Subpart A General

Subpart B General Interpretations

Subpart C General Safety and Health Provisions

Subpart D Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

Subpart E Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment

Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention

Subpart G Signs, Signals, and Barricades

Subpart H Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

Subpart I Tools - Hand and Power

Subpart J Welding and Cutting

Subpart K Electrical

Subpart L Scaffolds

Subpart M Fall Protection

Subpart N Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

Subpart O Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

Subpart P Excavations

Subpart Q Concrete and Masonry Construction

Subpart R Steel Erection

Subpart S Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air

Subpart T Demolition

Subpart U Blasting and the Use of Explosives

Subpart V Electric Power Transmission and Distribution

Subpart W Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection

Subpart X Stairways and Ladders

Subpart Y Commercial Diving Operations

Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

Subpart AA Confined Spaces in Construction

Subpart BB [Reserved]

Subpart CC Cranes & Derricks in Construction

Authority: 40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912); and 29 CFR part 1911.

[59 FR 40730, Aug. 9, 1994; 75 FR 48135, Aug. 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20696, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 56962, September 24, 2014; 80 FR 25518, May 4, 2015; 80 FR 60040, October 5, 2015]
This subpart, except for paragraph (a)(3) of this section, covers the construction of electric power transmission and distribution lines and equipment. As used in this subpart, the term "construction" includes the erection of new electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration, conversion, and improvement of existing electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment.

Note to paragraph (a)(1)(i): An employer that complies with § 1910.269 of this chapter will be considered in compliance with requirements in this subpart that do not reference other subparts of this part. Compliance with § 1910.269 of this chapter will not excuse an employer from compliance obligations under other subparts of this part.
Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, this subpart does not apply to electrical safety-related work practices for unqualified employees.
This subpart applies in addition to all other applicable standards contained in this Part 1926. Employers covered under this subpart are not exempt from complying with other applicable provisions in Part 1926 by the operation of § 1910.5(c) of this chapter. Specific references in this subpart to other sections of Part 1926 are provided for emphasis only.
Line-clearance tree trimming performed for the purpose of clearing space around electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment and on behalf of an organization that operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, those lines or equipment shall comply with § 1910.269 of this chapter.
Work involving electric power generation installations shall comply with § 1910.269 of this chapter.
Each employee shall be trained in, and familiar with, the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this subpart that pertain to his or her job assignments.
Each employee shall also be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole-top and manhole rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this subpart but that are related to his or her work and are necessary for his or her safety.
The degree of training shall be determined by the risk to the employee for the hazard involved.
Each qualified employee shall also be trained and competent in:
The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment,
The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts,
The minimum approach distances specified in this subpart corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified employee will be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to maintain those distances,
The proper use of the special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of electric equipment, and
The recognition of electrical hazards to which the employee may be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to control or avoid these hazards.

Note to paragraph (b)(2): For the purposes of this subpart, a person must have the training required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section to be considered a qualified person.
The employer shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safetyrelated work practices required by this subpart.
An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
If the supervision or annual inspections required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this subpart, or
If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use, or
If he or she must employ safetyrelated work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties.

Note to paragraph (b)(4)(iii): The Occupational Safety and Health Administration considers tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
The training required by paragraph (b) of this section shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type.
The training shall establish employee proficiency in the work practices required by this subpart and shall introduce the procedures necessary for compliance with this subpart.
The employer shall ensure that each employee has demonstrated proficiency in the work practices involved before that employee is considered as having completed the training required by paragraph (b) of this section.

Note 1 to paragraph (b)(7): Though they are not required by this paragraph, employment records that indicate that an employee has successfully completed the required training are one way of keeping track of when an employee has demonstrated proficiency.

Note 2 to paragraph (b)(7): For an employee with previous training, an employer may determine that that employee has demonstrated the proficiency required by this paragraph using the following process: (1) Confirm that the employee has the training required by paragraph (b) of this section, (2) use an examination or interview to make an initial determination that the employee understands the relevant safetyrelated work practices before he or she performs any work covered by this subpart, and (3) supervise the employee closely until that employee has demonstrated proficiency as required by this paragraph.
Before work begins, the host employer shall inform contract employers of:
The characteristics of the host employer's installation that are related to the safety of the work to be performed and are listed in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(5) of this section;

Note to paragraph (c)(1)(i): This paragraph requires the host employer to obtain information listed in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(5) of this section if it does not have this information in existing records.
Conditions that are related to the safety of the work to be performed, that are listed in paragraphs (d)(6) through (d)(8) of this section, and that are known to the host employer;

Note to paragraph (c)(1)(ii): For the purposes of this paragraph, the host employer need only provide information to contract employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the exercise of reasonable diligence. This paragraph does not require the host employer to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
Information about the design and operation of the host employer's installation that the contract employer needs to make the assessments required by this subpart; and

Note to paragraph (c)(1)(iii): This paragraph requires the host employer to obtain information about the design and operation of its installation that contract employers need to make required assessments if it does not have this information in existing records.
Any other information about the design and operation of the host employer's installation that is known by the host employer, that the contract employer requests, and that is related to the protection of the contract employer's employees.

Note to paragraph (c)(1)(iv): For the purposes of this paragraph, the host employer need only provide information to contract employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the exercise of reasonable diligence. This paragraph does not require the host employer to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
The contract employer shall ensure that each of its employees is instructed in the hazardous conditions relevant to the employee's work that the contract employer is aware of as a result of information communicated to the contract employer by the host employer under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
Before work begins, the contract employer shall advise the host employer of any unique hazardous conditions presented by the contract employer's work
The contract employer shall advise the host employer of any unanticipated hazardous conditions found during the contract employer's work that the host employer did not mention under paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The contract employer shall provide this information to the host employer within 2 working days after discovering the hazardous condition.
The contract employer and the host employer shall coordinate their work rules and procedures so that each employee of the contract employer and the host employer is protected as required by this subpart.
Existing characteristics and conditions of electric lines and equipment that are related to the safety of the work to be performed shall be determined before work on or near the lines or equipment is started. Such characteristics and conditions include, but are not limited to:
The presence of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors,
The locations of circuits and equipment, including electric supply lines, communication lines, and fire protective signaling circuits,
The condition of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors,
[79 FR 20696-20697, July 10, 2014; 80 FR 60040, October 5, 2015]
The employer shall provide medical services and first aid as required in § 1926.50.
In addition to the requirements of § 1926.50, when employees are performing work on, or associated with, exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more, persons with first-aid training shall be available as follows:
For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons shall be available.
For fixed work locations such as substations, the number of trained persons available shall be sufficient to ensure that each employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes by a trained person. However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient to meet this requirement (at a remote substation, for example), each employee at the work location shall be a trained employee.

[59 FR 40730, Aug. 9, 1994; 79 FR 20698, July 10, 2014]
In assigning an employee or a group of employees to perform a job, the employer shall provide the employee in charge of the job with all available information that relates to the determination of existing characteristics and conditions required by § 1926.950(d).
The employer shall ensure that the employee in charge conducts a job briefing that meets paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section with the employees involved before they start each job.
The briefing shall cover at least the following subjects: Hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy-source controls, and personal protective equipment requirements.
If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift.
Additional job briefings shall be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees, occur during the course of the work.
A brief discussion is satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employees, by virtue of training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.
A more extensive discussion shall be conducted:
If the work is complicated or particularly hazardous, or
If the employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.

Note to paragraph (d): The briefing must address all the subjects listed in paragraph (b) of this section.
An employee working alone need not conduct a job briefing. However, the employer shall ensure that the tasks to be performed are planned as if a briefing were required.

[75 FR 48135, Aug. 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20698, July 10, 2014]
This section covers enclosed spaces that may be entered by employees. It does not apply to vented vaults if the employer makes a determination that the ventilation system is operating to protect employees before they enter the space. This section applies to routine entry into enclosed spaces. If, after the employer takes the precautions given in this section and in § 1926.965, the hazards remaining in the enclosed space endanger the life of an entrant or could interfere with an entrant's escape from the space, then entry into the enclosed space must meet the permit space entry requirements of subpart AA of this part. For routine entries where the hazards remaining in the enclosed space do not endanger the life of an entrant or interfere with an entrant's escape from the space, this section applies in lieu of the permitspace entry requirements contained in §§ 1926.1204 through 926.1211.
The employer shall ensure the use of safe work practices for entry into, and work in, enclosed spaces and for rescue of employees from such spaces.
Each employee who enters an enclosed space or who serves as an attendant shall be trained in the hazards of enclosed-space entry, in enclosed-space entry procedures, and in enclosed-space rescue procedures.
Employers shall provide equipment to ensure the prompt and safe rescue of employees from the enclosed space.
Before any entrance cover to an enclosed space is removed, the employer shall determine whether it is safe to do so by checking for the presence of any atmospheric pressure or temperature differences and by evaluating whether there might be a hazardous atmosphere in the space. Any conditions making it unsafe to remove the cover shall be eliminated before the cover is removed.

Note to paragraph (e): The determination called for in this paragraph may consist of a check of the conditions that might foreseeably be in the enclosed space. For example, the cover could be checked to see if it is hot and, if it is fastened in place, could be loosened gradually to release any residual pressure. An evaluation also needs to be made of whether conditions at the site could cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as an oxygen-deficient or flammable atmosphere, to develop within the space.
When covers are removed from enclosed spaces, the opening shall be promptly guarded by a railing, temporary cover, or other barrier designed to prevent an accidental fall through the opening and to protect employees working in the space from objects entering the space.
Employees may not enter any enclosed space while it contains a hazardous atmosphere, unless the entry conforms to the confined spaces in construction standard in subpart AA of this part.
While work is being performed in the enclosed space, an attendant with first-aid training shall be immediately available outside the enclosed space to provide assistance if a hazard exists because of traffic patterns in the area of the opening used for entry. The attendant is not precluded from performing other duties outside the enclosed space if these duties do not distract the attendant from: Monitoring employees within the space or ensuring that it is safe for employees to enter and exit the space.

Note to paragraph (h): See § 1926.965 for additional requirements on attendants for work in manholes and vaults.
Test instruments used to monitor atmospheres in enclosed spaces shall be kept in calibration and shall have a minimum accuracy of ±10 percent.
Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the atmosphere in the enclosed space shall be tested for oxygen deficiency with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument, capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for offsite evaluation. If continuous forced-air ventilation is provided, testing is not required provided that the procedures used ensure that employees are not exposed to the hazards posed by oxygen deficiency.
Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for flammable gases and vapors with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for off-site evaluation. This test shall be performed after the oxygen testing and ventilation required by paragraph (j) of this section demonstrate that there is sufficient oxygen to ensure the accuracy of the test for flammability.
If flammable gases or vapors are detected or if an oxygen deficiency is found, forced-air ventilation shall be used to maintain oxygen at a safe level and to prevent a hazardous concentration of flammable gases and vapors from accumulating. A continuous monitoring program to ensure that no increase in flammable gas or vapor concentration above safe levels occurs may be followed in lieu of ventilation if flammable gases or vapors are initially detected at safe levels.

Note to paragraph (l): See the definition of "hazardous atmosphere" for guidance in determining whether a specific concentration of a substance is hazardous.
If continuous forced-air ventilation is used, it shall begin before entry is made and shall be maintained long enough for the employer to be able to demonstrate that a safe atmosphere exists before employees are allowed to enter the work area. The forced-air ventilation shall be so directed as to ventilate the immediate area where employees are present within the enclosed space and shall continue until all employees leave the enclosed space.
The air supply for the continuous forced-air ventilation shall be from a clean source and may not increase the hazards in the enclosed space.
If open flames are used in enclosed spaces, a test for flammable gases and vapors shall be made immediately before the open flame device is used and at least once per hour while the device is used in the space. Testing shall be conducted more frequently if conditions present in the enclosed space indicate that once per hour is insufficient to detect hazardous accumulations of flammable gases or vapors.

Note to paragraph (o): See the definition of "hazardous atmosphere" for guidance in determining whether a specific concentration of a substance is hazardous.

Note to § 1926.953: Entries into enclosed spaces conducted in accordance with the permit space entry requirements of subpart AA of this part are considered as complying with this section.

[75 FR 48135, Aug. 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20698-20699, July 10, 2014; 80 FR 25518, May 4, 2015]
Personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements of Subpart E of this part.

Note to paragraph (a): Paragraph (d) of § 1926.95 sets employer payment obligations for the personal protective equipment required by this subpart, including, but not limited to, the fall protection equipment required by paragraph (b) of this section, the electrical protective equipment required by § 1926.960(c), and the flame-resistant and arc-rated clothing and other protective equipment required by § 1926.960(g).
Personal fall arrest systems shall meet the requirements of Subpart M of this part.
Personal fall arrest equipment used by employees who are exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs, as determined by the employer under § 1926.960(g)(1), shall be capable of passing a drop test equivalent to that required by paragraph (b)(2)(xii) of this section after exposure to an electric arc with a heat energy of 40±5 cal/cm2.
Body belts and positioning straps for Work-positioning equipment shall meet the following requirements:
Hardware for body belts and positioning straps shall meet the following requirements:
Hardware shall be made of dropforged steel, pressed steel, formed steel, or equivalent material.
Hardware shall have a corrosion-resistant finish.
Hardware surfaces shall be smooth and free of sharp edges.
Buckles shall be capable of withstanding an 8.9-kilonewton (2,000-pound-force) tension test with a maximum permanent deformation no greater than 0.4 millimeters (0.0156 inches).
D rings shall be capable of withstanding a 22-kilonewton (5,000-pound-force) tensile test without cracking or breaking.
Snaphooks shall be capable of withstanding a 22-kilonewton (5,000-pound-force) tension test without failure.

Note to paragraph (b)(2)(iv): Distortion of the snaphook sufficient to release the keeper is considered to be tensile failure of a snaphook.
Tool loops shall be situated on the body of a body belt so that the 100 millimeters (4 inches) of the body belt that is in the center of the back, measuring from D ring to D ring, is free of tool loops and any other attachments.
Top grain leather or leather substitute may be used in the manufacture of body belts and positioning straps; however, leather and leather substitutes may not be used alone as a load-bearing component of the assembly.
Plied fabric used in positioning straps and in load-bearing parts of body belts shall be constructed in such a way that no raw edges are exposed and the plies do not separate.
A dielectric test of 819.7 volts, AC, per centimeter (25,000 volts per foot) for 3 minutes without visible deterioration;
A leakage test of 98.4 volts, AC, per centimeter (3,000 volts per foot) with a leakage current of no more than 1 mA;

Note to paragraphs (b)(2)(vii)(A) and (b)(2)(vii)(B): Positioning straps that pass direct-current tests at equivalent voltages are considered as meeting this requirement.
Tension tests of 20 kilonewtons (4,500 pounds-force) for sections free of buckle holes and of 15 kilonewtons (3,500 pounds-force) for sections with buckle holes;
A buckle-tear test with a load of 4.4 kilonewtons (1,000 pounds-force); and
A flammability test in accordance with Table V-1.

TABLE V-1-FLAMMABILITY TEST
Test method Criteria for passing the test
Vertically suspend a 500-mm (19.7-inch) length of strapping supporting a 100-kg (220.5-lb) weight. Any flames on the positioning strap shall self extinguish.
Use a butane or propane burner with a 76-mm (3-inch) flame The positioning strap shall continue to support the 100-kg (220.5-lb) mass.
Direct the flame to an edge of the strapping at a distance of 25 mm (1 inch).
Remove the flame after 5 seconds.
Wait for any flames on the positioning strap to stop burning.
The cushion part of the body belt shall contain no exposed rivets on the inside and shall be at least 76 millimeters (3 inches) in width.
Copper, steel, or equivalent liners shall be used around the bars of D rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
Snaphooks shall be of the locking type meeting the following requirements:
The locking mechanism shall first be released, or a destructive force shall be placed on the keeper, before the keeper will open.
A force in the range of 6.7 N (1.5 lbf) to 17.8 N (4 lbf) shall be required to release the locking mechanism.
With the locking mechanism released and with a force applied on the keeper against the face of the nose, the keeper may not begin to open with a force of 11.2 N (2.5 lbf) or less and shall begin to open with a maximum force of 17.8 N (4 lbf).
Body belts and positioning straps shall be capable of withstanding a drop test as follows:
The test mass shall be rigidly constructed of steel or equivalent material with a mass of 100 kg (220.5 lbm). For work-positioning equipment used by employees weighing more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, the test mass shall be increased proportionately (that is, the test mass must equal the mass of the equipped worker divided by 1.4).
For body belts, the body belt shall be fitted snugly around the test mass and shall be attached to the test-structure anchorage point by means of a wire rope.
For positioning straps, the strap shall be adjusted to its shortest length possible to accommodate the test and connected to the test-structure anchorage point at one end and to the test mass on the other end.
The test mass shall be dropped an unobstructed distance of 1 meter (39.4 inches) from a supporting structure that will sustain minimal deflection during the test.
Body belts shall successfully arrest the fall of the test mass and shall be capable of supporting the mass after the test.
Positioning straps shall successfully arrest the fall of the test mass without breaking, and the arrest force may not exceed 17.8 kilonewtons (4,000 pounds-force). Additionally, snaphooks on positioning straps may not distort to such an extent that the keeper would release.

Note to paragraph (b)(2): When used by employees weighing no more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, body belts and positioning straps that conform to American Society of Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed to be in compliance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
Work-positioning equipment shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. Work-positioning equipment that is not in safe working condition may not be used. Note to paragraph (b)(3)(i): Appendix F to this subpart contains guidelines for inspecting work-positioning equipment.
Personal fall arrest systems shall be used in accordance with § 1926.502(d).

Note to paragraph (b)(3)(ii): Fall protection equipment rigged to arrest falls is considered a fall arrest system and must meet the applicable requirements for the design and use of those systems. Fall protection equipment rigged for work positioning is considered work-positioning equipment and must meet the applicable requirements for the design and use of that equipment.
The employer shall ensure that employees use fall protection systems as follows:
Each employee working from an aerial lift shall use a fall restraint system or a personal fall arrest system. Paragraph (b)(2)(v) of § 1926.453 does not apply.
Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) of this section, each employee in elevated locations more than 1.2 meters (4 feet) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures shall use a personal fall arrest system, work-positioning equipment, or fall restraint system, as appropriate, if the employer has not provided other fall protection meeting Subpart M of this part.
Until March 31, 2015, a qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures need not use fall protection equipment, unless conditions, such as, but not limited to, ice, high winds, the design of the structure (for example, no provision for holding on with hands), or the presence of contaminants on the structure, could cause the employee to lose his or her grip or footing. On and after April 1, 2015, each qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures unless the employer can demonstrate that climbing or changing location with fall protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard than climbing or changing location without it.

Note 1 to paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(B) and (b)(3)(iii)(C): These paragraphs apply to structures that support overhead electric power transmission and distribution lines and equipment. They do not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, or to electric equipment, such as transformers and capacitors. Subpart M of this part contains the duty to provide fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces.

Note 2 to paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(B) and (b)(3)(iii)(C): Until the employer ensures that employees are proficient in climbing and the use of fall protection under § 1926.950(b)(7), the employees are not considered "qualified employees" for the purposes of paragraphs (b)(3)(iii)(B) and (b)(3)(iii)(C) of this section. These paragraphs require unqualified employees (including trainees) to use fall protection any time they are more than 1.2 meters (4 feet) above the ground.
On and after April 1, 2015, Work-positioning systems shall be rigged so that an employee can free fall no more than 0.6 meters (2 feet).
Anchorages for work-positioning equipment shall be capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall, or 13.3 kilonewtons (3,000 pounds-force), whichever is greater.

Note to paragraph (b)(3)(v): Wood-pole fall-restriction devices meeting American Society of Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed to meet the anchorage-strength requirement when they are used in accordance with manufacturers' instructions.
Unless the snaphook is a locking type and designed specifically for the following connections, snaphooks on work-positioning equipment may not be engaged:
To a D ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached;
To any object that is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that accidental disengagement could occur should the connected object sufficiently depress the snaphook keeper to allow release of the object.

[79 FR 20699-20700, July 10, 2014]
Requirements for portable ladders contained in Subpart X of this part apply in addition to the requirements of this section, except as specifically noted in paragraph (b) of this section.
Portable ladders used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work need not meet § 1926.1053(b)(5)(i) and (b)(12). Portable ladders and platforms used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work shall meet the following requirements:
In the configurations in which they are used, portable platforms shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 2.5 times the maximum intended load.
Portable ladders and platforms may not be loaded in excess of the working loads for which they are designed.
Portable ladders and platforms shall be secured to prevent them from becoming dislodged.
Portable ladders and platforms may be used only in applications for which they are designed.
Portable metal ladders and other portable conductive ladders may not be used near exposed energized lines or equipment. However, in specialized high-voltage work, conductive ladders shall be used when the employer demonstrates that nonconductive ladders would present a greater hazard to employees than conductive ladders.

[79 FR 20700-20701, July 10, 2014]
Paragraph (b) of this section applies to electric equipment connected by cord and plug. Paragraph (c) of this section applies to portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and plug-connected equipment. Paragraph (d) of this section applies to hydraulic and pneumatic tools.
Cord- and plug-connected equipment not covered by Subpart K of this part shall comply with one of the following instead of § 1926.302(a)(1):
The equipment shall be equipped with a cord containing an equipment grounding conductor connected to the equipment frame and to a means for grounding the other end of the conductor (however, this option may not be used where the introduction of the ground into the work environment increases the hazard to an employee); or
The equipment shall be of the double-insulated type conforming to Subpart K of this part; or
The equipment shall be connected to the power supply through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not more than 50 volts.
Portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and plug-connected equipment covered by paragraph (b) of this section shall meet the following requirements:
The generator may only supply equipment located on the generator or the vehicle and cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator or the vehicle.
The non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles shall be bonded to the generator frame.
For vehicle-mounted generators, the frame of the generator shall be bonded to the vehicle frame.
Any neutral conductor shall be bonded to the generator frame.
Paragraph (d)(1) of § 1926.302 does not apply to hydraulic fluid used in insulating sections of hydraulic tools.
Safe operating pressures for hydraulic and pneumatic tools, hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and fittings may not be exceeded.

Note to paragraph (d)(2): If any hazardous defects are present, no operating pressure is safe, and the hydraulic or pneumatic equipment involved may not be used. In the absence of defects, the maximum rated operating pressure is the maximum safe pressure.
A hydraulic or pneumatic tool used where it may contact exposed energized parts shall be designed and maintained for such use.
The hydraulic system supplying a hydraulic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts shall provide protection against loss of insulating value, for the voltage involved, due to the formation of a partial vacuum in the hydraulic line.

Note to paragraph (d)(4): Use of hydraulic lines that do not have check valves and that have a separation of more than 10.7 meters (35 feet) between the oil reservoir and the upper end of the hydraulic system promotes the formation of a partial vacuum.
A pneumatic tool used on energized electric lines or equipment, or used where it may contact exposed live parts, shall provide protection against the accumulation of moisture in the air supply.
Pressure shall be released before connections are broken, unless quick-acting, self-closing connectors are used.
Employers must ensure that employees do not use any part of their bodies to locate, or attempt to stop, a hydraulic leak.
Hoses may not be kinked.

[79 FR 20701, July 10, 2014]
Live-line tool rods, tubes, and poles shall be designed and constructed to withstand the following minimum tests:
If the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP), it shall withstand 328,100 volts per meter (100,000 volts per foot) of length for 5 minutes, or

Note to paragraph (a)(1): Live-line tools using rod and tube that meet ASTM F711-02 (2007), Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live Line Tools, are deemed to comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
If the tool is made of wood, it shall withstand 246,100 volts per meter (75,000 volts per foot) of length for 3 minutes, or
The tool shall withstand other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Each live-line tool shall be wiped clean and visually inspected for defects before use each day.
If any defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is present after wiping, the tool shall be removed from service and examined and tested according to paragraph (b)(3) of this section before being returned to service.
Live-line tools used for primary employee protection shall be removed from service every 2 years, and whenever required under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, for examination, cleaning, repair, and testing as follows:
If a defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is found, the tool shall be repaired and refinished or shall be permanently removed from service. If no such defect or contamination is found, the tool shall be cleaned and waxed.
The tool shall be tested in accordance with paragraphs (b)(3)(iv) and (b)(3)(v) of this section under the following conditions:
After the tool has been repaired or refinished; and
After the examination if repair or refinishing is not performed, unless the tool is made of FRP rod or foam-filled FRP tube and the employer can demonstrate that the tool has no defects that could cause it to fail during use.
The test method used shall be designed to verify the tool's integrity along its entire working length and, if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, its integrity under wet conditions.
246,100 volts per meter (75,000 volts per foot) of length for 1 minute if the tool is made of fiberglass, or
164,000 volts per meter (50,000 volts per foot) of length for 1 minute if the tool is made of wood, or
Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.

Note to paragraph (b): Guidelines for the examination, cleaning, repairing, and inservice testing of live-line tools are specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' IEEE Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines, IEEE Std 516-2009.

[79 FR 20701-20702, July 10, 2014]
Materials handling and storage shall comply with applicable material-handling and material-storage requirements in this part, including those in Subparts N and CC of this part.
In areas to which access is not restricted to qualified persons only, materials or equipment may not be stored closer to energized lines or exposed energized parts of equipment than the following distances, plus a distance that provides for the maximum sag and side swing of all conductors and for the height and movement of material-handling equipment:
For lines and equipment energized at 50 kilovolts or less, the distance is 3.05 meters (10 feet).
For lines and equipment energized at more than 50 kilovolts, the distance is 3.05 meters (10 feet) plus 0.10 meter (4 inches) for every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.
In areas restricted to qualified employees, materials may not be stored within the working space about energized lines or equipment.

Note to paragraph (b)(2): Paragraph (b) of § 1926.966 specifies the size of the working space.

[79 FR 20702, July 10, 2014]
Mechanical equipment shall be operated in accordance with applicable requirements in this part, including Subparts N, O, and CC of this part, except that § 1926.600(a)(6) does not apply to operations performed by qualified employees.
he critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment shall receive a thorough visual inspection before use on each shift.

Note to paragraph (a)(2): Critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components for which failure would result in free fall or free rotation of the boom.
The operator of an electric line truck may not leave his or her position at the controls while a load is suspended, unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) is endangered.
Mobile equipment, if provided with outriggers, shall be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly set, except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
Outriggers may not be extended or retracted outside of the clear view of the operator unless all employees are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
If the work area or the terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within its maximum load ratings specified by the equipment manufacturer for the particular configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
Mechanical equipment used to lift or move lines or other material shall be used within its maximum load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the mechanical equipment is being used.
Mechanical equipment shall be operated so that the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i), are maintained from exposed energized lines and equipment. However, the insulated portion of an aerial lift operated by a qualified employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement if the applicable minimum approach distance is maintained between the uninsulated portions of the aerial lift and exposed objects having a different electrical potential.
A designated employee other than the equipment operator shall observe the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and provide timely warnings before the minimum approach distance required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate that the operator can accurately determine that the minimum approach distance is being maintained.
If, during operation of the mechanical equipment, that equipment could become energized, the operation also shall comply with at least one of paragraphs (d)(3)(i) through (d)(3)(iii) of this section.
The energized lines or equipment exposed to contact shall be covered with insulating protective material that will withstand the type of contact that could be made during the operation.
The mechanical equipment shall be insulated for the voltage involved. The mechanical equipment shall be positioned so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the energized lines or equipment any closer than the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i).
Each employee shall be protected from hazards that could arise from mechanical equipment contact with energized lines or equipment. The measures used shall ensure that employees will not be exposed to hazardous differences in electric potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that could arise if the mechanical equipment contacts the energized line or equipment, the measures used shall include all of the following techniques:
Using the best available ground to minimize the time the lines or electric equipment remain energized,
Bonding mechanical equipment together to minimize potential differences,
Providing ground mats to extend areas of equipotential, and
Employing insulating protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous electrical potential differences.

Note to paragraph (d)(3)(iii): Appendix C to this subpart contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.

[79 FR 20702, July 10, 2014]
This section applies to work on exposed live parts, or near enough to them to expose the employee to any hazard they present.
Only qualified employees may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment.
Only qualified employees may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of equipment operating at 50 volts or more.
Electric lines and equipment shall be considered and treated as energized unless they have been deenergized in accordance with § 1926.961.
Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, at least two employees shall be present while any employees perform the following types of work:
Installation, removal, or repair of lines energized at more than 600 volts,
Installation, removal, or repair of deenergized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts,
Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts,
Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts, and
Other work that exposes an employee to electrical hazards greater than, or equal to, the electrical hazards posed by operations listed specifically in paragraphs (b)(3)(i)(A) through (b)(3)(i)(D) of this section.
Paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section does not apply to the following operations:
Routine circuit switching, when the employer can demonstrate that conditions at the site allow safe performance of this work,
Work performed with live-line tools when the position of the employee is such that he or she is neither within reach of, nor otherwise exposed to contact with, energized parts, and
Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
The employer shall establish minimum approach distances no less than the distances computed by Table V-2 for ac systems or Table V-7 for dc systems.

Table V-2 - AC Live-Line Work Minimum Approach Distance
The minimum approach distance (MAD; in meters) shall comform to the following equations.
For phase-to-phase system voltages of 50 V to 300 V:1
MAD = avoid contact
For phase-to-phase system voltages of 301 V to 5kV:1
MAD = M + D, where
D = 0.02 m the electrical component of the minimum approach distance
M = 0.31 m for voltages up to 750V and 0.61 m otherwise the inadvertent movement factor
For phase-to-phase system voltages of 5.1 kV to 72.5V:1,4
MAD = M + AD, where
M = 0.61 m the inadvertent movement factor
A = the applicable value from Table V-4 the altitude correction factor
D = the value from Table V-3 corresponding to the voltage and exposure or the value of the electrical component of the minimum approach distance calculated using the method provided in Appendix B to this subpart the electrical component of the minimum approach distance
For phase-to-phase system voltages of more than 72.5 kV, nominal:2, 4
MAD = 0.3048(C+a)VL-GTA+M , where
C= 0.01 for phase-to-ground exposures that the employer can demonstrate consist only of air across the approach distance (gap),

0.01 for phase-to-phase exposures if the employer can demonstrate that no insulated tool spans the gap and the no large conductive object is in the gap, or

0.011 otherwise
VL-G = phase-to-ground rms voltage, in kV
T = maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage; for phase-to-ground exposures, T equals TL-G, the maximum per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, determined by the employer under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section; for phase-to-phase exposures, T equals 1.35TL-G+0.45
A = altitude correction factor from Table V-4
M = 0.31 m, the inadvertent movement factor
a = saturation factor, as follows:
Phase-to-Ground Exposure
VPeak = TL-GVL-G√2 635 kV or less 635.1 to 915 kV 915.1 to 1,050 kV More than 1,050 kV
a 0 (VPeak-635)/140,000 (VPeak-645)/135,000 (VPeak-675)/125,000
Phase-to-Ground Exposure3
VPeak=(1.35TL-G+0.45)VL-g√2 630 kV or less 630.1 to 848 kV 848.1 to 1,131 kV 1,131.1 to 1,485 kV More than 1,485 kV
a 0 (VPeak-630)/155,000 (VPeak-633.6)/152,207 (VPeak-628)/153,846 (VPeak-350.5)/203,666
1 Employers may use the minimum approach distances in Table V-5. If the worksite is at an elevation of more than 900 metes (3,000 feet), see footnote 1 to Table V-5

2 Employers may use the minimum approach distances in Table V-6, except that the employer may not use the minimum approach distances in Table V-6 for phase-to-phase exposures if an insulated tool spans the gap or if any large conductive object is in the gap. If the worksite is at an elevation of more than 900 meters (3,00 feet), see footnote 1 to Table V-6. Employers may use the minimum approach distance in Table 7 through Table 14 in Appendix B to this subpart, which calculated MAD for various values of T, provided the employer follows the notes to those tables.

3 Use the equations for phase-to-ground exposures (with VPeak for phase-to-phase exposures) unless the employer can demonstrate that no insulated tool spans the gap and that no large conductive objects is in the gap.

4 Until March 31, 2015, employers may use the minimum approach distances in Table 6 in Appendix B to this subpart

TABLE V-3-ELECTRICAL COMPONENT OF THE MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE (D; IN METERS) AT 5.1 TO 72.5 KV
Nominal voltage (kV) phase-to-phase Phase-to-ground exposure Phase-to-phase exposure
D (m) D(m)
5.1 to 15.0 0.04 0.07
15.1 to 36.0 0.16 0.28
36.1 to 46.0 0.23 0.37
46.1 to 72.5 0.39 0.59


TABLE V-4 - ALTITUDE CORRECTION FACTOR
Altitude above sea level (m) A
0 to 900 1.00
901 to 1,200 1.02
1,201 to 1,500 1.05
1,501 to 1,800 1.08
1,801 to 2,100 1.11
2,101 to 2,400 1.14
2,401 to 2,700 1.17
2,701 to 3,000 1.20
3,001 to 3,600 1.25
3,601 to 4,200 1.30
4,201 to 4,800 1.35
4,801 to 5,400 1.39
5,401 to 6,000 1.44


TABLE V-5 - ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES FOR VOLTAGES OF 72.5 KV AND LESS 1
Nominal voltage (kV) phase-to-phase Distance
Phase-to-ground exposure Phase-to-phase exposure
m ft m ft
0.050 to 0.300 2 Avoid contact Avoid contact
0.301 to 0.750 2 0.33 1.09 0.33 1.09
0.751 to 5.0 0.63 2.07 0.63 2.07
5.1 to 15.0 0.65 2.14 0.68 2.24
15.1 to 36.0 0.77 2.53 0.89 2.92
36.1 to 46.0 0.84 2.76 0.98 3.22
46.1 to 72.5 1.00 3.29 1.20 3.94
1 Employers may use the minimum approach distances in this table provided the worksite is at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) or less. If employees will be working at elevations greater than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above mean sea level, the employer shall determine minimum approach distances by multiplying the distances in this table by the correction factor in Table V-4 corresponding to the altitude of the work.

2 For single-phase systems, use voltage-to-ground.

TABLE V-6 - ALTERNATIVE MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCES FOR VOLTAGES OF MORE THAN 72.5 KV 1, 2, 3
Voltage range phase to phase (kV) Phase-to-ground exposure Phase-to-ground exposure
m ft m ft
72.6 to 121.0 1.13 3.71 1.42 4.66
121.1 to 145.0 1.30 4.27 1.64 5.38
145.1 to 169.0 1.46 4.79 1.94 6.36
169.1 to 242.0 2.01 6.59 3.08 10.10
242.1 to 362.0 3.41 11.19 5.52 18.11
362.1 to 420.0 4.25 13.94 6.81 22.34
420.1 to 550.0 5.07 16.63 8.24 27.03
550.1 to 800.0 6.88 22.57 11.38 37.34
1 Employers may use the minimum approach distances in this table provided the worksite is at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) or less. If employees will be working at elevations greater than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above mean sea level, the employer shall determine minimum approach distances by multiplying the distances in this table by the correction factor in Table V-4 corresponding to the altitude of the work.

2 Employers may use the phase-to-phase minimum approach distances in this table provided that no insulated tool spans the gap and no large conductive object is in the gap.

3 The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.

TABLE V-7 - DC LIVE-LINE MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE (IN METERS) WITH OVERVOLTAGE FACTOR 1
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage distance (m) maximum line-to-ground voltage (kV)
250 400 500 600 750
1.5 or less 1.12 1.60 2.06 2.62 3.61
1.6 1.17 1.69 2.24 2.86 3.98
1.7 1.23 1.82 2.42 3.12 4.37
1.8 1.28 1.95 2.62 3.39 4.79
1 The distances specified in this table are for air, bare-hand, and live-line tool conditions. If employees will be working at elevations greater than 900 meters (3,000 feet) above mean sea level, the employer shall determine minimum approach distances by multiplying the distances in this table by the correction factor in Table V-4 corresponding to the altitude of the work.
No later than April 1, 2015, for voltages over 72.5 kilovolts, the employer shall determine the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, through an engineering analysis or assume a maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, in accordance with Table V-8. When the employer uses portable protective gaps to control the maximum transient overvoltage, the value of the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, must provide for five standard deviations between the statistical sparkover voltage of the gap and the statistical withstand voltage corresponding to the electrical component of the minimum approach distance. The employer shall make any engineering analysis conducted to determine maximum anticipated perunit transient overvoltage available upon request to employees and to the Assistant Secretary or designee for examination and copying.

Note to paragraph (c)(1)(ii): See Appendix B to this subpart for information on how to calculate the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, when the employer uses portable protective gaps to reduce maximum transient overvoltages.

TABLE V-8-ASSUMED MAXIMUM PER-UNIT TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE
Voltage range (kV) Type of current (ac or dc) Assumed maximum per-unit transient overvoltage
72.6 to 420.0 ac 3.5
420.1 to 550.0 ac 3.0
550.1 to 800.0 ac 2.5
250 to 750 dc 1.8
The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than the employer's established minimum approach distance, unless:
The employee is insulated from the energized part (rubber insulating gloves or rubber insulating gloves and sleeves worn in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section constitutes insulation of the employee from the energized part upon which the employee is working provided that the employee has control of the part in a manner sufficient to prevent exposure to uninsulated portions of the employee's body), or
The energized part is insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different potential, or
The employee is insulated from any other exposed conductive object in accordance with the requirements for live-line barehand work in § 1926.964(c).
When an employee uses rubber insulating gloves as insulation from energized parts (under paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section), the employer shall ensure that the employee also uses rubber insulating sleeves. However, an employee need not use rubber insulating sleeves if:
Exposed energized parts on which the employee is not working are insulated from the employee; and
When installing insulation for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i)(A) of this section, the employee installs the insulation from a position that does not expose his or her upper arm to contact with other energized parts.
When an employee uses rubber insulating gloves or rubber insulating gloves and sleeves as insulation from energized parts (under paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section), the employer shall ensure that the employee:
Puts on the rubber insulating gloves and sleeves in a position where he or she cannot reach into the minimum approach distance, established by the employer under paragraph (c)(1) of this section; and
Does not remove the rubber insulating gloves and sleeves until he or she is in a position where he or she cannot reach into the minimum approach distance, established by the employer under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee's.
When an employee performs work near exposed parts energized at more than 600 volts, but not more than 72.5 kilovolts, and is not wearing rubber insulating gloves, being protected by insulating equipment covering the energized parts, performing work using live-line tools, or performing live-line barehand work under § 1926.964(c), the employee shall work from a position where he or she cannot reach into the minimum approach distance, established by the employer under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that employees make connections as follows:
In connecting deenergized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the deenergized part;
When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and
When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, an employee shall keep loose conductors away from exposed energized parts.
When an employee performs work within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that the employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as keychains or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.
The employer shall assess the workplace to identify employees exposed to hazards from flames or from electric arcs.
For each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs, the employer shall make a reasonable estimate of the incident heat energy to which the employee would be exposed.

Note 1 to paragraph (g)(2): Appendix E to this subpart provides guidance on estimating available heat energy. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will deem employers following the guidance in Appendix E to this subpart to be in compliance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section. An employer may choose a method of calculating incident heat energy not included in Appendix E to this subpart if the chosen method reasonably predicts the incident energy to which the employee would be exposed.

Note 2 to paragraph (g)(2): This paragraph does not require the employer to estimate the incident heat energy exposure for every job task performed by each employee. The employer may make broad estimates that cover multiple system areas provided the employer uses reasonable assumptions about the energy-exposure distribution throughout the system and provided the estimates represent the maximum employee exposure for those areas. For example, the employer could estimate the heat energy just outside a substation feeding a radial distribution system and use that estimate for all jobs performed on that radial system.
The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that could melt onto his or her skin or that could ignite and continue to burn when exposed to flames or the heat energy estimated under paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

Note to paragraph (g)(3): This paragraph prohibits clothing made from acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon and polypropylene, either alone or in blends, unless the employer demonstrates that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered by the employee or that the employee wears the clothing in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved.
The employer shall ensure that the outer layer of clothing worn by an employee, except for clothing not required to be arc rated under paragraphs (g)(5)(i) through (g)(5)(v) of this section, is flame resistant under any of the following conditions:
The employee is exposed to contact with energized circuit parts operating at more than 600 volts,
An electric arc could ignite flammable material in the work area that, in turn, could ignite the employee's clothing,
Molten metal or electric arcs from faulted conductors in the work area could ignite the employee's clothing, or

Note to paragraph (g)(4)(iii): This paragraph does not apply to conductors that are capable of carrying, without failure, the maximum available fault current for the time the circuit protective devices take to interrupt the fault.
The incident heat energy estimated under paragraph (g)(2) of this section exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2.
The employer shall ensure that each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs wears protective clothing and other protective equipment with an arc rating greater than or equal to the heat energy estimated under paragraph (g)(2) of this section whenever that estimate exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2. This protective equipment shall cover the employee's entire body, except as follows:
Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's hands when the employee is wearing rubber insulating gloves with protectors or, if the estimated incident energy is no more than 14 cal/cm2, heavy-duty leather work gloves with a weight of at least 407 gm/m2 (12 oz/yd2),
Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's feet when the employee is wearing heavy-duty work shoes or boots,
Arc-rated protection is not necessary for the employee's head when the employee is wearing head protection meeting § 1926.100(b)(2) if the estimated incident energy is less than 9 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open air or 5 cal/cm2 for other exposures,
The protection for the employee's head may consist of head protection meeting § 1926.100(b)(2) and a faceshield with a minimum arc rating of 8 cal/cm2 if the estimated incidentenergy exposure is less than 13 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open air or 9 cal/cm2 for other exposures, and
For exposures involving singlephase arcs in open air, the arc rating for the employee's head and face protection may be 4 cal/cm2 less than the estimated incident energy.

Note to paragraph (g): See Appendix E to this subpart for further information on the selection of appropriate protection.
The obligation in paragraph (g)(2) of this section for the employer to make reasonable estimates of incident energy commences January 1, 2015.
The obligation in paragraph (g)(4)(iv) of this section for the employer to ensure that the outer layer of clothing worn by an employee is flame-resistant when the estimated incident heat energy exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2 commences April 1, 2015.
The obligation in paragraph (g)(5) of this section for the employer to ensure that each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs wears the required arc-rated protective equipment commences April 1, 2015.
When an employee must install or remove fuses with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that the employee uses tools or gloves rated for the voltage. When an employee installs or removes expulsion-type fuses with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that the employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of Subpart E of this part, uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
The requirements of this section that pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when an employee performs work in proximity to covered (noninsulated) wires.
Non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit-breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which these parts are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before employees begin performing the work.
The employer shall ensure that devices used by employees to open circuits under load conditions are designed to interrupt the current involved.
The employer shall ensure that devices used by employees to close circuits under load conditions are designed to safely carry the current involved.

[79 FR 20702-20708, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 56962, September 24, 2014; 80 FR 60040, October 5, 2015]
This section applies to the deenergizing of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized under procedures other than those required by this section shall be treated as energized.
If a system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, the employer shall designate one employee in the crew to be in charge of the clearance and shall comply with all of the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section in the order specified.
If no system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, the employer shall designate one employee in the crew to be in charge of the clearance and to perform the functions that the system operator would otherwise perform under this section. All of the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section apply, in the order specified, except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
If only one crew will be working on the lines or equipment and if the means of disconnection is accessible and visible to, and under the sole control of, the employee in charge of the clearance, paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(3), and (c)(5) of this section do not apply. Additionally, the employer does not need to use the tags required by the remaining provisions of paragraph (c) of this section.
If two or more crews will be working on the same lines or equipment, then:
The crews shall coordinate their activities under this section with a single employee in charge of the clearance for all of the crews and follow the requirements of this section as if all of the employees formed a single crew, or
Each crew shall independently comply with this section and, if there is no system operator in charge of the lines or equipment, shall have separate tags and coordinate deenergizing and reenergizing the lines and equipment with the other crews.
The employer shall render any disconnecting means that are accessible to individuals outside the employerâ¿¿s control (for example, the general public) inoperable while the disconnecting means are open for the purpose of protecting employees.
The employee that the employer designates pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section as being in charge of the clearance shall make a request of the system operator to deenergize the particular section of line or equipment. The designated employee becomes the employee in charge (as this term is used in paragraph (c) of this section) and is responsible for the clearance.
The employer shall ensure that all switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, and other means through which known sources of electric energy may be supplied to the particular lines and equipment to be deenergized are open. The employer shall render such means inoperable, unless its design does not so permit, and then ensure that such means are tagged to indicate that employees are at work.
The employer shall ensure that automatically and remotely controlled switches that could cause the opened disconnecting means to close are also tagged at the points of control. The employer shall render the automatic or remote control feature inoperable, unless its design does not so permit.
The employer need not use the tags mentioned in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section on a network protector for work on the primary feeder for the network protector's associated network transformer when the employer can demonstrate all of the following conditions:
Every network protector is maintained so that it will immediately trip open if closed when a primary conductor is deenergized;
Employees cannot manually place any network protector in a closed position without the use of tools, and any manual override position is blocked, locked, or otherwise disabled; and
The employer has procedures for manually overriding any network protector that incorporate provisions for determining, before anyone places a network protector in a closed position, that: The line connected to the network protector is not deenergized for the protection of any employee working on the line; and (if the line connected to the network protector is not deenergized for the protection of any employee working on the line) the primary conductors for the network protector are energized.
Tags shall prohibit operation of the disconnecting means and shall indicate that employees are at work.
After the applicable requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this section have been followed and the system operator gives a clearance to the employee in charge, the employer shall ensure that the lines and equipment are deenergized by testing the lines and equipment to be worked with a device designed to detect voltage.
The employer shall ensure the installation of protective grounds as required by § 1926.962.
After the applicable requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(7) of this section have been followed, the lines and equipment involved may be considered deenergized.
To transfer the clearance, the employee in charge (or the employee's supervisor if the employee in charge must leave the worksite due to illness or other emergency) shall inform the system operator and employees in the crew; and the new employee in charge shall be responsible for the clearance.
To release a clearance, the employee in charge shall:
Notify each employee under that clearance of the pending release of the clearance;
Ensure that all employees under that clearance are clear of the lines and equipment;
Ensure that all protective grounds protecting employees under that clearance have been removed; and
Report this information to the system operator and then release the clearance.
Only the employee in charge who requested the clearance may release the clearance, unless the employer transfers responsibility under paragraph (c)(9) of this section.
No one may remove tags without the release of the associated clearance as specified under paragraphs (c)(10) and (c)(11) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that no one initiates action to reenergize the lines or equipment at a point of disconnection until all protective grounds have been removed, all crews working on the lines or equipment release their clearances, all employees are clear of the lines and equipment, and all protective tags are removed from that point of disconnection.

[79 FR 20708-20709, July 10, 2014]
This section applies to grounding of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Paragraph (d) of this section also applies to protective grounding of other equipment as required elsewhere in this Subpart.

Note to paragraph (a): This section covers grounding of transmission and distribution lines and equipment when this subpart requires protective grounding and whenever the employer chooses to ground such lines and equipment for the protection of employees.
For any employee to work transmission and distribution lines or equipment as deenergized, the employer shall ensure that the lines or equipment are deenergized under the provisions of § 1926.961 and shall ensure proper grounding of the lines or equipment as specified in paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section. However, if the employer can demonstrate that installation of a ground is impracticable or that the conditions resulting from the installation of a ground would present greater hazards to employees than working without grounds, the lines and equipment may be treated as deenergized provided that the employer establishes that all of the following conditions apply:
The employer ensures that the lines and equipment are deenergized under the provisions of § 1926.961.
There is no possibility of contact with another energized source.
The hazard of induced voltage is not present.
Temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner that the employer can demonstrate will prevent each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electric potential.

Note to paragraph (c): Appendix C to this subpart contains guidelines for establishing the equipotential zone required by this paragraph. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will deem grounding practices meeting these guidelines as complying with paragraph (c) of this section.
Protective grounding equipment shall be capable of conducting the maximum fault current that could flow at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the fault.
Protective grounding equipment shall have an ampacity greater than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG copper.
Protective grounds shall have an impedance low enough so that they do not delay the operation of protective devices in case of accidental energizing of the lines or equipment.

Note to paragraph (d): American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Temporary Protective Grounds to Be Used on De-Energized Electric Power Lines and Equipment, ASTM F855-09, contains guidelines for protective grounding equipment. The Institute of Electrical Engineers Guide for Protective Grounding of Power Lines, IEEE Std 1048-2003, contains guidelines for selecting and installing protective grounding equipment.
The employer shall ensure that, unless a previously installed ground is present, employees test lines and equipment and verify the absence of nominal voltage before employees install any ground on those lines or that equipment.
The employer shall ensure that, when an employee attaches a ground to a line or to equipment, the employee attaches the ground-end connection first and then attaches the other end by means of a live-line tool. For lines or equipment operating at 600 volts or less, the employer may permit the employee to use insulating equipment other than a live-line tool if the employer ensures that the line or equipment is not energized at the time the ground is connected or if the employer can demonstrate that each employee is protected from hazards that may develop if the line or equipment is energized.
The employer shall ensure that, when an employee removes a ground, the employee removes the grounding device from the line or equipment using a live-line tool before he or she removes the groundend connection. For lines or equipment operating at 600 volts or less, the employer may permit the employee to use insulating equipment other than a live-line tool if the employer ensures that the line or equipment is not energized at the time the ground is disconnected or if the employer can demonstrate that each employee is protected from hazards that may develop if the line or equipment is energized.
The employer shall ensure that, when an employee performs work on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable is not grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
The employer may permit employees to remove grounds temporarily during tests. During the test procedure, the employer shall ensure that each employee uses insulating equipment, shall isolate each employee from any hazards involved, and shall implement any additional measures necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously grounded lines and equipment become energized.

[79 FR 20709-20710, July 10, 2014]
This section provides for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories, shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements using high voltage, high power, or combinations of high voltage and high power, and not to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and normal line work.

Note to paragraph (a): OSHA considers routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified employees to be routine line work not included in the scope of this section, provided that the hazards related to the use of intrinsic highvoltage or high-power sources require only the normal precautions associated with routine work specified in the other paragraphs of this subpart. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.
The employer shall establish and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such work practices shall include, as a minimum, test area safeguarding, grounding, the safe use of measuring and control circuits, and a means providing for periodic safety checks of field test areas.
The employer shall ensure that each employee, upon initial assignment to the test area, receives training in safe work practices, with retraining provided as required by § 1926.950(b).
The employer shall provide safeguarding within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus under test that could become energized as part of the testing by either direct or inductive coupling and to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
The employer shall guard permanent test areas with walls, fences, or other barriers designed to keep employees out of the test areas.
In field testing, or at a temporary test site not guarded by permanent fences and gates, the employer shall ensure the use of one of the following means to prevent employees without authorization from entering:
Distinctively colored safety tape supported approximately waist high with safety signs attached to it,
A barrier or barricade that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually, to the barricade specified in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section, or
One or more test observers stationed so that they can monitor the entire area.
The employer shall ensure the removal of the safeguards required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section when employees no longer need the protection afforded by the safeguards.
The employer shall establish and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
The employer shall maintain at ground potential all conductive parts accessible to the test operator while the equipment is operating at high voltage.
Wherever ungrounded terminals of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they shall be treated as energized until tests demonstrate that they are deenergized.
The employer shall ensure either that visible grounds are applied automatically, or that employees using properly insulated tools manually apply visible grounds, to the high-voltage circuits after they are deenergized and before any employee performs work on the circuit or on the item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections shall be solidly connected to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
In highpower testing, the employer shall provide an isolated ground-return conductor system designed to prevent the intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, from occurring in the ground grid or in the earth. However, the employer need not provide an isolated ground-return conductor if the employer can demonstrate that both of the following conditions exist:
The employer cannot provide an isolated ground-return conductor due to the distance of the test site from the electric energy source, and
The employer protects employees from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the test.

Note to paragraph (d)(3)(ii): See Appendix C to this subpart for information on measures that employers can take to protect employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
For tests in which using the equipment grounding conductor in the equipment power cord to ground the test equipment would result in greater hazards to test personnel or prevent the taking of satisfactory measurements, the employer may use a ground clearly indicated in the test set-up if the employer can demonstrate that this ground affords protection for employees equivalent to the protection afforded by an equipment grounding conductor in the power supply cord.
The employer shall ensure that, when any employee enters the test area after equipment is deenergized, a ground is placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
Before any employee applies a direct ground, the employer shall discharge high capacitance equipment or apparatus through a resistor rated for the available energy.
A direct ground shall be applied to the exposed terminals after the stored energy drops to a level at which it is safe to do so.
If the employer uses a test trailer or test vehicle in field testing, its chassis shall be grounded. The employer shall protect each employee against hazardous touch potentials with respect to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees with bonding, insulation, or isolation.
The employer may not run control wiring, meter connections, test leads, or cables from a test area unless contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure or unless the employer takes other precautions that it can demonstrate will provide employees with equivalent safety.
The employer shall isolate meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts from test personnel to protect against hazards that could arise should such terminals and parts become energized during testing. If the employer provides this isolation by locating test equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, the employer shall provide interlocks to interrupt the power supply when someone opens the compartment cover.
The employer shall protect temporary wiring and its connections against damage, accidental interruptions, and other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, the employer shall keep signal, control, ground, and power cables separate from each other.
If any employee will be present in the test area during testing, a test observer shall be present. The test observer shall be capable of implementing the immediate deenergizing of test circuits for safety purposes.
Safety practices governing employee work at temporary or field test areas shall provide, at the beginning of each series of tests, for a routine safety check of such test areas.
The test operator in charge shall conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and shall verify at least the following conditions:
Barriers and safeguards are in workable condition and placed properly to isolate hazardous areas;
System test status signals, if used, are in operable condition;
Clearly marked test-power disconnects are readily available in an emergency;
Ground connections are clearly identifiable;
Personal protective equipment is provided and used as required by Subpart E of this part and by this subpart; and
Proper separation between signal, ground, and power cables.

[79 FR 20710-20711, July 10, 2014]
This section provides additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment and for live-line barehand work.
Before allowing employees to subject elevated structures, such as poles or towers, to such stresses as climbing or the installation or removal of equipment may impose, the employer shall ascertain that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses. If the pole or other structure cannot withstand the expected loads, the employer shall brace or otherwise support the pole or structure so as to prevent failure.

Note to paragraph (a)(2): Appendix D to this subpart contains test methods that employers can use in ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces imposed by an employee climbing the pole. This paragraph also requires the employer to ascertain that the pole can sustain all other forces imposed by the work employees will perform.
When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the pole may not contact the conductor.
When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts of his or her body.
To protect employees from falling into holes used for placing poles, the employer shall physically guard the holes, or ensure that employees attend the holes, whenever anyone is working nearby.
The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of overhead conductors or cable (overhead lines).
When lines that employees are installing or removing can contact energized parts, the employer shall use the tensionstringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the possibility that conductors and cables the employees are installing or removing will contact energized power lines or equipment.
For conductors, cables, and pulling and tensioning equipment, the employer shall provide the protective measures required by § 1926.959(d)(3) when employees are installing or removing a conductor or cable close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the conductor or cable being installed or removed:
Failure of the pulling or tensioning equipment,
Failure of the conductor or cable being pulled, or
Failure of the previously installed lines or equipment.
If the conductors that employees are installing or removing cross over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts and if the design of the circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines so permits, the employer shall render inoperable the automatic-reclosing feature of these devices.
Before employees install lines parallel to existing energized lines, the employer shall make a determination of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work shall proceed on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous.
Unless the employer can demonstrate that the lines that employees are installing are not subject to the induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner that the employer can demonstrate will prevent exposure of each employee to hazardous differences in electric potential.

Note to paragraph (b)(4)(ii): Appendix C to this subpart contains guidelines for protecting employees from hazardous differences in electric potential as required by this paragraph.

Note to paragraph (b)(4): If the employer takes no precautions to protect employees from hazards associated with involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the induced voltage is sufficient to pass a current of 1 milliampere through a 500-ohm resistor. If the employer protects employees from injury due to involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the resultant current would be more than 6 milliamperes.
Reelhandling equipment, including pulling and tensioning devices, shall be in safe operating condition and shall be leveled and aligned.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not exceed load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists.
The employer shall repair or replace defective pulling lines and accessories.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not use conductor grips on wire rope unless the manufacturer specifically designed the grip for this application.
The employer shall ensure that employees maintain reliable communications, through twoway radios or other equivalent means, between the reel tender and the pullingrig operator.
Employees may operate the pulling rig only when it is safe to do so.

Note to paragraph (b)(10): Examples of unsafe conditions include: employees in locations prohibited by paragraph (b)(11) of this section, conductor and pulling line hangups, and slipping of the conductor grip.
While a power-driven device is pulling the conductor or pulling line and the conductor or pulling line is in motion, the employer shall ensure that employees are not directly under overhead operations or on the crossarm, except as necessary for the employees to guide the stringing sock or board over or through the stringing sheave.
In addition to other applicable provisions contained in this subpart, the following requirements apply to live-line barehand work:
Before an employee uses or supervises the use of the live-line barehand technique on energized circuits, the employer shall ensure that the employee completes training conforming to § 1926.950(b) in the technique and in the safety requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
Before any employee uses the live-line barehand technique on energized high-voltage conductors or parts, the employer shall ascertain the following information in addition to information about other existing conditions required by § 1926.950(d):
The nominal voltage rating of the circuit on which employees will perform the work,
The clearances to ground of lines and other energized parts on which employees will perform the work, and
The voltage limitations of equipment employees will use.
The employer shall ensure that the insulated equipment, insulated tools, and aerial devices and platforms used by employees are designed, tested, and made for live-line barehand work.
The employer shall ensure that employees keep tools and equipment clean and dry while they are in use.
The employer shall render inoperable the automatic-reclosing feature of circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines if the design of the devices permits.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not perform work when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous even after the employer implements the work practices required by this subpart. Additionally, employees may not perform work when winds reduce the phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground clearances at the work location below the minimum approach distances specified in paragraph (c)(13) of this section, unless insulating guards cover the grounded objects and other lines and equipment.

Note to paragraph (c)(5): Thunderstorms in the vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that make live-line barehand work too hazardous to perform safely even after the employer implements the work practices required by this subpart.
The employer shall provide and ensure that employees use a conductive bucket liner or other conductive device for bonding the insulated aerial device to the energized line or equipment.
The employee shall be connected to the bucket liner or other conductive device by the use of conductive shoes, leg clips, or other means.
Where differences in potentials at the worksite pose a hazard to employees, the employer shall provide electrostatic shielding designed for the voltage being worked.
The employer shall ensure that, before the employee contacts the energized part, the employee bonds the conductive bucket liner or other conductive device to the energized conductor by means of a positive connection. This connection shall remain attached to the energized conductor until the employee completes the work on the energized circuit.
Aerial lifts used for live-line barehand work shall have dual controls (lower and upper) as follows:
The upper controls shall be within easy reach of the employee in the bucket. On a two-bucket-type lift, access to the controls shall be within easy reach of both buckets.
The lower set of controls shall be near the base of the boom and shall be designed so that they can override operation of the equipment at any time.
Lower (ground-level) lift controls may not be operated with an employee in the lift except in case of emergency.
The employer shall ensure that, before employees elevate an aerial lift into the work position, the employees check all controls (ground level and bucket) to determine that they are in proper working condition.
The employer shall ensure that, before employees elevate the boom of an aerial lift, the employees ground the body of the truck or barricade the body of the truck and treat it as energized.
The employer shall ensure that employees perform a boom-current test before starting work each day, each time during the day when they encounter a higher voltage, and when changed conditions indicate a need for an additional test.
This test shall consist of placing the bucket in contact with an energized source equal to the voltage to be encountered for a minimum of 3 minutes.
The leakage current may not exceed 1 microampere per kilovolt of nominal phase-to-ground voltage.
The employer shall immediately suspend work from the aerial lift when there is any indication of a malfunction in the equipment.
The employer shall ensure that employees maintain the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i), from all grounded objects and from lines and equipment at a potential different from that to which the live-line barehand equipment is bonded, unless insulating guards cover such grounded objects and other lines and equipment.
The employer shall ensure that, while an employee is approaching, leaving, or bonding to an energized circuit, the employee maintains the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i), between the employee and any grounded parts, including the lower boom and portions of the truck and between the employee and conductive objects energized at different potentials.
While the bucket is alongside an energized bushing or insulator string, the employer shall ensure that employees maintain the phase-to-ground minimum approach distances, established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i), between all parts of the bucket and the grounded end of the bushing or insulator string or any other grounded surface.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not use handlines between the bucket and the boom or between the bucket and the ground. However, employees may use nonconductive-type handlines from conductor to ground if not supported from the bucket. The employer shall ensure that no one uses ropes used for live-line barehand work for other purposes.