CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the occupancies and use described herein.

The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

  1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
  2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
For the purpose of this code, a perimeter line shall be established. The perimeter line shall encircle all buildings and structures that comprise the open mall building and shall encompass any open-air interior walkways, open-air courtyards or similar open-air spaces. The perimeter line shall define the extent of the open mall building. Anchor buildings and parking structures shall be outside of the perimeter line and are not considered as part of the open mall building.

A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).

Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided that the following requirements are met:

  1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings.
  2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours.
  3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours.
  4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.
Each owner of a covered mall building or of an open mall building shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. Modifications or changes in occupancy or use from that shown on the lease plan shall not be made without prior approval of the building official.
The construction of covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages associated with a mall building shall comply with Sections 402.4.1 through 402.4.3.

402.4.1 Area and Types of Construction

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The building area and type of construction of covered mall or open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages shall comply with this section.
The building area of any covered mall or open mall building shall not be limited provided that the covered mall or open mall building does not exceed three floor levels at any point nor three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

The building area and building height of any anchor building shall be based on the type of construction as required by Section 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506.

Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided that the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

The building area and building height of any parking garage shall be based on the type of construction as required by Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.
Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.
Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

402.4.2.2 Anchor Building Separation

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An anchor building shall be separated from the covered or open mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exceptions:

  1. Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.
  2. The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.
Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA or IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.

An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Parking garages, which are separated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings or anchor buildings, shall comply with the provisions of Table 602.

Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that connect garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

402.4.3 Open Mall Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Floor assemblies in, and roof assemblies over, the open mall of an open mall building shall be open to the atmosphere for not less than 20 feet (90966096 mm), measured perpendicular from the face of the tenant spaces on the lowest level, from edge of balcony to edge of balcony on upper floors and from edge of roof line to edge of roof line. The openings within, or the unroofed area of, an open mall shall extend from the lowest/grade level of the open mall through the entire roof assembly. Balconies on upper levels of the mall shall not project into the required width of the opening.

402.4.3.1 Pedestrian Walkways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pedestrian walkways connecting balconies in an open mall shall be located not less than 20 feet (90966096 mm) from any other pedestrian walkway.

Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with all of the following:

  1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
  2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.
  3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.
  4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.
  5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall building in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5.

Interior finishes within the mall and installations within the mall shall comply with Sections 402.6.1 through 402.6.4.
Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall of a covered mall building and within the exits of covered or open mall buildings shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall meet the following requirements:

  1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within a covered or open mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

    1. 1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
    2. 1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.
    3. 1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended.
  2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.
  3. The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).
Children's play structures located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall comply with Section 424. The horizontal separation between children's play structures, kiosks and similar structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing a mall or open mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.6.4.1 through 402.6.4.5.
Plastic signs shall be not more than 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.
Plastic signs shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm) in height, except that where the sign is vertical, the height shall be not greater than 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm).
Plastic signs shall be located not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.
Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.1.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.
Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.
Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source, and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.6.4 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indices specified in Section 2603.3.
The density of foam plastics used in signs shall be not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/ m3).
The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and associated parking garages shall be provided with emergency systems complying with Sections 402.7.1 through 402.7.5.
Covered and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only two stories.

Covered mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in area and open mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within the established perimeter line shall be provided with emergency power that is capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 2702.

Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.

The fire department shall have access to any emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise. The systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.
Covered mall buildings, open mall buildings and each tenant space within a mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8, the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8 shall apply.
For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.
The aggregate clear egress width of the mall in either a covered or open mall building shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. Any portion of the minimum required aggregate egress width shall be not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) measured to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.
The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.


OLF = (0.00007)(GLA) + 25 (Equation 4-1)

where:

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.

The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.
The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered or open mall building as calculated in Section 402.8.2.1.

402.8.3 Number of Means of Egress

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Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees is greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, not fewer than two means of egress shall be provided.
Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more located within a covered mall building shall be so located such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building. Assembly occupancies located within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall be permitted to have their main exit open to the open mall.

402.8.4.1 Anchor Building Means of Egress

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Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where other means of egress has not been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

402.8.5 Distance to Exits

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Within each individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building, the distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

402.8.6 Access to Exits

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Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided that neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, the exit passageways shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1024.

402.8.7 Service Areas Fronting on Exit Passageways

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Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided that the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be not less than 1 hour.

402.8.8 Security Grilles and Doors

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Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

  1. Doors and grilles shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
  2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
  3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
  4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:
  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.2.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
  3. The portion of a building containing a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.
  4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
  5. Buildings containing any one of the following:
    1. A Group H-1 occupancy.
    2. A Group H-2 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8, 415.9.2, 415.9.3 or 426.1.
    3. A Group H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8.
The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.
The fire-resistance rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

  1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

    Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be reduced.

  2. In other than Group F-1, H-2, H-3, H-5, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.
  3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

403.2.1.2 Shaft Enclosures

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For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than interior exit stairway and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.
For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.
For high-rise buildings of Risk Category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.
The wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
  2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
  3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.
Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M, shall be permitted.

403.2.4 Sprayed Fire-Resistant Materials (SFRM)

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGaSFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
Up to 420 feet430 psf
Greater than 420 feet1,000 psf

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kWkN/m2.

  1. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 403.3.3.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

  1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
  2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be supplied by not fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.
Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1007.1.

In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to not fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided that the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through not fewer than one of the connections.

An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by Section 1613. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes.
Fire pumps shall be located in rooms protected in accordance with Section 913.2.1.
The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.
Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.
A high-rise building shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

[F] 403.4.5 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code.this code.

[F] 403.4.6 Fire Command

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire code official.fire official.

To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall be not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

    Exceptions:

    1. In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.
    2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.
  2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.
  3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 and Section 3003 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.3. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.4.

If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

Exception: In Group I-2, Condition 2, manual start and transfer features for the critical branch of the emergency power are not required to be provided at the fire command center.

Fuel lines supplying a generator set inside a building shall be separated from areas of the building other than the room the generator is located in by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Where the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the required fire-resistance rating shall be reduced to 1 hour.

The following are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
  2. Elevators.
  3. Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also comply with Sections 1009.4, 3007 or 3008, as applicable.

The following are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10.
  2. Elevator car lighting.
  3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.
  4. Automatic fire detection systems.
  5. Fire alarm systems.
  6. Electrically powered fire pumps.
  7. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.6.
Required interior exit stairways shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the enclosure surrounding the interior exit stairways. In buildings with three or more interior exit stairways, not fewer than two of the interior exit stairways shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one interior exit stairway.

403.5.2 Additional Interior Exit Stairway

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For buildings other than Group R-2 and their ancillary spaces that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional interior exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total capacity of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total capacity required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.

Exceptions:

  1. An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.
  2. An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required for other portions of the building where the highest occupiable floor level in those areas is less than 420 feet (128 m) in building height.
Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.
A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.

403.5.4 Smokeproof Enclosures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Every required interior exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Sections 909.20909.19 and 1023.11.
Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1025.
Elevator installation and operation in high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.
In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, not fewer than two fire service access elevators, or all elevators, whichever is less, shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007. Each fire service access elevator shall have a capacity of not less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) and shall comply with Section 3002.4.
Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.
In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Section 712.1.7, the provisions of Sections 404.1 through 404.10 shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined as "Atriums."

404.2 Use

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Codethis code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

[F] 404.3 Automatic Sprinkler Protection

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An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

  1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

Exception: In other than Group I-2, and Group I-1, Condition 2, smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.

404.6 Enclosure of Atriums

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Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:
  1. A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:
    1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;
    2. The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and
    3. Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.
  2. A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.
  3. A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of up to three floors of the atrium provided that such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
  4. A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces where the atrium is not required to be provided with a smoke control system.
Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 909.11.
The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall be not less than Class B. Sprinkler protection shall not result in a reduction in class.

404.9 Exit Access Travel Distance

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Exit access travel distance for areas open to an atrium shall comply with the requirements of this section.
Where required access to the exits is not through the atrium, exit access travel distance shall comply with Section 1017.
Where the path of egress travel is through an atrium space, exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge shall be determined in accordance with Section 1017.
Where the path of egress travel is not at the level of exit discharge from the atrium, that portion of the total permitted exit access travel distance that occurs within the atrium shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Not greater than 50 percent of interior exit stairways are permitted to egress through an atrium on the level of exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.

The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:

  1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
  2. Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
  3. Fixed guideway transit systems.
  4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
  5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
  6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.
The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.
Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into not fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area is not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 714. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716, automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6 and installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 716.2.2.1. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.
Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an enclosed elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Doorways in the smoke barrier shall be protected by fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716, shall comply with the smoke and draft control assembly requirements of Section 716.2.2.1 with the UL 1784 test conducted without an artificial bottom seal, and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.2.6.6.
A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.
A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.
Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.17 and 907.2.18.
A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.17 and 907.2.18.
Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.

405.7.1 Number of Exits

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Each floor level shall be provided with not fewer than two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have not fewer than one exit and not fewer than one exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.
Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1023.11.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 405.8.2.

The following are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Smoke control system.
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
  3. Elevators, as required in Section 3003.

The following are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.
  2. Fire alarm systems.
  3. Automatic fire detection systems.
  4. Elevator car lighting.
  5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
  6. Fire pumps.
The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.
All motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Section 406.2. Private garages and carports shall also comply with Section 406.3. Open public parking garages shall also comply with Sections 406.4 and 406.5. Enclosed public parking garages shall also comply with Sections 406.4 and 406.6. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall also comply with Section 406.7. Repair garages shall also comply with Section 406.8.
Private garages and carports, open and enclosed public parking garages, motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall comply with Sections 406.2.1 through 406.2.9.
Automatic garage door openers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 325. Where provided, automatic vehicular gates shall comply with Section 3110.

The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear height in accordance with Section 406.7.2.

Exception: A lower clear height is permitted for a parking tier in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

Where parking is provided, accessible parking spaces, access aisles and vehicular routes serving accessible parking shall be provided in accordance with Section 1106.

Floor surfaces shall be of concrete or similar approved noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. The area of floor used for the parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. The surface of vehicle fueling pads in motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Section 406.7.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level for public parking garages and private carports.
  2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
  3. Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by ASTM E648 or NFPA 253, shall be permitted in repair garages.
Openings between a motor vehicle-related occupancy and a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
The dispensing of fuel shall only be permitted in motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with Section 406.7.

406.2.7 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where provided, electric vehicle charging stations shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70the Electrical Code. Electric vehicle charging system equipment shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2202. Electric vehicle supply equipment shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2594. Accessibility to electric vehicle charging stations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 11.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as public parking garages and repair garages in accordance with Section 508.1. Mixed uses in the same building as an open parking garage are subject to Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 and 510.7.

406.2.9 Equipment and Appliances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Equipment and appliances shall be installed in accordance with Sections 406.2.9.1 through 406.2.9.3 and the International Mechanical Code, International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70.Mechanical Code and the Electrical Code.

Equipment and appliances having an ignition source and located in hazardous locations and public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities and parking garages shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor surface on which the equipment or appliance rests. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage.

Exception: Elevation of the ignition source is not required for appliances that are listed as flammable vapor ignition resistant.

Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation, except that a single door is permitted where the sources of ignition in the appliance are elevated in accordance with Section 406.2.9.

Exception: This section shall not apply to appliance installations complying with Section 406.2.9.2 or 406.2.9.3.

Appliances located in public garages, motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages or other areas frequented by motor vehicles shall be installed not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor. Where motor vehicles are capable of passing under an appliance, the appliance shall be installed at the clearances required by the appliance manufacturer and not less than 1 foot (305 mm) higher than the tallest vehicle garage door opening.

Exception: The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact