Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

[55 FR 25094, June 20, 1990; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 55 FR 46054, Nov. 1, 1990; 58 FR 35310, June 30, 1993; 59 FR 4437, Jan. 31, 1994; 59 FR 40672, Aug. 9, 1994; 59 FR 51672, Oct. 12, 1994; 60 FR 7447, Feb. 8, 1995; 60 FR 40457, Aug. 9, 1995; 60 FR 47022, Sept. 8, 1995; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 61 FR 9577, March 8, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 67 FR 67964, Nov. 7, 2002; 69 FR 31882, June 8, 2004; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 71 FR 16673, April 3, 2006; 72 FR 71070, Dec. 14, 2007; 76 FR 80739, Dec. 27, 2011; 78 FR 35566, June 13, 2013; 79 FR 20633, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 56960, September 24, 2014; 80 FR 60036, October 5, 2015; 81 83005, Nov. 18, 2016]
This section applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured and converted. This section does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
Standards covering issues of occupational safety and health which have general application without regard to any specific industry are incorporated by reference in paragraphs (b) through (m) of this section and in subparagraphs (3) and (4) of this paragraph and made applicable under this section. Such standards shall be construed according to the rules set forth in §1910.5.
Establishments subject to this section shall comply with the following standards of the American National Standards Institute, which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6:
Practice for Industrial Lighting, A11.1—1965 (R-1970).
Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Moving Walks, A17.1—1965, including Supplements A17.1a—1967, A17.1b—1968, A17.1c—1969, and A17.1d—1970.
Practice for the Inspection of Elevators (Inspector's Manual), A17.2—1960, including Suppelements A17.2a—1965 and A17.2b—1967.
Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1—1961
Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, B20.1—1957.
Power Piping, B31.1.0—1967 and addenda B31.10a—1969. Fuel Gas Piping, B31.2—1968.
Identification of Gas-Mask Canisters, K13.1—1967.
Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, Z12.12—1968.
Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, A13.1—1956.
The following standards, which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, shall be considered standards under this section:
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, including addenda 1969.
Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960, Institute of Makers of Explosives.
Building Exits Code for Life Safety from Fire, NFPA 101—1970.
Devices such as padlocks shall be provided for locking out the source of power at the main disconnect switch. Before any maintenance, inspection, cleaning, adjusting, or servicing of equipment (electrical, mechanical, or other) that requires entrance into or close contact with the machinery or equipment, the main power disconnect switch or valve, or both, controlling its source of power or flow of material, shall be locked out or blocked off with padlock, blank flange, or similar device.
Emergency lighting shall be provided wherever it is necessary for employees to remain at their machines or stations to shut down equipment in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided at stairways and passageways or aisleways used by employees for emergency exit in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided in all plant first aid and medical facilities.
Where large forklift trucks, or lift trucks with clam-jaws, are used in the yard, the operator's enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.
Where locomotive cranes are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
Logs shall be piled in an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
Railroad cars shall not be spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24-inch clearance is maintained, as required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.
The handling and storage of other materials shall conform to paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section with respect to clearance
No person shall be permitted to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.
The minimum distance of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained at not less than 8 1/2 feet.
The air in the ship's hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for both toxic and explosive gases and vapors.
The hatch tender shall be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the men working in the hold are in the clear.
Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
When it is necessary to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
When steel straps without stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees from being struck by the falling logs.
Flatcars and all other cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
A derail shall be used to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.
Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
Cutting of stakes and binder wires shall be done in accordance with paragraph (c)4(iii) of this section.
Where binder chains and crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.
Where binder chain and steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped from the opposite side of the load spillage.
All cars shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
All trucks and trailers shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
A crane shall not be operated where any part thereof may come within 10 feet of overhead powerlines (or other overhead obstructions) unless the powerlines have been deenergized. The boom shall be painted bright yellow from and including the head sheave to a point 6 feet down the boom towards the cab.
Standard signals for the operation of cranes shall be established for all movements of the crane, in accordance with American National Standards B30.2—1943 (reaffirmed 1968) and B30.2.0—1967.
Only one member of the crew shall be authorized to give signals to the crane operator.
All cranes shall be equipped with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.
A sheave guard shall be provided beneath the head sheave of the boom.
A safety device such as a heavy chain or cable at least equal in strength to the lifting cables shall be fastened to the boom and to the frame of the boom crane (if it is other than locomotive) at the base. Alternatively, a telescoping safety device shall be fastened to the boom and to the cab frame, so as to prevent the boom from snapping back over the cab in the event of lifting cable breakage.
A flagman shall direct the movement of cranes or locomotives being moved across railroad tracks or roads, and at any points where the vision of the operator is restricted. The flagman must always remain in sight of the operator when the crane or locomotive is in motion. The blue flag policy shall be used to mark stationary cars day and night. This policy shall include marking the track in advance of the spotted cars (flag for daytime, light for darkness).
After cars are spotted for loading or unloading, warning flags or signs shall be placed in the center of the track at least 50 feet away from the cars and a derail set to protect workmen in the car.
Artificial illumination shall be provided when loading or unloading is performed after dark, in accordance with American National Standard A11.1—1965 (R—1970).
When barking drums are employed in the yard, the requirements of paragraph (e)(12) of this section shall apply.
Handles of wood hooks shall be locked to the shank to prevent them from rotating.
The ends of a woodpile shall be properly sloped and cross-tiered into the pile. Upright poles shall not be used at the ends of woodpiles. To knock down wood from the woodpile, mechanical equipment shall be used to permit employees to keep in the clear of loosened wood.
If dynamite is used to loosen the pile, only authorized personnel shall be permitted to handle and discharge the explosive. An electric detonator is preferable for firing; if a fuse is used, it shall be an approved safety fuse with a burning rate of not less than 120 seconds per yard and a minimum length of 3 feet, in accordance with Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960.
The sides of the conveyor shall be constructed so that the wood will not fall off.
All conveyors for pulpwood shall have the inrunning nips between chain and sprockets guarded; also, turning drums shall be guarded.
Every belt conveyor shall have an emergency stop cable extending the length of the conveyor so that it may be stopped from any location along the line, or conveniently located stop buttons within 10 feet of each work station, in accordance with American National Standard B20.1—1957.
Where conveyors cross passageways or roadways, a horizontal platform shall be provided under the conveyor, extended out from the sides of the conveyor a distance equal to 1 1/2 times the length of the wood handled. The platform shall extend the width of the road plus 2 feet (61 cm) on each side, and shall be kept free of wood and rubbish. The edges of the platform shall be provided with toeboards or other protection that meet the requirements of subpart D of this part, to prevent wood from falling.
When conveyors cross walkways or roadways in the yards, the employer must erect signs reading "Danger—Overhead Conveyor" or an equivalent warning, in accordance with ANSI Z35.1-1968 or ANSI Z535.2-2011, incorporated by reference in §1910.6.
Whenever possible, all dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the source, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2—1960. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when handling alum, clay, soda ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar materials, and when opening rag bales.
When materials are being piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
Baled paper and rags stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads.
Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
Floor capacities shall be clearly marked on all floors.
Piles of pulp shall not be undermined when being unpiled.
When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.
Where rolls are pyramided two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row. Where pulp and paper rolls are stored on smooth floors in processing areas, rubber chocks with wooden core shall be used.
A guard shall be provided in front of all gang and slasher saws to protect workers from wood thrown by saws. A guard shall be placed over tail sprockets.
Saws shall be stopped and power switches shall be locked out and tagged whenever it is necessary for any person to be on the slasher table.
The runway from the pond or unloading dock to the table shall be protected with standard handrails and toeboards. Inclined portions shall have cleats or equivalent nonslip surfacing that complies with subpart D of this part. Protective equipment shall be provided for persons working over water.
Where not protected by the frame of the machine, the underside of the slasher saws shall be enclosed with guards.
The requirements of paragraph (c)(15)(iv) of this section shall apply.
Each barker shall be equipped with a feed and turnover device which will make it unnecessary for the operator to hold a bolt or log by hand during the barking operation. Eye, ear, and head protection shall be provided for the operator, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
All control devices shall be locked out and tagged when knives are being changed.
Water wheels, when directly connected to barker disks or grinders, shall be provided with speed governors, if operated with gate wide open.
When platforms or floors allow access to the sides of the drums, a standard railing shall be constructed around the drums. When two or more drums are arranged side by side, proper walkways with standard handrails shall be provided between each set, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.23, Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.
Whenever it becomes necessary for a workman to go within a drum, the driving mechanism shall be locked and tagged, at the main disconnect switch, in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
Sprockets and chains, gears, and trunnions shall have standard guards, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.219, Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
In addition to motor switch, clutch, belt shifter, or other power disconnecting device, intermittent barking drums shall be equipped with a device which may be locked to prevent the drum from moving while it is being emptied or filled.
Hydraulic barkers shall be enclosed with strong baffles at the inlet and the outlet. The operator shall be protected by at least five-ply laminated glass.
The block upon or against which the wood is rested shall have a corrugated surface or other means provided that the wood will not slip. Wood to be split, and also the splitting block, shall be free of ice, snow, or chips. The operator shall be provided with eye and foot protection. A clear and unobstructed view shall be maintained between equipment and workers around the block and the workers' help area.
Power for the operation of the splitter shall be controlled by a clutch or equivalent device.
The operators of knot cleaners of the woodpecker type shall wear eye protection equipment.
The feed system to the chipper spout shall be arranged in such a way that the operator does not stand in a direct line with the chipper spout. All chipper spouts shall be enclosed to a height of at least 42 inches from the floor or operator's platform. When other protection is not sufficient, the operator shall wear a safety belt line. The safety belt line shall be fastened in such a manner as to make it impossible for the operator to fall into the throat of the chipper. Ear protection equipment shall be worn by the operator and others in the immediate area if there is any possibility that the noise level may be harmful (see §1910.95).
Carriers shall be provided and used for transportation of knives.
Hand knives and scissors shall have blunt points, shall be fastened to the table with chain or thong, and shall not be carried on the person but placed safely in racks or sheaths when not in use.
Hand knives and sharpening steels shall be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade.
Rotating heads or cylinders shall be completely enclosed except for an opening at the feed side sufficient to permit only the entry of stock. The enclosure shall extend over the top of the feed rolls. It shall be constructed either of solid material or with mesh or openings not exceeding one-half inch and substantial enough to contain flying particles and prevent accidental contact with moving parts. The enclosure shall be bolted or locked into place.
Any manually fed cutter, shredder, or duster shall be provided with an idler roll as per subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph or the operator shall use special hand-feeding tools.
Hoods of cutters, shredders, and dusters shall have exhaust ventilation, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2—1960.
A smooth-pivoted idler roll resting on the stock or feed table shall be provided in front of feed rolls except when arrangements prevent the operator from standing closer than 36 inches to any part of the feed rolls.
Blowers used for transporting rags shall be provided with feed hoppers having outer edges located not less than 48 inches from the fan.
The arrangement of the blower discharge outlets and work areas shall be such as to prevent material from falling on workers.
Conveyors and conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed or, if open and within 7 feet of the floor, shall be constructed and guarded in accordance with paragraph (c)(15) of this section and American National Standards B15.1—1953 (Reaffirmed 1958) and B20.1—1957.
Measures for the control of dust shall be provided, in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1—1961, Z87.1—1968, and Z88.2—1969.
When cleaning, inspection, or other work requires that persons enter rag cookers, all steam and water valves, or other control devices, shall be locked and tagged in the closed or "off" position. Blank flanging of pipelines is acceptable in place of closed and locked valves.
Rag cookers shall be provided with safety valves in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, with Addenda.
When cleaning, inspection, or other work requires that persons must enter the cooker, one person shall be stationed outside in a position to observe and assist in case of emergency, in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section.
Sulfur-burner houses shall be safely and adequately ventilated, and every precaution shall be taken to guard against dust explosion hazards and fires, in accordance with American National Standards Z9.2—1960 and Z12.12—1968.
Sulfur storage bins shall be kept free of sulfur dust accumulation, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2—1960.
Sulfur-melting equipment shall not be located in the burner room.
Nonsparking tools and equipment shall be used in handling dry sulfur.
Supplied air respirators shall be strategically located for emergency and rescue use.
The worker shall be provided with eye protection, a supplied air respirator and a personal fall protection system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part, during inspection, repairs or maintenance of acid towers. The line shall be extended to an attendant stationed outside the tower opening.
Outside elevators shall be inspected daily during winter months when ice materially affects safety. Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for the acid tower shall be inspected monthly for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.
Tanks shall be free of acid and shall be washed out with water, and fresh air shall be blown into them before allowing men to enter. Men entering the tanks shall be provided with supplied air respirators, lifebelts, and attached lifelines.
A man shall be stationed outside to summon assistance if necessary. All intake valves to a tank shall be blanked off or disconnected.
Where lime slaking takes place, employees shall be provided with rubber boots, rubber gloves, protective aprons, and eye protection. A deluge shower and eye fountain shall be provided to flush the skin and eyes to counteract lime or acid burns.
When lead burning is being done within tanks, fresh air shall be forced into the tanks so that fresh air will reach the face of the worker first and the direction of the current will never be from the source of the fumes toward the face of the workers. Supplied air respirators (constant-flow type) shall be provided.
Hoops of tanks shall be made of rods rather than flat strips and shall be safely maintained by scheduled inspections.
Steam or compressed-air lances, or other facilities, shall be used for breaking down the arches caused by jamming in chip lofts. No worker shall be permitted to enter a bin unless provided with a safety belt, with line attached, and an attendant stationed at the bin to summon assistance.
At least one unobstructed exit at each end of the room shall be provided on each floor of a digester building.
Gas masks must be available, and they must furnish adequate protection against sulfurous acid and chlorine gases and be inspected and repaired in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.
Elevators shall be constructed in accordance with American National Standard A17.1—1965.
Elevators shall be equipped with an alarm system to advise of failure.
Elevators shall be equipped with gas masks for the maximum number of passengers.
The blowoff valve of a digester shall be arranged so as to be operated from another room, remote from safety valves.
Heavy duty pipe, valves, and fittings shall be used between the digester and blow pit. These valves, fittings, and pipes shall be inspected at least semiannually to determine the degree of deterioration.
Digester blow valves shall be pinned or locked in closed position throughout the entire cooking period.
Through bolts instead of cap bolts shall be used on all digester pipings.
Blow-pit openings preferably shall be on the side of the pit instead of on the top. Openings shall be as small as possible when located on top, and shall be protected in accordance with subpart D of this part.
A signaling device shall be installed in the digester and blow-pit rooms and chip bins to be operated as a warning before and while digesters are being blown.
Blow-pit hoops shall be maintained in a safe condition.
A specially constructed ladder shall be used for access to blow pits, to be constructed so that the door of the blow pit cann