Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

[55 FR 25094, June 20, 1990; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 55 FR 46054, Nov. 1, 1990; 58 FR 35310, June 30, 1993; 59 FR 4437, Jan. 31, 1994; 59 FR 40672, Aug. 9, 1994; 59 FR 51672, Oct. 12, 1994; 60 FR 7447, Feb. 8, 1995; 60 FR 40457, Aug. 9, 1995; 60 FR 47022, Sept. 8, 1995; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 61 FR 9577, March 8, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 67 FR 67964, Nov. 7, 2002; 69 FR 31882, June 8, 2004; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 71 FR 16673, April 3, 2006; 72 FR 71070, Dec. 14, 2007; 76 FR 80739, Dec. 27, 2011; 78 FR 35566, June 13, 2013; 79 FR 20633, July 10, 2014; 79 FR 56960, September 24, 2014; 80 FR 60036, October 5, 2015; 81 83005, Nov. 18, 2016]
This section applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured and converted. This section does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
Standards covering issues of occupational safety and health which have general application without regard to any specific industry are incorporated by reference in paragraphs (b) through (m) of this section and in subparagraphs (3) and (4) of this paragraph and made applicable under this section. Such standards shall be construed according to the rules set forth in §1910.5.
Establishments subject to this section shall comply with the following standards of the American National Standards Institute, which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6:
Practice for Industrial Lighting, A11.1—1965 (R-1970).
Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Moving Walks, A17.1—1965, including Supplements A17.1a—1967, A17.1b—1968, A17.1c—1969, and A17.1d—1970.
Practice for the Inspection of Elevators (Inspector's Manual), A17.2—1960, including Suppelements A17.2a—1965 and A17.2b—1967.
Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1—1961
Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, B20.1—1957.
Power Piping, B31.1.0—1967 and addenda B31.10a—1969. Fuel Gas Piping, B31.2—1968.
Identification of Gas-Mask Canisters, K13.1—1967.
Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, Z12.12—1968.
Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, A13.1—1956.
The following standards, which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, shall be considered standards under this section:
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, including addenda 1969.
Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960, Institute of Makers of Explosives.
Building Exits Code for Life Safety from Fire, NFPA 101—1970.
Devices such as padlocks shall be provided for locking out the source of power at the main disconnect switch. Before any maintenance, inspection, cleaning, adjusting, or servicing of equipment (electrical, mechanical, or other) that requires entrance into or close contact with the machinery or equipment, the main power disconnect switch or valve, or both, controlling its source of power or flow of material, shall be locked out or blocked off with padlock, blank flange, or similar device.
Emergency lighting shall be provided wherever it is necessary for employees to remain at their machines or stations to shut down equipment in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided at stairways and passageways or aisleways used by employees for emergency exit in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided in all plant first aid and medical facilities.
Where large forklift trucks, or lift trucks with clam-jaws, are used in the yard, the operator's enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.
Where locomotive cranes are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
Logs shall be piled in an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
Railroad cars shall not be spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24-inch clearance is maintained, as required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.
The handling and storage of other materials shall conform to paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section with respect to clearance
No person shall be permitted to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.
The minimum distance of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained at not less than 8 1/2 feet.
The air in the ship's hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for both toxic and explosive gases and vapors.
The hatch tender shall be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the men working in the hold are in the clear.
Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
When it is necessary to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
When steel straps without stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees from being struck by the falling logs.
Flatcars and all other cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
A derail shall be used to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.
Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
Cutting of stakes and binder wires shall be done in accordance with paragraph (c)4(iii) of this section.
Where binder chains and crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.
Where binder chain and steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped from the opposite side of the load spillage.
All cars shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
All trucks and trailers shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
A crane shall not be operated where any part thereof may come within 10 feet of overhead powerlines (or other overhead obstructions) unless the powerlines have been deenergized. The boom shall be painted bright yellow from and including the head sheave to a point 6 feet down the boom towards the cab.
Standard signals for the operation of cranes shall be established for all movements of the crane, in accordance with American National Standards B30.2—1943 (reaffirmed 1968) and B30.2.0—1967.
Only one member of the crew shall be authorized to give signals to the crane operator.
All cranes shall be equipped with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.
A sheave guard shall be provided beneath the head sheave of the boom.
A safety device such as a heavy chain or cable at least equal in strength to the lifting cables shall be fastened to the boom and to the frame of the boom crane (if it is other than locomotive) at the base. Alternatively, a telescoping safety device shall be fastened to the boom and to the cab frame, so as to prevent the boom from snapping back over the cab in the event of lifting cable breakage.
A flagman shall direct the movement of cranes or locomotives being moved across railroad tracks or roads, and at any points where the vision of the operator is restricted. The flagman must always remain in sight of the operator when the crane or locomotive is in motion. The blue flag policy shall be used to mark stationary cars day and night. This policy shall include marking the track in advance of the spotted cars (flag for daytime, light for darkness).
After cars are spotted for loading or unloading, warning flags or signs shall be placed in the center of the track at least 50 feet away from the cars and a derail set to protect workmen in the car.
Artificial illumination shall be provided when loading or unloading is performed after dark, in accordance with American National Standard A11.1—1965 (R—1970).
When barking drums are employed in the yard, the requirements of paragraph (e)(12) of this section shall apply.
Handles of wood hooks shall be locked to the shank to prevent them from rotating.
The ends of a woodpile shall be properly sloped and cross-tiered into the pile. Upright poles shall not be used at the ends of woodpiles. To knock down wood from the woodpile, mechanical equipment shall be used to permit employees to keep in the clear of loosened wood.
If dynamite is used to loosen the pile, only authorized personnel shall be permitted to handle and discharge the explosive. An electric detonator is preferable for firing; if a fuse is used, it shall be an approved safety fuse with a burning rate of not less than 120 seconds per yard and a minimum length of 3 feet, in accordance with Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960.
The sides of the conveyor shall be constructed so that the wood will not fall off.
All conveyors for pulpwood shall have the inrunning nips between chain and sprockets guarded; also, turning drums shall be guarded.
Every belt conveyor shall have an emergency stop cable extending the length of the conveyor so that it may be stopped from any location along the line, or conveniently located stop buttons within 10 feet of each work station, in accordance with American National Standard B20.1—1957.
Where conveyors cross passageways or roadways, a horizontal platform shall be provided under the conveyor, extended out from the sides of the conveyor a distance equal to 1 1/2 times the length of the wood handled. The platform shall extend the width of the road plus 2 feet (61 cm) on each side, and shall be kept free of wood and rubbish. The edges of the platform shall be provided with toeboards or other protection that meet the requirements of subpart D of this part, to prevent wood from falling.
When conveyors cross walkways or roadways in the yards, the employer must erect signs reading "Danger—Overhead Conveyor" or an equivalent warning, in accordance with ANSI Z35.1-1968 or ANSI Z535.2-2011, incorporated by reference in §1910.6.
Whenever possible, all dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the source, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2—1960. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when handling alum, clay, soda ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar materials, and when opening rag bales.
When materials are being piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
Baled paper and rags stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads.
Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
Floor capacities shall be clearly marked on all floors.
Piles of pulp shall not be undermined when being unpiled.
When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.