Sections 1910.141, 1910.142, 1910.145, 1910.146, and 1910.147 also issued under 29 CFR part 1911.
Number of employees means, unless otherwise specified, the maximum number of employees present at any one time on a regular shift.
Personal service room, means a room used for activities not directly connected with the production or service function performed by the establishment. Such activities include, but are not limited to, first-aid, medical services, dressing, showering, toilet use, washing, and eating.
Potable water means water that meets the standards for drinking purposes of the State or local authority having jurisdiction, or water that meets the quality standards prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (40 CFR 141).
Toilet facility, means a fixture maintained within a toilet room for the purpose of defecation or urination, or both.
Toilet room, means a room maintained within or on the premises of any place of employment, containing toilet facilities for use by employees.
Toxic material means a material in concentration or amount which exceeds the applicable limit established by a standard, such as 1910.1000 and 1910.1001 or, in the absence of an applicable standard, which is of such toxicity so as to constitute a recognized hazard that is causing or is likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
Urinal means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the sole purpose of urination.
Water closet means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the purpose of both defecation and urination and which is flushed with water.
Wet process means any process or operation in a workroom which normally results in surfaces upon which employees may walk or stand becoming wet.
|Number of employees||Minimum number of water closets1|
|1 to 15||1|
|16 to 35||2|
|36 to 55||3|
|56 to 80||4|
|81 to 110||5
|111 to 150||6|
1Where toilet facilities will not be used by women, urinals may be provided instead of water closets, except that the number of water closets in such cases shall not be reduced to less than 2/3 of the minimum specified.
21 additional fixture for each additional 40 employees.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 18446, April 28, 1975; 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49748, Oct. 24, 1978; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 76 FR 33607, June 8, 2011]
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 47 FR 14696, Apr. 6, 1982; 49 FR 18295, Apr. 30, 1984; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 70 FR 1141, Jan. 5, 2005; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005]
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49748, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007]
Note: All Dimension are in inches.
"Major message" means that portion of a tag's inscription that is more specific than the signal word and that indicates the specific hazardous condition or the instruction to be communicated to the employee. Examples include: "High Voltage," "Close Clearance," "Do Not Start," or "Do Not Use" or a corresponding pictograph used with a written text or alone.
"Pictograph" means a pictorial representation used to identify a hazardous condition or to convey a safety instruction.
"Signal word" means that portion of a tag's inscription that contains the word or words that are intended to capture the employee's immediate attention.
"Tag" means a device usually made of card, paper, pasteboard, plastic or other material used to identify a hazardous condition.
[61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 76 FR 24698, May 2, 2011; 78 FR 35566, June 13, 2013]
"DANGER" - Red, or predominantly red, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.
"CAUTION" - Yellow, or predominantly yellow, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.
"WARNING" - Orange, or predominantly orange, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.
"BIOLOGICAL HAZARD" - Fluorescent orange or orange-red, or predominantly so, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color.
- Bresnahan, Thomas F., and Bryk, Joseph, "The Hazard Association Values of Accident Prevention Signs", Journal of American Society of Safety Engineers; January 1975.
- Dreyfuss, H., Symbol Sourcebook, McGraw Hill; New York, NY, 1972.
- Glass, R.A. and others, Some Criteria for Colors and Signs in Workplaces, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, 1983.
- Graphic Symbols for Public Areas and Occupational Environments, Treasury Board of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, July 1980.
- Howett, G.L., Size of Letters Required for Visibility as a Function of Viewing Distance and Observer Acuity, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, July 1983.
- Lerner, N.D. and Collins, B.L., The Assessment of Safety Symbol Understandability by Different Testing Methods, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, 1980.
- Lerner, N.D. and Collins, B.L., Workplace Safety Symbols, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, 1980.
- Modley, R. and Meyers, W. R., Handbook of Pictorial Symbols, Dover Publication, New York, NY, 1976.
- Product Safety Signs and Labels, FMC Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, 1978.
- Safety Color Coding for Marking Physical Hazards, Z53.1, American National Standards Institute, New York, NY, 1979.
- Signs and Symbols for the Occupational Environment, Can. 3-Z-321-77, Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, September 1977.
- Symbols for Industrial Safety, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, April 1982.
- Symbol Signs, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington DC, November 1974.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49749, Oct. 24, 1978; 43 FR 51759, Nov. 7, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 51 FR 33260, Sept. 19, 1986; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996]
"Attendant" means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the employer's permit space program.
"Authorized entrant" means an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space.
"Blanking or blinding" means the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.
"Confined space" means a space that:
- Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
- Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry.); and
- Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
"Double block and bleed" means the closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in-line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.
"Emergency" means any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants.
"Engulfment" means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.
"Entry" means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.
"Entry permit (permit)" means the written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in paragraph (f) of this section.
"Entry supervisor" means the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this section.
NOTE: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation.
"Hazardous atmosphere" means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
- Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
- Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.
- Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
- Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of this Part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
- Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
NOTE: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, section 1910.1200 of this Part, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
"Hot work permit" means the employer's written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.
"Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)" means any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
NOTE: Some materials -- hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example -- may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
"Inerting" means the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.
NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
"Isolation" means the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space by such means as: blanking or blinding; misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts; a double block and bleed system; lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; or blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages.
"Line breaking" means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.
"Non-permit confined space" means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.
"Oxygen deficient atmosphere" means an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume.
"Oxygen enriched atmosphere" means an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume.
"Permit-required confined space (permit space)" means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
- Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
- Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
- Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
- Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
"Permit system" means the employer's written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry.
"Prohibited condition" means any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized.
"Rescue service" means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces.
"Retrieval system" means the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.
"Testing" means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space.
"Permit-required confined space (permit space)" means a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
NOTE: Testing enables employers both to devise and implement adequate control measures for the protection of authorized entrants and to determine if acceptable entry conditions are present immediately prior to, and during, entry. "Permit system" means the employer's written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry.
NOTE: Proper application of the decision flow chart in Appendix A to section 1910.146 would facilitate compliance with this requirement.
NOTE: A sign reading DANGER -- PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE, DO NOT ENTER or using other similar language would satisfy the requirement for a sign.
NOTE: See paragraph (c)(7) of this section for reclassification of a permit space after all hazards within the space have been eliminated.
NOTE: Control of atmospheric hazards through forced air ventilation does not constitute elimination of the hazards. Paragraph (c)(5) covers permit space entry where the employer can demonstrate that forced air ventilation alone will control all hazards in the space.
NOTE: Atmospheric testing conducted in accordance with Appendix B to section 1910.146 would be considered as satisfying the requirements of this paragraph. For permit space operations in sewers, atmospheric testing conducted in accordance with Appendix B, as supplemented by Appendix E to section 1910.146, would be considered as satisfying the requirements of this paragraph.
NOTE: Attendants may be assigned to monitor more than one permit space provided the duties described in paragraph (i) of this section can be effectively performed for each permit space that is monitored. Likewise, attendants may be stationed at any location outside the permit space to be monitored as long as the duties described in paragraph (i) of this section can be effectively performed for each permit space that is monitored.
NOTE: Examples of circumstances requiring the review of the permit space program are: any unauthorized entry of a permit space, the detection of a permit space hazard not covered by the permit, the detection of a condition prohibited by the permit, the occurrence of an injury or near-miss during entry, a change in the use or configuration of a permit space, and employee complaints about the effectiveness of the program.
NOTE: Employers may perform a single annual review covering all entries performed during a 12-month period. If no entry is performed during a 12-month period, no review is necessary.
Appendix C to section 1910.146 presents examples of permit space programs that are considered to comply with the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.
NOTE: Appendix D to section 1910.146 presents examples of permits whose elements are considered to comply with the requirements of this section.
NOTE: This requirement may be met by inserting a reference on the entry permit as to the means used, such as a roster or tracking system, to keep track of the authorized entrants within the permit space.
NOTE: Those measures can include the lockout or tagging of equipment and procedures for purging, inerting, ventilating, and flushing permit spaces.
NOTE: When the employer's permit entry program allows attendant entry for rescue, attendants may enter a permit space to attempt a rescue if they have been trained and equipped for rescue operations as required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section and if they have been relieved as required by paragraph (i)(4) of this section.
Note to paragraph (k)(l)(i): What will be considered timely will vary according to the specific hazards involved in each entry. For example, §1910.134, Respiratory Protection, requires that employers provide a standby person or persons capable of immediate action to rescue employee(s) wearing respiratory protection while in work areas defined as IDLH atmospheres.
Note to paragraph (k)(1): Non-mandatory Appendix F contains examples of criteria which employers can use in evaluating prospective rescuers as required by paragraph (k)(l) of this section.
[58 FR 4549, Jan. 14, 1993; 58 FR 34845, June 29, 1993; 59 FR 26115, May 19, 1994; 63 FR 66038, Dec. 1, 1998; 76 FR 80739, Dec. 27, 2011]
[58 FR 4549, Jan. 14, 1993; 58 FR 34846, June 29, 1993; 63 FR 66039, Dec. 1, 1998]
*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Standards and Guidance at (202) 693-1950 for assistance accessing PDF or image documents.
evaluation of the hazards of the permit space and verification that acceptable entry conditions for entry into that space exist.
- Evaluation testing. The atmosphere of a confined space should be analyzed using equipment of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify and evaluate any hazardous atmospheres that may exist or arise, so that appropriate permit entry procedures can be developed and acceptable entry conditions stipulated for that space. Evaluation and interpretation of these data, and development of the entry procedure, should be done by, or reviewed by, a technically qualified professional (e.g., OSHA consultation service, or certified industrial hygienist, registered safety engineer, certified safety professional, certified marine chemist, etc.) based on evaluation of all serious hazards.
- Verification testing. The atmosphere of a permit space which may contain a hazardous atmosphere should be tested for residues of all contaminants identified by evaluation testing using permit specified equipment to determine that residual concentrations at the time of testing and entry are within the range of acceptable entry conditions. Results of testing (i.e., actual concentration, etc.) should be recorded on the permit in the space provided adjacent to the stipulated acceptable entry condition.
- Duration of testing. Measurement of values for each atmospheric parameter should be made for at least the minimum response time of the test instrument specified by the manufacturer.
- Testing stratified atmospheres. When monitoring for entries involving a descent into atmospheres that may be stratified, the atmospheric envelope should be tested a distance of approximately 4 feet (1.22 m) in the direction of travel and to each side. If a sampling probe is used, the entrant's rate of progress should be slowed to accommodate the sampling speed and detector response.
- Order of testing. A test for oxygen is performed first because most combustible gas meters are oxygen dependent and will not provide reliable readings in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Combustible gases are tested for next because the threat of fire or explosion is both more immediate and more life threatening, in most cases, than exposure to toxic gases and vapors. If tests for toxic gases and vapors are necessary, they are performed last.
Workplace. Sewer entry.
Potential hazards. The employees could be exposed to the following:
Presence of toxic gases. Equal to or more than 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average. If the presence of other toxic contaminants is suspected, specific monitoring programs will be developed.
Presence of explosive/flammable gases. Equal to or greater than 10% of the lower flammable limit (LFL).
Oxygen Deficiency. A concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere equal to or less than 19.5% by volume.
- ENTRY WITHOUT PERMIT/ATTENDANT
Certification. Confined spaces may be entered without the need for a written permit or attendant provided that the space can be maintained in a safe condition for entry by mechanical ventilation alone, as provided in 1910.146(c)(5). All spaces shall be considered permit-required confined spaces until the pre-entry procedures demonstrate otherwise. Any employee required or permitted to pre-check or enter an enclosed/confined space shall have successfully completed, as a minimum, the training as required by the following sections of these procedures. A written copy of operating and rescue procedures as required by these procedures shall be at the work site for the duration of the job. The Confined Space Pre-Entry Check List must be completed by the LEAD WORKER before entry into a confined space. This list verifies completion of items listed below. This check list shall be kept at the job site for duration of the job. If circumstances dictate an interruption in the work, the permit space must be re-evaluated and a new check list must be completed.
Control of atmospheric and engulfment hazards.
Pumps and Lines. All pumps and lines which may reasonably cause contaminants to flow into the space shall be disconnected, blinded and locked out, or effectively isolated by other means to prevent development of dangerous air contamination or engulfment. Not all laterals to sewers or storm drains require blocking. However, where experience or knowledge of industrial use indicates there is a reasonable potential for contamination of air or engulfment into an occupied sewer, then all affected laterals shall be blocked. If blocking and/or isolation requires entry into the space the provisions for entry into a permit-required confined space must be implemented.
Surveillance. The surrounding area shall be surveyed to avoid hazards such as drifting vapors from the tanks, piping, or sewers.
Testing. The atmosphere within the space will be tested to determine whether dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency exists. Detector tubes, alarm only gas monitors and explosion meters are examples of monitoring equipment that may be used to test permit space atmospheres. Testing shall be performed by the LEAD WORKER who has successfully completed the Gas Detector training for the monitor he will use. The minimum parameters to be monitored are oxygen deficiency, LFL, and hydrogen sulfide concentration. A written record of the pre-entry test results shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the job. The supervisor will certify in writing, based upon the results of the pre-entry testing, that all hazards have been eliminated. Affected employees shall be able to review the testing results. The most hazardous conditions shall govern when work is being performed in two adjoining, connecting spaces.
Entry Procedures. If there are no non-atmospheric hazards present and if the pre-entry tests show there is no dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency within the space and there is no reason to believe that any is likely to develop, entry into and work within may proceed. Continuous testing of the atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the workers within the space shall be accomplished. The workers will immediately leave the permit space when any of the gas monitor alarm set points are reached as defined. Workers will not return to the area until a SUPERVISOR who has completed the gas detector training has used a direct reading gas detector to evaluate the situation and has determined that it is safe to enter.
Rescue. Arrangements for rescue services are not required where there is no attendant. See the rescue portion of section B., below, for instructions regarding rescue planning where an entry permit is required.
- ENTRY PERMIT REQUIRED
Permits. Confined Space Entry Permit. All spaces shall be considered permit-required confined spaces until the pre-entry procedures demonstrate otherwise. Any employee required or permitted to pre-check or enter a permit-required confined space shall have successfully completed, as a minimum, the training as required by the following sections of these procedures. A written copy of operating and rescue procedures as required by these procedures shall be at the work site for the duration of the job. The Confined Space Entry Permit must be completed before approval can be given to enter a permit-required confined space. This permit verifies completion of items listed below. This permit shall be kept at the job site for the duration of the job. If circumstances cause an interruption in the work or a change in the alarm conditions for which entry was approved, a new Confined Space Entry Permit must be completed.
Control of atmospheric and engulfment hazards.
Surveillance. The surrounding area shall be surveyed to avoid hazards such as drifting vapors from tanks, piping or sewers.
Testing. The confined space atmosphere shall be tested to determine whether dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency exists. A direct reading gas monitor shall be used. Testing shall be performed by the SUPERVISOR who has successfully completed the gas detector training for the monitor he will use. The minimum parameters to be monitored are oxygen deficiency, LFL and hydrogen sulfide concentration. A written record of the pre-entry test results shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the job. Affected employees shall be able to review the testing results. The most hazardous conditions shall govern when work is being performed in two adjoining, connected spaces.
Space Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation systems, where applicable, shall be set at 100% outside air. Where possible, open additional manholes to increase air circulation. Use portable blowers to augment natural circulation if needed. After a suitable ventilating period, repeat the testing. Entry may not begin until testing has demonstrated that the hazardous atmosphere has been eliminated.
Entry Procedures. The following procedure shall be observed under any of the following conditions: 1.) Testing demonstrates the existence of dangerous or deficient conditions and additional ventilation cannot reduce concentrations to safe levels; 2.) The atmosphere tests as safe but unsafe conditions can reasonably be expected to develop; 3.) It is not feasible to provide for ready exit from spaces equipped with automatic fire suppression systems and it is not practical or safe to deactivate such systems; or 4.) An emergency exists and it is not feasible to wait for pre-entry procedures to take effect.
All personnel must be trained. A self contained breathing apparatus shall be worn by any person entering the space. At least one worker shall stand by the outside of the space ready to give assistance in case of emergency. The standby worker shall have a self contained breathing apparatus available for immediate use. There shall be at least one additional worker within sight or call of the standby worker. Continuous powered communications shall be maintained between the worker within the confined space and standby personnel.
If at any time there is any questionable action or non-movement by the worker inside, a verbal check will be made. If there is no response, the worker will be moved immediately. Exception: If the worker is disabled due to falling or impact, he/she shall not be removed from the confined space unless there is immediate danger to his/her life. Local fire department rescue personnel shall be notified immediately. The standby worker may only enter the confined space in case of an emergency (wearing the self contained breathing apparatus) and only after being relieved by another worker. Safety belt or harness with attached lifeline shall be used by all workers entering the space with the free end of the line secured outside the entry opening. The standby worker shall attempt to remove a disabled worker via his lifeline before entering the space.
When practical, these spaces shall be entered through side openings -- those within 3 1/2 feet (1.07 m) of the bottom. When entry must be through a top opening, the safety belt shall be of the harness type that suspends a person upright and a hoisting device or similar apparatus shall be available for lifting workers out of the space.
In any situation where their use may endanger the worker, use of a hoisting device or safety belt and attached lifeline may be discontinued.
When dangerous air contamination is attributable to flammable and/or explosive substances, lighting and electrical equipment shall be Class 1, Division 1 rated per National Electrical Code and no ignition sources shall be introduced into the area.
Continuous gas monitoring shall be performed during all confined space operations. If alarm conditions change adversely, entry personnel shall exit the confined space and a new confined space permit issued.
Rescue. Call the fire department services for rescue. Where immediate hazards to injured personnel are present, workers at the site shall implement emergency procedures to fit the situation.
Workplace. Meat and poultry rendering plants.
Cookers and dryers are either batch or continuous in their operation. Multiple batch cookers are operated in parallel. When one unit of a multiple set is shut down for repairs, means are available to isolate that unit from the others which remain in operation.
Cookers and dryers are horizontal, cylindrical vessels equipped with a center, rotating shaft and agitator paddles or discs. If the inner shell is jacketed, it is usually heated with steam at pressures up to 150 psig (1034.25 kPa). The rotating shaft assembly of the continuous cooker or dryer is also steam heated.
Potential Hazards. The recognized hazards associated with cookers and dryers are the risk that employees could be:
- Struck or caught by rotating agitator;
- Engulfed in raw material or hot, recycled fat;
- Burned by steam from leaks into the cooker/dryer steam jacket or the condenser duct system if steam valves are not properly closed and locked out;
- Burned by contact with hot metal surfaces, such as the agitator shaft assembly, or inner shell of the cooker/dryer;
- Heat stress caused by warm atmosphere inside cooker/dryer;
- Slipping and falling on grease in the cooker/dryer;
- Electrically shocked by faulty equipment taken into the cooker/dryer;
- Burned or overcome by fire or products of combustion; or
- Overcome by fumes generated by welding or cutting done on grease covered surfaces.
Control of hazards. Mechanical. Lock out main power switch to agitator motor at main power panel. Affix tag to the lock to inform others that a permit entry confined space entry is in progress.
Engulfment. Close all valves in the raw material blow line. Secure each valve in its closed position using chain and lock. Attach a tag to the valve and chain warning that a permit entry confined space entry is in progress. The same procedure shall be used for securing the fat recycle valve.
Burns and heat stress. Close steam supply valves to jacket and secure with chains and tags. Insert solid blank at flange in cooker vent line to condenser manifold duct system. Vent cooker/dryer by opening access door at discharge end and top center door to allow natural ventilation throughout the entry. If faster cooling is needed, use an portable ventilation fan to increase ventilation. Cooling water may be circulated through the jacket to reduce both outer and inner surface temperatures of cooker/dryers faster. Check air and inner surface temperatures in cooker/dryer to assure they are within acceptable limits before entering, or use proper protective clothing.
Fire and fume hazards. Careful site preparation, such as cleaning the area within 4 inches (10.16 cm) of all welding or torch cutting operations, and proper ventilation are the preferred controls. All welding and cutting operations shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart Q, OSHA's welding standard. Proper ventilation may be achieved by local exhaust ventilation, or the use of portable ventilation fans, or a combination of the two practices.
Electrical shock. Electrical equipment used in cooker/dryers shall be in serviceable condition.
Slips and falls. Remove residual grease before entering cooker/dryer.
Attendant. The supervisor shall be the attendant for employees entering cooker/dryers.
Permit. The permit shall specify how isolation shall be done and any other preparations needed before making entry. This is especially important in parallel arrangements of cooker/dryers so that the entire operation need not be shut down to allow safe entry into one unit.
Rescue. When necessary, the attendant shall call the fire department as previously arranged.
Workplace. Workplaces where tank cars, trucks, and trailers, dry bulk tanks and trailers, railroad tank cars, and similar portable tanks are fabricated or serviced.
- During fabrication. These tanks and dry-bulk carriers are entered repeatedly throughout the fabrication process. These products are not configured identically, but the manufacturing processes by which they are made are very similar.
Sources of hazards. In addition to the mechanical hazards arising from the risks that an entrant would be injured due to contact with components of the tank or the tools being used, there is also the risk that a worker could be injured by breathing fumes from welding materials or mists or vapors from materials used to coat the tank interior. In addition, many of these vapors and mists are flammable, so the failure to properly ventilate a tank could lead to a fire or explosion.
Control of hazards.
Welding. Local exhaust ventilation shall be used to remove welding fumes once the tank or carrier is completed to the point that workers may enter and exit only through a manhole. (Follow the requirements of 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Q, OSHA's welding standard, at all times.) Welding gas tanks may never be brought into a tank or carrier that is a permit entry confined space.
Application of interior coatings/linings. Atmospheric hazards shall be controlled by forced air ventilation sufficient to keep the atmospheric concentration of flammable materials below 10% of the lower flammable limit (LFL) (or lower explosive limit (LEL), whichever term is used locally). The appropriate respirators are provided and shall be used in addition to providing forced ventilation if the forced ventilation does not maintain acceptable respiratory conditions.
Permits. Because of the repetitive nature of the entries in these operations, an "Area Entry Permit" will be issued for a 1 month period to cover those production areas where tanks are fabricated to the point that entry and exit are made using manholes.
Authorization. Only the area supervisor may authorize an employee to enter a tank within the permit area. The area supervisor must determine that conditions in the tank trailer, dry bulk trailer or truck, etc. meet permit requirements before authorizing entry.
Attendant. The area supervisor shall designate an employee to maintain communication by employer specified means with employees working in tanks to ensure their safety. The attendant may not enter any permit entry confined space to rescue an entrant or for any other reason, unless authorized by the rescue procedure and, even then, only after calling the rescue team and being relieved by an attendant or another worker.
Communications and observation. Communications between attendant and entrant(s) shall be maintained throughout entry. Methods of communication that may be specified by the permit include voice, voice powered radio, tapping or rapping codes on tank walls, signalling tugs on a rope, and the attendant's observation that work activities such as chipping, grinding, welding, spraying, etc., which require deliberate operator control continue normally. These activities often generate so much noise that the necessary hearing protection makes communication by voice difficult.
Rescue procedures. Acceptable rescue procedures include entry by a team of employee-rescuers, use of public emergency services, and procedures for breaching the tank. The area permit specifies which procedures are available, but the area supervisor makes the final decision based on circumstances. (Certain injuries may make it necessary to breach the tank to remove a person rather than risk additional injury by removal through an existing manhole. However, the supervisor must ensure that no breaching procedure used for rescue would violate terms of the entry permit. For instance, if the tank must be breached by cutting with a torch, the tank surfaces to be cut must be free of volatile or combustible coatings within 4 inches (10.16 cm) of the cutting line and the atmosphere within the tank must be below the LFL.
Retrieval line and harnesses. The retrieval lines and harnesses generally required under this standard are usually impractical for use in tanks because the internal configuration of the tanks and their interior baffles and other structures would prevent rescuers from hauling out injured entrants. However, unless the rescue procedure calls for breaching the tank for rescue, the rescue team shall be trained in the use of retrieval lines and harnesses for removing injured employees through manholes.
- Repair or service of "used" tanks and bulk trailers.
Sources of hazards. In addition to facing the potential hazards encountered in fabrication or manufacturing, tanks or trailers which have been in service may contain residues of dangerous materials, whether left over from the transportation of hazardous cargoes or generated by chemical or bacterial action on residues of non-hazardous cargoes.
Control of atmospheric hazards. A "used" tank shall be brought into areas where tank entry is authorized only after the tank has been emptied, cleansed (without employee entry) of any residues, and purged of any potential atmospheric hazards.
Welding. In addition to tank cleaning for control of atmospheric hazards, coating and surface materials shall be removed 4 inches (10.16 cm) or more from any surface area where welding or other torch work will be done and care taken that the atmosphere within the tank remains well below the LFL. (Follow the requirements of 29 CFR 1910, Subpart Q, OSHA's welding standard, at all times.)
Permits. An entry permit valid for up to 1 year shall be issued prior to authorization of entry into used tank trailers, dry bulk trailers or trucks. In addition to the pre-entry cleaning requirement, this permit shall require the employee safeguards specified for new tank fabrication or construction permit areas.
Authorization. Only the area supervisor may authorize an employee to enter a tank trailer, dry bulk trailer or truck within the permit area. The area supervisor must determine that the entry permit requirements have been met before authorizing entry.
[58 FR 4549, Jan. 14, 1993; 58 FR 34846, June 29, 1993]
Date and Time Issued: _________________ Date and Time Expires: _________
Job site/Space I.D.: _____________________ Job Supervisor:___________________
Equipment to be worked on: __________ Work to be performed: _________
Stand-by personnel: __________________ ________________ _____________
|1. Atmospheric Checks:||Time
2. Tester's signature: _____________________________
|3.||Source isolation (No Entry):||N/A||Yes||No|
|Pumps or lines blinded,||( )||( )||( )|
|disconnected, or blocked||( )||( )||( )|
|( )||( )||( )|
Natural Ventilation only
|( )||( )||( )|
|5.||Atmospheric check after|
|isolation and Ventilation:
|Explosive __________% L.F.L||<||10||%
|Testers signature: _____________________________|
6. Communication procedures: ________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
7. Rescue procedures: _______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
|8.||Entry, standby, and back up persons:||Yes||No|
|Successfully completed required|
|Is it current?||()||()|
|Direct reading gas monitor -|
|( )||( )||( )|
|Safety harnesses and lifelines|
for entry and standby persons
|( )||( )||( )|
|Hoisting equipment||( )||( )||( )|
|Powered communications||( )||( )||( )|
|SCBA's for entry and standby|
|( )||( )||( )|
|Protective Clothing||( )||( )||( )|
|All electric equipment listed|
Class I, Division I, Group D
and Non-sparking tools
|( )||( )||( )|
|10.||Periodic atmospheric tests:|
|Oxygen||____%||Time ____||Oxygen||____%||Time ____|
|Oxygen||____%||Time ____||Oxygen||____%||Time ____|
|Explosive||____%||Time ____||Explosive||____%||Time ____|
|Explosive||____%||Time ____||Explosive||____%||Time ____|
|Toxic||____%||Time ____||Toxic||____%||Time ____|
|Toxic||____%||Time ____||Toxic||____%||Time ____|
Permit Prepared By: (Supervisor)________________________________________
Approved By: (Unit Supervisor)__________________________________________
|Reviewed By (Cs Operations Personnel) :|
|Copies:||White Original (Safety Office)|
|Yellow (Unit Supervisor)|
Appendix D - 2
PERMIT VALID FOR 8 HOURS ONLY. ALL COPIES OF PERMIT WILL REMAIN
AT JOB SITE UNTIL JOB IS COMPLETED
DATE: - - SITE LOCATION and DESCRIPTION ______________________________
PURPOSE OF ENTRY ______________________________________________________
SUPERVISOR(S) in charge of crews Type of Crew Phone # _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES ______________________________________________
RESCUE PROCEDURES (PHONE NUMBERS AT BOTTOM) ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
* BOLD DENOTES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE COMPLETED AND REVIEWED PRIOR TO ENTRY*
|Purge-Flush and Vent||____||____|
|Secure Area (Post and Flag)||____||____|
|Resuscitator - Inhalator||____||____|
|Standby Safety Personnel||____||____|
|Full Body Harness w/"D" ring||____||____|
|Emergency Escape Retrieval Equip||____||____|
|Lighting (Explosive Proof)||____||____|
|Respirator(s) (Air Purifying)||____||____|
|Burning and Welding Permit||____||____|
|**RECORD CONTINUOUS MONITORING RESULTS EVERY 2 HOURS|
|TEST(S) TO BE TAKEN||Entry Level|
|PERCENT OF OXYGEN||19.5% to 23.5%||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT||Under 10%||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|CARBON MONOXIDE||+35 PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|Aromatic Hydrocarbon||+ 1 PPM * 5PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|Hydrogen Cyanide||(Skin) * 4PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|Hydrogen Sulfide||+10 PPM * 15PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|Sulfur Dioxide||+ 2 PPM * 5PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
|Ammonia||* 35PPM||___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___|
* Short-term exposure limit: Employee can work in the area up to 15 minutes.
+ 8 hr. Time Weighted Avg.: Employee can work in area 8 hrs (longer with appropriate respiratory protection).
|GAS TESTER NAME||INSTRUMENT(S)||MODEL||SERIAL &/OR|
|& CHECK #||USED||&/OR TYPE||UNIT #|
|SUPERVISOR AUTHORIZING - ALL CONDITIONS SATISFIED____________________|
AMBULANCE 2800 FIRE 2900 Safety 4901 Gas Coordinator 4529/5387
[58 FR 4549, Jan. 14, 1993; 58 FR 34846, June 29, 1993]
- Adherence to procedure. The employer should designate as entrants only employees who are thoroughly trained in the employer's sewer entry procedures and who demonstrate that they follow these entry procedures exactly as prescribed when performing sewer entries.
- Atmospheric monitoring. Entrants should be trained in the use of, and be equipped with, atmospheric monitoring equipment which sounds an audible alarm, in addition to its visual readout, whenever one of the following conditions are encountered: Oxygen concentration less than 19.5 percent; flammable gas or vapor at 10 percent or more of the lower flammable limit (LFL); or hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide at or above 10 ppm or 35 ppm, respectively, measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Atmospheric monitoring equipment needs to be calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The oxygen sensor/broad range sensor is best suited for initial use in situations where the actual or potential contaminants have not been identified, because broad range sensors, unlike substance-specific sensors, enable employers to obtain an overall reading of the hydrocarbons (flammables) present in the space. However, such sensors only indicate that a hazardous threshold of a class of chemicals has been exceeded. They do not measure the levels of contamination of specific substances. Therefore, substance-specific devices, which measure the actual levels of specific substances, are best suited for use where actual and potential contaminants have been identified. The measurements obtained with substance-specific devices are of vital importance to the employer when decisions are made concerning the measures necessary to protect entrants (such as ventilation or personal protective equipment) and the setting and attainment of appropriate entry conditions. However, the sewer environment may suddenly and unpredictably change, and the substance-specific devices may not detect the potentially lethal atmospheric hazards which may enter the sewer environment.
Although OSHA considers the information and guidance provided above to be appropriate and useful in most sewer entry situations, the Agency emphasizes that each employer must consider the unique circumstances, including the predictability of the atmosphere, of the sewer permit spaces in the employer's workplace in preparing for entry. Only the employer can decide, based upon his or her knowledge of, and experience with permit spaces in sewer systems, what the best type of testing instrument may be for any specific entry operation.
The selected testing instrument should be carried and used by the entrant in sewer line work to monitor the atmosphere in the entrant's environment, and in advance of the entrant's direction of movement, to warn the entrant of any deterioration in atmospheric conditions. Where several entrants are working together in the same immediate location, one instrument, used by the lead entrant, is acceptable.
- Surge flow and flooding. Sewer crews should develop and maintain liaison, to the extent possible, with the local weather bureau and fire and emergency services in their area so that sewer work may be delayed or interrupted and entrants withdrawn whenever sewer lines might be suddenly flooded by rain or fire suppression activities, or whenever flammable or other hazardous materials are released into sewers during emergencies by industrial or transportation accidents.
- Special Equipment. Entry into large bore sewers may require the use of special equipment. Such equipment might include such items as atmosphere monitoring devices with automatic audible alarms, escape self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA) with at least 10 minute air supply (or other NIOSH approved self-rescuer), and waterproof flashlights, and may also include boats and rafts, radios and rope stand-offs for pulling around bends and corners as needed.
- This appendix provides guidance to employers in choosing an appropriate rescue service. It contains criteria that may be used to evaluate the capabilities both of prospective and current rescue teams. Before a rescue team can be trained or chosen, however, a satisfactory permit program, including an analysis of all permit- required confined spaces to identify all potential hazards in those spaces, must be completed. OSHA believes that compliance with all the provisions of §1910.146 will enable employers to conduct permit space operations without recourse to rescue services in nearly all cases. However, experience indicates that circumstances will arise where entrants will need to be rescued from permit spaces. It is therefore important for employers to select rescue services or teams, either on-site or off-site, that are equipped and capable of minimizing harm to both entrants and rescuers if the need arises.
- For all rescue teams or services, the employer's evaluation should consist of two components: an initial evaluation, in which employers decide whether a potential rescue service or team is adequately trained and equipped to perform permit space rescues of the kind needed at the facility and whether such rescuers can respond in a timely manner, and a performance evaluation, in which employers measure the performance of the team or service during an actual or practice rescue. For example, based on the initial evaluation, an employer may determine that maintaining an on-site rescue team will be more expensive than obtaining the services of an off-site team, without being significantly more effective, and decide to hire a rescue service. During a performance evaluation, the employer could decide, after observing the rescue service perform a practice rescue, that the service's training or preparedness was not adequate to effect a timely or effective rescue at his or her facility and decide to select another rescue service, or to form an internal rescue team.
- Initial Evaluation
- The employer should meet with the prospective rescue service to facilitate the evaluations required by §1910.146(k)(1)(i) and §1910.146(k)(1)(ii). At a minimum, if an off-site rescue service is being considered, the employer must contact the service to plan and coordinate the evaluations required by the standard. Merely posting the service's number or planning to rely on the 911 emergency phone number to obtain these services at the time of a permit space emergency would not comply with paragraph (k)(1) of the standard.
- The capabilities required of a rescue service vary with the type of permit spaces from which rescue may be necessary and the hazards likely to be encountered in those spaces. Answering the questions below will assist employers in determining whether the rescue service is capable of performing rescues in the permit spaces present at the employer's workplace.
- What are the needs of the employer with regard to response time (time for the rescue service to receive notification, arrive at the scene, and set up and be ready for entry)? For example, if entry is to be made into an IDLH atmosphere, or into a space that can quickly develop an IDLH atmosphere (if ventilation fails or for other reasons), the rescue team or service would need to be standing by at the permit space. On the other hand, if the danger to entrants is restricted to mechanical hazards that would cause injuries (e.g., broken bones, abrasions) a response time of 10 or 15 minutes might be adequate.
- How quickly can the rescue team or service get from its location to the permit spaces from which rescue may be necessary? Relevant factors to consider would include: the location of the rescue team or service relative to the employer's workplace, the quality of roads and highways to be traveled, potential bottlenecks or traffic congestion that might be encountered in transit, the reliability of the rescuer's vehicles, and the training and skill of its drivers.
- What is the availability of the rescue service? Is it unavailable at certain times of the day or in certain situations? What is the likelihood that key personnel of the rescue service might be unavailable at times? If the rescue service becomes unavailable while an entry is underway, does it have the capability of notifying the employer so that the employer can instruct the attendant to abort the entry immediately?
- Does the rescue service meet all the requirements of paragraph (k)(2) of the standard? If not, has it developed a plan that will enable it to meet those requirements in the future? If so, how soon can the plan be implemented?
- For off-site services, is the service willing to perform rescues at the employer's workplace? (An employer may not rely on a rescuer who declines, for whatever reason, to provide rescue services.)
- Is an adequate method for communications between the attendant, employer and prospective rescuer available so that a rescue request can be transmitted to the rescuer without delay? How soon after notification can a prospective rescuer dispatch a rescue team to the entry site?
- For rescues into spaces that may pose significant atmospheric hazards and from which rescue entry, patient packaging and retrieval cannot be safely accomplished in a relatively short time (15-20 minutes), employers should consider using airline respirators (with escape bottles) for the rescuers and to supply rescue air to the patient. If the employer decides to use SCBA, does the prospective rescue service have an ample supply of replacement cylinders and procedures for rescuers to enter and exit (or be retrieved) well within the SCBA's air supply limits?
- If the space has a vertical entry over 5 feet in depth, can the prospective rescue service properly perform entry rescues? Does the service have the technical knowledge and equipment to perform rope work or elevated rescue, if needed?
- Does the rescue service have the necessary skills in medical evaluation, patient packaging and emergency response?
- Does the rescue service have the necessary equipment to perform rescues, or must the equipment be provided by the employer or another source?
- Performance Evaluation
Rescue services are required by paragraph (k)(2)(iv) of the standard to practice rescues at least once every 12 months, provided that the team or service has not successfully performed a permit space rescue within that time. As part of each practice session, the service should perform a critique of the practice rescue, or have another qualified party perform the critique, so that deficiencies in procedures, equipment, training, or number of personnel can be identified and corrected. The results of the critique, and the corrections made to respond to the deficiencies identified, should be given to the employer to enable it to determine whether the rescue service can quickly be upgraded to meet the employer's rescue needs or whether another service must be selected. The following questions will assist employers and rescue teams and services evaluate their performance.
- Have all members of the service been trained as permit space entrants, at a minimum, including training in the potential hazards of all permit spaces, or of representative permit spaces, from which rescue may be needed? Can team members recognize the signs, symptoms, and consequences of exposure to any hazardous atmospheres that may be present in those permit spaces?
- Is every team member provided with, and properly trained in, the use and need for PPE, such as SCBA or fall arrest equipment, which may be required to perform permit space rescues in the facility? Is every team member properly trained to perform his or her functions and make rescues, and to use any rescue equipment, such as ropes and backboards, that may be needed in a rescue attempt?
- Are team members trained in the first aid and medical skills needed to treat victims overcome or injured by the types of hazards that may be encountered in the permit spaces at the facility?
- Do all team members perform their functions safely and efficiently? Do rescue service personnel focus on their own safety before considering the safety of the victim?
- If necessary, can the rescue service properly test the atmosphere to determine if it is IDLH?
- Can the rescue personnel identify information pertinent to the rescue from entry permits, hot work permits, and MSDSs?
- Has the rescue service been informed of any hazards to personnel that may arise from outside the space, such as those that may be caused by future work near the space?
- If necessary, can the rescue service properly package and retrieve victims from a permit space that has a limited size opening (less than 24 inches (60.9 cm) in diameter), limited internal space, or internal obstacles or hazards?
- If necessary, can the rescue service safely perform an elevated (high angle) rescue?
- Does the rescue service have a plan for each of the kinds of permit space rescue operations at the facility? Is the plan adequate for all types of rescue operations that may be needed at the facility? Teams may practice in representative spaces, or in spaces that are "worst-case" or most restrictive with respect to internal configuration, elevation, and portal size. The following characteristics of a practice space should be considered when deciding whether a space is truly representative of an actual permit space:
- Internal configuration.
- Open -- there are no obstacles, barriers, or obstructions within the space. One example is a water tank.
- Obstructed -- the permit space contains some type of obstruction that a rescuer would need to maneuver around. An example would be a baffle or mixing blade. Large equipment, such as a ladder or scaffold, brought into a space for work purposes would be considered an obstruction if the positioning or size of the equipment would make rescue more difficult.
- Elevated -- a permit space where the entrance portal or opening is above grade by 4 feet or more. This type of space usually requires knowledge of high angle rescue procedures because of the difficulty in packaging and transporting a patient to the ground from the portal.
- Non-elevated -- a permit space with the entrance portal located less than 4 feet above grade. This type of space will allow the rescue team to transport an injured employee normally.
- Portal size.
- Restricted -- A portal of 24 inches or less in the least dimension. Portals of this size are too small to allow a rescuer to simply enter the space while using SCBA. The portal size is also too small to allow normal spinal immobilization of an injured employee.
- Unrestricted -- A portal of greater than 24 inches in the least dimension. These portals allow relatively free movement into and out of the permit space.
- Space access.
- Horizontal -- The portal is located on the side of the permit space. Use of retrieval lines could be difficult.
- Vertical -- The portal is located on the top of the permit space, so that rescuers must climb down, or the bottom of the permit space, so that rescuers must climb up to enter the space. Vertical portals may require knowledge of rope techniques, or special patient packaging to safely retrieve a downed entrant. [63 FR 66039, Dec. 1, 1998]
- Internal configuration.
Note: Exception to paragraph (a)(2)(ii): Minor tool changes and adjustments, and other minor servicing activities, which take place during normal production operations, are not covered by this standard if they are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment for production, provided that the work is performed using alternative measures which provide effective protection (See Subpart O of this Part).
Authorized employee. A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
Capable of being locked out. An energy isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy isolating devices are capable of being locked out, if lockout can be achieved without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energy isolating device or permanently alter its energy control capability.
Energized. Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.
Energy isolating device. A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
Energy source. Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
Hot tap. A procedure used in the repair, maintenance and services activities which involves welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or appurtenances. it is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.
Lockout. The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
Lockout device. A device that utilizes a positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.
Normal production operations. The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.
Servicing and/or maintenance. Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
Setting up. Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.
Tagout. The placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
Tagout device. A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
Note: Exception: The employer need not document the required procedure for a particular machine or equipment, when all of the following elements exist: (1) The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy or reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down which could endanger employees; (2) the machine or equipment has a single energy source which can be readily identified and isolated; (3) the isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment; (4) the machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance; (5) a single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition; (6) the lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance; (7) the servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees; and (8) the employer, in utilizing this exception, has had no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance.
Note: The following appendix to §1910.147 services as a non-mandatory guideline to assist employers and employees in complying with the requirements of this section, as well as to provide other helpful information. Nothing in the appendix adds to or detracts from any of the requirements of this section.
[54 FR 36687, Sept. 1, 1989, as amended at 54 FR 42498, Oct. 17, 1989; 55 FR 38685, 38686, Sept. 20, 1990; 61 FR 5507, Feb. 13, 1996; 76 24698, May 2, 2011]
The following simple lockout procedure is provided to assist employers in developing their procedures so they meet the requirements of this standard. When the energy isolating devices are not lockable, tagout may be used, provided the employer complies with the provisions of the standard which require additional training and more rigorous periodic inspections. When tagout is used and the energy isolating devices are lockable, the employer must provide full employee protection (see paragraph (c)(3)) and additional training and more rigorous periodic inspections are required. For more complex systems, more comprehensive procedures may need to be developed, documented, and utilized.
Lockout Procedure for
(Name of Company for single procedure or identification of equipment if multiple procedures are used).
This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout of energy isolating devices whenever maintenance or servicing is done on machines or equipment. It shall be used to ensure that the machine or equipment is stopped, isolated from all potentially hazardous energy sources and locked out before employees perform any servicing or maintenance where the unexpected energization or start-up of the machine or equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury.
Compliance With This Program
All employees are required to comply with the restrictions and limitations imposed upon them during the use of lockout. The authorized employees are required to perform the lockout in accordance with this procedure. All employees, upon observing a machine or piece of equipment which is locked out to perform servicing or maintenance shall not attempt to start, energize, or use that machine or equipment.
Type of compliance enforcement to be taken for violation of the above.
Sequence of Lockout
- Notify all affected employees that servicing or maintenance is required on a machine or equipment and that the machine or equipment must be shut down and locked out to perform the servicing or maintenance.
Name(s)/Job Title(s) of affected employees and how to notify.
- The authorized employee shall refer to the company procedure to identify the type and magnitude of the energy that the machine or equipment utilizes, shall understand the hazards of the energy, and shall know the methods to control the energy.
Type(s) and magnitude(s) of energy, its hazards and the methods to control the energy.
- If the machine or equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping procedure (depress the stop button, open switch, close valve, etc.).
Type(s) and location(s) of machine or equipment operating controls.
- De-activate the energy isolating device(s) so that the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source(s).
Type(s) and location(s) of energy isolating devices.
- Lock out the energy isolating device(s) with assigned individual lock(s).
- Stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.) must be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
Type(s) of stored energy - methods to dissipate or restrain.
- Ensure that the equipment is disconnected from the energy source(s) by first checking that no personnel are exposed, then verify the isolation of the equipment by operating the push button or other normal operating control(s) or by testing to make certain the equipment will not operate.
Caution: Return operating control(s) to neutral or "off" position after verifying the isolation of the equipment.
Method of verifying the isolation of the equipment.
- The machine or equipment is now locked out.
Restoring Equipment to Service. When the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or equipment is ready to return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken.
- Check the machine or equipment and the immediate area around the machine to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that the machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
- Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed from the area.
- Verify that the controls are in neutral.
- Remove the lockout devices and reenergize the machine or equipment.
Note: The removal of some forms of blocking may require reenergization of of the machine before safe removal.
- Notify affected employees that the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or equipment is ready for use.