UpCodes logo
Table of contentsContents
AUTHORITY: 40 U.S.C. 3704; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657; and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12—71 (36 FR 8754), 8—76 (41 FR 25059), 9—83 (48 FR 35736), 1—90 (55 FR 9033), 6— 96 (62 FR 111), 3—2000 (65 FR 50017), 5— 2002 (67 FR 65008), 5—2007 (72 FR 31159), 4—2010 (75 FR 55355), 1—2012 (77 FR 3912), or 8—2020 (85 FR 58393), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911. Sections 1926.59, 1926.60, and 1926.65 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553 and 29 CFR part 1911.

Section 1926.61 also issued under 49 U.S.C. 1801—1819 and 5 U.S.C. 553.

Section 1926.62 also issued under sec. 1031, Public Law 102—550, 106 Stat. 3672 (42 U.S.C. 4853).

Section 1926.65 also issued under sec. 126, Public Law 99—499, 100 Stat. 1614 (reprinted at 29 U.S.C.A. 655 Note) and 5 U.S.C. 553.

[85 FR 8735, February 18, 2020; 86 FR 61555, Nov. 5, 2021; 87 FR 38986, June 30, 2022]
The employer shall insure the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health.
Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury.
In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician, that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the worksite, which is available for the treatment of injured employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or equivalent training that can be verified by documentary evidence, shall be available at the worksite to render first aid.
First aid supplies shall be easily accessible when required.
The contents of the first aid kit shall be placed in a weatherproof container with individual sealed packages for each type of item, and shall be checked by the employer before being sent out on each job and at least weekly on each job to ensure that the expended items are replaced.
Proper equipment for prompt transportation of the injured person to a physician or hospital, or a communication system for contacting necessary ambulance service, shall be provided.
In areas where 911 emergency dispatch services are not available, the telephone numbers of the physicians, hospitals, or ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.
In areas where 911 emergency dispatch services are available and an employer uses a communication system for contacting necessary emergency-medical service, the employer must:
Ensure that the communication system is effective in contacting the emergency-medical service; and
When using a communication system in an area that does not automatically supply the caller's latitude and longitude information to the 911 emergency dispatcher, the employer must post in a conspicuous location at the worksite either:
The latitude and longitude of the worksite; or
Other location-identification information that communicates effectively to employees the location of the worksite.
The requirement specified in paragraph (f)(2)(ii)(A) of this section does not apply to worksites with readily available telephone land lines that have 911 emergency service that automatically identifies the location of the caller.
Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 18295, Apr. 30, 1984; 58 FR 35084, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 84 FR 21575, May 14, 2019]
Appendix A to § 1926.50 - First aid Kits (Non-Mandatory)

First aid supplies are required to be easily accessible under paragraph § 1926.50(d)(1). An example of the minimal contents of a generic first aid kit is described in American National Standard (ANSI) Z308.1-1978 "Minimum Requirements for Industrial Unit-Type First-aid Kits". The contents of the kit listed in the ANSI standard should be adequate for small work sites. When larger operations or multiple operations are being conducted at the same location, employers should determine the need for additional first aid kits at the worksite, additional types of first aid equipment and supplies and additional quantities and types of supplies and equipment in the first aid kits.

In a similar fashion, employers who have unique or changing first-aid needs in their workplace may need to enhance their first-aid kits. The employer can use the OSHA 300 log, OSHA 301 log, or other reports to identify these unique problems. Consultation from the local fire/rescue department, appropriate medical professional, or local emergency room may be helpful to employers in these circumstances. By assessing the specific needs of their workplace, employers can ensure that reasonably anticipated supplies are available. Employers should assess the specific needs of their worksite periodically and augment the first aid kit appropriately.

If it is reasonably anticipated employees will be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while using first-aid supplies, employers should provide personal protective equipment (PPE). Appropriate PPE includes gloves, gowns, face shields, masks and eye protection (see "Occupational Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens", 29 CFR 1910.1030(d)(3)) (56 FR 64175).

[63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 76 FR 80740, Dec. 27, 2011]
An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places of employment.
Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be capable of being tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall not be dipped from containers.
Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be clearly marked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other purpose.
The common drinking cup is prohibited.
Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, both a sanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for disposing of the used cups shall be provided.
Potable water means water that meets the standards for drinking purposes of the State or local authority having jurisdiction, or water that meets the quality standards prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (40 CFR part 141).
Outlets for nonpotable water, such as water for industrial or firefighting purposes only, shall be identified by signs meeting the requirements of subpart G of this part, to indicate clearly that the water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing, or cooking purposes.
There shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between a system furnishing potable water and a system furnishing nonpotable water.
Toilets shall be provided for employees according to the following table:

Table D-1
Number of employees Minimum number of facilities
20 or less 1.
20 or more 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 40 workers.
200 or more 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 50 workers.
Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to assure not less than one toilet facility is available.
Job sites, not provided with a sanitary sewer, shall be provided with one of the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by local codes:
Privies (where their use will not contaminate ground or surface water);
Chemical toilets;
Recirculating toilets;
Combustion toilets.
The requirements of this paragraph (c) for sanitation facilities shall not apply to mobile crews having transportation readily available to nearby toilet facilities.
All employees' food service facilities and operations shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of the jurisdictions in which they are located.
All employee food service facilities and operations shall be carried out in accordance with sound hygienic principles. In all places of employment where all or part of the food service is provided, the food dispensed shall be wholesome, free from spoilage, and shall be processed, prepared, handled, and stored in such a manner as to be protected against contamination.
When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.
The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees engaged in the application of paints, coating, herbicides, or insecticides, or in other operations where contaminants may be harmful to the employees. Such facilities shall be in near proximity to the worksite and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove such substances.
Washing facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.
Lavatories shall be made available in all places of employment. The requirements of this subdivision do not apply to mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations if employees working at these locations have transportation readily available to nearby washing facilities which meet the other requirements of this paragraph.
Each lavatory shall be provided with hot and cold running water, or tepid running water.
Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall be provided.
Individual hand towels or sections thereof, of cloth or paper, air blowers or clean individual sections of continuous cloth toweling, convenient to the lavatories, shall be provided.
Whenever showers are required by a particular standard, the showers shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs (f)(4)(ii) through (v) of this section.
One shower shall be provided for each 10 employees of each sex, or numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.
Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to the showers shall be provided as specified in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section.
Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a common discharge line.
Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual clean towels.
No employee shall be allowed to consume food or beverages in a toilet room nor in any area exposed to a toxic material.
Every enclosed workplace shall be so constructed, equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. A continuing and effective extermination program shall be instituted where their presence is detected.
Whenever employees are required by a particular standard to wear protective clothing because of the possibility of contamination with toxic materials, change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing shall be provided.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979; 58 FR 35084, June 30, 1993; 76 FR 33611, June 8, 2011]
Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table D-2 of this section when measured on the A-scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response.
When employees are subjected to sound levels exceeding those listed in Table D-2 of this section, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective equipment as required in subpart E, shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table.
If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous.
In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values shown herein, a continuing, effective hearing conservation program shall be administered.

Table D-2 - Permissible Noise Exposures
Duration per day, hours
Sound level dBA slow response
8
90
6
92
4
95
3
97
2
100
11/2
102
1
105
1/2
110
1/4 or less
115
When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each. Exposure to different levels for various periods of time shall be computed according to the formula set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.
Fe = (T1/L1) + (T2/L2) + • • • + (Tn/Ln)

Where:

Fe = The equivalent noise exposure factor.
T = The period of noise exposure at any essentially constant level.
L = The duration of the permissible noise exposure at the constant level (from Table D-2).


If the value of Fe exceeds unity (1) the exposure exceeds permissible levels.
A sample computation showing an application of the formula in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section is as follows. An employee is exposed at these levels for these periods:

110 db A 1/4 hour.
100 db A 1/2 hour.
90 db A 11/2 hours.

Fe = (1/4/ 1/2) + (1/2/2) + (11/2/8)
Fe = 0.500 + 0.25 + 0.188
Fe = 0.938


Since the value of Fe does not exceed unity, the exposure is within permissible limits.
Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level.
In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10 CFR part 20), relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.
Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X-rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under Commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]
[Reserved]

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under paragraphs (c) through (r) of this section are identical to those set forth at paragraphs (a) through (p) of § 1910.1096 of this chapter.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35084 & 35310, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install, adjust, and operate laser equipment.
Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be available and in possession of the operator at all times.
Employees, when working in areas in which a potential exposure to direct or reflected laser light greater than 0.005 watts (5 milliwatts) exists, shall be provided with antilaser eye protection devices as specified in Subpart E of this part.
Areas in which lasers are used shall be posted with standard laser warning placards.
Beam shutters or caps shall be utilized, or the laser turned off, when laser transmission is not actually required. When the laser is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of shifts, the laser shall be turned off.
Only mechanical or electronic means shall be used as a detector for guiding the internal alignment of the laser.
The laser beam shall not be directed at employees.
When it is raining or snowing, or when there is dust or fog in the air, the operation of laser systems shall be prohibited where practicable; in any event, employees shall be kept out of range of the area of source and target during such weather conditions.
Laser equipment shall bear a label to indicate maximum output.
Employees shall not be exposed to light intensities above:
Direct staring: 1 micro-watt per square centimeter;
Incidental observing: 1 milliwatt per square centimeter;
Diffused reflected light: 2 1/2 watts per square centimeter.
Laser unit in operation should be set up above the heads of the employees, when possible.
Employees shall not be exposed to microwave power densities in excess of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter.
Employers must limit an employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table 1 or 2 of this section in accordance with the following:
An employee's exposure, as determined from breathing-zone air samples, to any substance in Table 1 of this section with a permissible exposure limit preceded by (C) must at no time exceed the exposure limit specified for that substance. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the employer must assess the ceiling as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure that the employer cannot exceed at any time during the working day.
An employee's exposure, as determined from breathing-zone air samples, to any substance in Table 1 or 2 of this section with a permissible exposure limit not preceded by (C) must not exceed the limit specified for that substance measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average in any work shift.
To achieve compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, administrative or engineering controls must first be implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with §1926.103.
Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to the exposure of employees to airborne asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, or actinolite dust. Whenever any employee is exposed to airborne asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, or actinolite dust, the requirements of §1926.1101 shall apply.
Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to the exposure of employees to formaldehyde. Whenever any employee is exposed to formaldehyde, the requirements of §1910.1048 of this title shall apply.
 
Table 1 to §1926.55 — Permissible Exposure Limits for Airborne Contaminants
Substance
CAS No.d
ppma mg/m3b Skin designation*
Abate; see Temephos
       
Acetaldehyde
75-07-0
200
360
Acetic acid
64-19-7
10
25
Acetic anhydride
108-24-7
5
20
Acetone
67-64-1
1000
2400
Acetonitrile
75-05-8
40
70
2-Acetylaminofluorine; see §1926.1114
53-96-3
     
Acetylene
74-86-2
E
   
Acetylene dichloride; see 1,2-Dichloroethylene
       
Acetylene tetrabromide
79-27-6
1
14
Acrolein
107-02-8
0.1
0.25
Acrylamide
79-06-1
0.3
X
Acrylonitrile; see §1926.1145
107-13-1
     
Aldrin
309-00-2
0.25
X
Allyl alcohol
107-18-6
2
5
X
Allyl chloride
107-05-1
1
3
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)
106-92-3
(C)10
(C)45
Allyl propyl disulfide
2179-59-1
2
12
alpha-Alumina
1344-28-1
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Alundum; see alpha-Alumina
       
4-Aminodiphenyl; see §1926.1111
92-67-1
     
2-Aminoethanol; see Ethanolamine
       
2-Aminopyridine
504-29-0
0.5
2
Ammonia
7664-41-7
50
35
Ammonium sulfamate
7773-06-0
     
Total dust
 
15
Respirable fraction
 
5
n-Amyl acetate
628-63-7
100
525
sec-Amyl acetate
626-38-0
125
650
Aniline and homologs
62-53-3
5
19
X
Anisidine (o-, p-isomers)
29191-52-4
0.5
X
Antimony and compounds (as Sb)
7440-36-0
0.5
ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea)
86-88-4
0.3
-—
Argon
7440-37-1
E
   
Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As); see §1926.1118
7440-38-2
Arsenic, organic compounds (as As)
7440-38-2
0.5
Arsine
7784-42-1
0.05
0.2
Asbestos; see §1926.1101
       
Azinphos-methyl
86-50-0
0.2
X
Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba)
7440-39-3
0.5
Benzeneg; see §1926.1128
71-43-2
     
Benzidine; see §1926.1110
92-87-5
     
p-Benzoquinone; see Quinone
       
Benzo(a)pyrene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles
       
Benzoyl peroxide
94-36-0
5
Benzyl chloride
100-44-7
1
5
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as Be); see 1926.1124(q)
7440-41-7
0.002
Biphenyl; see Diphenyl
       
Bisphenol A; see Diglycidyl ether
       
Boron oxide
1303-86-2
     
Total dust
 
15
Boron tribromide
10294-33-4
1
10
Boron trifluoride
7637-07-2
(C)1
(C)3
Bromine
7726-95-6
0.1
0.7
Bromine pentafluoride
7789-30-2
0.1
0.7
Bromoform
75-25-2
0.5
5
X
Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene); see 29 CFR 1910.1051; 29 CFR 1910.19(l)
106-99-0
STEL 1 ppm/5 ppm
 
Butanethiol; see Butyl mercaptan
       
2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone)
78-93-3
200
590
2-Butoxyethanol
111-76-2
50
240
X
n-Butyl-acetate
123-86-4
150
710
sec-Butyl acetate
105-46-4
200
950
tert-Butyl acetate
540-88-5
200
950
n-Butyl alcohol
71-36-3
100
300
sec-Butyl alcohol
78-92-2
150
450
tert-Butyl alcohol
75-65-0
100
300
Butylamine
109-73-9
(C)5
(C)15
X
tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO3); see 1926.1126n
1189-85-1
     
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE)
2426-08-6
50
270
Butyl mercaptan
109-79-5
0.5
1.5
p-tert-Butyltoluene
98-51-1
10
60
Cadmium (as Cd); see 1926.1127
7440-43-9
     
Calcium carbonate
1317-65-3
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Calcium oxide
1305-78-8
5
Calcium sulfate
7778-18-9
     
Total dust
 
15
Respirable fraction
 
5
Camphor, synthetic
76-22-2
2
Carbaryl (Sevin)
63-25-2
5
Carbon black
1333-86-4
3.5
Carbon dioxide
124-38-9
5000
9000
Carbon disulfide
75-15-0
20
60
X
Carbon monoxide
630-08-0
50
55
—-
Carbon tetrachloride
56-23-5
10
65
X
Cellulose
9004-34-6
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Chlordane
57-74-9
0.5
X
Chlorinated camphene
8001-35-2
0.5
X
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide
55720-99-5
0.5
Chlorine
7782-50-5
1
3
Chlorine dioxide
10049-04-4
0.1
0.3
 
Chlorine trifluoride
7790-91-2
(C)0.1
(C)0.4
Chloroacetaldehyde
107-20-0
(C)1
(C)3
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride)
532-27-4
0.05
0.3
Chlorobenzene
108-90-7
75
350
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile
2698-41-1
0.05
0.4
Chlorobromomethane
74-97-5
200
1050
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene; see beta-Chloroprene
       
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine) (PCB)
53469-21-9
1
X
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine) (PCB)
11097-69-1
0.5
X
1-Chloro,2,3-epoxypropane; see Epichlorohydrin
       
2-Chloroethanol; see Ethylene chlorohydrin
       
Chloroethylene; see Vinyl chloride
       
Chloroform (Trichloromethane)
67-66-3
(C)50
(C)240
bis(Chloromethyl) ether; see §1926.1108
542-88-1
     
Chloromethyl methyl ether; see §1926.1106
107-30-2
     
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane
600-25-9
20
100
Chloropicrin
76-06-2
0.1
0.7
beta-Chloroprene
126-99-8
25
90
X
Chromium (II) compounds
       
(as Cr)
7440-47-3
0.5
Chromium (III) compounds
       
(as Cr)
7440-47-3
0.5
Chromium (VI) compounds; See 1926.1126o
       
Chromium metal and insol. salts (as Cr)
7440-47-3
1
Chrysene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles
     
Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction), anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene
65996-93-2
0.2
Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co)
7440-48-4
0.1
Coke oven emissions; see §1926.1129
       
Copper
7440-50-8
     
Fume (as Cu)
 
0.1
Dusts and mists (as Cu)
 
1
Corundum; see Emery
       
Cotton dust (raw)
 
1
 
Crag herbicide (Sesone)
136-78-7
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Cresol, all isomers
1319-77-3
5
22
X
Crotonaldehyde
123-73-9;
2
6
 
 
4170-30-3
     
Cumene
98-82-8
50
245
X
Cyanides (as CN)
Varies with Compound
5
X
Cyanogen
460-19-5
10
Cyclohexane
110-82-7
300
1050
Cyclohexanol
108-93-0
50
200
Cyclohexanone
108-94-1
50
200
Cyclohexene
110-83-8
300
1015
Cyclonite
121-82-4
1.5
X
Cyclopentadiene
542-92-7
75
200
DDT, see Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
       
DDVP, see Dichlorvos
       
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
94-75-7
10
Decaborane
17702-41-9
0.05
0.3
X
Demeton (Systox)
8065-48-3
0.1
X
Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone)
123-42-2
50
240
1,2-Diaminoethane; see Ethylenediamine
       
Diazomethane
334-88-3
0.2
0.4
Diborane
19287-45-7
0.1
0.1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP); see §1926.1144
96-12-8
   
1,2-Dibromoethane; see Ethylene dibromide
       
Dibutyl phosphate
107-66-4
1
5
Dibutyl phthalate
84-74-2
5
Dichloroacetylene
7572-29-4
(C)0.1
(C)0.4
o-Dichlorobenzene
95-50-1
(C)50
(C)300
p-Dichlorobenzene
106-46-7
75
450
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine; see §1926.1107
91-94-1
     
Dichlorodifluoromethane
75-71-8
1000
4950
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin
118-52-5
0.2
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
50-29-3
1
X
1,1-Dichloroethane
75-34-3
100
400
1,2-Dichloroethane; see Ethylene dichloride
       
1,2-Dichloroethylene
540-59-0
200
790
Dichloroethyl ether
111-44-4
(C)15
(C)90
X
Dichloromethane; see Methylene chloride
       
Dichloromonofluoromethane
75-43-4
1000
4200
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane
594-72-9
(C)10
(C)60
1,2-Dichloropropane; see Propylene dichloride
       
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane
76-14-2
1000
7000
Dichlorvos (DDVP)
62-73-7
1
X
Dieldrin
60-57-1
0.25
X
Diethylamine
109-89-7
25
75
2-Diethylaminoethanol
100-37-8
10
50
X
Diethylene triamine
111-40-0
(C)10
(C)42
X
Diethyl ether; see Ethyl ether
       
Difluorodibromomethane
75-61-6
100
860
Diglycidyl ether (DGE)
2238-07-5
(C)0.5
(C)2.8
Dihydroxybenzene; see Hydroquinone
       
Diisobutyl ketone
108-83-8
50
290
Diisopropylamine
108-18-9
5
20
X
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; see §1926.1115
60-11-7
     
Dimethoxymethane; see Methylal
       
Dimethyl acetamide
127-19-5
10
35
X
Dimethylamine
124-40-3
10
18
Dimethylaminobenzene; see Xylidine
       
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)
121-69-7
5
25
X
Dimethylbenzene; see Xylene
       
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo- 2,2-dichloroethyl phosphate
300-76-5
3
Dimethylformamide
68-12-2
10
30
X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone; see Diisobutyl ketone
       
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
57-14-7
0.5
1
X
Dimethylphthalate
131-11-3
5
Dimethyl sulfate
77-78-3
1
5
X
Dinitrobenzene (all isomers)
   
1
X
(ortho)
528-29-0
     
(meta)
99-65-0
     
(para)
100-25-4
     
Dinitro-o-cresol
534-52-1
0.2
X
Dinitrotoluene
25321-14-6
1.5
X
Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide)
123-91-1
100
360
X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl)
92-52-4
0.2
1
Diphenylamine
122-39-4
10
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate; see Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate
       
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether
34590-94-8
100
600
X
Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate)
117-81-7
5
Emery
12415-34-8
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Endosulfan
115-29-7
0.1
X
Endrin
72-20-8
0.1
X
Epichlorohydrin
106-89-8
5
19
X
EPN
2104-64-5
0.5
X
1,2-Epoxypropane; see Propylene oxide
       
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol; see Glycidol
       
Ethane
74-84-0
E
   
Ethanethiol; see Ethyl mercaptan
       
Ethanolamine
141-43-5
3
6
2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve)
110-80-5
200
740
X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate)
111-15-9
100
540
X
Ethyl acetate
141-78-6
400
1400
Ethyl acrylate
140-88-5
25
100
X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol)
64-17-5
1000
1900
Ethylamine
75-04-7
10
18
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone)
541-85-5
25
130
Ethyl benzene
100-41-4
100
435
Ethyl bromide
74-96-4
200
890
Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone)
106-35-4
50
230
Ethyl chloride
75-00-3
1000
2600
Ethyl ether
60-29-7
400
1200
Ethyl formate
109-94-4
100
300
Ethyl mercaptan
75-08-1
0.5
1
Ethyl silicate
78-10-4
100
850
Ethylene
74-85-1
E
   
Ethylene chlorohydrin
107-07-3
5
16
X
Ethylenediamine
107-15-3
10
25
Ethylene dibromide
106-93-4
(C)25
(C)190
X
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)
107-06-2
50
200
Ethylene glycol dinitrate
628-96-6
(C)0.2
(C)1
X
Ethylene glycol methyl acetate; see Methyl cellosolve acetate
       
Ethyleneimine; see §1926.1112
151-56-4
     
Ethylene oxide; see §1926.1147
75-21-8
     
Ethylidene chloride; see 1,1-Dichloroethane
       
N-Ethylmorpholine
100-74-3
20
94
X
Ferbam
14484-64-1
     
Total dust
 
15
Ferrovanadium dust
12604-58-9
1
Fibrous Glass
       
Total dust
     
Respirable fraction
 
 
Fluorides (as F)
Varies with compound
2.5
Fluorine
7782-41-4
0.1
0.2
Fluorotrichloromethane (Trichlorofluoromethane)
75-69-4
1000
5600
Formaldehyde; see §1926.1148
50-00-0
     
Formic acid
64-18-6
5
9
Furfural
98-01-1
5
20
X
Furfuryl alcohol
98-00-0
50
200
Gasoline
8006-61-9
 
A3
Glycerin (mist)
56-81-5
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Glycidol
556-52-5
50
150
Glycol monoethyl ether; see 2-Ethoxyethanol
       
Graphite, natural, respirable dust
7782-42-5
(2)
(2)
(2)
Graphite, synthetic
       
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Guthion; see Azinphos methyl
       
Gypsum
13397-24-5
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Hafnium
7440-58-6
0.5
Helium
7440-59-7
E
   
Heptachlor
76-44-8
0.5
X
Heptane (n-Heptane)
142-82-5
500
2000
Hexachloroethane
67-72-1
1
10
X
Hexachloronaphthalene
1335-87-1
0.2
X
n-Hexane
110-54-3
500
1800
2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone)
591-78-6
100
410
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone)
108-10-1
100
410
sec-Hexyl acetate
108-84-9
50
300
Hydrazine
302-01-2
1
1.3
X
Hydrogen
1333-74-0
E
   
Hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6
3
10
Hydrogen chloride
7647-01-0
(C)5
(C)7
Hydrogen cyanide
74-90-8
10
11
X
Hydrogen fluoride (as F)
7664-39-3
3
2
Hydrogen peroxide
7722-84-1
1
1.4
Hydrogen selenide (as Se)
7783-07-5
0.05
.02
Hydrogen sulfide
7783-06-4
10
15
Hydroquinone
123-31-9
2
Indene
95-13-6
10
45
Indium and compounds (as In)
7440-74-6
0.1
Iodine
7553-56-2
(C)0.1
(C)1
Iron oxide fume
1309-37-1
10
Iron salts (soluble) (as Fe)
Varies with compound
1
Isoamyl acetate
123-92-2
100
525
Isoamyl alcohol (primary and secondary)
123-51-3
100
360
Isobutyl acetate
110-19-0
150
700
Isobutyl alcohol
78-83-1
100
300
Isophorone
78-59-1
25
140
Isopropyl acetate
108-21-4
250
950
Isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0
400
980
Isopropylamine
75-31-0
5
12
Isopropyl ether
108-20-3
500
2100
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE)
4016-14-2
50
240
Kaolin
1332-58-7
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Ketene
463-51-4
0.5
0.9
Lead, inorganic (as Pb); see 1926.62
7439-92-1
     
Limestone
1317-65-3
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Lindane
58-89-9
0.5
X
Lithium hydride
7580-67-8
0.025
L.P.G. (Liquefied petroleum gas)
68476-85-7
1000
1800
 
Magnesite
546-93-0
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Magnesium oxide fume
1309-48-4
     
Total particulate
 
15
Malathion
121-75-5
     
Total dust
 
15
X
Maleic anhydride
108-31-6
0.25
   
Manganese compounds (as Mn)
7439-96-5
(C)5
Manganese fume (as Mn)
7439-96-5
(C)5
Marble
1317-65-3
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Mercury (aryl and inorganic)(as Hg)
7439-97-6
 
0.1
X
Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)
7439-97-6
0.01
X
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg)
7439-97-6
0.1
X
Mesityl oxide
141-79-7
25
100
Methane
74-82-8
E
   
Methanethiol; see Methyl mercaptan
       
Methoxychlor
72-43-5
     
Total dust
 
15
2-Methoxyethanol (Methyl cellosolve)
109-86-4
25
80
X
2-Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate)
110-49-6
25
120
X
Methyl acetate
79-20-9
200
610
Methyl acetylene (Propyne)
74-99-7
1000
1650
Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture (MAPP)
 
1000
1800
Methyl acrylate
96-33-3
10
35
X
Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane)
109-87-5
1000
3100
Methyl alcohol
67-56-1
200
260
Methylamine
74-89-5
10
12
Methyl amyl alcohol; see Methyl isobutyl carbinol
       
Methyl n-amyl ketone
110-43-0
100
465
Methyl bromide
74-83-9
(C)20
(C)80
X
Methyl butyl ketone; see 2-Hexanone
       
Methyl cellosolve; see 2-Methoxyethanol
       
Methyl cellosolve acetate; see 2-Methoxyethyl acetate
       
Methylene chloride; see §1910.1052
       
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)
71-55-6
350
1900
Methylcyclohexane
108-87-2
500
2000
Methylcyclohexanol
25639-42-3
100
470
o-Methylcyclohexanone
583-60-8
100
460
X
Methylene chloride
75-09-2
500
1740
Methylenedianiline (MDA)
101-77-9
     
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); see 2-Butanone
       
Methyl formate
107-31-3
100
250
Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydrazine)
60-34-4
(C)0.2
(C)0.35
X
Methyl iodide
74-88-4
5
28
X
Methyl isoamyl ketone
110-12-3
100
475
Methyl isobutyl carbinol
108-11-2
25
100
X
Methyl isobutyl ketone; see Hexone
       
Methyl isocyanate
624-83-9
0.02
0.05
X
Methyl mercaptan
74-93-1
0.5
1
Methyl methacrylate
80-62-6
100
410
Methyl propyl ketone; see 2-Pentanone
       
Methyl silicate
681-84-5
(C)5
(C)30
alpha-Methyl styrene
98-83-9
(C)100
(C)480
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)
101-68-8
(C)0.02
(C)0.2
Mica; see Silicates
       
Molybdenum (as Mo)
7439-98-7
     
Soluble compounds
 
5
Insoluble compounds
       
Total dust
 
15
Monomethyl aniline
100-61-8
2
9
X
Monomethyl hydrazine; see Methyl hydrazine
 
     
Morpholine
110-91-8
20
70
X
Naphtha (Coal tar)
8030-30-6
100
400
Naphthalene
91-20-3
10
50
alpha-Naphthylamine; see §1926.1104
134-32-7
     
beta-Naphthylamine; see §1926.1109
91-59-8
   
Neon
7440-01-9
E
   
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni)
13463-39-3
0.001
0.007
Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni)
7440-02-0
1
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni)
7440-02-0
1
Nicotine
54-11-5
0.5
X
Nitric acid
7697-37-2
2
5
Nitric oxide
10102-43-9
25
30
p-Nitroaniline
100-01-6
1
6
X
Nitrobenzene
98-95-3
1
5
X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene
100-00-5
1
X
4-Nitrodiphenyl; see §1926.1103
92-93-3
     
Nitroethane
79-24-3
100
310
Nitrogen
7727-37-9
E
   
Nitrogen dioxide
10102-44-0
(C)5
(C)9
Nitrogen trifluoride
7783-54-2
10
29
Nitroglycerin
55-63-0
(C)0.2
(C)2
X
Nitromethane
75-52-5
100
250
1-Nitropropane
108-03-2
25
90
2-Nitropropane
79-46-9
25
90
N-Nitrosodimethylamine; see §1926.1116
62-79-9
   
Nitrotoluene (all isomers)
 
5
30
X
o-isomer
88-72-2;
     
m-isomer
99-08-1;
     
p-isomer
99-99-0
     
Nitrotrichloromethane; see Chloropicrin
       
Nitrous oxide
10024-97-2
E
   
Octachloronaphthalene
2234-13-1
0.1
X
Octane
111-65-9
400
1900
Oil mist, mineral
8012-95-1
5
Osmium tetroxide (as Os)
20816-12-0
0.002
Oxalic acid
144-62-7
1
Oxygen difluoride
7783-41-7
0.05
0.1
Ozone
10028-15-6
0.1
0.2
Paraquat, respirable dust
4685-14-7;
0.5
X
 
1910-42-5;
     
 
2074-50-2
     
Parathion
56-38-2
0.1
X
Particulates not otherwise regulated
       
Total dust organic and inorganic
 
15
PCB; see Chlorodiphenyl (42% and 54% chlorine)
       
Pentaborane
19624-22-7
0.005
0.01
Pentachloronaphthalene
1321-64-8
0.5
X
Pentachlorophenol
87-86-5
0.5
X
Pentaerythritol
115-77-5
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Pentane
109-66-0
500
1500
2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone)
107-87-9
200
700
Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene)
127-18-4
100
670
Perchloromethyl mercaptan
594-42-3
0.1
0.8
Perchloryl fluoride
7616-94-6
3
13.5
Petroleum distillates (Naphtha)(Rubber Solvent)
   
A3
Phenol
108-95-2
5
19
X
p-Phenylene diamine
106-50-3
0.1
X
Phenyl ether, vapor
101-84-8
1
7
Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor
 
1
7
Phenylethylene; see Styrene
       
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE)
122-60-1
10
60
Phenylhydrazine
100-63-0
5
22
X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos)
7786-34-7
0.1
X
Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride)
75-44-5
0.1
0.4
Phosphine
7803-51-2
0.3
0.4
Phosphoric acid
7664-38-2
1
Phosphorus (yellow)
7723-14-0
0.1
Phosphorus pentachloride
10026-13-8
1
Phosphorus pentasulfide
1314-80-3
1
Phosphorus trichloride
7719-12-2
0.5
3
Phthalic anhydride
85-44-9
2
12
Picric acid
88-89-1
0.1
X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,3-indandione)
83-26-1
0.1
Plaster of Paris
26499-65-0
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Platinum (as Pt)
7440-06-4
     
Metal
 
Soluble salts
 
0.002
Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products
   
A2
 
Portland cement
65997-15-1
     
Total dust
 
15
Respirable fraction
 
5
 
Propane
74-98-6
E
   
Propargyl alcohol
107-19-7
1
X
beta-Propriolactone; see §1926.1113
57-57-8
     
n-Propyl acetate
109-60-4
200
840
n-Propyl alcohol
71-23-8
200
500
n-Propyl nitrate
627-13-4
25
110
Propylene dichloride
78-87-5
75
350
Propylene imine
75-55-8
2
5
X
Propylene oxide
75-56-9
100
240
Propyne; see Methyl acetylene
       
Pyrethrum
8003-34-7
5
Pyridine
110-86-1
5
15
Quinone
106-51-4
0.1
0.4
RDX; see Cyclonite
       
Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and insoluble compounds
7440-16-6
0.1
Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds
7440-16-6
0.001
Ronnel
299-84-3
10
Rotenone
83-79-4
5
Rouge
       
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Selenium compounds (as Se)
7782-49-2
0.2
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se)
7783-79-1
0.05
0.4
Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel
112926-00-8
(2)
(2)
(2)
Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth, containing less than 1% crystalline silica
61790-53-2
(2)
(2)
(2)
Silica, crystalline, respirable dust
       
Cristobalite; see 1926.1153
14464-46-1
     
Quartz; see 1926.11535
14808-60-7
     
Tripoli (as quartz); see 1926.11535
1317-95-9
     
Tridymite; see 1926.1153
15468-32-3
     
Silica, fused, respirable dust
60676-86-0
(2)
(2)
(2)
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica)
       
Mica (respirable dust)
12001-26-2
(2)
(2)
(2)
Soapstone, total dust
 
(2)
(2)
(2)
Soapstone, respirable dust
 
(2)
(2)
(2)
Talc (containing asbestos); use asbestos limit; see 1926.58
       
Talc (containing no asbestos), respirable dust
14807-96-6
(2)
(2)
(2)
Tremolite, asbestiform; see 1926.58
       
Silicon carbide
409-21-2
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag)
7440-22-4
0.01
Soapstone; see Silicates
       
Sodium fluoroacetate
62-74-8
0.05
X
Sodium hydroxide
1310-73-2
2
Starch
9005-25-8
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Stibine
7803-52-3
0.1
0.5
Stoddard solvent
8052-41-3
200
1150
Strychnine
57-24-9
0.15
Styrene
100-42-5
(C)100
(C)420
Sucrose
57-50-1
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Sulfur dioxide
7446-09-5
5
13
Sulfur hexafluoride
2551-62-4
1000
6000
Sulfuric acid
7664-93-9
1
Sulfur monochloride
10025-67-9
1
6
Sulfur pentafluoride
5714-22-7
0.025
0.25
Sulfuryl fluoride
2699-79-8
5
20
Systox, see Demeton
       
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
93-76-5
10
Talc; see Silicates—
       
Tantalum, metal and oxide dust
7440-25-7
5
TEDP (Sulfotep)
3689-24-5
0.2
X
Teflon decomposition products
   
A2
 
Tellurium and compounds (as Te)
13494-80-9
0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te)
7783-80-4
0.02
0.2
Temephos
3383-96-8
     
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphate)
107-49-3
0.05
X
Terphenyls
26140-60-3
(C)1
(C)9
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane
76-11-9
500
4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane
76-12-0
500
4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
79-34-5
5
35
X
Tetrachloroethylene; see Perchloroethylene
       
Tetrachloromethane; see Carbon tetrachloride
       
Tetrachloronaphthalene
1335-88-2
2
X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb)
78-00-2
0.1
X
Tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9
200
590
Tetramethyl lead, (as Pb)
75-74-1
0.15
X
Tetramethyl succinonitrile
3333-52-6
0.5
3
X
Tetranitromethane
509-14-8
1
8
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine)
479-45-8
1.5
X
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl)
7440-28-0
0.1
X
Thiram
137-26-8
5
Tin, inorganic compounds (except oxides) (as Sn)
7440-31-5
2
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn)
7440-31-5
0.1
Tin oxide (as Sn)
21651-19-4
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Titanium dioxide
13463-67-7
     
Total dust
 
 
Toluene
108-88-3
200
750
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)
584-84-9
(C)0.02
(C)0.14
o-Toluidine
95-53-4
5
22
X
Toxaphene; see Chlorinated camphene
       
Tremolite; see Silicates
       
Tributyl phosphate
126-73-8
5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane; see Methyl chloroform
       
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
79-00-5
10
45
X
Trichloroethylene
79-01-6
100
535
Trichloromethane; see Chloroform
       
Trichloronaphthalene
1321-65-9
5
X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane
96-18-4
50
300
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
76-13-1
1000
7600
Triethylamine
121-44-8
25
100
Trifluorobromomethane
75-63-8
1000
6100
Trimethyl benzene
25551-13-7
25
120
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol; see Picric acid
       
2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine; see Tetryl
       
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
118-96-7
1.5
X
Triorthocresyl phosphate
78-30-8
0.1
Triphenyl phosphate
115-86-6
3
Tungsten (as W)
7440-33-7
     
Insoluble compounds
 
5
Soluble compounds
 
1
Turpentine
8006-64-2
100
560
Uranium (as U)
7440-61-1
     
Soluble compounds
 
0.2
Insoluble compounds
 
0.2
Vanadium
1314-62-1
     
Respirable dust (as V2 O5)
 
(C)0.5
Fume (as V2 O5)
 
(C)0.1
Vegetable oil mist
       
Total dust
 
 
Respirable fraction
 
 
Vinyl benzene; see Styrene
       
Vinyl chloride; see §1926.1117
75-01-4
     
Vinyl cyanide; see Acrylonitrile
       
Vinyl toluene
25013-15-4
100
480
Warfarin
81-81-2
0.1
Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers)
1330-20-7
100
435
Xylidine
1300-73-8
5
25
X
Yttrium
7440-65-5
1
Zinc chloride fume
7646-85-7
1
Zinc oxide fume
1314-13-2
5
Zinc oxide
1314-13-2
     
Total dust
 
15
Respirable fraction
 
5
Zirconium compounds (as Zr)
7440-67-7
5
 


Table 2 to §1926.55 — Mineral Dusts
Substance mppcf(j)
SILICA:  
Crystalline
250(k)
Quartz. Threshold Limit calculated from the formula(p)
% SiO2 + 5
Cristobalite  
Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth
20
SILICATES (less than 1% crystalline silica)  
Mica
20
Portland cement
50
Soapstone
20
Talc (non-asbestiform)
20
Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit
--
Graphite (natural) 15
Inert or Nuisance Particulates:(m) 50 (or 15 mg/m3 whichever is the smaller) of total dust <1% SiO2
[Inert or Nuisance Dusts includes all mineral, inorganic, and organic dusts as indicated by examples in TLV's appendix D]  
Conversion factors
 
mppcf × 35.3 = million particles per cubic meter = particles per c.c.  

Footnotes to Tables 1 and 2 of this section:

1[Reserved]

2See Table 2 of this section.

3Use Asbestos Limit §1926.1101.

4[Reserved]

5See Table 2 of this section for the exposure limit for any operations or sectors where the exposure limit in §1926.1153 is stayed or is otherwise not in effect.

*An "X" designation in the "Skin Designation" column indicates that the substance is a dermal hazard.

aParts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25 °C and 760 torr.

bMilligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact; when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate.

c[Reserved]

dThe CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound, measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given—not CAS numbers for the individual compounds.

e-f[Reserved]

gFor sectors excluded from §1926.1128 the limit is 10 ppm TWA.

h-i[Reserved]

jMillions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques.

kThe percentage of crystalline silica in the formula is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in which other methods have been shown to be applicable.

l[Reserved]

mCovers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise regulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.

nIf the exposure limit in §1926.1126 is stayed or is otherwise not in effect, the exposure limit is a ceiling of 0.1 mg/m3.

oIf the exposure limit in §1926.1126 is stayed or is otherwise not in effect, the exposure limit is 0.1 mg/m3(as CrO3) as an 8-hour TWA.

pThis standard applies to any operations or sectors for which the respirable crystalline silica standard, 1926.1153, is stayed or otherwise is not in effect.

qThis standard applies to any operations or sectors for which the beryllium standard, 1926.1124, is stayed or otherwise is not in effect.

The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as follows:

A1[Reserved]

A2Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products. Because these products decompose in part by hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in air as fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pending determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations should be minimal.

A3Gasoline and/or Petroleum Distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.

E Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is the available oxygen which shall be at least 19.5% and be within the requirements addressing explosion in part 1926.

[39 FR 22801, June 24, 1974, as amended at 51 FR 37007, Oct. 17, 1986; 52 FR 46312, Dec. 4, 1987; 58 FR 35089, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9249, 9250, Mar. 7, 1996; 61 FR 56856, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1619, Jan. 10, 1997; 71 FR 10381, Feb. 28, 2006; 71 FR 36009, June 23, 2006; 81 FR 16875, Mar. 25, 2016; 81 FR 31168, May 18, 2016; 81 FR 60273, Sept. 1, 2016; 82 FR 2750, Jan. 9, 2017; 84 FR 21576, May 14, 2019]
Construction areas, ramps, runways, corridors, offices, shops, and storage areas shall be lighted to not less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in Table D-3 while any work is in progress:
 
TABLE D-3 - MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES
Foot-Candles
Area of Operation
5 General construction area lighting.
3
General construction areas, concrete placement, excavation and waste areas, access ways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas.
5 Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and
exitways.
5 Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas:
(Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required
at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling,
mucking, and scaling. Bureau of Mines approved cap
lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel
heading)
10 General construction plant and shops (e.g., batch
plants, screening plants, mechanical and
electrical equipment rooms, carpenter shops,
rigging lofts and active store rooms, mess halls,
and indoor toilets and workrooms.)
30 First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.
For areas or operations not covered above, refer to the American National Standard A11.1-1965, R1970, Practice for Industrial Lighting, for recommended values of illumination.
Whenever hazardous substances such as dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases exist or are produced in the course of construction work, their concentrations shall not exceed the limits specified in § 1926.55(a). When ventilation is used as an engineering control method, the system shall be installed and operated according to the requirements of this section.
Local exhaust ventilation when used as described in (a) shall be designed to prevent dispersion into the air of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of employees.
Exhaust fans, jets, ducts, hoods, separators, and all necessary appurtenances, including refuse receptacles, shall be so designed, constructed, maintained and operated as to ensure the required protection by maintaining a volume and velocity of exhaust air sufficient to gather dusts, fumes, vapors, or gases from said equipment or process, and to convey them to suitable points of safe disposal, thereby preventing their dispersion in harmful quantities into the atmosphere where employees work.
The exhaust system shall be in operation continually during all operations which it is designed to serve. If the employee remains in the contaminated zone, the system shall continue to operate after the cessation of said operations, the length of time to depend upon the individual circumstances and effectiveness of the general ventilation system.
Since dust capable of causing disability is, according to the best medical opinion, of microscopic size, tending to remain for hours in suspension in still air, it is essential that the exhaust system be continued in operation for a time after the work process or equipment served by the same shall have ceased, in order to ensure the removal of the harmful elements to the required extent. For the same reason, employees wearing respiratory equipment should not remove same immediately until the atmosphere seems clear.
The air outlet from every dust separator, and the dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases collected by an exhaust or ventilating system shall discharge to the outside atmosphere. Collecting systems which return air to work area may be used if concentrations which accumulate in the work area air do not result in harmful exposure to employees. Dust and refuse discharged from an exhaust system shall be disposed of in such a manner that it will not result in harmful exposure to employees.
A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.
A respirator constructed so that it covers the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to protect the wearer from rebounding abrasive.
A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.
A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.
An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.
Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.
A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.
A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements

(A) enclosure or hood,

(B) duct work,

(C) dust collecting equipment,

(D) exhauster, and

(E) discharge stack.
An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.
Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.
An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.
The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.
Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.
The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the levels specified in § 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.
Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), and subpart S of this part. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide. NFPA 68-1954.
Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.
All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.
The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.
Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the enclosure.
Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.
Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.
Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.
Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.
The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961.
When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.
The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.
In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.
The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.
Employers must use only respirators approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protecting employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.
Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators:
When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or
When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or
Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in § 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part and the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.
Properly fitted particulate-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. The respirators used must be approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.
A respiratory protection program as defined and described in § 1926.103, shall be established wherever it is necessary to use respiratory protective equipment.
Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy pieces of work are handled.
Safety shoes shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.
Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to the operator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and to any other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations. This equipment shall conform to the requirements of § 1926.102.
Air for abrasive-blasting respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and must meet the requirements for supplied-air quality and use specified in 29 CFR 1910.134(i).
Dust shall not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.
This paragraph applies to all operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives.
Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness of which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to, and including, 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, and not more than one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting, cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like. The wheels may be "solid" consisting of organic-bonded abrasive material throughout, "steel centered" consisting of a steel disc with a rim of organic-bonded material moulded around the periphery, or of the "inserted tooth" type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth or inserts mechanically secured around the periphery.
All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding, polishing, or buffing purposes.
The part of an exhaust system piping that is connected directly to the hood or enclosure.
A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or polished is placed.
All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasive materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on the side of the assembled disc.
The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into a duct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.
A system consisting of branch pipes connected to hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means for separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and a discharge stack to outside.
All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasive wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting of abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used for peripheral grinding.
A pipe into which one or more branch pipes enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaust system.
The partial or complete enclosure around the wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.
A grinding machine carrying two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the inside ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfaces simultaneously.
A grinding machine carrying an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatable single horizontal spindle.
All power-driven rotatable wheels composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, and may be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes of polishing, buffing, and light grinding.
Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.
All power-driven rotatable wheels made from wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.
Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supporting framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.
The kinetic pressure in the direction of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.
A grinding machine having a vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive disc wheel.
Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in § 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be provided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribed limits.
Hoods connected to exhaust systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placed so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoods in the direction of the air flow. No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shall be operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust and dirt particles to be thrown into the operator's breathing zone.
Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table D-57.1 with a recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and 3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all hoods except the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressure for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figure D-57.1 (following paragraph (g) of this section).

TABLE D-57.1 - GRINDING AND ABRASIVE CUTTING-OFF WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm) Wheel width,
inches (cm)
Minimum exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
To 9 (22.86)
11/2 (3.81)
220
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)
2 (5.08)
390
Over 16 to 19
(40.64 to 48.26)
3 (7.62)
500
Over 19 to 24
(48.26 to 60.96)
4 (10.16)
610
Over 24 to 30
(60.96 to 76.2)
5 (12.7)
880
Over 30 to 36
(76.2 to 91.44)
6 (15.24)
1,200

For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table D-57.1, increase the exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.

Example:

If wheel width = 41/2 inches (11.43 cm), then 4.5 ÷ 4 x 610 = 686 (rounded to 690).
Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table D-57.2.

TABLE D-57.2 - BUFFING AND POLISHING WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm)
Wheel width,
inches (cm)
Minimum exhaust
volume
(feet3/min.)
To 9 (22.86)
2 (5.08)
300
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)
3 (7.62)
500
Over 16 to 19
(40.64 to 48.26)
4 (10.16)
610
Over 19 to 24
(48.26 to 60.96)
5 (12.7)
740
Over 24 to 30
(60.96 to 76.2)
6 (15.24)
1,040
Over 30 to 36
(76.2 to 91.44)
6 (15.24)
1,200
Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grinding operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.3.

TABLE D-57.3 - HORIZONTAL SINGLE-SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm) Exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
Up to 12 (30.48)
220
Over 12 to 19 (30.48 to 48.26)
390
Over 19 to 30 (48.26 to 76.2)
610
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)
880
Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.4.

TABLE D-57.4 - HORIZONTAL DOUBLE-SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm) Exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
Up to 19 (48.26) 610
Over 19 to 25 (48.26 to 63.5) 880
Over 25 to 30 (63.5 to 76.2) 1,200
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62) 1,770
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88) 6,280
Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation. The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.5.


TABLE D-57.5 - VERTICAL SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm)
One-half or more of disc covered
Disc not covered
Number1
Exhaust foot3/min.
Number1
Exhaust foot3/min.
Up to 20 (50.8)
1
500
2
780
Over 20 to 30 (50.8 to 76.2)
2
780
2
1,480
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62)
2
1,770
4
3,530
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88)
2
3,140
5
6,010
  1Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equal distribution provided by other means.
Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to remove dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.6.


TABLE D-57.6 - GRINDING AND POLISHING BELTS
Belts width, inches (cm)
Exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
Up to 3 (7.62)
220
Over 3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7)
300
Over 5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78)
390
Over 7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86)
500
Over 9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94)
610
Over 11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02)
740
Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used for handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partial enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of 150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of the enclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manner as provided for cradles. (See fig. D-57.3)
Where the work is outside the hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).
Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shall be tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.
It is the dual function of grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator from the hazards of bursting wheels as well as to provide a means for the removal of dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in structural strength than specified in the American National Standard Safety Code for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1970.
Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, it is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the operation.
Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall be designed in accordance with figure D-57.2. The adjustable tongue shown in the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted within one-fourth inch (0.635 cm) of the wheel periphery at all times.
Figure D-57.2 - Standard Grinder Hood

Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters
Exhaust
outlet,
inches
(centimeters)
E
Volume
of air
at
4,500
ft/min
Diameter
Width, Max
Min= d
Max= D
 
9 (22.86)
1 1/2 (3.81)
3
220
Over 9 (22.86)
16 (40.64)
2 (5.08)
4
390
Over 16 (40.64)
19 (48.26)
3 (7.62)
4 1/2
500
Over 19 (48.26)
24 (60.96)
4 (10.16)
5
610
Over 24 (60.96)
30 (76.2)
5 (12.7)
6
880
Over 30 (76.2)
36 (91.44)
6 (15.24)
7
1,200
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.
Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as indicated in figure D-57.3.
Figure D-57.3 - A Method of Applying an Exhaust Enclosure to Swing-Frame Grinders

Note: Baffle to reduce front opening as much as possible.
Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits, shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in the enclosure shall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an average face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.
Hoods for polishing and buffing and scratch-brush wheels shall be constructed to conform as closely to figure D-57.4 as the nature of the work will permit.
Figure D-57.4

Standard Buffing and Polishing Hood
Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters
Exhaust
outlet,
inches
(centimeters)
E
Volume
of air
at
4,500
ft/min
Diameter
Width, Max
Min= d
Max= D
 
9 (22.86)
2 (5.08)
31/2 (3.81)
300
Over 9 (22.86)
16 (40.64)
3 (5.08)
4
500
Over 16 (40.64)
19 (48.26)
4 (11.43)
5
610
Over 19 (48.26)
24 (60.96)
5 (12.7)
51/2
740
Over 24 (60.96)
30 (76.2)
6 (15.24)
61/2
1,040
Over 30 (76.2)
36 (91.44)
6 (15.24)
7
1,200
Entry loss = 0.15 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.
Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within a partial enclosure similar to figure D-57.5. The operator shall be positioned outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. The face opening of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actually required for the performance of the operation and the average air velocity into the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet per minute.

Figure D-57.5 - Cradle Polishing or Grinding Enclosure

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.
Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructed to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure D-57.6. It is essential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood, and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in order to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery. The opening on the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grinding operation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.
Figure D-57.6 - Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and Branch Pipe Connections

Dia D, inches (centimeters)
Exhaust E
dia.
inches
(cm)
Volume
exhausted
at 4,500
ft/min
ft3/min
Min.
Max.
 
12 (30.48)
3 (7.6)
220
Over 12 (30.48)
19 (48.26)
4 (10.16)
390
Over 19 (48.26)
30 (76.2)
5 (12.7)
610
Over 30 (76.2)
36 (91.44)
6 (15.24)
880

NOTE: If grinding wheels are used for disc grinding purposes, hoods must conform to structural strength and materials as described in 9.1.

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.
Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encircling the wheels and grinding chamber similar to that illustrated in figure D-57.7. The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept as small as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlets.

Figure D-57.7 - Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and Branch Pipe Connections

Disc dia.inches
(centimeters)
Exhaust E
Volume
exhausted
at 4,500
ft/min.
ft3/min
Note
Min.
Max.
No
Pipes
Dia.
 

19
(48.26)
1
5
610
 
Over 19 (48.26)
25
(63.5)
1
6
880
When width "W" permits, exhaust ducts should be as near heaviest grinding as possible.
Over 25 (63.5)
30
(76.2)
1
7
1,200
 
Over 30 (76.2
53 (134.62)
2
6
1,770
 
Over 53 (134.62)
72
(182.88)
4
8
6,280
 
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.
Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood so constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and the lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood as shown in figure D-57.1.
Figure D-57.1 - Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder Exhaust Hood and Branch Pipe Connections
Dia. D inches (cm)
Exhaust E
Volume
Exhausted
at 4,500
ft/min
ft3/min
Note
Min.
Max.
No
Pipes
Dia.
 
20
(50.8)
1
4 1/4
(10.795)
500
When
one-half
or more
of the
disc can
be hooded,
use
exhaust
ducts as
shown at
the left.
Over 20 (50.8)
30
(76.2)
2
4
(10.16)
780
 
Over 30 (76.2)
72
(182.88)
2
6
(15.24)
1,770
 
Over 53 (134.62)
72
(182.88)
2
8
(20.32)
3,140
 
 
20
(50.8)
2
4
(10.16)
780
When no
hood can
be used
over
disc,
use
exhaust
ducts
as
shown
at left.
Over 20 (50.8)
20
(50.8)
2
4
(10.16)
780
 
Over 30 (76.2)
30
(76.2)
2
5 1/2
(13.97)
1,480
 
Over 53 (134.62)
53
(134.62)
4
6
(15.24)
3,530
 
 
72
(182.88)
5
 7
(17.78)
6,010
 
Entry loss = 1.0 slot velocity pressure + 0.5 branch velocity pressure.
Minimum slot velocity = 2,000 ft/min - 1/2-inch (1.27 cm) slot width.
Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to the operation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch (2.54 cm) wide openings should be provided on either side. Figure D-57.8 shows a typical hood for a belt operation.
Figure D-57.8 - A Typical Hood for a Belt Operation
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.

Belt width W. inches (centimeters)
Exhaust Volume
ft.1/min
Up to 3 (7.62)
220
3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7)
300
5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78)
390
7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86)
500
9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94)
610
11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02)
740
Minimum duct velocity = 4,500 ft/min branch, 3,500 ft/min main.
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.
This paragraph (g), prescribes the use of exhaust hood enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generated through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.
Spray-finishing operations are employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized in dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned. Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, or electrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing, dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spray washing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasing machines or systems.
Spray booths are defined and described in § 1926.66(a). (See sections 103, 104, and 105 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969).
A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from other areas.
Minimum maintained velocity is the velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimum specified requirements for health and safety.
Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations shall be located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.
Spray booths shall be designed and constructed in accordance with § 1926.66(b) (1) through (4) and (6) through (10) (see sections 301-304 and 306-310 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), for general construction specifications. For a more detailed discussion of fundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960
Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of § 1926.66(b)(10) and (c). (See section 310 and chapter 4 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials NFPA No. 33-1969.)
In no case shall combustible material be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaust duct connected to it.
Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 61/2 feet (1.976 m) high and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in the booth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths where the open front is the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet (0.912 m) wide. In booths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to the exit is 25 feet (7.6 m) or less. Where booth exits are provided with doors, such doors shall open outward from the booth.
Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shall conform to the requirements of § 1926.66(b) (4) and (5). (See sections 304 and 305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.)
Overspray filters shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of § 1926.66(b)(5), (see section 305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), and shall only be in a location easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.
Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth cross section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.
For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure, within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or other cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavier and adequately protected against corrosion.
Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or other devices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating and maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from the exhaust air stream.
Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitable non-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shall be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.
Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. Means for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided. Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall terminate at least one pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.
Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardous deposits.
Pump manifolds, risers, and headers shall be adequately sized to insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the water chamber.
Spray rooms, including floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustible material.
Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.
Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere in the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (h)(6)(ii) of this section.
Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shall conform to the requirements for spray booths.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with provisions of § 1926.66(d) (see chapter 5 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable or Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), and in accordance with the following:
Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution of exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength or rigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficially imposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitate cleaning. Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to those of paragraph (h)(5)(iii) of this section.
Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray booths or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.
If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and joints shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmful quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through which ductwork passes.
Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.
Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exerted upon it under normal operating conditions.
Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in interior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted upon it.
Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practice which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number of turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials being exhausted. See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details and explanation concerning elements of design.
Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed, riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, equivalent securing of joints shall be provided.
Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastened together and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every fourth joint shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalent fastening security.
Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet (2.736 to 3.648 m) of running length for ducts up to 12 inches (0.304 m) in diameter, but the distance between cleanout doors may be greater for larger pipes. (See 8.3.21 of American National Standard Z9.1-1951.) A clean-out door or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan, and where necessary, a drain shall be provided.
Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof or wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space or fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. When ducts pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers on both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may be used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches (45.72 cm) in diameter.
Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shall not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney or flue used for conveying any products of combustion.
Except where a spray booth has an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings of a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table D-57.7 for the operating conditions specified. An adequate air replacement system is one which introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayed and is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is not less than that specified in Table D-57.7 when measured upstream or above the object being sprayed.


TABLE D-57.7 - MINIMUM MAINTAINED VELOCITIES INTO SPRAY BOOTHS

Operating conditionsfor objectscompletely insidebooth
Crossdraft,
f.p.m.
Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
Design
Range
Electrostatic and
automatic airless
operation contained
in booth without operator.
Negligible 50 large booth 50-75
    100 small booth 75-125
Air-operated guns,manual or automatic Up to 50 100 large booth 75-125
    150 large booth 125-175
Air-operated guns,
manual or automatic
Up to 100 150 large booth 125-175
    200 large booth 150-250

Notes:
  1. Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray booth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of the booth to its height and width.
  2. Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design should be sought. Crossdrafts in excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) should not be permitted.
  3. Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material waste in addition to creating a backlash that may carry overspray and fumes into adjacent work areas.
  4. Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed "Design." However, booths operating with velocities shown in the column headed "Range" are in compliance with this standard.
In addition to the requirements in paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this section the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as to dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit of the solvent being sprayed. An example of the method of calculating this volume is given below.

Example: To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solvents used in spray finishing, see Table D-57.8. Column 1 gives the number of cubic feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solvent will be diminished by the quantity of solids and nonflammables contained in the finish.

To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vapor from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, apply the following formula:

Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100-LEL) (cubic feet of vapor per gallon) ÷ LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.
  1. LEL of toluene from Table D-57.8, column 2, is 1.4 percent.
  2. Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table D-57.8, column 1, is 30.4 cubic feet per gallon.
  3. Dilution volume required =
    4 (100-1.4) 30.4 ÷ 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.
  4. To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiply the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallons of solvent evaporated per minute.



TABLE D-57.8 - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF SOME COMMONLY USED SOLVENTS
Solvent Cubic feet per
gallon of vapor
of liquid
at 70 °F
(21.11 °C).
Lower explosive
limit in percent
by volume of
air at 70 °F
(21.11 °C)
  Column 1 Column 2
Acetone 44.0 2.6
Amyl Acetate (iso) 21.6 11.0
Amyl Alcohol (n) 29.6 1.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso) 29.6 1.2
Benzene 36.8 11.4
Butyl Acetate (n) 24.8 1.7
Butyl Alcohol (n) 35.2 1.4
Butyl Cellosolve 24.8 1.1
Cellosolve 33.6 1.8
Cellosolve Acetate 23.2 1.7
Cyclohexnone 31.2 11.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene 42.4 5.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene 42.4 9.7
Ethyl Acetate 32.8 2.5
Ethyl Alcohol 55.2 4.3
Ethyl Lactate 28.0 11.5
Methyl Acetate 40.0 3.1
Methyl Alcohol 80.8 7.3
Methyl Cellosolve 40.8 2.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 36.0 1.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone 30.4 1.5
Naphtha (VM&P)
(76 °Naphtha)
22.4 0.9
Naphtha (100 °Flash)
Safety Solvent -
Stoddard Solvent
23.2 1.0
Propyl Acetate (n) 27.2 2.8
Propyl Acetate (iso) 28.0 1.1
Propyl Alcohol (n) 44.8 2.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso) 44.0 2.0
Toluene 30.4 1.4
Turpentine 20.8 0.8
Xylene (o) 26.4 1.0
   1At 212 °F (100 °C).
When an operator is in a booth downstream of the object being sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or other type of respirator approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for the material being sprayed should be used by the operator.
Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall be closed when spray painting.
Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacent industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhausted through the spray booth.
Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closing doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when the booth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through such doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If the fan characteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will be provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may be used.
Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fan static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters are dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.
The rating of filters shall be governed by test data supplied by the manufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to show the pressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to show the pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement. Filters shall be replaced or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomes excessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls below that specified in Table D-57.7.
Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before or at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all places where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 °F. (12.77 °C.) for appreciable periods of time during the operation of the booth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for all operating personnel affected is provided. The replacement air during the heating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 °F. (18.33 °C.) at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room. When otherwise unheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 °F. below room temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.
As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room or booth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of the building are maintained at not less than 65 °F. (18.33 °C.) when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented by other sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.
No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray booth.
Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the products of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flue terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters the building.
Where make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion are not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flue to a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up air enters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph (h)(7)(iv)(F) of this section.
Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heated by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air, the following precautions must be taken:
The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmen in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in the make-up air.
The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners must not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixture if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with all of the make-up air supplied.
A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and products of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spray booth or room.
Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (h). This paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixed tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus not used repeatedly in the same location.
This paragraph applies to all operations involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors of such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering the surface or adding to or imparting a finish thereto or changing the character of the materials, and their subsequent removal from the liquid or vapor, draining, and drying. These operations include washing, electroplating, anodizing, pickling, quenching, dying, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digesting, and other similar operations.
Except where specific construction specifications are prescribed in this section, hoods, ducts, elbows, fans, blowers, and all other exhaust system parts, components, and supports thereof shall be so constructed as to meet conditions of service and to facilitate maintenance and shall conform in construction to the specifications contained in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
Open-surface tank operations shall be classified into 16 classes, numbered A-1 to D-4, inclusive.
Class is determined by two factors, hazard potential designated by a letter from A to D, inclusive, and rate of gas, vapor, or mist evolution designated by a number from 1 to 4, inclusive (for example, B.3).
Hazard potential is an index, on a scale of from A to D, inclusive, of the severity of the hazard associated with the substance contained in the tank because of the toxic, flammable, or explosive nature of the vapor, gas, or mist produced therefrom. The toxic hazard is determined from the concentration, measured in parts by volume of a gas or vapor, per million parts by volume of contaminated air (p.p.m.), or in milligrams of mist per cubic meter of air (mg./m.3), below which ill effects are unlikely to occur to the exposed worker. The concentrations shall be those in § 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.
The relative fire or explosion hazard is measured in degrees Fahrenheit in terms of the closed-cup flash point of the substance in the tank. Detailed information on the prevention of fire hazards in dip tanks may be found in Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 34-1966, National Fire Protection Association. Where the tank contains a mixture of liquids, other than organic solvents, whose effects are additive, the hygienic standard of the most toxic component (for example, the one having the lowest p.p.m. or mg./m.3) shall be used, except where such substance constitutes an insignificantly small fraction of the mixture. For mixtures of organic solvents, their combined effect, rather than that of either individually, shall determine the hazard potential. In the absence of information to the contrary, the effects shall be considered as additive. If the sum of the ratios of the airborne concentration of each contaminant to the toxic concentration of that contaminant exceeds unity, the toxic concentration shall be considered to have been exceeded. (See Note A to paragraph (i)(2)(v) of this section.)
Hazard potential shall be determined from Table D-57.9, with the value indicating greater hazard being used. When the hazardous material may be either a vapor with a threshold limit value (TLV) in p.p.m. or a mist with a TLV in mg./m.3, the TLV indicating the greater hazard shall be used (for example, A takes precedence over B or C; B over C; C over D).

Note A:

(c1 ÷ TLV1) + (c2 ÷ TLV2) + (c3 ÷ TLV3) + ; . . .(cN ÷ TLVN)1

Where:

c = Concentration measured at the operation in p.p.m.

TABLE D-57.9 - DETERMINATION OF HAZARD POTENTIAL

Hazard potential Toxicity group
Gas or
vapor
(p.p.m.)
Mist
(mg./m3
Flash point in
degrees F. (C.)
A 0-10 0-0.1  
B 11-100 0.11-1.0 Under 100
(37.77)
C 101-500 1.1-10 100    200
(37.77-93.33)
D Over 500 Over 10 Over 200
(93.33)
Rate of gas, vapor, or mist evolution is a numerical index, on a scale of from 1 to 4, inclusive, both of the relative capacity of the tank to produce gas, vapor, or mist and of the relative energy with which it is projected or carried upwards from the tank. Rate is evaluated in terms of
The temperature of the liquid in the tank in degrees Fahrenheit;
The number of degrees Fahrenheit that this temperature is below the boiling point of the liquid in degrees Fahrenheit;
The relative evaporation of the liquid in still air at room temperature in an arbitrary scale — fast, medium, slow, or nil; and
The extent that the tank gases or produces mist in an arbitrary scale — high, medium, low, and nil. (See Table D-57.10, Note 2.) Gassing depends upon electrochemical or mechanical processes, the effects of which have to be individually evaluated for each installation (see Table D-57.10, Note 3).
Rate of evolution shall be determined from Table D-57.10. When evaporation and gassing yield different rates, the lowest numerical value shall be used.


TABLE D-57.10 - DETERMINATION OF RATE OF GAS, VAPOR, OR MIST EVOLUTION1
Rate Liquid temperature,°F (C) Degrees below
boiling point
Relative
evaporation2
Gassing3
1
Over 200 (93.33)
0-20
Fast High.
2
150-200 (65.55-93.33)
21-50
Medium Medium
3
94-149 (34.44-65)
51-100
Slow Low.
4
Under 94 (34.44)
Over 100
Nil Nil.

1 In certain classes of equipment, specifically vapor degreasers, an internal condenser or vapor level thermostat is used to prevent the vapor from leaving the tank during normal operation. In such cases, rate of vapor evolution from the tank into the workroom is not dependent upon the factors listed in the table, but rather upon abnormalities of operating procedure, such as carryout of vapors from excessively fast action, dragout of liquid by entrainment in parts, contamination of solvent by water and other materials, or improper heat balance. When operating procedure is excellent, effective rate of evolution may be taken as 4. When operating procedure is average, the effective rate of evolution may be taken as 3. When operation is poor, a rate of 2 or 1 is indicated,  depending upon observed conditions.

 2 Relative evaporation rate is determined according to the methods described by A. K. Doolittle in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 27, p. 1169, (3) where time for 100-percent evaporation is as follows: Fast: 0-3 hours; Medium: 3-12 hours; Slow: 12-50 hours; Nil: more than 50 hours.

3 Gassing means the formation by chemical or electrochemical action of minute bubbles of gas under the surface of the liquid in the tank and is generally limited to aqueous solutions.
Where ventilation is used to control potential exposures to workers as defined in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, it shall be adequate to reduce the concentration of the air contaminant to the degree that a hazard to the worker does not exist. Methods of ventilation are discussed in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.
Control velocities shall conform to Table D-57.11 in all cases where the flow of air past the breathing or working zone of the operator and into the hoods is undisturbed by local environmental conditions, such as open windows, wall fans, unit heaters, or moving machinery.
All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which
Project over the entire tank;
Are fixed in position in such a location that the head of the workman, in all his normal operating positions while working at the tank, is in front of all hood openings; and
Are completely enclosed on at least two sides, shall be considered to be exhausted through an enclosing hood.
The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be exhausted through an enclosing hood shall be not less than the product of the control velocity times the net area of all openings in the enclosure through which air can flow into the hood.


TABLE D-57.11 - CONTROL VELOCITIES IN FEET PER MINUTE (F.P.M.) FOR UNDISTURBED LOCATIONS
Class Enclosing hood Lateral
exhaust1
Canopy hood2
One open
side
Two open
sides
Three open
sides
Four open
sides
B-1 and A-2
100
150
150
Do not use Do not use
A-32, B-1, B-2,
and C-1
75
100
100
125
175
A-3, C-2, and
D-13
65
90
75
100
150
B-42, C-3, and
D-2[3]
50
75
50
75
125
A-4, C-4, D-33,
and D-44
         
1 See Table D-57.12 for computation of ventilation rate.
2 Do not use canopy hood for Hazard Potential A processes.
3 Where complete control of hot water is desired, design as next highest class.
4 General room ventilation required.
All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which do not project over the entire tank, and in which the direction of air movement into the hood or hoods is substantially horizontal, shall be considered to be laterally exhausted. The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be laterally exhausted per square foot of tank area in order to maintain the required control velocity shall be determined from Table D-57.12 for all variations in ratio of tank width (W) to tank length $(L). The total quantity of air in cubic feet per minute required to be exhausted per tank shall be not less than the product of the area of tank surface times the cubic feet per minute per square foot of tank area, determined from Table D-57.12.
For lateral exhaust hoods over 42 inches (1.06 m) wide, or where it is desirable to reduce the amount of air removed from the workroom, air supply slots or orifices shall be provided along the side or the center of the tank opposite from the exhaust slots. The design of such systems shall meet the following criteria:
The supply air volume plus the entrained air shall not exceed 50 percent of the exhaust volume.
The velocity of the supply airstream as it reaches the effective control area of the exhaust slot shall be less than the effective velocity over the exhaust slot area.


TABLE D-57.12 - MINIMUM VENTILATION RATE IN CUBIC FEET OF AIR PER MINUTE PER SQUARE FOOT OF TANK AREA FOR LATERAL EXHAUST
Required minimum
control velocity,
f.p.m. (from
Table D-57.11)
C.f.m. per sq. ft. to maintain required minimum
velocities at following ratios (tank width (W)/
tank length (L)1 2
0.0-0.09 0.1-0.24 0.25-0.49 0.5-0.99 1.0-2.0
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of tank when one hood is
against a wall or baffle2.

Also for a manifold along tank centerline.3
50 50 60 75 90 100
75 75 90 110 130 150
100 100 125 150 175 200
150 150 190 225 260 300
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of free standing tank not
against wall or baffle.
50 75 90 100 110 125
75 110 130 150 170 190
100 150 175 200 225 250
150 225 260 300 340 375

1 It is not practicable to ventilate across the long
dimension of a tank whose ratio W/L exceeds 2.0.
   It is undesirable to do so when W/L exceeds 1.0. For circular tanks
with lateral exhaust along up to 1/2 the circumference, use W/L = 1.0; for over one-half the circumference use W/L = 0.5.

2 Baffle is a vertical plate the same length as the tank,
and with the top of the plate as high as the tank is wide. If the exhaust hood is on the side of a tank against a building wall or close to it, it is perfectly baffled.

3 Use W/2 as tank width in computing when manifold is along centerline, or when hoods are used on two parallel sides of a tank.

Tank Width (W) means the effective width over which the hood must
pull air to operate (for example, where the hood face is set back from the edge of the tank, this set back must be added in measuring tank width). The surface area of tanks can frequently be reduced and better control obtained (particularly on conveyorized systems) by using covers extending from the upper edges of the slots toward the center of the tank.
The vertical height of the receiving exhaust hood, including any baffle, shall not be less than one-quarter the width of the tank.
The supply airstream shall not be allowed to impinge on obstructions between it and the exhaust slot in such a manner as to significantly interfere with the performance of the exhaust hood.
Since most failure of push-pull systems result from excessive supply air volumes and pressures, methods of measuring and adjusting the supply air shall be provided. When satisfactory control has been achieved, the adjustable features of the hood shall be fixed so that they will not be altered.
All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which project over the entire tank, and which do not conform to the definition of enclosing hoods, shall be considered to be overhead canopy hoods. The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be exhausted through a canopy hood shall be not less than the product of the control velocity times the net area of all openings between the bottom edges of the hood and the top edges of the tank.
The rate of vapor evolution (including steam or products of combustion) from the process shall be estimated. If the rate of vapor evolution is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the calculated exhaust volume required, the exhaust volume shall be increased in equal amount.
Wherever spraying or other mechanical means are used to disperse a liquid above an open-surface tank, control must be provided for the airborne spray. Such operations shall be enclosed as completely as possible. The inward air velocity into the enclosure shall be sufficient to prevent the discharge of spray into the workroom. Mechanical baffles may be used to help prevent the discharge of spray. Spray painting operations are covered by paragraph (h) of this section.
Tank covers, foams, beads, chips, or other materials floating on the tank surface so as to confine gases, mists, or vapors to the area under the cover or to the foam, bead, or chip layer; or surface tension depressive agents added to the liquid in the tank to minimize mist formation, or any combination thereof, may all be used as gas, mist, or vapor control means for open-surface tank operations, provided that they effectively reduce the concentrations of hazardous materials in the vicinity of the worker below the limits set in accordance with paragraph (i)(2) of this section.
The equipment for exhausting air shall have sufficient capacity to produce the flow of air required in each of the hoods and openings of the system.
The capacity required in paragraph (i)(7)(i) of this section shall be obtained when the airflow producing equipment is operating against the following pressure losses, the sum of which is the static pressure:
Entrance losses into the hood.
Resistance to airflow in branch pipe including bends and transformations.
Entrance loss into the main pipe.
Resistance to airflow in main pipe including bends and transformations.
Resistance of mechanical equipment; that is, filters, washers, condensers, absorbers, etc., plus their entrance and exit losses.
Resistance in outlet duct and discharge stack.
Two or more operations shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed may constitute a fire, explosion, or chemical reaction hazard in the duct system. Traps or other devices shall be provided to insure that condensate in ducts does not drain back into any tank.
The exhaust system, consisting of hoods, ducts, air mover, and discharge outlet, shall be designed in accordance with American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, or the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1970. Airflow and pressure loss data provided by the manufacturer of any air cleaning device shall be included in the design calculations.
The required airflow shall be maintained at all times during which gas, mist, or vapor is emitted from the tank, and at all times the tank, the draining, or the drying area is in operation or use. When the system is first installed, the airflow from each hood shall be measured by means of a pitot traverse in the exhaust duct and corrective action taken if the flow is less than that required. When the proper flow is obtained, the hood static pressure shall be measured and recorded. At intervals of not more than 3 months operation, or after a prolonged shutdown period, the hoods and duct system shall be inspected for evidence of corrosion or damage. In any case where the airflow is found to be less than required, it shall be increased to the required value. (Information on airflow and static pressure measurement and calculations may be found in American National Standard Fundamental Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, or in the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.)
The exhaust system shall discharge to the outer air in such a manner that the possibility of its effluent entering any building is at a minimum. Recirculation shall only be through a device for contaminant removal which will prevent the creation of a health hazard in the room or area to which the air is recirculated.
A volume of outside air in the range of 90 percent to 110 percent of the exhaust volume shall be provided to each room having exhaust hoods. The outside air supply shall enter the workroom in such a manner as not to be detrimental to any exhaust hood. The airflow of the makeup air system shall be measured on installation. Corrective action shall be taken when the airflow is below that required. The makeup air shall be uncontaminated.
All employees working in and around open-surface tank operations must be instructed as to the hazards of their respective jobs, and in the personal protection and first aid procedures applicable to these hazards.
All persons required to work in such a manner that their feet may become wet shall be provided with rubber or other impervious boots or shoes, rubbers, or wooden-soled shoes sufficient to keep feet dry.
All persons required to handle work wet with a liquid other than water shall be provided with gloves impervious to such a liquid and of a length sufficient to prevent entrance of liquid into the tops of the gloves. The interior of gloves shall be kept free from corrosive or irritating contaminants.
All persons required to work in such a manner that their clothing may become wet shall be provided with such aprons, coats, jackets, sleeves, or other garments made of rubber, or of other materials impervious to liquids other than water, as are required to keep their clothing dry. Aprons shall extend well below the top of boots to prevent liquid splashing into the boots. Provision of dry, clean, cotton clothing along with rubber shoes or short boots and an apron impervious to liquids other than water shall be considered a satisfactory substitute where small parts are cleaned, plated, or acid dipped in open tanks and rapid work is required.
Whenever there is a danger of splashing, for example, when additions are made manually to the tanks, or when acids and chemicals are removed from the tanks, the employees so engaged shall be required to wear either tight-fitting chemical goggles or an effective face shield. See § 1926.102.
When, during the emergencies specified in paragraph (i)(11)(v) of this section, employees must be in areas where concentrations of air contaminants are greater than the limits set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section or oxygen concentrations are less than 19.5 percent, they must use respirators that reduce their exposure to a level below these limits or that provide adequate oxygen. Such respirators must also be provided in marked, quickly-accessible storage compartments built for this purpose when the possibility exists of accidental release of hazardous concentrations of air contaminants. Respirators must be approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, selected by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically-qualified source, and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.103.
Near each tank containing a liquid which may burn, irritate, or otherwise be harmful to the skin if splashed upon the worker's body, there shall be a supply of clean cold water. The water pipe (carrying a pressure not exceeding 25 pounds(11.325 kg)) shall be provided with a quick opening valve and at least 48 inches (1.216 m) of hose not smaller than three-fourths inch, so that no time may be lost in washing off liquids from the skin or clothing. Alternatively, deluge showers and eye flushes shall be provided in cases where harmful chemicals may be splashed on parts of the body.
Operators with sores, burns, or other skin lesions requiring medical treatment shall not be allowed to work at their regular operations until so authorized by a physician. Any small skin abrasions, cuts, rash, or open sores which are found or reported shall be treated by a properly designated person so that chances of exposures to the chemicals are removed. Workers exposed to chromic acids shall have a periodic examination made of the nostrils and other parts of the body, to detect incipient ulceration.
Sufficient washing facilities, including soap, individual towels, and hot water, shall be provided for all persons required to use or handle any liquids which may burn, irritate, or otherwise be harmful to the skin, on the basis of at least one basin (or its equivalent) with a hot water faucet for every 10 employees. See § 1926.51(f).
Locker space or equivalent clothing storage facilities shall be provided to prevent contamination of street clothing.
First aid facilities specific to the hazards of the operations conducted shall be readily available.
Dikes or other arrangements shall be provided to prevent the possibility of intermixing of cyanide and acid in the event of tank rupture.
Floors and platforms around tanks shall be prevented from becoming slippery both by original type of construction and by frequent flushing. They shall be firm, sound, and of the design and construction to minimize the possibility of tripping.
Before cleaning the interior of any tank, the contents shall be drained off, and the cleanout doors shall be opened where provided. All pockets in tanks or pits, where it is possible for hazardous vapors to collect, shall be ventilated and cleared of such vapors.
Tanks which have been drained to permit employees to enter for the purposes of cleaning, inspection, or maintenance may contain atmospheres which are hazardous to life or health, through the presence of flammable or toxic air contaminants, or through the absence of sufficient oxygen. Before employees shall be permitted to enter any such tank, appropriate tests of the atmosphere shall be made to determine if the limits set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section are exceeded, or if the oxygen concentration is less than 19.5 percent.
If the tests made in accordance with paragraph (i)(11)(iii) of this section indicate that the atmosphere in the tank is unsafe, before any employee is permitted to enter the tank, the tank shall be ventilated until the hazardous atmosphere is removed, and ventilation shall be continued so as to prevent the occurrence of a hazardous atmosphere as long as an employee is in the tank.
If, in emergencies, such as rescue work, it is necessary to enter a tank which may contain a hazardous atmosphere, suitable respirators, such as self-contained breathing apparatus; hose mask with blower, if there is a possibility of oxygen deficiency; or a gas mask, selected and operated in accordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this section, shall be used. If a contaminant in the tank can cause dermatitis, or be absorbed through the skin, the employee entering the tank shall also wear protective clothing. At least one trained standby employee, with suitable respirator, shall be present in the nearest uncontaminated area. The standby employee must be able to communicate with the employee in the tank and be able to haul him out of the tank with a lifeline if necessary.
Maintenance work requiring welding or open flame, where toxic metal fumes such as cadmium, chromium, or lead may be evolved, shall be done only with sufficient local exhaust ventilation to prevent the creation of a health hazard, or be done with respirators selected and used in accordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this section. Welding, or the use of open flames near any solvent cleaning equipment shall be permitted only after such equipment has first been thoroughly cleared of solvents and vapors.
In any vapor degreasing tank equipped with a condenser or vapor level thermostat, the condenser or thermostat shall keep the level of vapors below the top edge of the tank by a distance at least equal to one-half the tank width, or at least 36 inches (0.912 m), whichever is shorter.
Where gas is used as a fuel for heating vapor degreasing tanks, the combustion chamber shall be of tight construction, except for such openings as the exhaust flue, and those that are necessary for supplying air for combustion. Flues shall be of corrosion-resistant construction and shall extend to the outer air. If mechanical exhaust is used on this flue, a draft diverter shall be used. Special precautions must be taken to prevent solvent fumes from entering the combustion air of this or any other heater when chlorinated or fluorinated hydrocarbon solvents (for example, trichloroethylene, Freon) are used.
Heating elements shall be so designed and maintained that their surface temperature will not cause the solvent or mixture to decompose, break down, or be converted into an excessive quantity of vapor.
Tanks or machines of more than 4 square feet (0.368 m2) of vapor area, used for solvent cleaning or vapor degreasing, shall be equipped with suitable cleanout or sludge doors located near the bottom of each tank or still. These doors shall be so designed and gasketed that there will be no leakage of solvent when they are closed.
This paragraph (i) applies to all operations involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors of such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering their surfaces, or adding or imparting a finish thereto, or changing the character of the materials, and their subsequent removal from the liquids or vapors, draining, and drying. Such operations include washing, electroplating, anodizing, pickling, quenching, dyeing, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digesting, and other similar operations, but do not include molten materials handling operations, or surface coating operations.
Molten materials handling operations means all operations, other than welding, burning, and soldering operations, involving the use, melting, smelting, or pouring of metals, alloys, salts, or other similar substances in the molten state. Such operations also include heat treating baths, descaling baths, die casting stereotyping, galvanizing, tinning, and similar operations.
Surface coating operations means all operations involving the application of protective, decorative, adhesive, or strengthening coating or impregnation to one or more surfaces, or into the interstices of any object or material, by means of spraying, spreading, flowing, brushing, roll coating, pouring, cementing, or similar means; and any subsequent draining or drying operations, excluding open-tank operations.

[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35099, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998]
The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.501 Subpart U.

[86 FR 61555, November 5, 2021]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at § 1910.1200 of this chapter.

[52 FR 31877, Aug. 24, 1987, as amended at 53 FR 15035, Apr. 27, 1988; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 59 FR 6170, Feb. 9, 1994; 59 FR 17479, April 13, 1994; 59 FR 65947, Dec. 22, 1994; 61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
This section applies to all construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b), in which there is exposure to MDA, including but not limited to the following:
Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain MDA;
Installation or the finishing of surfaces with products containing MDA;
MDA spill/emergency cleanup at construction sites; and
Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of MDA or products containing MDA on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.
Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(7) and (f)(5) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where initial monitoring indicates that the product is not capable of releasing MDA in excess of the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this section does not apply to the processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where objective data are reasonably relied upon which demonstrate the product is not capable of releasing MDA under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this section does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of MDA in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to contain the MDA dusts, vapors, or liquids, except for the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1200 and paragraph (e) of this section.
Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this section does not apply to materials in any form which contain less than 0.1% MDA by weight or volume.
Except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, this section does not apply to "finished articles containing MDA."
Where products containing MDA are exempted under paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6) of this section, the employer shall maintain records of the initial monitoring results or objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in the recordkeeping provision of paragraph (o) of this section.
For the purpose of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

Action level means a concentration of airborne MDA of 5 ppb as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Authorized person means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under paragraph (p) of this section, or any other person authorized by the Act or regulations issued under the Act.

Container means any barrel, bottle, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, commercial packaging or the like, but does not include piping systems.

Decontamination area means an area outside of but as near as practical to the regulated area, consisting of an equipment storage area, wash area, and clean change area, which is used for the decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment contaminated with MDA.

Dermal exposure to MDA occurs where employees are engaged in the handling, application or use of mixtures or materials containing MDA, with any of the following non-airborne forms of MDA:
  1. Liquid, powdered, granular, or flaked mixtures containing MDA in concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume; and
  2. Materials other than "finished articles" containing MDA in concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume.
Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which results in an unexpected and potentially hazardous release of MDA.

Employee exposure means exposure to MDA which would occur if the employee were not using respirators or protective work clothing and equipment.

Finished article containing MDA is defined as a manufactured item:
  1. Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture;
  2. Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or part upon its shape or design during end use; and
  3. Where applicable, is an item which is fully cured by virtue of having been subjected to the conditions (temperature, time) necessary to complete the desired chemical reaction.
Historical monitoring data means monitoring data for construction jobs that meet the following conditions:
  1. The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and precise;
  2. The processes and work practices that were in use when the historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
  3. The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
  4. Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed; and
  5. Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exception are substantially similar. The data must be scientifically sound, the characteristics of the MDA containing material must be similar and the environmental conditions comparable.
4,4'Methylenedianiline or MDA means the chemical; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, Chemical Abstract Service Registry number 101-77-9, in the form of a vapor, liquid, or solid. The definition also includes the salts of MDA.

Regulated Areas means areas where airborne concentrations of MDA exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure limits, or where "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.

STEL means short term exposure limit as determined by any 15-minute sample period.
The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MDA in excess of ten parts per billion (10 ppb) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and a STEL of one hundred parts per billion (100 ppb).
On multi-employer worksites, an employer performing work involving the application of MDA or materials containing MDA for which establishment of one or more regulated areas is required shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the employer's work with MDA and of the existence of, and requirements pertaining to, regulated areas.
A written plan for emergency situations shall be developed for each construction operation where there is a possibility of an emergency. The plan shall include procedures where the employer identifies emergency escape routes for his employees at each construction site before the construction operation begins. Appropriate portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency.
The plan shall specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be equipped with the appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing as required in paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section until the emergency is abated.
The plan shall specifically include provisions for alerting and evacuating affected employees as well as the applicable elements prescribed in 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39, "Emergency action plans" and "Fire prevention plans," respectively.
Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to MDA due to an emergency, means shall be developed to promptly alert employees who have the potential to be directly exposed. Affected employees not engaged in correcting emergency conditions shall be evacuated immediately in the event that an emergency occurs. Means shall also be developed for alerting other employees who may be exposed as a result of the emergency.
Determinations of employee exposure shall be made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to airborne MDA over an eight (8) hour period. Determination of employee exposure to the STEL shall be made from breathing zone air samples collected over a 15 minute sampling period.
Representative employee exposure shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full shift exposure for each shift for each job classification in each work area where exposure to MDA may occur.
Where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations in different work shifts, the employer shall only be required to determine representative employee exposure for that operation during one shift.
Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of MDA to which employees may be exposed unless:
the employer can demonstrate, on the basis of objective data, that the MDA-containing product or material being handled cannot cause exposures above the standard's action level, even under worst-case release conditions; or
The employer has historical monitoring or other data demonstrating that exposures on a particular job will be below the action level.
If the monitoring required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals employee exposure at or above the action level, but at or below the PELs, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every six (6) months.
If the monitoring required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals employee exposure above the PELs, the employer shall repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every three (3) months.
Employers who are conducting MDA operations within a regulated area can forego periodic monitoring if the employees are all wearing supplied-air respirators while working in the regulated area.
The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every three months to every six months for any employee for whom two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that the employee exposure has decreased to below the PELs but above the action level.
If the initial monitoring required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for that employee, except as otherwise required by paragraph (f)(5) of this section.
If the periodic monitoring required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level the employer may discontinue the monitoring for that employee, except as otherwise required by paragraph (f)(5) of this section.
The employer shall institute the exposure monitoring required under paragraphs (f)(2) and (f)(3) of this section when there has been a change in production process, chemicals present, control equipment, personnel, or work practices which may result in new or additional exposures to MDA, or when the employer has any reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures.
Monitoring shall be accurate, to a confidence level of 95 percent, to within plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of MDA.
The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
The written notification required by paragraph (f)(7)(i) of this section shall contain the corrective action being taken by the employer or any other protective measures which have been implemented to reduce the employee exposure to or below the PELs, wherever the PELs are exceeded.
The employer shall make routine inspections of employee hands, face and forearms potentially exposed to MDA. Other potential dermal exposures reported by the employee must be referred to the appropriate medical personnel for observation. If the employer determines that the employee has been exposed to MDA the employer shall:
Determine the source of exposure;
Implement protective measures to correct the hazard; and
Maintain records of the corrective actions in accordance with paragraph (o) of this section.
The employer shall establish regulated areas where airborne concentrations of MDA exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure limits.
Where employees are subject to "dermal exposure to MDA" the employer shall establish those work areas as regulated areas.
Regulated areas shall be demarcated from the rest of the workplace in a manner that minimizes the number of persons potentially exposed.
Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized persons.
Each person entering a regulated area shall be supplied with, and required to use, the appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraphs (i) and (j) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas.
The employer shall use one or any combination of the following control methods to achieve compliance with the permissible exposure limits prescribed by paragraph (c) of this section:
Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;
General ventilation systems;
Use of workpractices; or
Other engineering controls such as isolation and enclosure that the Assistant Secretary can show to be feasible.
Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices "which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs, the employer shall use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protective devices which comply with the requirements of paragraph (i) of this section.
For workers engaged in spray application methods, respiratory protection must be used in addition to feasible engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs.
Compressed air shall not be used to remove MDA, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.
The employer shall not use employee rotation as a means of compliance with the exposure limits prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
The employer shall establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by paragraph (h)(1) of this section, and by use of respiratory protection where permitted under this section.
Upon request this written program shall be furnished for examination and copying to the Assistant Secretary, the Director, affected employees and designated employee representatives. The employer shall review and, as necessary, update such plans at least once every 12 months to make certain they reflect the current status of the program.
For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:
Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls.
Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities and spray-application processes, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible.
Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs.
Emergencies.
The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
Employers must:
Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134.
Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.
For escape, provide employees with one of the following respirator options: Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece or hood operated in the positive-pressure or continuous-flow mode; or a full facepiece air-purifying respirator.
Provide a combination HEPA filter and organic vapor canister or cartridge with air-purifying respirators when MDA is in liquid form or used as part of a process requiring heat.
An employee who cannot use a negative-pressure respirator must be given the option of using a positive-pressure respirator, or a supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-demand mode.
Where employees are subject to dermal exposure to MDA, where liquids containing MDA can be splashed into the eyes, or where airborne concentrations of MDA are in excess of the PEL, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment which prevent contact with MDA such as, but not limited to:
Aprons, coveralls or other full-body work clothing;
Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and
Face shields, chemical goggles; or
Other appropriate protective equipment which comply with 29 CFR 1910.133.
The employer shall ensure that, at the end of their work shift, employees remove MDA-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment that is not routinely removed throughout the day in change areas provided in accordance with the provisions in paragraph (k) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that, during their work shift, employees remove all other MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or equipment before leaving a regulated area.
The employer shall ensure that no employee takes MDA-contaminated work clothing or equipment out of the decontamination areas, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.
MDA-contaminated work clothing or equipment shall be placed and stored and transported in sealed, impermeable bags, or other closed impermeable containers.
Containers of MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or equipment which are to be taken out of decontamination areas or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, shall bear labels warning of the hazards of MDA.
The employer shall provide the employee with clean protective clothing and equipment. The employer shall ensure that protective work clothing or equipment required by this paragraph is cleaned, laundered, repaired, or replaced at intervals appropriate to maintain its effectiveness.
The employer shall prohibit the removal of MDA from protective work clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any methods which allow MDA to re-enter the workplace.
The employer shall ensure that laundering of MDA-contaminated clothing shall be done so as to prevent the release of MDA in the workplace.
Any employer who gives MDA-contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement to prevent the release of MDA.
The employer shall inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with MDA of the potentially harmful effects of exposure.
The employer shall ensure that employees' work clothing is examined periodically for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.
When rips or tears are detected, the protective equipment or clothing shall be repaired and replaced immediately.
The employer shall provide decontamination areas for employees required to work in regulated areas or required by paragraph (j)(1) of this section to wear protective clothing. Exception: In lieu of the decontamination area requirement specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the employer may permit employees engaged in small scale, short duration operations, to clean their protective clothing or dispose of the protective clothing before such employees leave the area where the work was performed.
The employer shall ensure that change areas are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective clothing and street clothing, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.141(e).
The equipment area shall be supplied with impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.
Where feasible, shower facilities shall be provided which comply with 29 CFR 1910.141(d)(3) wherever the possibility of employee exposure to airborne levels of MDA in excess of the permissible exposure limit exists.
Where dermal exposure to MDA occurs, the employer shall ensure that materials spilled or deposited on the skin are removed as soon as possible by methods which do not facilitate the dermal absorption of MDA.
Whenever food or beverages are consumed at the worksite and employees are exposed to MDA the employer shall provide clean lunch areas were MDA levels are below the action level and where no dermal exposure to MDA can occur.
The employer shall ensure that employees wash their hands and faces with soap and water prior to eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics.
The employer shall ensure that employees do not enter lunch facilities with contaminated protective work clothing or equipment.
The employer shall include Methylenedianiline (MDA) in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of MDA and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (l)(3) of this section. The employer shall ensure that at least the following hazards are addressed: Cancer; liver effects; and skin sensitization.
The employer shall post and maintain legible signs demarcating regulated areas and entrances or access-ways to regulated areas that bear the following legend:

DANGER

MDA

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE LIVER

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED IN

THIS AREA

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in paragraph (l)(2)(i)(A) of this section:

DANGER

MDA

MAY CAUSE CANCER

LIVER TOXIN

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED TO BE WORN IN

THIS AREA
The employer shall ensure that labels or other appropriate forms of warning are provided for containers of MDA within the workplace. The labels shall comply with the requirements of § 1910.1200(f) and shall include at least the following information for pure MDA and mixtures containing MDA:

DANGER

CONTAINS MDA

MAY CAUSE CANCER

CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE LIVER
Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information workplace labels in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(A) of this section:
For Pure MDA:

DANGER

CONTAINS MDA

MAY CAUSE CANCER

LIVER TOXIN
For mixtures containing MDA:

DANGER

CONTAINS MDA

CONTAINS MATERIALS WHICH MAY CAUSE CANCER

LIVER TOXIN
The employer shall provide employees with information and training on MDA, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200(h), at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
In addition to the information required under 29 CFR 1910.1200, the employer shall:
Provide an explanation of the contents of this section, including appendices A and B of this section, and indicate to employees where a copy of the standard is available;
Describe the medical surveillance program required under paragraph (n) of this section, and explain the information contained in appendix C of this section; and
Describe the medical removal provision required under paragraph (n) of this section.
The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees, without cost, all written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this regulation.
The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information and training program.
All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of visible accumulations of MDA.
The employer shall institute a program for detecting MDA leaks, spills, and discharges, including regular visual inspections of operations involving liquid or solid MDA.
All leaks shall be repaired and liquid or dust spills cleaned up promptly.
Surfaces contaminated with MDA may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.
Shoveling, dry sweeping, and other methods of dry clean-up of MDA may be used where HEPA filtered vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible or practical.
Waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing contaminated with MDA shall be collected and disposed of in a manner to prevent the re-entry of MDA into the workplace.
The employer shall make available a medical surveillance program for employees exposed to MDA under the following circumstances:
Employees exposed at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year;
Employees who are subject to dermal exposure to MDA for 15 or more days per year;
Employees who have been exposed in an emergency situation;
Employees whom the employer, based on results from compliance with paragraph (f)(8) of this section, has reason to believe are being dermally exposed; and
Employees who show signs or symptoms of MDA exposure.
The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician at a reasonable time and place, and provided without cost to the employee.
Within 150 days of the effective date of this standard, or before the time of initial assignment, the employer shall provide each employee covered by paragraph (n)(1)(i) of this section with a medical examination including the following elements:
A detailed history which includes:
Past work exposure to MDA or any other toxic substances;
A history of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and medication routinely taken (duration and quantity); and
A history of dermatitis, chemical skin sensitization, or previous hepatic disease.
A physical examination which includes all routine physical examination parameters, skin examination, and examination for signs of liver disease.
Laboratory tests including:
Liver function tests and (2) Urinalysis
Additional tests as necessary in the opinion of the physician.
No initial medical examination is required if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of this section within the previous six months prior to the effective date of this standard or prior to the date of initial assignment.
The employer shall provide each employee covered by this section with a medical examination at least annually following the initial examination. These periodic examinations shall include at least the following elements:
A brief history regarding any new exposure to potential liver toxins, changes in drug, tobacco, and alcohol intake, and the appearance of physical signs relating to the liver, and the skin;
The appropriate tests and examinations including liver function tests and skin examinations; and
Appropriate additional tests or examinations as deemed necessary by the physician.
If in the physician's opinion the results of liver function tests indicate an abnormality, the employee shall be removed from further MDA exposure in accordance with paragraph (n)(9) of this section. Repeat liver function tests shall be conducted on advice of the physician.
If the employer determines that the employee has been exposed to a potentially hazardous amount of MDA in an emergency situation under paragraph (e) of this section, the employer shall provide medical examinations in accordance with paragraphs (n)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section . If the results of liver function testing indicate an abnormality, the employee shall be removed in accordance with paragraph (n)(9) of this section. Repeat liver function tests shall be conducted on the advice of the physician. If the results of the tests are normal, tests must be repeated two to three weeks from the initial testing. If the results of the second set of tests are normal and on the advice of the physician, no additional testing is required.
Where the employee develops signs and symptoms associated with exposure to MDA, the employer shall provide the employee with an additional medical examination including liver function tests. Repeat liver function tests shall be conducted on the advice of the physician. If the results of the tests are normal, tests must be repeated two to three weeks from the initial testing. If the results of the second set of tests are normal and on the advice of the physician, no additional testing is required.
If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, and the employee has signs or symptoms of occupational exposure to MDA (which could include an abnormal liver function test), and the employee disagrees with the opinion of the examining physician, and this opinion could affect the employee's job status, the employee may designate an appropriate and mutually acceptable second physician:
To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial physician; and
To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
The employer shall promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within fifteen (15) days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a second medical opinion, and
The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee shall assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians shall designate a third physician:
To review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the prior physicians; and
To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
The employer shall act consistent with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the second physician, unless the employer and the employee reach a mutually acceptable agreement.
The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
A copy of this regulation and its appendices;
A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's potential exposure to MDA;
The employee's current actual or representative MDA exposure level;
A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
Information from previous employment related medical examinations of the affected employee.
The employer shall provide the foregoing information to a second physician under this section upon request either by the second physician, or by the employee.
Physician's written opinion.
For each examination under this section, the employer shall obtain, and provide the employee with a copy of, the examining physician's written opinion within 15 days of its receipt. The written opinion shall include the following:
The occupationally pertinent results of the medical examination and tests;
The physician's opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to MDA;
The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to MDA or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or equipment and respirators; and
A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions resulting from MDA exposure which require further explanation or treatment.
The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.
The employee shall be removed from work environments in which exposure to MDA is at or above the action level or where dermal exposure to MDA may occur, following an initial examination (paragraph (n)(2) of this section), periodic examinations (paragraph (n)(3) of this section), an emergency situation (paragraph (n)(4) of this section), or an additional examination (paragraph (n)(5) of this section) in the following circumstances:
When the employee exhibits signs and/or symptoms indicative of acute exposure to MDA; or
When the examining physician determines that an employee's abnormal liver function tests are not associated with MDA exposure but that the abnormalities may be exacerbated as a result of occupational exposure to MDA.
The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to MDA at or above the action level or where the potential for dermal exposure exists on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
For the purposes of this section, the phrase "final medical determination" shall mean the outcome of the physician review mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.
Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to MDA, the employer shall implement and act consistent with the recommendation.
The employer shall return an employee to his or her former job status:
When the employee no longer shows signs or symptoms of exposure to MDA, or upon the advice of the physician.
When a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
The employer shall remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.
Where the physician review mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section, has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, the employer shall act as follows:
The employer may remove the employee from exposure to MDA, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of the physician who has reviewed the employee's health status.
The employer may return the employee to his or her former job status, and end any special protective measures provided to the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions:
If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; or
The employee has been on removal status for the preceding six months as a result of exposure to MDA, then the employer shall await a final medical determination.
The employer shall provide to an employee up to six (6) months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to MDA or otherwise limited pursuant to this section.
For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that the employer shall maintain the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited.
During the period of time that an employee is removed from normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.
If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a MDA-related disability, then the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation shall be reduced by such amount. The employer shall receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment-related expenses.
The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee shall be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with any employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
The employer shall take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to MDA:
The employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical determination with respect to the employee;
The employer shall assure that the final medical determination obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to his or her former job status, and, if not, what steps should be taken to protect the employee's health;
Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to his or her former job status, the employer shall continue to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to his or her former job status; and
Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical determination which permits the return of the employee to his or her former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable liver function test, later questions concerning removing the employee again shall be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the MDA removal criteria provided by this section.
Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to MDA or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of MDA exposure on the employee's medical condition, the employer shall provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by paragraph (n)(9)(v) of this section.
Where the employer has relied on objective data that demonstrate that products made from or containing MDA are not capable of releasing MDA or do not present a dermal exposure problem under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling to exempt such operations from the initial monitoring requirements under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
The record shall include at least the following information:
The product qualifying for exemption;
The source of the objective data;
The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MDA;
A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and
Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
Where the employer has relied on historical monitoring data that demonstrate that exposures on a particular job will be below the action level to exempt such operations from the initial monitoring requirements under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of historical monitoring data reasonably relied upon in support of the exception.
The record shall include information that reflect the following conditions:
The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and precise;
The processes and work practices that were in use when the historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed; and
Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exception.
The employer shall maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such historical monitoring data.
The employer may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.
The employer shall keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MDA.
This record shall include at least the following information:
The date of measurement;
The operation involving exposure to MDA;
Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
Type of protective devices worn, if any; and
Name and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented.
The employer shall maintain this record for at least thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.33.
The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by paragraph (n) of this section, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.33.
The record shall include at least the following information:
The name of the employee;
A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physician's recommendations.
Physician's written opinions;
Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to MDA; and
A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by paragraph (n) of this section.
The employer shall ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.33.
A copy of the employee's medical removal and return to work status.
The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment.
The employer, upon written request, shall make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the Assistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.
The employer, upon request, shall make any exposure records required by paragraphs (f) and (n) of this section available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i).
The employer, upon request, shall make employee medical records required by paragraphs (n) and (o) of this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.33.
The employer shall comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).
The employer shall provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to MDA conducted pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section.
When observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to MDA requires entry into areas where the use of protective clothing and equipment or respirators is required, the employer shall provide the observer with personal protective clothing and equipment or respirators required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment or respirators, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
The information contained in appendices A, B, C, and D of this section is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.

[57 FR 35681, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 49649, Nov. 3, 1992; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 69 FR 70373, Dec. 6, 2004; 70 FR 1143, Jan. 5, 2005; 70 FR 16674, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 50191, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75588, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33611, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17889, Mar. 26, 2012; 83 FR 15499, Apr. 11, 2018; 84 FR 21598, May 14, 2019]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix A are identical to those set forth in appendix A to § 1910.1050 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix B are identical to those set forth in appendix B to § 1910.1050 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix C are identical to those set forth in appendix C to § 1910.1050 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this appendix D are identical to those set forth in appendix D to § 1910.1050 of this chapter.

[61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth at 1910.1201 of this chapter.

[59 FR 36695, July 19, 1994; 61 FR 31427, June 20, 1996]
This section applies to all construction work where an employee may be occupationally exposed to lead. All construction work excluded from coverage in the general industry standard for lead by 29 CFR 1910.1025(a)(2) is covered by this standard. Construction work is defined as work for construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating. It includes but is not limited to the following:
Demolition or salvage of structures where lead or materials containing lead are present;
Removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead;
New construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain lead, or materials containing lead;
Installation of products containing lead;
Lead contamination/emergency cleanup;
Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead or materials containing lead on the site or location at which construction activities are performed, and
Maintenance operations associated with the construction activities described in this paragraph.
Action level means employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable lead hazards in the surroundings or working conditions and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Lead means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

This section means this standard.
The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than fifty micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3) averaged over an 8-hour period.
If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day the employees' allowable exposure, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, shall be reduced according to the following formula:

Allowable employee exposure (in µg/m3) = 400 divided by hours worked in the day.
When respirators are used to limit employee exposure as required under paragraph (c) of this section and all the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and (f) of this section have been met, employee exposure may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.
Each employer who has a workplace or operation covered by this standard shall initially determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.
For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
With the exception of monitoring under paragraph (d)(3), where monitoring is required under this section, the employer shall collect personal samples representative of a full shift including at least one sample for each job classification in each work area either for each shift or for the shift with the highest exposure level.
Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.
With respect to the lead related tasks listed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in paragraph (d) of this section and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed above the PEL, the employer shall treat the employee as if the employee were exposed above the PEL, and not in excess of ten (10) times the PEL, and shall implement employee protective measures prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section. The tasks covered by this requirement are:
Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: Manual demolition of structures (e.g, dry wall), manual scraping, manual sanding, heat gun applications, and power tool cleaning with dust collection systems;
Spray painting with lead paint
In addition, with regard to tasks not listed in paragraph (d)(2)(i), where the employee has any reason to believe that an employee performing the task may be exposed to lead in excess of the PEL, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required by paragraph (d) of this section and documents that the employee's lead exposure is not above the PEL the employer shall treat the employee as if the employee were exposed above the PEL and shall implement employee protective measures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section.
With respect to the tasks listed in this paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in this paragraph (d), and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed in excess of 500 µg/m3, the employer shall treat the employee as if the employee were exposed to lead in excess of 500 µg/m3 and shall implement employee protective measures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section. Where the employer does establish that the employee is exposed to levels of lead below 500 µg/m3, the employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate respirator prescribed for such use at such lower exposures, in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. The tasks covered by this requirement are:
Using lead containing mortar; lead burning
Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: rivet busting; power tool cleaning without dust collection systems; cleanup activities where dry expendable abrasives are used; and abrasive blasting enclosure movement and removal.
With respect to the tasks listed in this paragraph (d)(2)(iv), where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in this paragraph (d) and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 µg/m3 (50×PEL), the employer shall treat the employee as if the employee were exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 µg/m3 and shall implement employee protective measures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section. Where the employer does establish that the employee is exposed to levels of lead below 2,500 µg/m3, the employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate respirator prescribed for use at such lower exposures, in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section. Interim protection as described in this paragraph is required where lead containing coatings or paint are present on structures when performing:
  1. Abrasive blasting,
  2. Welding,
  3. Cutting, and
  4. Torch burning.
Until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required under paragraph (d) of this section and determines actual employee exposure, the employer shall provide to employees performing the tasks described in paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (d)(2)(ii), (d)(2)(iii) and (d)(2)(iv) of this section with interim protection as follows:
Appropriate respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.
Appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
Change areas in accordance with paragraph (i)(2) of this section.
Hand washing facilities in accordance with paragraph (i)(5) of this section.
Biological monitoring in accordance with paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, to consist of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels, and
Training as required under paragraph (l)(1)(i) of this section regarding 29 CFR 1926.59, Hazard Communication; training as required under paragraph (1)(2)(iii) of this section, regarding use of respirators; and training in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.21, Safety training and education.
Except as provided under paragraphs (d)(3)(iii) and (d)(3)(iv) of this section the employer shall monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:
Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;
Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and
Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.
Monitoring for the initial determination where performed may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.
Where the employer has previously monitored for lead exposures, and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (d)(3)(i) and (d)(6) of this section if the sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and confidence levels of paragraph (d)(9) of this section.
Where the employer has objective data, demonstrating that a particular product or material containing lead or a specific process, operation or activity involving lead cannot result in employee exposure to lead at or above the action level during processing, use, or handling, the employer may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.
The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record documenting the nature and relevancy of objective data as specified in paragraph (n)(4) of this section, where used in assessing employee exposure in lieu of exposure monitoring.
Objective data, as described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section, is not permitted to be used for exposure assessment in connection with paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
Where a determination conducted under paragraphs (d) (1), (2) and (3) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level the employer shall conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.
Where the employer has previously monitored for lead exposure, and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section if the sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and confidence levels of paragraph (d)(9) of this section.
Where a determination, conducted under paragraphs (d) (1), (2), and (3) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level the employer shall make a written record of such determination. The record shall include at least the information specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section and shall also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name of each employee monitored.
If the initial determination reveals employee exposure to be below the action level further exposure determination need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
If the initial determination or subsequent determination reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below the PEL the employer shall perform monitoring in accordance with this paragraph at least every 6 months. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
If the initial determination reveals that employee exposure is above the PEL the employer shall perform monitoring quarterly. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at or below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer shall repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in paragraph (d)(6)(ii) of this section, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section. The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
Whenever there has been a change of equipment, process, control, personnel or a new task has been initiated that may result in additional employees being exposed to lead at or above the action level or may result in employees already exposed at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, the employer shall conduct additional monitoring in accordance with this paragraph.
The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, is at or above the PEL the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the employees exposure was at or above that level and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to below that level.
The employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95%) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 µg/m3.
The employer shall implement engineering and work practice controls, including administrative controls, to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below the permissible exposure limit to the extent that such controls are feasible. Wherever all feasible engineering and work practices controls that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section.
Prior to commencement of the job each employer shall establish and implement a written compliance program to achieve compliance with paragraph (c) of this section.
Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the following:
A description of each activity in which lead is emitted; e.g. equipment used, material involved, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;
A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance and, where engineering controls are required engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;
A report of the technology considered in meeting the PEL;
Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;
A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;
A work practice program which includes items required under paragraphs (g), (h) and (i) of this section and incorporates other relevant work practices such as those specified in paragraph (e)(5) of this section;
An administrative control schedule required by paragraph (e)(4) of this section, if applicable;
A description of arrangements made among contractors on multi-contractor sites with respect to informing affected employees of potential exposure to lead and with respect to responsibility for compliance with this section as set-forth in §  1926.16.
Other relevant information.
The compliance program shall provide for frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by a competent person.
Written programs shall be submitted upon request to any affected employee or authorized employee representatives, to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying by the Assistant Secretary and the Director.
Written programs must be revised and updated at least annually to reflect the current status of the program.
When ventilation is used to control lead exposure, the employer shall evaluate the mechanical performance of the system in controlling exposure as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.
If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the employer shall establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:
Name or identification number of each affected employee;
Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and
Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.
The employer shall ensure that, to the extent relevant, employees follow good work practices such as described in appendix B of this section.
For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. Respirators must be used during:
Periods when an employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL.
Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL.
Periods when an employee requests a respirator.
Periods when respirators are required to provide interim protection of employees while they perform the operations specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B) of this section to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.
Employers must:
Select, and provide to employees, the appropriate respirators specified in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134.
Provide employees with a full facepiece respirator instead of a half mask respirator for protection against lead aerosols that may cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations.
Provide HEPA filters for powered and non-powered air-purifying respirators.
The employer must provide a powered air-purifying respirator when an employee chooses to use such a respirator and it will provide adequate protection to the employee.
Where an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL without regard to the use of respirators, where employees are exposed to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g. lead arsenate, lead azide), and as interim protection for employees performing tasks as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments such as, but not limited to:
Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and
Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with § 1910.133 of this chapter.
The employer shall provide the protective clothing required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 µg/m3 of lead as an 8-hour TWA.
The employer shall provide for the cleaning, laundering, and disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (g)(1) of this section.
The employer shall repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change areas provided for that purpose as prescribed in paragraph (i)(2) of this section.
The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change area which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.
The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.
The employer shall ensure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section are labeled as follows:

DANGER: CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD. MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD. CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE WHEN HANDLING. DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING. DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on bags or containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by paragraph (g)(2)(v) in lieu of the labeling requirements in paragraph (g)(2)(vii)(A) of this section:

Caution: Clothing contaminated with lead. Do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of lead contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.
The employer shall prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.
All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.
Clean-up of floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates shall wherever possible, be cleaned by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of lead becoming airborne.
Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.
Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be equipped with HEPA filters and used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
Compressed air shall not be used to remove lead from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the airborne dust created by the compressed air.
The employer shall assure that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL without regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied.
The employer shall provide clean change areas for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, and as interim protection for employees performing tasks as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, without regard to the use of respirators.
The employer shall assure that change areas are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.
The employer shall assure that employees do not leave the workplace wearing any protective clothing or equipment that is required to be worn during the work shift.
The employer shall provide shower facilities, where feasible, for use by employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL.
The employer shall assure, where shower facilities are available, that employees shower at the end of the work shift and shall provide an adequate supply of cleansing agents and towels for use by affected employees.
The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities or eating areas for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.
The employer shall assure that lunchroom facilities or eating areas are as free as practicable from lead contamination and are readily accessible to employees.
The employer shall assure that employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of a respirator, wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
The employer shall assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities or eating areas with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method that limits dispersion of lead dust.
The employer shall provide adequate handwashing facilities for use by employees exposed to lead in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.51(f).
Where showers are not provided the employer shall assure that employees wash their hands and face at the end of the work-shift.
The employer shall make available initial medical surveillance to employees occupationally exposed on any day to lead at or above the action level. Initial medical surveillance consists of biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program in accordance with paragraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this section for all employees who are or may be exposed by the employer at or above the action level for more than 30 days in any consecutive 12 months;
The employer shall assure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.
The employer shall make available the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review under paragraph (j)(3)(iii) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.
The employer shall make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered under paragraphs (j)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section on the following schedule:
For each employee covered under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section, at least every 2 months for the first 6 months and every 6 months thereafter;
For each employee covered under paragraphs (j)(1) (i) or (ii) of this section whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/dl, at least every two months. This frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/dl; and
For each employee who is removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level at least monthly during the removal period.
Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the employer shall provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.
Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) within plus or minus 15 percent or 6 µg/dl, whichever is greater, and shall be conducted by a laboratory approved by OSHA.
Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of his or her blood lead level; and
The employer shall notify each employee whose blood lead level is at or above 40 µg/dl that the standard requires temporary medical removal with Medical Removal Protection benefits when an employee's blood lead level is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this section.
The employer shall make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section on the following schedule:
At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/dl;
As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, that the employee is pregnant, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use; and
As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.
The content of medical examinations made available pursuant to paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B)-(C) of this section shall be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, shall include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility. Medical examinations made available pursuant to paragraph (j)(3)(i)(A) of this section shall include the following elements:
A detailed work history and a medical history, w