to 1989 (N = 36) and the concentration range was from 120 to 1,300 fibers/mm(2).
  4. Interferences

    Fibrous substances, if present, may interfere with asbestos analysis.

    Some common fibers are:

    Fiberglass
    Anhydrite
    Plant Fibers
    Perlite Veins
    Gypsum
    Some Synthetic Fibers
    Membrane Structures
    Sponge Spicules
    Diatoms
    Microorganisms
    Wollastonite

    The use of electron microscopy or optical tests such as polarized light, and dispersion staining may be used to differentiate these materials from asbestos when necessary.
  5. Sampling
    1. 5.1 Equipment
      1. 5.1.1. Sample assembly (The assembly is shown in Figure 3). Conductive filter holder consisting of a 25-mm diameter, 3-piece cassette having a 50-mm long electrically conductive extension cowl. Backup pad, 25-mm, cellulose. Membrane filter, mixed-cellulose ester (MCE), 25-mm, plain, white, 0.4 to 1.2-um pore size.

        Notes:
        1. DO NOT RE-USE CASSETTES.
        2. Fully conductive cassettes are required to reduce fiber loss to the sides of the cassette due to electrostatic attraction.
        3. Purchase filters which have been selected by the manufacturer for asbestos counting or analyze representative filters for fiber background before use. Discard the filter lot if more than 4 fibers/ 100 fields are found.
        4. To decrease the possibility of contamination, the sampling system (filter-backup pad-cassette) for asbestos is usually preassembled by the manufacturer.
        5. Other cassettes, such as the Bell-mouth, may be used within the limits of their validation.
      2. 5.1.2. Gel bands for sealing cassettes.
      3. 5.1.3. Sampling pump.

        Each pump must be a battery operated, self-contained unit small enough to be placed on the monitored employee and not interfere with the work being performed. The pump must be capable of sampling at the collection rate for the required sampling time.
      4. 5.1.4. Flexible tubing, 6-mm bore.
      5. 5.1.5. Pump calibration.
      Stopwatch and bubble tube/burette or electronic meter.
    2. 5.2. Sampling Procedure
      1. 5.2.1. Seal the point where the base and cowl of each cassette meet with a gel band or tape.
      2. 5.2.2. Charge the pumps completely before beginning.
      3. 5.2.3. Connect each pump to a calibration cassette with an appropriate length of 6-mm bore plastic tubing. Do not use luer connectors -- the type of cassette specified above has built-in adapters.
      4. 5.2.4. Select an appropriate flow rate for the situation being monitored. The sampling flow rate must be between 0.5 and 5.0 L/min for personal sampling and is commonly set between 1 and 2 L/min. Always choose a flow rate that will not produce overloaded filters.
      5. 5.2.5. Calibrate each sampling pump before and after sampling with a calibration cassette in-line (Note: This calibration cassette should be from the same lot of cassettes used for sampling). Use a primary standard (e.g. bubble burette) to calibrate each pump. If possible, calibrate at the sampling site.

        Note: If sampling site calibration is not possible, environmental influences may affect the flow rate. The extent is dependent on the type of pump used. Consult with the pump manufacturer to determine dependence on environmental influences. If the pump is affected by temperature and pressure changes, correct the flow rate using the formula shown in the section "Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections" at the end of this appendix.
      6. 5.2.6. Connect each pump to the base of each sampling cassette with flexible tubing. Remove the end cap of each cassette and take each air sample open face. Assure that each sample cassette is held open side down in the employee's breathing zone during sampling. The distance from the nose/mouth of the employee to the cassette should be about 10 cm. Secure the cassette on the collar or lapel of the employee using spring clips or other similar devices.
      7. 5.2.7. A suggested minimum air volume when sampling to determine TWA compliance is 25 L. For Excursion Limit (30 min sampling time) evaluations, a minimum air volume of 48 L is recommended.
      8. 5.2.8. The most significant problem when sampling for asbestos is overloading the filter with non-asbestos dust. Suggested maximum air sample volumes for specific environments are:

        Environment Air Vol. (L)

        Asbestos removal operations (visible dust) 100.
        Asbestos removal operations (little dust) 240.
        Office environments 400 to 2,400.


        CAUTION: Do not overload the filter with dust. High levels of non-fibrous dust particles may obscure fibers on the filter and lower the count or make counting impossible. If more than about 25 to 30% of the field area is obscured with dust, the result may be biased low. Smaller air volumes may be necessary when there is excessive non-asbestos dust in the air.

        While sampling, observe the filter with a small flashlight. If there is a visible layer of dust on the filter, stop sampling, remove and seal the cassette, and replace with a new sampling assembly. The total dust loading should not exceed 1 mg.
      9. 5.2.9. Blank samples are used to determine if any contamination has occurred during sample handling. Prepare two blanks for the first 1 to 20 samples. For sets containing greater than 20 samples, prepare blanks as 10% of the samples. Handle blank samples in the same manner as air samples with one exception: Do not draw any air through the blank samples. Open the blank cassette in the place where the sample cassettes are mounted on the employee. Hold it open for about 30 seconds. Close and seal the cassette appropriately. Store blanks for shipment with the sample cassettes.
      10. 5.2.10. Immediately after sampling, close and seal each cassette with the base and plastic plugs. Do not touch or puncture the filter membrane as this will invalidate the analysis.
      11. 5.2.11. Attach and secure a sample seal around each sample cassette in such a way as to assure that the end cap and base plugs cannot be removed without destroying the seal. Tape the ends of the seal together since the seal is not long enough to be wrapped end-to-end. Also wrap tape around the cassette at each joint to keep the seal secure.
    3. 5.3. Sample Shipment
      1. 5.3.1. Send the samples to the laboratory with paperwork requesting asbestos analysis. List any known fibrous interferences present during sampling on the paperwork. Also, note the workplace operation(s) sampled.
      2. 5.3.2. Secure and handle the samples in such that they will not rattle during shipment nor be exposed to static electricity. Do not ship samples in expanded polystyrene peanuts, vermiculite, paper shreds, or excelsior. Tape sample cassettes to sheet bubbles and place in a container that will cushion the samples in such a manner that they will not rattle.
      3. 5.3.3. To avoid the possibility of sample contamination, always ship bulk samples in separate mailing containers.
  6. Analysis
    1. 6.1. Safety Precautions
      1. 6.1.1. Acetone is extremely flammable and precautions must be taken not to ignite it. Avoid using large containers or quantities of acetone. Transfer the solvent in a ventilated laboratory hood. Do not use acetone near any open flame. For generation of acetone vapor, use a spark free heat source.
      2. 6.1.2. Any asbestos spills should be cleaned up immediately to prevent dispersal of fibers. Prudence should be exercised to avoid contamination of laboratory facilities or exposure of personnel to asbestos. Asbestos spills should be cleaned up with wet methods and/ or a High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtered vacuum.

        CAUTION: Do not use a vacuum without a HEPA filter -- It will disperse fine asbestos fibers in the air.
    2. 6.2. Equipment
      1. 6.2.1. Phase contrast microscope with binocular or trinocular head.
      2. 6.2.2. Widefield or Huygenian 10X eyepieces (NOTE: The eyepiece containing the graticule must be a focusing eyepiece. Use a 40X phase objective with a numerical aperture of 0.65 to 0.75).
      3. 6.2.3. Kohler illumination (if possible) with green or blue filter.
      4. 6.2.4. Walton-Beckett Graticule, type G-22 with 100 plus or minus 2 um projected diameter.
      5. 6.2.5. Mechanical stage. A rotating mechanical stage is convenient for use with polarized light.
      6. 6.2.6. Phase telescope.
      7. 6.2.7. Stage micrometer with 0.01-mm subdivisions.
      8. 6.2.8. Phase-shift test slide, mark II (Available from PTR optics Ltd., and also McCrone).
      9. 6.2.9. Precleaned glass slides, 25 mm X 75 mm. One end can be frosted for convenience in writing sample numbers, etc., or paste-on labels can be used.
      10. 6.2.10. Cover glass #1 1/2.
      11. 6.2.11. Scalpel (#10, curved blade).
      12. 6.2.12. Fine tipped forceps.
      13. 6.2.13. Aluminum block for clearing filter (see Appendix D and Figure 4).
      14. 6.2.14. Automatic adjustable pipette, 100- to 500-uL.
      15. 6.2.15. Micropipette, 5 uL
    3. 6.3. Reagents
      1. 6.3.1. Acetone (HPLC grade).
      2. 6.3.2. Triacetin (glycerol triacetate).
      3. 6.3.3. Lacquer or nail polish.
    4. 6.4. Standard Preparation

      A way to prepare standard asbestos samples of known concentration has not been developed. It is possible to prepare replicate samples of nearly equal concentration. This has been performed through the PAT program. These asbestos samples are distributed by the AIHA to participating laboratories.

      Since only about one-fourth of a 25-mm sample membrane is required for an asbestos count, any PAT sample can serve as a "standard" for replicate counting.
    5. 6.5. Sample Mounting

      Note: See Safety Precautions in Section 6.1. before proceeding. The objective is to produce samples with a smooth (non-grainy) background in a medium with a refractive index of approximately 1.46. The technique below collapses the filter for easier focusing and produces permanent mounts which are useful for quality control and interlaboratory comparison.

      An aluminum block or similar device is required for sample preparation.
      1. 6.5.1. Heat the aluminum block to about 70 deg.C. The hot block should not be used on any surface that can be damaged by either the heat or from exposure to acetone.
      2. 6.5.2. Ensure that the glass slides and cover glasses are free of dust and fibers.
      3. 6.5.3. Remove the top plug to prevent a vacuum when the cassette is opened. Clean the outside of the cassette if necessary. Cut the seal and/or tape on the cassette with a razor blade. Very carefully separate the base from the extension cowl, leaving the filter and backup pad in the base.
      4. 6.5.4. With a rocking motion cut a triangular wedge from the filter using the scalpel. This wedge should be one-sixth to one-fourth of the filter. Grasp the filter wedge with the forceps on the perimeter of the filter which was clamped between the cassette pieces. DO NOT TOUCH the filter with your finger. Place the filter on the glass slide sample side up. Static electricity will usually keep the filter on the slide until it is cleared.
      5. 6.5.5. Place the tip of the micropipette containing about 200 uL acetone into the aluminum block. Insert the glass slide into the receiving slot in the aluminum block. Inject the acetone into the block with slow, steady pressure on the plunger while holding the pipette firmly in place. Wait 3 to 5 seconds for the filter to clear, then remove the pipette and slide from the aluminum block.
      6. 6.5.6. Immediately (less than 30 seconds) place 2.5 to 3.5 uL of triacetin on the filter (NOTE: Waiting longer than 30 seconds will result in increased index of refraction and decreased contrast between the fibers and the preparation. This may also lead to separation of the cover slip from the slide).
      7. 6.5.7. Lower a cover slip gently onto the filter at a slight angle to reduce the possibility of forming air bubbles. If more than 30 seconds have elapsed between acetone exposure and triacetin application, glue the edges of the cover slip to the slide with lacquer or nail polish.
      8. 6.5.8. If clearing is slow, warm the slide for 15 min on a hot plate having a surface temperature of about 50 deg.C to hasten clearing. The top of the hot block can be used if the slide is not heated too long.
      9. 6.5.9. Counting may proceed immediately after clearing and mounting are completed.
    6. 6.6. Sample Analysis

      Completely align the microscope according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, align the microscope using the following general alignment routine at the beginning of every counting session and more often if necessary.

      1. 6.6.1. Alignment
        1. Clean all optical surfaces. Even a small amount of dirt can significantly degrade the image.
        2. Rough focus the objective on a sample.
        3. Close down the field iris so that it is visible in the field of view. Focus the image of the iris with the condenser focus. Center the image of the iris in the field of view.
        4. Install the phase telescope and focus on the phase rings. Critically center the rings. Misalignment of the rings results in astigmatism which will degrade the image.
        5. Place the phase-shift test slide on the microscope stage and focus on the lines. The analyst must see line set 3 and should see at least parts of 4 and 5 but, not see line set 6 or 6. A microscope/microscopist combination which does not pass this test may not be used.
      2. 6.6.2. Counting Fibers
        1. Place the prepared sample slide on the mechanical stage of the microscope. Position the center of the wedge under the objective lens and focus upon the sample.
        2. Start counting from one end of the wedge and progress along a radial line to the other end (count in either direction from perimeter to wedge tip). Select fields randomly, without looking into the eyepieces, by slightly advancing the slide in one direction with the mechanical stage control.
        3. Continually scan over a range of focal planes (generally the upper 10 to 15 um of the filter surface) with the fine focus control during each field count. Spend at least 5 to 15 seconds per field.
        4. Most samples will contain asbestos fibers with fiber diameters less than 1 um. Look carefully for faint fiber images. The small diameter fibers will be very hard to see. However, they are an important contribution to the total count.
        5. Count only fibers equal to or longer than 5 um. Measure the length of curved fibers along the curve.
        6. Count fibers which have a length to width ratio of 3:1 or greater.
        7. Count all the fibers in at least 20 fields. Continue counting until either 100 fibers are counted or 100 fields have been viewed; whichever occurs first. Count all the fibers in the final field.
        8. Fibers lying entirely within the boundary of the Walton-Beckett graticule field shall receive a count of 1. Fibers crossing the boundary once, having one end within the circle shall receive a count of 1/2. Do not count any fiber that crosses the graticule boundary more than once. Reject and do not count any other fibers even though they may be visible outside the graticule area. If a fiber touches the circle, it is considered to cross the line.
        9. Count bundles of fibers as one fiber unless individual fibers can be clearly identified and each individual fiber is clearly not connected to another counted fiber. See Figure 1 for counting conventions.
        10. Record the number of fibers in each field in a consistent way such that filter non-uniformity can be assessed.
        11. Regularly check phase ring alignment.
        12. When an agglomerate (mass of material) covers more than 25% of the field of view, reject the field and select another. Do not include it in the number of fields counted.
        13. Perform a "blind recount" of 1 in every 10 filter wedges (slides). Re-label the slides using a person other than the original counter.
      3. 6.7.Fiber Identification

        As previously mentioned in Section 1.3., PCM does not provide positive confirmation of asbestos fibers. Alternate differential counting techniques should be used if discrimination is desirable. Differential counting may include primary discrimination based on morphology, polarized light analysis of fibers, or modification of PCM data by Scanning Electron or Transmission Electron Microscopy.

        A great deal of experience is required to routinely and correctly perform differential counting. It is discouraged unless it is legally necessary. Then, only if a fiber is obviously not asbestos should it be excluded from the count. Further discussion of this technique can be found in reference 8.10.

        If there is a question whether a fiber is asbestos or not, follow the rule:

        "WHEN IN DOUBT, COUNT."
      4. 6.8. Analytical Recommendations -- Quality Control System
        1. 6.8.1. All individuals performing asbestos analysis must have taken the NIOSH course for sampling and evaluating airborne asbestos or an equivalent course.
        2. 6.8.2. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall set up a slide trading arrangement with at least two other laboratories in order to compare performance and eliminate inbreeding of error. The slide exchange occurs at least semiannually. The round robin results shall be posted where all analysts can view individual analyst's results.
        3. 6.8.3. Each laboratory engaged in asbestos counting shall participate in the Proficiency Analytical Testing Program, the Asbestos Analyst Registry or equivalent.
        4. 6.8.4. Each analyst shall select and count prepared slides from a "slide bank". These are quality assurance counts. The slide bank shall be prepared using uniformly distributed samples taken from the workload. Fiber densities should cover the entire range routinely analyzed by the laboratory. These slides are counted blind by all counters to establish an original standard deviation. This historical distribution is compared with the quality assurance counts. A counter must have 95% of all quality control samples counted within three standard deviations of the historical mean. This count is then integrated into a new historical mean and standard deviation for the slide.

          The analyses done by the counters to establish the slide bank may be used for an interim quality control program if the data are treated in a proper statistical fashion.
  7. Calculations
    1. 7.1. Calculate the estimated airborne asbestos fiber concentration on the filter sample using the following formula:



      where:
      AC = Airborne fiber concentration
      FB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 um counted
      FL = Total number of fields counted on the filter
      BFB = Total number of fibers greater than 5 um counted in the blank
      BFL = Total number of fields counted on the blank
      ECA = Effective collecting area of filter (385 mm(2) nominal for a
      25-mm filter.)
      FR = Pump flow rate (L/min)
      MFA = Microscope count field area (mm(2)). This is 0.00785 mm(2) for
      a Walton-Beckett Graticule.
      T = Sample collection time (min)
      1.000 = Conversion of L to cc


      Note: The collection area of a filter is seldom equal to 385 mm(2). It is appropriate for laboratories to routinely monitor the exact diameter using an inside micrometer. The collection area is calculated according to the formula:

      Area = pi(d/2)(2)
    2. 7.2. Short-Cut Calculation

      Since a given analyst always has the same interpupillary distance, the number of fields per filter for a particular analyst will remain constant for a given size filter. The field size for that analyst is constant (i.e. the analyst is using an assigned microscope and is not changing the reticle).

      For example, if the exposed area of the filter is always 385 mm(2) and the size of the field is always 0.00785 mm(2) the number of fields per filter will always be 49,000. In addition it is necessary to convert liters of air to cc. These three constants can then be combined such that ECA/(1,000 x MFA) = 49. The previous equation simplifies to:

    3. 7.3. Recount Calculations

      As mentioned in step 13 of Section 6.6.2., a "blind recount" of 10% of the slides is performed. In all cases, differences will be observed between the first and second counts of the same filter wedge. Most of these differences will be due to chance alone, that is, due to the random variability (precision) of the count method. Statistical recount criteria enables one to decide whether observed differences can be explained due to chance alone or are probably due to systematic differences between analysts, microscopes, or other biasing factors.

      The following recount criterion is for a pair of counts that estimate AC in fibers/cc. The criterion is given at the type-I error level. That is, there is 5% maximum risk that we will reject a pair of counts for the reason that one might be biased, when the large observed difference is really due to chance.

      Reject a pair of counts if:



      Where:
      AC(1) = lower estimated airborne fiber concentration
      AC(2) = higher estimated airborne fiber concentration
      AC(avg) = average of the two concentration estimates
      CV(FB) = CV for the average of the two concentration estimates


      If a pair of counts are rejected by this criterion then, recount the rest of the filters in the submitted set. Apply the test and reject any other pairs failing the test. Rejection shall include a memo to the industrial hygienist stating that the sample failed a statistical test for homogeneity and the true air concentration may be significantly different than the reported value.
    4. 7.4. Reporting Results

      Report results to the industrial hygienist as fibers/cc. Use two significant figures. If multiple analyses are performed on a sample, an average of the results is to be reported unless any of the results can be rejected for cause.
  8. References
    1. 8.1. Dreesen, W.C., et al., U.S. Public Health Service: A Study of Asbestosis in the Asbestos Textile Industry (Public Health Bulletin No. 241), U.S. Treasury Dept., Washington, DC, 1938.
    2. 8.2. Asbestos Research Council: The Measurement of Airborne Asbestos Dust by the Membrane Filter Method (Technical Note), Asbestos Research Council, Rockdale, Lancashire, Great Britain, 1969.
    3. 8.3. Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Brown, T.A., Equipment and Procedure for Mounting Millipore Filters and Counting Asbestos Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy, Bureau of Occupational Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH, 1969.
    4. 8.4. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 (DHEW/ NIOSH Pub. No. 77-157-A). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1977. pp. 239-1 -- 239-21.
    5. 8.5. Asbestos, Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001. 1971.
    6. 8.6. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite. Final Rule, Federal Register 51:119 (20 June 1986). pp. 22612-22790.
    7. 8.7. Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1001. 1988. pp. 711-752.
    8. 8.8. Criteria for a Recommended Standard -- Occupational Exposure to Asbestos (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. HSM 72-10267), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH, 1972. pp. III-1 -- III-24.
    9. 8.9. Leidel, N.A., Bayer, S.G., Zumwalde, R.D., Busch, K.A., USPHS/NIOSH Membrane Filter Method for Evaluating Airborne Asbestos Fibers (DHEW/NIOSH Pub. No. 79-127). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, 1979.
    10. 8.10. Dixon, W.C., Applications of Optical Microscopy in Analysis of Asbestos and Quartz, Analytical Techniques in Occupational Health Chemistry, edited by D.D. Dollberg and A.W. Verstuyft. Wash. D.C.: American Chemical Society, (ACS Symposium Series 120) 1980. pp. 13-41.

Quality Control

The OSHA asbestos regulations require each laboratory to establish a quality control program. The following is presented as an example of how the OSHA-SLTC constructed its internal CV curve as part of meeting this requirement. Data is from 395 samples collected during OSHA compliance inspections and analyzed from October 1980 through April 1986.

Each sample was counted by 2 to 5 different counters independently of one another. The standard deviation and the CV statistic was calculated for each sample. This data was then plotted on a graph of CV vs. fibers/mm(2). A least squares regression was performed using the following equation:
CV = antilog(10)[A(log(10)(x))(2)+B(log(10)(x))+C]


where:

x = the number of fibers/mm(2)

 Application of least squares gave:

A = 0.182205
B = 0.973343
C = 0.327499

Using these values, the equation becomes:

CV = antilog(10)[0.182205(log(10)(x))(2)-0.973343(log (10)(x))+0.327499]

Sampling Pump Flow Rate Corrections

This correction is used if a difference greater than 5% in ambient temperature and/or pressure is noted between calibration and sampling sites and the pump does not compensate for the differences.



Where:
Q(act) = actual flow rate
Q(cal) = calibrated flow rate (if a rotameter was used, the rotameter,value)
P(cal)
= uncorrected air pressure at calibration
P(act) = uncorrected air pressure at sampling site
T(act) = temperature at sampling site (K)
T(cal) = temperature at calibration (K)


Walton-Beckett Graticule

When ordering the Graticule for asbestos counting, specify the exact disc diameter needed to fit the ocular of the microscope and the diameter (mm) of the circular counting area. Instructions for measuring the dimensions necessary are listed:
  1. Insert any available graticule into the focusing eyepiece and focus so that the graticule lines are sharp and clear.
  2. Align the microscope.
  3. Place a stage micrometer on the microscope object stage and focus the microscope on the graduated lines.
  4. Measure the magnified grid length, PL (um), using the stage micrometer.
  5. Remove the graticule from the microscope and measure its actual grid length, AL (mm). This can be accomplished by using a mechanical stage fitted with verniers, or a jeweler's loupe with a direct reading scale.
  6. Let D = 100 um. Calculate the circle diameter, d(c)(mm), for the Walton-Beckett graticule and specify the diameter when making a purchase:



    Example:

    If PL = 108 um, AL = 2.93 mm and D = 100 um,

    then,

  7. Each eyepiece-objective-reticle combination on the microscope must be calibrated. Should any of the three be changed (by zoom adjustment, disassembly, replacement, etc.), the combination must be recalibrated. Calibration may change if interpupillary distance is changed.

    Measure the field diameter, D (acceptable range: 100 plus or minus 2 um) with a stage micrometer upon receipt of the graticule from the manufacturer. Determine the field area (mm(2)).

    Field Area = pi(D/2)(2)
    If D = 100 um = 0.1 mm, then
    Field Area = pi(0.1 mm/2)(2) = 0.00785 mm(2)


The Graticule is available from: Graticules Ltd., Morley Road, Tonbridge TN9 IRN, Kent, England (Telephone 011-44-732-359061). Also available from PTR Optics Ltd., 145 Newton Street, Waltham, MA 02154 [telephone (617) 891-6000] or McCrone Accessories and Components, 2506 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60616 [phone (312)-842-7100]. The graticule is custom made for each microscope.



Structure No. | Count Explanation
1 TO 6

7
8
9
10
11
12
1

1/2
0
2
0
0
1/2
Single fibers all contained within the
Circle.
Fiber crosses circle once
Fiber too short
Two crossing fibers
Fiber outside graticule
Fiber crosses graticule twice
Although split, fiber only crosses once.


[60 FR 33972, June 29, 1995]
This mandatory appendix contains the medical questionnaires that must be administered to all employees who are exposed to asbestos above the permissible exposure limit, and who will therefore be included in their employer's medical surveillance program. Part 1 of the appendix contains the Initial Medical Questionnaire, which must be obtained for all new hires who will be covered by the medical surveillance requirements. Part 2 includes the abbreviated Periodical Medical Questionnaire, which must be administered to all employees who are provided periodic medical examinations under the medical surveillance provisions of the standard.

Part 1
INITIAL MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRE
1. NAME ___________________________________________________________
2. SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER # _______________________________________
3. CLOCK NUMBER __________________________________________________
4. PRESENT OCCUPATION ____________________________________________
5. PLANT __________________________________________________________
6. ADDRESS ________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________
(Zip Code)
8. TELEPHONE NUMBER ______________________________________________
9. INTERVIEWER ____________________________________________________
10. DATE ___________________________________________________________
11. Date of Birth __________________________________________________
Month     Day     Year
12. Place of Birth _________________________________________________
13. Sex 1. Male ___
2. Female ___
14. What is your marital status? 1. Single___
2. Married ___
3. Widowed ___
4. Separated/
Divorced ___
15. Race 1. White ___ 4. Hispanic ___
2. Black ___ 5. Indian ___
3. Asian ___ 6. Other,___
16. What is the highest grade completed in school? ________________
(For example 12 years is completion of high school)
OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY
17A.
Have you ever worked full time (30
hours per week or more) for 6 months
or more?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 17A:
B. Have you ever worked for a year or 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
more in any dusty job? 3. Does Not Apply ___
Specify job/industry ____________ Total Years Worked ________
Was dust exposure:
1. Mild ____ 2. Moderate ____ 3. Severe ____
C.
Have you ever been exposed to gas or
chemical fumes in your work?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
Specify job/industry _________________ Total Years Worked ___
Was exposure :
1. Mild ____ 2. Moderate ____ 3. Severe ____
D.
What has been your usual occupation or job -- the one you have
worked at the longest?
1. Job occupation ____________________________________________
2. Number of years employed in this occupation _______________
3. Position/job title ________________________________________
4. Business, field or industry _______________________________
(Record on lines the years in which you have worked in any of these
industries e.g. 1960-1969)
Have you ever worked: YES NO
E.
In a mine? _____ _____
F. In a quarry? _____ _____
G. In a foundry? _____ _____
H. In a pottery? _____ _____
I. In a cotton, flax or hemp mill? _____ _____
J. With asbestos? _____ _____
18. PAST MEDICAL HISTORY
YES NO
A. Do you consider yourself to be in good

health? _____ _____
If "NO" state reason _____________________________________
B. Have you any defect of vision? _____ _____
If "YES" state nature of defect __________________________
C. Have you any hearing defect?
If "YES" state nature of defect __________________________
D. Are you suffering from or have you ever suffered from:
YES NO
a. Epilepsy (or fits, seizures,
convulsions)?
_____ _____
b. Rheumatic fever? _____ _____
c. Kidney disease? _____ _____
d. Bladder disease? _____ _____
e. Diabetes? _____ _____
f. Jaundice? _____ _____
19. CHEST COLDS AND CHEST ILLNESSES
19A.
If you get a cold, does it "usually" go to your
chest?,(Usually means more than 1/2 the time)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___ 3. Don't get colds ___
20A. During the past 3 years, have you had any chest illnesses
that have kept you off work, indoors at home, or in bed?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 20A:
B. Did you produce phlegm with any of these chest illnesses?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___ 3. Does Not Apply ___
C. In the last 3 years, how many such illnesses with (increased)
phlegm did you have which lasted a week or more?
Number of illnesses ___ No such illnesses ___
21.
Did you have any lung trouble before the age of 16?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
22. Have you ever had any of the following?
1A. Attacks of bronchitis? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 1A:
B. Was it confirmed by a doctor? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. At what age was your first attack? Age in Years ___
Does Not Apply ___
2A. Pneumonia (include bronchopneumonia)? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 2A:
B. Was it confirmed by a doctor? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. At what age did you first have it? Age in Years ___
Does Not Apply ___
3A. Hay Fever? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 3A:
B. Was it confirmed by a doctor? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. At what age did it start? Age in Years ___
Does Not Apply ___
23A. Have you ever had chronic bronchitis? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 23A:
B. Do you still have it? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. Was it confirmed by a doctor? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
D. At what age did it start? Age in Years ___
Does Not Apply ___
24A. Have you ever had emphysema? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 24A:
B. Do you still have it? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. Was it confirmed by a doctor? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
D. At what age did it start? Age in Years ___
Does Not Apply ___
25A. Have you ever had asthma? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___

IF YES TO 25A:
B. Do you still have it? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
C. Was it confirmed by a doctor?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
D. At what age did it start? Age in Years___
Does Not Apply ___
E. If you no longer have it, at what age did it stop?
Age stopped___
Does Not Apply ___
26. Have you ever had:
A. Any other chest illness? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
If yes, please specify _____________________________________
B. Any chest operations? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
If yes, please specify _____________________________________
C. Any chest injuries? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
If yes, please specify _____________________________________
27A. Has a doctor ever told you that you had heart trouble?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 27A:
B. Have you ever had treatment for heart trouble in the past
10 years?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
28A. Has a doctor told you that you had high blood pressure?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 28A:
B. Have you had any treatment for high blood pressure
(hypertension) in the past 10 years?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does Not Apply ___
29. When did you last have your chest X-rayed?
(Year) ___ ___ ___ ___
30. Where did you last have your chest X-rayed (if known)?
_______________________________________________________________
What was the outcome? _________________________________________
FAMILY HISTORY
31. Were either of your natural parents ever told by a doctor that
they had a chronic lung condition such as:
FATHER
1. Yes 2. No 3. Don't know
MOTHER
1. Yes 2. No 3. Don't know
A. Chronic Bronchitis?
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
B. Emphysema?                                       ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
C. Asthma?                                              ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
D. Lung cancer?                                      ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
E. Other chest conditions?
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
F. Is parent currently alive?
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
G.
Please Specify ___ Age if Living ___ Age if Living
___ Age at Death ___ Age at Death
___ Don't Know ___ Don't Know
H.
Please specify cause of death
____________________________________ _____________________
COUGH
32A.
Do you usually have a cough? (Count a cough with first smoke or
on first going out of doors. Exclude clearing of throat.)
(If no, skip to question 32C.)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
B.
Do you usually cough as much as 4 to 6 times a day 4 or more
days out of the week?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
C.
Do you usually cough at all on getting up or first thing in the
morning?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
D.
Do you usually cough at all during the rest of the day or at
night?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO ANY OF ABOVE (32A, B, C, OR D,), ANSWER THE FOLLOWING.
IF NO TO ALL, CHECK "DOES NOT APPLY" AND SKIP TO NEXT PAGE
E.
Do you usually cough like this on most days for 3 consecutive
months or more during the year?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
F. For how many years have you had the cough?
Number of years ___
Does not apply ___
33A. Do you usually bring up phlegm from your chest?
(Count phlegm with the first smoke or on first going out of
doors.
Exclude phlegm from the nose.
Count swallowed phlegm.)
(If no, skip to 33C)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
B. Do you usually bring up phlegm like this as much as twice a day
4 or more days out of the week?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
C.
Do you usually bring up phlegm at all on getting up or first
thing in the morning?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
D.
Do you usually bring up phlegm at all on during the rest of
the day or at night?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO ANY OF THE ABOVE (33A, B, C, OR D), ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:
IF NO TO ALL, CHECK "DOES NOT APPLY" AND SKIP TO 34A
E. Do you bring up phlegm like this on most days for 3 consecutive
months or more during the year?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
F. For how many years have you had trouble with phlegm?
Number of years ___
Does not apply ___
EPISODES OF COUGH AND PHLEGM
34A. Have you had periods or episodes of (increased*) cough and
phlegm lasting for 3 weeks or more each year?
* (For persons who usually have cough and/or phlegm)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 34A
B. For how long have you had at least 1 such episode per year?
Number of years ___
Does not apply ___
WHEEZING
35A.
Does your chest ever sound wheezy or whistling
1. When you have a cold? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
2. Occasionally apart from colds? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Most days or nights? 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 1, 2, or 3 in 35A
B. For how many years has this been present?
Number of years ___
Does not apply ___
36A. Have you ever had an attack of wheezing that has made you
feel short of breath?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 36A
B. How old were you when you had your first such attack?
Age in years ___
Does not apply ___
C. Have you had 2 or more such episodes?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
D. Have you ever required medicine or treatment for the(se)
attack(s)?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
BREATHLESSNESS
37.
If disabled from walking by any condition other than heart or
lung disease, please describe and proceed to question 39A.
Nature of condition(s) ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
38A. Are you troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on the
level or walking up a slight hill?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 38A
B. Do you have to walk slower than people of your age on the level
because of breathlessness?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
C. Do you ever have to stop for breath when walking at your own
pace on the level?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
D.
Do you ever have to stop for breath after walking about 100
yards (or after a few minutes) on the level?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
E. Are you too breathless to leave the house or breathless on
dressing or climbing one flight of stairs?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
TOBACCO SMOKING
39A. Have you ever smoked cigarettes?,(No means less than 20 packs
of cigarettes or 12 oz. of tobacco in a lifetime or less than 1
cigarette a day for 1 year.)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 39A

B.
Do you now smoke cigarettes (as of one month ago)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Does not apply ___
C. How old were you when you first started regular cigarette
smoking?
Age in years___
Does not apply ___
D.
If you have stopped smoking cigarettes completely, how old were
you when you stopped?
Age stopped ___
Check if still smoking___
Does not apply ___
E.
How many cigarettes do you smoke per day now?
Cigarettes per day___
Does not apply ___
F. On the average of the entire time you smoked, how many
cigarettes did you smoke per day?
Cigarettes per day___
Does not apply ___
G. Do or did you inhale the cigarette smoke?
1. Does not apply ___
- 2. Not at all ___
3. Slightly ___
4. Moderately ___
5. Deeply ___
40A. Have you ever smoked a pipe regularly?
(Yes means more than 12 oz. of tobacco in a lifetime.)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 40A:
FOR PERSONS WHO HAVE EVER SMOKED A PIPE
B. 1. How old were you when you started to smoke a pipe regularly?
Age ___
2. If you have stopped smoking a pipe completely, how old were
you when you stopped?
Age stopped ___
Check if still smoking pipe___
Does not apply ___
C. On the average over the entire time you smoked a pipe, how
much pipe tobacco did you smoke per week?
___ oz. per week
(a standard pouch of tobacco contains 1 ½ oz.)
___ Does not apply
D. How much pipe tobacco are you smoking now?
oz. per week ___
Not currently smoking a pipe ___
E. Do you or did you inhale the pipe smoke?
1. Never smoked ___
2. Not at all ___
3. Slightly ___
4. Moderately ___
5. Deeply ___
41A. Have you ever smoked cigars regularly?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
(Yes means more than 1 cigar a week for a year)
IF YES TO 41A

FOR PERSONS WHO HAVE EVER SMOKED A CIGARS

B. 1. How old were you when you started
smoking cigars regularly?
Age ___
2. If you have stopped smoking cigars
completely, how old were you when
you stopped.
Age stopped
Check if still
smoking cigars
Does not apply
___
___
___
___
C.
On the average over the entire time you
smoked cigars, how many cigars did you
smoke per week?
Cigars per week
Does not apply
___
___
D. How many cigars are you smoking per week
now?
Cigars per week
Check if not
smoking cigars
currently
___


___
E. Do or did you inhale the cigar smoke? 1. Never smoked ___
2. Not at all ___
3. Slightly ___
4. Moderately ___
5. Deeply ___
Signature ____________________________ Date _____________________


Part 2
PERIODIC MEDICAL QUESTIONNAIRE
1. NAME ________________________________________________________
2. SOCIAL SECURITY # ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
3. CLOCK NUMBER
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
4.
PRESENT OCCUPATION__________________________________________
5.
PLANT _______________________________________________________
6.
ADDRESS _____________________________________________________
7. ______________________________________________________________
(Zip Code)
8. TELEPHONE NUMBER ____________________________________________
9. INTERVIEWER,__________________________________________________
10. DATE ______________________ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
What is your marital status? 1. Single___
2. Married ___
3. Widowed ___
4. Separated/.
Divorced ___
12. OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY
12A. In the past year, did you work
full time (30 hours per week
or more) for 6 months or more?
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
IF YES TO 12A:
12B. In the past year, did you work
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
in a dusty job? 3. Does not Apply ___
12C. Was dust exposure:
1. Mild ___ 2. Moderate ___ 3. Severe ___
12D. In the past year, were you
exposed to gas or chemical
fumes in your work?
12E. Was exposure: 1. Mild ___ 2. Moderate ___ 3. Severe ___
12F. In the past year,
what was your:
1. Job/occupation? _________________________
2. Position/job title? ________________________
13. RECENT MEDICAL HISTORY
13A. Do you consider yourself to
be in good health? Yes ___ No ___
If NO, state reason ________________________________________
13B. In the past year, have you
developed:
Yes No
Epilepsy? ___ ___
Rheumatic fever? ___ ___
Kidney disease? ___ ___
Bladder disease? ___ ___
Diabetes? ___ ___
Jaundice? ___ ___

Cancer? ___ ___
14. CHEST COLDS AND CHEST ILLNESSES
14A. If you get a cold, does it "usually" go to your chest?
(usually means more than 1/2 the time)
1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
3. Don't get colds ___
15A. During the past year, have you had any
chest illnesses that have kept you 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
off work, indoors at home, or in bed? 3. Does Not Apply ___
IF YES TO 15A:
15B. Did you produce phlegm with any 1. Yes ___ 2. No ___
of these chest illnesses? 3. Does Not Apply ___
15C. In the past year, how many such
illnesses with (increased) phlegm
did you have which lasted a week
or more?
Number of illnesses___
No such illnesses ___
16. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
In the past year have you had:
Yes or No Further Comment on Positive Answers
Asthma _____
Bronchitis _____
Hay Fever _____
Other Allergies _____
Yes or No Further Comment on Positive Answers
Pneumonia _____
Tuberculosis _____
Chest Surgery _____
Other Lung Problems _____
Heart Disease _____
Do you have:
Yes or No Further Comment on Positive Answers
Frequent colds _____
Chronic cough _____
Shortness of breath
when walking or
climbing one flight
or stairs
_____
Do you:
Wheeze _____
Cough up phlegm _____
Smoke cigarettes _____
Packs per day ____ How many years ___
<