In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the occupancies and use described herein.
The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.
A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).
Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided that the following requirements are met:
- The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings.
- The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours.
- Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours.
- Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.
Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided that the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.
- Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.
- The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.
An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with all of the following:
- The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
- Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.
- Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.
- Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.
- 1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
- 1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.
- 1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended.
- Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.
- The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
- Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).
Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.
OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).
Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided that neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).
Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:
- Doors and grilles shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
- Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
- The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
- Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.
- Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.2.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
- The portion of a building containing a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.
- Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
- Buildings containing any one of the following:
- In other than Group F-1, H-2, H-3, H-5, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.
- The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.
The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:
- The wall assembly shall incorporate not fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
- The wall assembly shall incorporate not fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
- The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
- Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to not fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.
Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided that the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through not fewer than one of the connections.
To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:
- Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.
- Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.
If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.
The following are classified as standby power loads:
- Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
- Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also comply with Sections 1009.4, 3007 or 3008, as applicable.
The following are classified as emergency power loads:
For buildings other than Group R-2 and their ancillary spaces that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional interior exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total capacity of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total capacity required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.
- An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.
- An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required for other portions of the building where the highest occupiable floor level in those areas is less than 420 feet (128 m) in building height.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Codethis code shall be used in the atrium space.
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.
- That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
- Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.
A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:
- Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;
- The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and
- Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.
- A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.
- A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of up to three floors of the atrium provided that such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
- A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces where the atrium is not required to be provided with a smoke control system.
The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:
- One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
- Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
- Fixed guideway transit systems.
- Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
- Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
- Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into not fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear height in accordance with Section 406.7.2.
Floor surfaces shall be of concrete or similar approved noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. The area of floor used for the parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. The surface of vehicle fueling pads in motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Section 406.7.1.
- Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level for public parking garages and private carports.
- Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
- Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by ASTM E648 or NFPA 253, shall be permitted in repair garages.
Equipment and appliances having an ignition source and located in hazardous locations and public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities and parking garages shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor surface on which the equipment or appliance rests. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage.
Exception: Elevation of the ignition source is not required for appliances that are listed as flammable vapor ignition resistant.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation, except that a single door is permitted where the sources of ignition in the appliance are elevated in accordance with Section 406.2.9.
Appliances located in public garages, motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages or other areas frequented by motor vehicles shall be installed not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor. Where motor vehicles are capable of passing under an appliance, the appliance shall be installed at the clearances required by the appliance manufacturer and not less than 1 foot (305 mm) higher than the tallest vehicle garage door opening.
Exception: The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact