Subpart A General

Subpart B General Interpretations

Subpart C General Safety and Health Provisions

Subpart D Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

Subpart E Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment

Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention

Subpart G Signs, Signals, and Barricades

Subpart H Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

Subpart I Tools - Hand and Power

Subpart J Welding and Cutting

Subpart K Electrical

Subpart L Scaffolds

Subpart M Fall Protection

Subpart N Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

Subpart O Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

Subpart P Excavations

Subpart Q Concrete and Masonry Construction

Subpart R Steel Erection

Subpart S Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air

Subpart T Demolition

Subpart U Blasting and the Use of Explosives

Subpart V Electric Power Transmission and Distribution

Subpart W Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection

Subpart X Stairways and Ladders

Subpart Y Commercial Diving Operations

Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

Subpart AA Confined Spaces in Construction

Subpart BB [Reserved]

Subpart CC Cranes & Derricks in Construction

Authority: 40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; and Secretary of Labor's Orders 5-2007 (72 FR 31159) or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

[75 FR 48135, Aug. 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20743, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 57798, September 26, 2014; 82 FR 51997, November 9, 2017]
This standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to: Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes (such as a fixed jib, i.e., "hammerhead boom"), luffing boom and self-erecting); pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; sideboom cranes; derricks; and variations of such equipment. However, items listed in paragraph (c) of this section are excluded from the scope of this standard.
This standard applies to equipment included in paragraph (a) of this section when used with attachments. Such attachments, whether crane-attached or suspended include, but are not limited to: Hooks, magnets, grapples, clamshell buckets, orange peel buckets, concrete buckets, drag lines, personnel platforms, augers or drills and pile driving equipment.
This subpart does not cover:
Machinery included in paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.
Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders, backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads.
Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles.
Digger derricks when used for augering holes for poles carrying electric or telecommunication lines, placing and removing the poles, and for handling associated materials for installation on, or removal from, the poles, or when used for any other work subject to subpart V of this part. To be eligible for this exclusion, digger-derrick use in work subject to subpart V of this part must comply with all of the provisions of that subpart, and digger-derrick use in construction work for telecommunication service (as defined at Sec. 1910.268(s)(40)) must comply with all of the provisions of Sec. 1910.268.
Machinery originally designed as vehicle-mounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and self-propelled elevating work platforms.
Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load.
Mechanic's truck with a hoisting device when used in activities related to equipment maintenance and repair.
Machinery that hoists by using a come-a-long or chainfall.
Gin poles when used for the erection of communication towers.
Anchor handling or dredge-related operations with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame.
Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when used to transfer materials from the truck crane to the ground, without arranging the materials in a particular sequence for hoisting.
The articulating/knuckle-boom crane is used to hold, support or stabilize the material to facilitate a construction activity, such as holding material in place while it is attached to the structure;
The material being handled by the articulating/knuckle-boom crane is a prefabricated component. Such prefabricated components include, but are not limited to: Precast concrete members or panels, roof trusses (wooden, cold-formed metal, steel, or other material), prefabricated building sections such as, but not limited to: Floor panels, wall panels, roof panels, roof structures, or similar items;
The material being handled by the crane is a structural steel member (for example, steel joists, beams, columns, steel decking (bundled or unbundled) or a component of a systems-engineered metal building (as defined in 29 CFR 1926 subpart R).
The activity is not specifically excluded under § 1400(c)(17)(i) and (ii).
Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when the crane is used to transfer building supply sheet goods or building supply packaged materials from the truck crane onto a structure, using a fork/cradle at the end of the boom, but only when the truck crane is equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload prevention device. Such sheet goods or packaged materials include, but are not limited to: Sheets of sheet rock, sheets of plywood, bags of cement, sheets or packages of roofing shingles, and rolls of roofing felt.
All sections of this subpart CC apply to the equipment covered by this standard unless specified otherwise.
The duties of controlling entities under this subpart include, but are not limited to, the duties specified in § 1926.1402(c), § 1926.1402(e) and § 1926.1424(b).
Where provisions of this standard direct an operator, crewmember, or other employee to take certain actions, the employer must establish, effectively communicate to the relevant persons, and enforce, work rules to ensure compliance with such provisions.
For work covered by Subpart V of this part, compliance with § 1926.959 is deemed compliance with §§ 1926.1407 through 1926.1411.
Section 1926.1402 does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks, when used on railroad tracks that are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213, and that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements. § § 1926.1402(f).

[75 FR 48136, August 9, 2010; 78 FR 32116, May 29, 2013; 79 FR 20743, Apr. 11, 2014]
A/D director (Assembly/Disassembly director) means an individual who meets this subpart's requirements for an A/D director, irrespective of the person's formal job title or whether the person is non-management or management personnel.

Articulating crane means a crane whose boom consists of a series of folding, pin connected structural members, typically manipulated to extend or retract by power from hydraulic cylinders.

Assembly/Disassembly means the assembly and/or disassembly of equipment covered under this standard. With regard to tower cranes, "erecting and climbing" replaces the term "assembly," and "dismantling" replaces the term "disassembly." Regardless of whether the crane is initially erected to its full height or is climbed in stages, the process of increasing the height of the crane is an erection process.

Assist crane means a crane used to assist in assembling or disassembling a crane.

Attachments means any device that expands the range of tasks that can be done by the equipment. Examples include, but are not limited to: An auger, drill, magnet, pile-driver, and boom-attached personnel platform.

Audible signal means a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.

Blocking (also referred to as "cribbing") is wood or other material used to support equipment or a component and distribute loads to the ground. It is typically used to support lattice boom sections during assembly/disassembly and under outrigger and stabilizer floats.

Boatswain's chair means a single-point adjustable suspension scaffold consisting of a seat or sling (which may be incorporated into a full body harness) designed to support one employee in a sitting position.

Bogie means "travel bogie," which is defined below.

Boom (equipment other than tower crane) means an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

Boom (tower cranes): On tower cranes, if the "boom" (i.e., principal horizontal structure) is fixed, it is referred to as a jib; if it is moveable up and down, it is referred to as a boom.

Boom angle indicator means a device which measures the angle of the boom relative to horizontal.

Boom hoist limiting device includes boom hoist disengaging device, boom hoist shut-off, boom hoist disconnect, boom hoist hydraulic relief, boom hoist kick-outs, automatic boom stop device, or derricking limiter. This type of device disengages boom hoist power when the boom reaches a predetermined operating angle. It also sets brakes or closes valves to prevent the boom from lowering after power is disengaged.

Boom length indicator indicates the length of the permanent part of the boom (such as ruled markings on the boom) or, as in some computerized systems, the length of the boom with extensions/attachments.

Boom stop includes boom stops, (belly straps with struts/standoff), telescoping boom stops, attachment boom stops, and backstops. These devices restrict the boom from moving above a certain maximum angle and toppling over backward.

Boom suspension system means a system of pendants, running ropes, sheaves, and other hardware which supports the boom tip and controls the boom angle.

Builder means the builder/constructor of equipment.

Center of gravity: The center of gravity of any object is the point in the object around which its weight is evenly distributed. If you could put a support under that point, you could balance the object on the support.

Certified welder means a welder who meets nationally recognized certification requirements applicable to the task being performed.

Climbing means the process in which a tower crane is raised to a new working height, either by adding additional tower sections to the top of the crane (top climbing), or by a system in which the entire crane is raised inside the structure (inside climbing).

Come-a-long means a mechanical device typically consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage.

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Controlled load lowering means lowering a load by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control using the gear train or hydraulic components of the hoist mechanism. Controlled load lowering requires the use of the hoist drive motor, rather than the load hoist brake, to lower the load.

Controlling entity means an employer that is a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project--its planning, quality and completion.

Counterweight means a weight used to supplement the weight of equipment in providing stability for lifting loads by counterbalancing those loads.

Crane/derrick includes all equipment covered by this subpart.

Crawler crane means equipment that has a type of base mounting which incorporates a continuous belt of sprocket driven track.

Crossover points means locations on a wire rope which is spooled on a drum where one layer of rope climbs up on and crosses over the previous layer. This takes place at each flange of the drum as the rope is spooled onto the drum, reaches the flange, and begins to wrap back in the opposite direction.

Dedicated channel means a line of communication assigned by the employer who controls the communication system to only one signal person and crane/derrick or to a coordinated group of cranes/derricks/signal person(s).

Dedicated pile-driver is a machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile-driver. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material.

Dedicated spotter (power lines): To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of § 1926.1428 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.

Directly under the load means a part or all of an employee is directly beneath the load.

Dismantling includes partial dismantling (such as dismantling to shorten a boom or substitute a different component).

Drum rotation indicator means a device on a crane or hoist which indicates in which direction and at what relative speed a particular hoist drum is turning.

Electrical contact occurs when a person, object, or equipment makes contact or comes in close proximity with an energized conductor or equipment that allows the passage of current.

Employer-made equipment means floating cranes/derricks designed and built by an employer for the employer's own use.

Encroachment is where any part of the crane, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) breaches a minimum clearance distance that this subpart requires to be maintained from a power line.

Equipment means equipment covered by this subpart.

Equipment criteria means instructions, recommendations, limitations and specifications.

Fall protection equipment means guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems.

Fall restraint system means a fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance. The system is comprised of either a body belt or body harness, along with an anchorage, connectors and other necessary equipment. The other components typically include a lanyard, and may also include a lifeline and other devices.

Fall zone means the area (including but not limited to the area directly beneath the load) in which it is reasonably foreseeable that partially or completely suspended materials could fall in the event of an accident.

Flange points are points of contact between rope and drum flange where the rope changes layers.

Floating cranes/derricks means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation.

For example means "one example, although there are others."

Free fall (of the load line) means that only the brake is used to regulate the descent of the load line (the drive mechanism is not used to drive the load down faster or retard its lowering).

Free surface effect is the uncontrolled transverse movement of liquids in compartments which reduce a vessel's transverse stability.

Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

Include/including means "including, but not limited to."

Insulating link/device means an insulating device listed, labeled, or accepted by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.7.

Jib stop (also referred to as a jib backstop), is the same type of device as a boom stop but is for a fixed or luffing jib.

Land crane/derrick is equipment not originally designed by the manufacturer for marine use by permanent attachment to barges, pontoons, vessels, or other means of floatation.

List means the angle of inclination about the longitudinal axis of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of floatation.

Load refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Load moment (or rated capacity) indicator means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and indicates to the operator the percentage of capacity at which the equipment is working. Lights, bells, or buzzers may be incorporated as a warning of an approaching overload condition.

Load moment (or rated capacity) limiter means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and when the rated capacity is reached, it shuts off power to those equipment functions which can increase the severity of loading on the equipment, e.g., hoisting, telescoping out, or luffing out. Typically, those functions which decrease the severity of loading on the equipment remain operational, e.g., lowering, telescoping in, or luffing in.

Locomotive crane means a crane mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on a railroad track.

Luffing jib limiting device is similar to a boom hoist limiting device, except that it limits the movement of the luffing jib.

Marine hoisted personnel transfer device means a device, such as a "transfer net," that is designed to protect the employees being hoisted during a marine transfer and to facilitate rapid entry into and exit from the device. Such devices do not include boatswain's chairs when hoisted by equipment covered by this standard.

Marine worksite means a construction worksite located in, on or above the water.

Mobile crane means a lifting device incorporating a cable suspended latticed boom or hydraulic telescopic boom designed to be moved between operating locations by transport over the road.

Moving point-to-point means the times during which an employee is in the process of going to or from a work station.

Multi-purpose machine means a machine that is designed to be configured in various ways, at least one of which allows it to hoist (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load. For example, a machine that can rotate and can be configured with removable forks/tongs (for use as a forklift) or with a winch pack, jib (with a hook at the end) or jib used in conjunction with a winch. When configured with the forks/tongs, it is not covered by this subpart. When configured with a winch pack, jib (with a hook at the end) or jib used in conjunction with a winch, it is covered by this subpart.

Nationally recognized accrediting agency is an organization that, due to its independence and expertise, is widely recognized as competent to accredit testing organizations. Examples of such accrediting agencies include, but are not limited to, the National Commission for Certifying Agencies and the American National Standards Institute.

Nonconductive means that, because of the nature and condition of the materials used, and the conditions of use (including environmental conditions and condition of the material), the object in question has the property of not becoming energized (that is, it has high dielectric properties offering a high resistance to the passage of current under the conditions of use).

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in § 1926.1416 ("listed operational aids").

Operational controls means levers, switches, pedals and other devices for controlling equipment operation.

Operator means a person who is operating the equipment.

Overhead and gantry cranes includes overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and similar equipment, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks, wheels, or other means.

Paragraph refers to a paragraph in the same section of this subpart that the word "paragraph" is used, unless otherwise specified.

Pendants includes both wire and bar types. Wire type: A fixed length of wire rope with mechanical fittings at both ends for pinning segments of wire rope together. Bar type: Instead of wire rope, a bar is used. Pendants are typically used in a latticed boom crane system to easily change the length of the boom suspension system without completely changing the rope on the drum when the boom length is increased or decreased.

Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combination of these.

Portal crane is a type of crane consisting of a rotating upperstructure, hoist machinery, and boom mounted on top of a structural gantry which may be fixed in one location or have travel capability. The gantry legs or columns usually have portal openings in between to allow passage of traffic beneath the gantry.

Power lines means electric transmission and distribution lines.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Proximity alarm is a device that provides a warning of proximity to a power line and that has been listed, labeled, or accepted by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.7.

Qualified evaluator (not a third party) means a person employed by the signal person's employer who has demonstrated that he/she is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.

Qualified evaluator (third party) means an entity that, due to its independence and expertise, has demonstrated that it is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Qualified rigger is a rigger who meets the criteria for a qualified person.

Range control limit device is a device that can be set by an equipment operator to limit movement of the boom or jib tip to a plane or multiple planes.

Range control warning device is a device that can be set by an equipment operator to warn that the boom or jib tip is at a plane or multiple planes.

Rated capacity means the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.

Rated capacity indicator: See load moment indicator.

Rated capacity limiter: See load moment limiter.

Repetitive pickup points refer to, when operating on a short cycle operation, the rope being used on a single layer and being spooled repetitively over a short portion of the drum.

Running wire rope means a wire rope that moves over sheaves or drums.

Runway means a firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.

Section means a section of this subpart, unless otherwise specified.

Sideboom crane means a track-type or wheel-type tractor having a boom mounted on the side of the tractor, used for lifting, lowering or transporting a load suspended on the load hook. The boom or hook can be lifted or lowered in a vertical direction only.

Special hazard warnings means warnings of site-specific hazards (for example, proximity of power lines).

Stability (flotation device) means the tendency of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation to return to an upright position after having been inclined by an external force.

Standard Method means the protocol in Appendix A of this subpart for hand signals.

Such as means "such as, but not limited to."

Superstructure: See Upperworks.

Tagline means a rope (usually fiber) attached to a lifted load for purposes of controlling load spinning and pendular motions or used to stabilize a bucket or magnet during material handling operations.

Tender means an individual responsible for monitoring and communicating with a diver.

Tilt up or tilt down operation means raising/lowering a load from the horizontal to vertical or vertical to horizontal.

Tower crane is a type of lifting structure which utilizes a vertical mast or tower to support a working boom (jib) in an elevated position. Loads are suspended from the working boom. While the working boom may be of the fixed type (horizontal or angled) or have luffing capability, it can always rotate to swing loads, either by rotating on the top of the tower (top slewing) or by the rotation of the tower (bottom slewing). The tower base may be fixed in one location or ballasted and moveable between locations. Mobile cranes that are configured with luffing jib and/or tower attachments are not considered tower cranes under this section.

Travel bogie (tower cranes) is an assembly of two or more axles arranged to permit vertical wheel displacement and equalize the loading on the wheels.

Trim means angle of inclination about the transverse axis of a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of floatation.

Two blocking means a condition in which a component that is uppermost on the hoist line such as the load block, hook block, overhaul ball, or similar component, comes in contact with the boom tip, fixed upper block or similar component. This binds the system and continued application of power can cause failure of the hoist rope or other component.

Unavailable procedures means procedures that are no longer available from the manufacturer, or have never been available, from the manufacturer.

Upperstructure: See Upperworks.

Upperworks means the revolving frame of equipment on which the operating machinery (and many cases the engine) are mounted along with the operator's cab. The counterweight is typically supported on the rear of the upperstructure and the boom or other front end attachment is mounted on the front.

Up to means "up to and including."

Wire rope means a flexible rope constructed by laying steel wires into various patterns of multi-wired strands around a core system to produce a helically wound rope.

[75 FR 48137, August 9, 2010]
"Ground conditions" means the ability of the ground to support the equipment (including slope, compaction, and firmness).
"Supporting materials" means blocking, mats, cribbing, marsh buggies (in marshes/wetlands), or similar supporting materials or devices.
The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer's specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met. The requirement for the ground to be drained does not apply to marshes/wetlands.
Ensure that ground preparations necessary to meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section are provided.
Inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) if those hazards are identified in documents (such as site drawings, as-built drawings, and soil analyses) that are in the possession of the controlling entity (whether at the site or off-site) or the hazards are otherwise known to that controlling entity.
If there is no controlling entity for the project, the requirement in paragraph (c)(1) of this section must be met by the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations needed to meet paragraph (b) of this section.
If the A/D director or the operator determines that ground conditions do not meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, that person's employer must have a discussion with the controlling entity regarding the ground preparations that are needed so that, with the use of suitable supporting materials/devices (if necessary), the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section can be met.
This section does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks when used on railroad tracks that are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213 and that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements.

[75 FR 48140, August 9, 2010]
When assembling or disassembling equipment (or attachments), the employer must comply with all applicable manufacturer prohibitions and must comply with either:
Manufacturer procedures applicable to assembly and disassembly, or
Employer procedures for assembly and disassembly. Employer procedures may be used only where the employer can demonstrate that the procedures used meet the requirements in § 1926.1406. Note: The employer must follow manufacturer procedures when an employer uses synthetic slings during assembly or disassembly rigging. (See § 1926.1404(r).)

[75 FR 48140, August 9, 2010]
Assembly/disassembly must be directed by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons ("A/D director").
Where the assembly/disassembly is being performed by only one person, that person must meet the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person. For purposes of this standard, that person is considered the A/D director.
The A/D director must understand the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures.
The A/D director must review the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures immediately prior to the commencement of assembly/disassembly unless the A/D director understands the procedures and has applied them to the same type and configuration of equipment (including accessories, if any).
Before commencing assembly/disassembly operations, the A/D director must ensure that the crew members understand all of the following:
The hazardous positions/locations that they need to avoid.
During assembly/disassembly operations, before a crew member takes on a different task, or when adding new personnel during the operations, the requirements in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iii) of this section must be met.
Before a crew member goes to a location that is out of view of the operator and is either in, on, or under the equipment, or near the equipment (or load) where the crew member could be injured by movement of the equipment (or load), the crew member must inform the operator that he/she is going to that location.
Where the operator knows that a crew member went to a location covered by paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the operator must not move any part of the equipment (or load) until the operator is informed in accordance with a pre-arranged system of communication that the crew member is in a safe position.
When pins (or similar devices) are being removed, employees must not be under the boom, jib, or other components, except where the requirements of paragraph (f)(2) of this section are met.
Where the employer demonstrates that site constraints require one or more employees to be under the boom, jib, or other components when pins (or similar devices) are being removed, the A/D director must implement procedures that minimize the risk of unintended dangerous movement and minimize the duration and extent of exposure under the boom. (See Non-mandatory Appendix B of this subpart for an example.)
During all phases of assembly/disassembly, rated capacity limits for loads imposed on the equipment, equipment components (including rigging), lifting lugs and equipment accessories, must not be exceeded for the equipment being assembled/disassembled.
The A/D director supervising the assembly/disassembly operation must address the hazards associated with the operation, which include:
Site and ground conditions must be adequate for safe assembly/disassembly operations and to support the equipment during assembly/disassembly (see § 1926.1402 for ground condition requirements).
The size, amount, condition and method of stacking the blocking must be sufficient to sustain the loads and maintain stability.
When used to support lattice booms or components, blocking must be appropriately placed to:
When using an assist crane, the loads that will be imposed on the assist crane at each phase of assembly/disassembly must be verified in accordance with § 1926.1417(o)(3) before assembly/disassembly begins.
The point(s) of attachment of rigging to a boom (or boom sections or jib or jib sections) must be suitable for preventing structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components.
The center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for maintaining stability.
Where there is insufficient information to accurately identify the center of gravity, measures designed to prevent unintended dangerous movement resulting from an inaccurate identification of the center of gravity must be used. (See Non-mandatory Appendix B of this subpart for an example.)
The boom sections, boom suspension systems (such as gantry A-frames and jib struts), and components must be rigged or supported to maintain stability upon the removal of the pins.
Suspension ropes and pendants must not be allowed to catch on the boom or jib connection pins or cotter pins (including keepers and locking pins).
The potential for unintended movement from inadequately supported counterweights and from hoisting counterweights.
Each time reliance is to be placed on the boom hoist brake to prevent boom movement during assembly/disassembly, the brake must be tested prior to such reliance to determine if it is sufficient to prevent boom movement. If it is not sufficient, a boom hoist pawl, other locking device/back-up braking device, or another method of preventing dangerous movement of the boom (such as blocking or using an assist crane) from a boom hoist brake failure must be used.
Backward stability before swinging the upperworks, travel, and when attaching or removing equipment components.
The effect of wind speed and weather on the equipment.
Manufacturer limitations on the maximum amount of boom supported only by cantilevering must not be exceeded. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must determine in writing this limitation, which must not be exceeded.
The weight of each of the components must be readily available.
The selection of components, and configuration of the equipment, that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment must be in accordance with:
Manufacturer instructions, prohibitions, limitations, and specifications. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve, in writing, the selection and configuration of components; or
Approved modifications that meet the requirements of § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications).
Upon completion of assembly, the equipment must be inspected to ensure compliance with paragraph (m)(1) of this section (see § 1926.1412(c) for post-assembly inspection requirements).
Reusable shipping pins, straps, links, and similar equipment must be removed. Once they are removed they must either be stowed or otherwise stored so that they do not present a falling object hazard.
Equipment used for pile driving must not have a jib attached during pile driving operations.
When the load to be handled and the operating radius require the use of outriggers or stabilizers, or at any time when outriggers or stabilizers are used, all of the following requirements must be met (except as otherwise indicated):
The outriggers or stabilizers must be either fully extended or, if manufacturer procedures permit, deployed as specified in the load chart.
The outriggers must be set to remove the equipment weight from the wheels, except for locomotive cranes (see paragraph (q)(6) of this section for use of outriggers on locomotive cranes). This provision does not apply to stabilizers.
When outrigger floats are used, they must be attached to the outriggers. When stabilizer floats are used, they must be attached to the stabilizers.
Each outrigger or stabilizer must be visible to the operator or to a signal person during extension and setting.
Meet the requirements in paragraphs (h)(2) and (h)(3) of this section.
Be placed only under the outrigger or stabilizer float/pad of the jack or, where the outrigger or stabilizer is designed without a jack, under the outer bearing surface of the extended outrigger or stabilizer beam.
For locomotive cranes, when using outriggers or stabilizers to handle loads, the manufacturer's procedures must be followed. When lifting loads without using outriggers or stabilizers, the manufacturer's procedures must be met regarding truck wedges or screws.
In addition to following the requirements in 29 CFR 1926.251 and other requirements in this and other standards applicable to rigging, when rigging is used for assembly/disassembly, the employer must ensure that:
Synthetic slings are protected from: Abrasive, sharp or acute edges, and configurations that could cause a reduction of the sling's rated capacity, such as distortion or localized compression. Note: Requirements for the protection of wire rope slings are contained in 29 CFR 1926.251(c)(9).
When synthetic slings are used, the synthetic sling manufacturer's instructions, limitations, specifications and recommendations must be followed.

[75 FR 48140, August 9, 2010]
Dismantling (including dismantling for changing the length of) booms and jibs.
None of the pins in the pendants are to be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension.
None of the pins (top or bottom) on boom sections located between the pendant attachment points and the crane/derrick body are to be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension.
None of the pins (top or bottom) on boom sections located between the uppermost boom section and the crane/derrick body are to be removed (partly or completely) when the boom is being supported by the uppermost boom section resting on the ground (or other support).
None of the top pins on boom sections located on the cantilevered portion of the boom being removed (the portion being removed ahead of the pendant attachment points) are to be removed (partly or completely) until the cantilevered section to be removed is fully supported.

[75 FR 48141, August 9, 2010]
When using employer procedures instead of manufacturer procedures for assembly/disassembly, the employer must ensure that the procedures:
Prevent unintended dangerous movement, and prevent collapse, of any part of the equipment.
Provide adequate support and stability of all parts of the equipment.
Position employees involved in the assembly/disassembly operation so that their exposure to unintended movement or collapse of part or all of the equipment is minimized.
Employer procedures must be developed by a qualified person.

[75 FR 48142, August 9, 2010]
Before assembling or disassembling equipment, the employer must determine if any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) could get, in the direction or area of assembly/disassembly, closer than 20 feet to a power line during the assembly/disassembly process. If so, the employer must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, as follows:
Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
Ensure that no part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet to the power line by implementing the measures specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
Determine the line's voltage and the minimum clearance distance permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408).
Determine if any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), could get closer than the minimum clearance distance to the power line permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408). If so, then the employer must follow the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section to ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum clearance distance.
Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:
Conduct a planning meeting with the Assembly/Disassembly director (A/D director), operator, assembly/disassembly crew and the other workers who will be in the assembly/disassembly area to review the location of the power line(s) and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.
If tag lines are used, they must be nonconductive.
At least one of the following additional measures must be in place. The measure selected from this list must be effective in preventing encroachment.

The additional measures are:
Use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the equipment operator. The dedicated spotter must:
Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.
An elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings.
A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.
No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A (see § 1926.1408) to a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.
Where Option (3) of this section is used, the utility owner/operator of the power lines must provide the requested voltage information within two working days of the employer's request.
The employer must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
There must be at least one electrocution hazard warning conspicuously posted in the cab so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two on the outside of the equipment.

[75 FR 48142, August 9, 2010]
Before beginning equipment operations, the employer must:
Demarcating boundaries (such as with flags, or a device such as a range limit device or range control warning device) and prohibiting the operator from operating the equipment past those boundaries, or
Defining the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the equipment, up to the equipment's maximum working radius.
Determine if any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than 20 feet to a power line. If so, the employer must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, as follows:
Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
TABLE A—MINIMUM CLEARANCE DISTANCES
Voltage
(nominal, kV, alternating current)
Minimum clearance distance
(feet)
up to 50 10
over 50 to 200 15
over 200 to 350 20
over 350 to 500 25
over 500 to 750 35
over 750 to 1,000 45
over 1,000 (as established by the utility owner/operator or registered
professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to
electrical power transmission and distribution).
Note: The value that follows "to" is up to and includes that value. For example, over 50 to 200 means up to and including 200kV.
Determine the line's voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408).
Determine if any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), while operating up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408). If so, then the employer must follow the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section to ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance.
Ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet to the power line by implementing the measures specified in paragraph (b) of this section.
Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2) or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:
Conduct a planning meeting with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the location of the power line(s), and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.
If tag lines are used, they must be non-conductive.
Erect and maintain an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, at 20 feet from the power line (if using Option (2) of this section) or at the minimum approach distance under Table A (see § 1926.1408) (if using Option (3) of this section). If the operator is unable to see the elevated warning line, a dedicated spotter must be used as described in § 1926.1408(b)(4)(ii) in addition to implementing one of the measures described in § § 1926.1408(b)(4)(i), (iii), (iv) and (v).
A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.
An insulating link/device, as defined in § 1926.1401, installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.
A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. Where this measure is selected, the dedicated spotter must:
Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
The requirements of paragraph (b)(4) of this section do not apply to work covered by subpart V of this part.
Where Option (3) of this section is used, the utility owner/operator of the power lines must provide the requested voltage information within two working days of the employer's request.
No part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line, except where one of the exceptions in paragraph (d)(2) of this section applies.
Paragraph (d)(1) of this section is inapplicable where the employer demonstrates that one of the following applies:
For equipment with articulating or extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment, with the boom in the fully extended position, at true vertical, would be more than 20 feet below the plane of the power line or more than the Table A of this section minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.
The employer demonstrates that compliance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section is infeasible and meets the requirements of § 1926.1410.
For equipment with non-extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment, with the boom at true vertical, would be more than 20 feet below the plane of the power line or more than the Table A of this section minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.
The employer must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
When working near transmitter/communication towers where the equipment is close enough for an electrical charge to be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter must be deenergized or the following precautions must be taken:
The equipment must be provided with an electrical ground.
If tag lines are used, they must be non-conductive.
The employer must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment on all of the following:
The procedures to be followed in the event of electrical contact with a power line. Such training must include:
Information regarding the danger of electrocution from the operator simultaneously touching the equipment and the ground.
The importance to the operator's safety of remaining inside the cab except where there is an imminent danger of fire, explosion, or other emergency that necessitates leaving the cab.
The safest means of evacuating from equipment that may be energized.
The danger of the potentially energized zone around the equipment (step potential).
The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching or touching the equipment and the load.
Power lines are presumed to be uninsulated unless the utility owner/operator or a registered engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a line is insulated.
The limitations of an insulating link/device, proximity alarm, and range control (and similar) device, if used.
The procedures to be followed to properly ground equipment and the limitations of grounding.
Power lines are presumed to be energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
Employees working as dedicated spotters must be trained to enable them to effectively perform their task, including training on the applicable requirements of this section.
Training under this section must be administered in accordance with § 1926.1430(g).
Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as: A safety device (see § 1926.1415), operational aid, or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution, when used to comply with this section, must meet the manufacturer's procedures for use and conditions of use.

[75 FR 48142, August 9, 2010]
The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except:
For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance "20 feet" is specified, the distance "50 feet" must be substituted; and
For power lines over 1000 kV, the minimum clearance distance must be established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution.

[75 FR 48144, August 9, 2010]
Equipment operations in which any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A of § 1926.1408 to an energized power line is prohibited, except where the employer demonstrates that all of the following requirements are met: