ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

User notes:

About this chapter: Chapter 31 provides regulations for unique buildings and building elements. Those include buildings such as membrane structures, greenhouses and relocatable buildings. Special elements include pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings, canopies and marquees, vehicular gates and solar energy systems.

Code development reminder: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [BS] will be considered by the IBC—Structural Code Development Committee during the 2019 (Group B) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

3101.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The provisions of this chapter shall govern regulated special building construction including membrane structures, temporary structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, automatic vehicular gates, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs, towers, antennas, and solar energy systems. See Section 101.2 for the detailed scope of regulation.

3102.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of Sections 3102.1 through 3102.8 shall apply to air-supported, air-inflated, membrane-covered cable, membrane-covered frame and tensile membrane structures, collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 180 days or longer. Membrane structures covering water storage facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, greenhouses and similar facilities not used for human occupancy are required to meet only the requirements of Sections 3102.3.1 and 3102.7. Membrane structures erected on a building, balcony, deck or other structure for any period of time shall comply with this section.
Tensile membrane structures and air-supported structures, including permanent and temporary structures, shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 55. The provisions in Sections 3102.3 through 3102.6 shall apply.
Noncombustible membrane structures shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Noncombustible frame or cable-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IV construction. Other membrane structures shall be classified as Type V construction.
Exception: Plastic less than 30 feet (9144 mm) above any floor used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

Membranes and interior liners shall be either noncombustible as set forth in Section 703.5 or meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 and the manufacturer's test protocol.

Exception: Plastic less than 20 mil (0.5 mm) in thickness used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

3102.3.2 Flame Propagation Performance Treatment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner or agent shall file with the building official a certificate executed by an approved testing laboratory. The certificate shall indicate that the floor coverings, tents, membrane structures and their appurtenances, which include sidewalls, drops and tarpaulins, are composed of materials meeting the flame propagation performance of Test Method 2 of NFPA 701. Additionally, it shall indicate that the bunting and combustible decorative materials and effects are composed of material meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2 of NFPA 701, as applicable. Alternatively, the materials shall be treated with a flame retardant in an approved manner and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of the applicable test method of NFPA 701. The flame propagation performance criteria shall be effective for the period specified by the permit.

3102.3.3 Label

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Membrane structures or tents shall have a permanently affixed label bearing the identification of size and fabric or material type.
The area of a membrane structure shall not exceed the limitations specified in Section 506.

Membrane structures shall not exceed one story nor shall such structures exceed the height limitations in feet specified in Section 504.3.

Exception: Noncombustible membrane structures serving as roofs only.

Membrane structures shall be permitted to be utilized as specified in this section as a portion of buildings of other types of construction. Height and area limits shall be as specified for the type of construction and occupancy of the building.
A noncombustible membrane shall be permitted for use as the roof or as a skylight of any building or atrium of a building of any type of construction provided that the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
A membrane meeting the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 shall be permitted to be used as the roof or as a skylight on buildings of Type IIB, III, IV and V construction, provided that the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
The structure shall be designed and constructed to sustain dead loads; loads due to tension or inflation; live loads including wind, snow or flood and seismic loads and in accordance with Chapter 16.
For membrane-covered frame structures, the membrane shall not be considered to provide lateral restraint in the calculation of the capacities of the frame members.
Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall be provided with primary and auxiliary inflation systems to meet the minimum requirements of Sections 3102.8.1 through 3102.8.3.
The inflation system shall consist of one or more blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization of the system.
In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings larger than 1,500 square feet (140 m2) in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary inflation system shall operate automatically when there is a loss of internal pressure and when the primary blower system becomes inoperative.

Blower equipment shall meet all of the following requirements:

  1. Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at the maximum power required for any flow condition as required by the structural design.
  2. Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other protective devices as required by the building official to provide protection from injury.
  3. Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure.
  4. Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air loss when inoperative.
  5. Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air contamination. The location of inlets shall be approved.

3102.8.2 Standby Power

ILLUSTRATION
Wherever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an approved standby power-generating system shall be provided. The system shall be equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of all of the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for not less than 4 hours.
A system capable of supporting the membrane in the event of deflation shall be provided for in air-supported and air-inflated structures having an occupant load of 50 or more or where covering a swimming pool regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining membrane structures used as a roof for Type I construction not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of maintaining other membranes not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor, seating area or surface of the water.

3102.9 Certification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the building official and a copy retained on the premises on which the tent or air-supported structure is located. The affidavit shall attest to all of the following information relative to the flame propagation performance criteria of the fabric:
  1. Names and address of the owners of the tent or air-supported structure.
  2. Date the fabric was last treated with flame-retardant solution.
  3. Trade name or kind of chemical used in treatment.
  4. Name of person or firm treating the material.
  5. Name of testing agency and test standard by which the fabric was tested.

3102.10 Combustible Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Hay, straw, shavings or similar combustible materials shall not be located within any tent or membrane structure containing an assembly occupancy, except the materials necessary for the daily feeding and care of animals. Sawdust and shavings utilized for a public performance or exhibit shall not be prohibited provided that the sawdust and shavings are kept damp. Combustible materials shall not be permitted under stands or seats at any time.

3102.11 Smoking

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Smoking shall not be permitted in tents or membrane structures. Approved "No Smoking" signs shall be conspicuously posted.

3102.12 Open or Exposed Flame

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Open flame or other devices emitting flame, fire or heat or any flammable or combustible liquids, gas, charcoal or other cooking device or any other unapproved devices shall not be permitted inside the tent or membrane structure while open to the public unless approved by the building official.

3102.13 Spot Lighting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Spot or effect lighting shall be only by electricity, and all combustible construction located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with approved noncombustible insulation not less than 91/4 inches (235 mm) thick.

3102.14 Safety Film

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Motion pictures shall not be displayed in tents or membrane structures unless the motion picture film is safety film.

3102.15 Clearance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
There shall be a clearance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) between the fabric envelope and all contents located inside membrane structures.

3102.16 Occupant Load Factors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The occupant load allowed in an assembly structure, or portion thereof, shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 10.

3102.17 Heating and Cooking Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Heating and cooking equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 3102.17.1 through 3102.17.7.

3102.17.1 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Heating or cooking equipment, tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other related components shall be installed as specified in the Mechanical Code and shall be approved by the building official.

3102.17.2 Venting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Gas, liquid and solid fuel-burning equipment designed to be vented shall be vented to the outside air as specified in the Mechanical Code. Such vents shall be equipped with approved spark arresters where required.

     Where vents or flues are used, all portions of the tent or membrane structure shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the flue or vent.

3102.17.3 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cooking and heating equipment shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of exits or combustible materials.

3102.17.4 Cooking Tents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tents with sidewalls or drops where cooking is performed shall be separated from other tents or membrane structures by not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

3102.17.5 Electrical Heating and Cooking Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Electrical heating and cooking equipment shall comply with the Electrical Code.

3102.17.6 LP-gas Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
LP-gas equipment such as containers, tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other related components shall be approved and in accordance with this code.

3102.17.7 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The storage of flammable and combustible liquids and the use of flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall be in accordance with this code.

3103.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of Sections 3103.1 through 3103.4 shall apply to structures erected for a period of less than 180 days. Detached tents and other membrane structures erected for a period of less than 180 days are regulated by the fire official and are not governed by this section.
Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and general welfare.
Temporary structures that cover an area greater than 120 square feet (11.16 m2), including connecting areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance that are used or intended to be used for the gathering together of 10 or more persons, shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the building official.
A permit application and construction documents shall be submitted for each installation of a temporary structure. The construction documents shall include a site plan indicating the location of the temporary structure and information delineating the means of egress and the occupant load.
Temporary structures shall be located in accordance with the requirements of Table 602 based on the fire-resistance rating of the exterior walls for the proposed type of construction.

3103.4 Means of Egress

ILLUSTRATION
Temporary structures shall conform to the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 and shall have an exit access travel distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less.
This section shall apply to connections between buildings such as pedestrian walkways or tunnels, located at, above or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by persons. The pedestrian walkway shall not contribute to the building area or the number of stories or height of connected buildings.
Pedestrian walkways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 3104.2 through 3104.9. Tunnels shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 3104.2 and 3104.10.

Buildings connected by pedestrian walkways or tunnels shall be considered to be separate structures.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
  2. For purposes of calculating the number of Type B units required by Chapter 11, structurally connected buildings and buildings with multiple wings shall be considered to be one structure.

The pedestrian walkway shall be of noncombustible construction.

Exceptions:

  1. Combustible construction shall be permitted where connected buildings are of combustible construction.
  2. Fire-retardant-treated wood, in accordance with Section 603.1, Item 1.3, shall be permitted for the roof construction of the pedestrian walkway where connected buildings are not less than Type I or II construction.
Only materials and decorations approved by the building official shall be located in the pedestrian walkway.

The connection of a pedestrian walkway to a building shall comply with Section 3104.5.1, 3104.5.2, 3104.5.3 or 3104.5.4.

Exception: Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.

3104.5.1 Fire Barriers

ILLUSTRATION
Pedestrian walkways shall be separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 and Sections 3104.5.1.1 through 3104.5.1.3.
Exterior walls of buildings connected to pedestrian walkways shall be 2-hour fire-resistance rated. This protection shall extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in every direction surrounding the perimeter of the pedestrian walkway.
Openings in exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 3104.5.1.1 shall be equipped with opening protectives providing a not less than 3/4-hour fire protection rating in accordance with Section 716.
The fire barrier shall be supported by construction as required by Section 707.5.1.

The wall separating the pedestrian walkway and the building shall comply with Section 3104.5.2.1 or 3104.5.2.2 where:

  1. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  2. The pedestrian walkway and connected buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and the roof of the walkway is not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade connecting to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane, of each building.

Exception: Open parking garages need not be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.

The wall shall be capable of resisting the passage of smoke.
The wall shall be constructed of a tempered, wired or laminated glass and doors separating the interior of the building from the pedestrian walkway. The glass shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 that, when actuated, shall completely wet the entire surface of interior sides of the wall or glass. Obstructions shall not be installed between the sprinkler heads and the wall or glass. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler operates.

Where the distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm), the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance rated provided that both sidewalls of the pedestrian walkway are not less than 50 percent open with the open area uniformly distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. The roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 40 feet (12 160 mm) above grade plane, and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the third or lower story of each building.

Exception: Where the pedestrian walkway is protected with a sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the fifth or lower story of each building.

Where exterior walls of connected buildings are required by Section 705 to have a fire-resistance rating greater than 2 hours, the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance rated provided:

  1. The pedestrian walkway is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. The roof of the walkway is not located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway connects to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane of each building.
Access shall be provided at all times to a pedestrian walkway that serves as a required exit.
The unobstructed width of pedestrian walkways shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm). The total width shall be not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).

3104.9 Exit Access Travel

ILLUSTRATION

The length of exit access travel shall be 200 feet (60 960 mm) or less.

Exceptions:

  1. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less.
  2. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open shall be 300 feet (91 440 mm) or less.
  3. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open, and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, shall be 400 feet (122 m) or less.
Separation between the tunneled walkway and the building to which it is connected shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistant construction and openings therein shall be protected in accordance with Section 716.
Awnings and canopies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3105.2 and 3105.3 and other applicable sections of this code.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required by Chapter 16 with due allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. Awnings shall have frames of noncombustible material, fire-retardant-treated wood, heavy timber complying with Section 2304.11, or 1-hour construction with combustible or noncombustible covers and shall be either fixed, retractable, folding or collapsible.

Awnings and canopies shall be provided with an approved covering that complies with one of the following:

  1. The fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.
  2. Has a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
  3. Meets all of the following criteria when tested in accordance with NFPA 286:

    1. 3.1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
    2. 3.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.
    3. 3.3. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.
    4. 3.4. The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW.

Exception: The fire propagation performance and flame spread index requirements shall not apply to awnings installed on detached one- and two-family dwellings.

Marquees shall comply with Sections 3106.2 through 3106.5 and other applicable sections of this code.
The height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall be not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) where the marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line, and shall be not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) where the marquee is less than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line.
Where the roof or any part thereof is a skylight, the skylight shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 24. Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts that shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in such a manner so as not to spill over the sidewalk.
Every marquee shall be so located as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and such that the marquee does not obstruct the clear passage of stairways or exit discharge from the building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting.
A marquee shall be supported entirely from the building and constructed of noncombustible materials. Marquees shall be designed as required in Chapter 16. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration.

Section 3107 Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
See Section 101.2 for the scope of regulation for signs.

3107.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Regulated signs shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this code.

Section 3108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
See Section 101.2 for the scope of regulation for towers.

[BS] 3108.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Regulated towers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of TIA-222. Towers shall be designed for seismic loads; exceptions related to seismic design listed in Section 2.7.3 of TIA-222 shall not apply. In Section 2.6.6.2 of TIA 222, the horizontal extent of Topographic Category 2, escarpments, shall be 16 times the height of the escarpment.

Exception: Single free-standing poles used to support antennas not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm), measured from the top of the pole to grade, shall not be required to be noncombustible.

[BS] 3108.2 Location and Access

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Regulated towers shall be located such that guy wires and other accessories shall not cross or encroach on any street or other public space, or over above-ground electric utility lines, or encroach on any privately owned property without the written consent of the owner of the encroached-upon property, space or above-ground electric utility lines. Towers shall be equipped with climbing and working facilities in compliance with TIA-222. Access to the tower sites shall be limited as required by applicable OSHA, FCC and EPA regulations.

Section 3109 Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Section 3109 is not adopted by the State of Oregon, Building Codes Division, as part of the state building code. Please reference OAR Chapter 333, Division 60 concerning public swimming pools as promulgated by the Department of Human Services under the authority established in ORS, Chapter 448.

3109.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Automatic vehicular gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3110.2 and 3110.3 and other applicable sections of this code.
Vehicular gates intended for automation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.
Vehicular gate openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

3111.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Solar energy systems shall comply with the requirements of this section.

Exception: Where the solar energy system is installed on a detached one- or two-family dwelling or townhouse classified as Group R-3 or Group U occupancies, compliance with the Residential Code shall satisfy this requirement.

3111.1.1 Wind Resistance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules and solar thermal collectors shall be designed for wind loads in accordance with Section 1609. Wind loads on rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules and solar thermal collectors are permitted to be determined by wind tunnel tests in accordance with ASCE 7 Sections 31.6 and 31.7.
Roof structures that provide support for solar energy systems shall be designed in accordance with Section 1607.13.5.

3111.2 Solar Thermal Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Solar thermal systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code, the Plumbing Code, the Mechanical Code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

3111.2.1 Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Solar thermal systems and components shall be listed and labeled in accordance with ICC 900/SRCC 300 and ICC 901/SRCC 100. See Section 2606.12.

3111.3 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic solar energy systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code, the Electrical Code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

3111.3.1 Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic panels and modules shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1703. Inverters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1741. Photovoltaic racking and associated attachment components shall comply with one of the following:
  1. Certified to UL 1703 by a nationally recognized testing laboratory and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  2. For exempt structures in accordance with Section 105.2, documentation demonstrating to the satisfaction of the building official that the racking system has been designed to resist the applicable loads and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
  3. Designed by a registered design professional.
  4. Field evaluation by an approved field evaluation firm.
  5. Approval by the building official.

3111.3.1.1 Corrosion Resistance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All components of the photovoltaic solar energy system exposed to the weather shall be constructed of approved corrosion-resistant materials.

3111.3.2 Fire Classification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic systems shall be noncombustible or have a fire classification in accordance with Section 1505.9. Building-integrated photovoltaic systems shall have a fire classification in accordance with Section 1505.8.
Building-integrated photovoltaic systems that serve as roof coverings shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 1507.18.

3111.3.4 Access and Pathways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3111.3.4 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The location of photovoltaic components, racking, support structures and attachments shall be in accordance with Sections 3111.3.4.1 through 3111.3.4.9.

3111.3.4.1 Zoning Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The installation of photovoltaic systems shall comply with the requirements of the zoning requirements of the municipality.

3111.3.4.2 Flood Hazard Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Installation of photovoltaic systems within flood hazard areas, as established by the flood plain administrator, shall comply with this code or Section R322 of the Residential Code, as applicable.

3111.3.4.3 Building Egress

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic systems shall not be installed in locations that would restrict or otherwise prevent the use of the required means of egress and emergency escape and rescue openings. The means of egress shall comply with Chapter 10 of this code or Sections R310 and R311 of the Residential Code, as applicable.

3111.3.4.4 Light and Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic systems shall not be installed in locations that would restrict the required light and ventilation. Light and ventilation shall comply with Chapter 12 of this code or Section R303 of the Residential Code, as applicable.

3111.3.4.5 Rooftop Vent and Drain Clearances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic systems shall not be installed in locations that would restrict the function of plumbing or mechanical vents, skylights, drains or other rooftop features.

Exception: Nonoperable skylights in one- and two-family dwellings.

3111.3.4.6 Mechanical Equipment Clearances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic systems shall be installed with not less than a 30-inch (762 mm) clearance around mechanical equipment requiring service or maintenance. The specific provisions of the Mechanical Code and Electrical Code apply to installations of photovoltaic systems.

3111.3.4.7 Roof Drainage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic systems shall not be installed in a manner that would obstruct roof drainage. No vertical supports or roof penetrations shall be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side of the low point of the valley. The photovoltaic modules or racking may extend into the valley not more than 6 inches (152 mm) from the valley low point, provided that a minimum 3-inch (76 mm) clearance above the surface of the roof is maintained.

3111.3.4.8 Fire Fighter Access and Escape

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
To provide access and escape for fire fighters, the location of roof-mounted photovoltaic modules shall comply with the requirements of this section.

3111.3.4.8.1 Pathway Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All photovoltaic installations shall include a 36-inch wide (914 mm) pathway maintained along three sides of the solar roof. The bottom edge of a roof with a slope exceeding two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) shall not be used as a pathway. All pathways shall be located over a structurally supported area and measured from the edge of the roof and horizontal ridge to the solar array or any portion thereof.

Exceptions:
  1. Structures with a photovoltaic array area of 1,000 square feet (92.90 m2) or less installed on a roof with a slope exceeding two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) with an intersecting adjacent roof and where no section is larger than 150 feet (45720 mm) measured in length or width:
    1. Where the photovoltaic array does not exceed 25 percent, as measured in plan view, of total roof area of the structure, a minimum 12-inch (305 mm) unobstructed pathway shall be maintained along each side of any horizontal ridge.
    2. Where the solar array area exceeds 25 percent, as measured in plan view, of total roof area of the structure, a minimum of one 36-inch (914 mm) unobstructed pathway from ridge to eave, over a structurally supported area, must be provided in addition to a minimum 12-inch (305 mm) unobstructed pathway along each side of any horizontal ridge.
  2. Pathways are not required on nonoccupied accessory structures provided that they are separated from occupied structures by a 6-foot (3048 mm) minimum separation distance or by a minimum two-hour fire-rated assembly.
  3. Townhouses providing fire separation as required by the applicable code at the time of construction may be considered one structure and comply with the provisions of Section 3111.3.4.8.1, Exception 1.1.

3111.3.4.8.2 Intermediate Pathway Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems that include a solar array section that is larger than 150 feet (45720 mm) measured in length or width shall have additional intermediate pathways. An intermediate pathway not less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide separating the array, shall be provided for every 150 feet (45720 mm) of array, including offset modules or angled installations. The maximum square footage of an array shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) without the installation of an intermediate pathway.

3111.3.4.8.2.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a system is required to have intermediate pathways, all pathways shall have one or more cutouts located adjacent to the pathway. No point on the pathway shall be more than 25 feet (7620) from a cutout.

3111.3.4.8.3 Prohibited Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pathways shall not be located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the low point of a valley.

3111.3.4.8.4 Smoke and Heat Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where smoke and heat vents have been installed in accordance with Chapter 9 and Section 435, a 36-inch (914 mm) wide pathway to and around each vent shall be provided for fire department access, maintenance and testing of these vents.

3111.3.4.8.5 Electrical Component Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Electrical components shall be located in accordance with Sections 3111.3.4.8.5.1 and 3111.3.4.8.5.2.

3111.3.4.8.5.1 Disconnects, J-Boxes, Combiner Boxes or Gutters

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Disconnects, J-boxes, combiner boxes or gutters shall not be located in any required pathway or cutout.

3111.3.4.8.5.2 Raceways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Raceways on flat roofs that cross a required pathway shall be bridged to avoid tripping hazards. Raceways shall not be permitted in required pathways on roof slopes exceeding two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) (17-percent slope).

3111.3.4.9 Alternate Installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In accordance with Section 104.11, an alternative material, design, location, method of construction, or means of safe fire fighter access and egress may be approved by the building official.

3111.3.5 Ground-Mounted Photovoltaic Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3111.3.5 Structural

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic components, racking, support structures and attachments shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section.

3111.3.5.1 Fire Separation Distances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3111.3.5.1 Module Attachment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Photovoltaic modules shall be attached in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and to account for all loads, including dead loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads, as prescribed by this code.

3111.3.5.2 Racking

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Racking shall comply with Sections 3111.3.5.2.1 through 3111.3.5.2.3 or Section 3111.3.5.3.

3111.3.5.2.1 Building Penetrations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All penetrations shall be flashed or sealed in a manner that prevents moisture from entering the wall and roof.

3111.3.5.2.2 Structural Support and Attachment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Racking and racking supports shall be positively attached to the structural components or blocking in accordance with this section. Racking and racking supports shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications or designed in accordance with this code and mounted in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and designed in accordance with this code.
  2. Positively attached to the structural components or blocking through the use of screws, bolts, J-bolts or other approved means. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Racking and racking supports shall be mounted to structural components and shall not be attached to wall or roof coverings, trim or structural sheathing as a means of structural support.
  3. Attached to standing seam metal roofs with connectors in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
  4. Certified nonpenetrating or minimally penetrating systems installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

3111.3.5.2.3 Roof-Mounted Racking

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Roof-mounted racking shall comply with Section 3111.3.1 and shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, constructed and installed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code.

Exception: Prescriptive installations complying with Section 3111.3.5.3.

3111.3.5.3 Prescriptive Installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Roof mounted installations on Risk Category I or Risk Category II structures of conventional light-frame construction that comply with this section shall qualify as prescriptive and shall not require an engineered design if all of the following criteria are met:
  1. Roof structure: The ground snow load does not exceed 50 psf, wind speeds do not exceed 120 mph for Exposure Category C sites or 135 mph for Exposure Category B sites, and the existing supporting roof framing is conventional light-frame construction with pre-engineered trusses or rafters spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on center maximum. Existing rafter spans shall comply with Section 2308.7.2. Where the existing grade and species cannot be verified, it is assumed to be #2 Douglas Fir-Larch.

    Exception: Photovoltaic systems installed on roofs of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses classified as Group R-3 and Group U occupancies where the existing supporting roof framing is conventional light-frame construction with pre-engineered trusses or rafters spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on center maximum, the ground snow load does not exceed 70 psf, and the site is limited to wind Exposure Category B or C.
  2. Roof materials: Roofing material shall be metal, single-layer wood shingle or shake, or not more than two layers of composition shingle.
  3. Loading: Installation shall comply with Figures 3111.3.5.3(1) and 3111.3.5.3(2). The combined weight of the photovoltaic modules and racking shall not exceed 4.5 pounds per square foot (2.0412 kPa). Photovoltaic modules or racking shall be directly attached to the roof framing or blocking. Attachments must be spaced not greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center in any direction. Attachments shall be spaced not greater than 24 inches (609.6 mm) on center in any direction where:
    1. 3.1. Ground snow loads exceed 36 psf (1.197 kN/m2).
    2. 3.2. Located within 3 feet (914 mm) of a roof edge, hip, eave or ridge.
    3. 3.3. Located in wind Exposure Category B or greater and the wind speed exceeds 120 mph.
    4. 3.4. Located in wind Exposure Category C or greater and the wind speed exceeds 110 mph.

      Exception: Photovoltaic modules or racking may be attached directly to standing seam metal panels using clamps and roofing materials that meet the following criteria:
      1. The allowable uplift capacity of clamps shall be not less than 115 pounds for clamps spaced at 60 inches (1525 mm) on center or less as measured along the seam or not less than 75 pounds for clamps spaced at less than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center.
      2. Clamp spacing between seams shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Spacing of clamps along a seam shall not exceed 60 inches (1525 mm).
      3. Roofing panels shall comply with all of the following:
        1. 3.1. Shall be a minimum of 26 gage steel,
        2. 3.2. Shall be a maximum of 18 inches (457 mm) in width,
        3. 3.3. Shall be attached with a minimum of #10 screws at 24 inches (610 mm) on center,
        4. 3.4. Shall be installed over minimum 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) nominal wood structural panels attached to framing with 8d nails at 6 inches (153 mm) on center at panel edges and 12 inches (305 mm) on center field nailing.
  4. Height: Module height above roof shall not exceed 18 inches (457 mm) from the top of the module to the roof surface and shall be in accordance with Figures 3111.3.5.3(1) and 3111.3.5.3(2).
  5. Submittal Requirement: Construction documents shall not be required where the permit applicant has demonstrated on a form approved by the State of Oregon, Building Codes Division, that the proposed installation complies with Section 311.3.4.8 and this section.

FIGURE 3111.3.5.3(1)
PHOTOVOLTAIC RACKING AND MODULE ATTACHMENT TO RAFTERS OR TRUSSES


FIGURE 3111.3.5.3(2)
PHOTOVOLTAIC RACKING AND MODULE ATTACHMENT TO BLOCKINGS
The provisions of this section shall apply to greenhouses that are designed and used for the cultivation, maintenance, or protection of plants.
Greenhouses shall be accessible in accordance with Chapter 11.
Greenhouses shall comply with the structural design requirements for greenhouses in Chapter 16.
Glass and glazing used in greenhouses shall comply with Section 2405.
Light-transmitting plastics shall be permitted in lieu of plain glass in greenhouses and shall comply with Section 2606.
Greenhouses that are membrane structures shall comply with Section 3102.
Plastic films used in greenhouses shall comply with Section 3102.3.

Section 3113 Relocatable Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.1.1 Compliance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.2 Supplemental Information

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.3 Manufacturer's Data Plate

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.4 Inspection Agencies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 3113 Temporary Special Event Structures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

3113.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Temporary special event structures shall comply with Sections 3102.3.1 through 3102.3.3 and Sections 3113.2 through 3113.6 and ANSI E1.21.

3113.2 Approval

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Temporary special event structures in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2) shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without first obtaining approval and a permit from the building official.

3113.3 Use Period

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Temporary special event structures erected in accordance with ANSI E1.21 shall not be erected for a period of more than six consecutive weeks.

3113.4 Required Documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The following documents shall be submitted to the building official for review before a permit is approved:
  1. Construction documents: Construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional in accordance with this code and ANSI E1.21 where applicable. Construction documents shall include:
    1. A summary sheet showing the building code used, design criteria, loads and support reactions.
    2. Detailed construction and installation drawings.
    3. Design calculations.
    4. Operating limits of the structure explicitly outlined by the registered design professional, including environmental conditions and physical forces.
    5. Effects of additive elements such as video walls, supported scenery, audio equipment, and vertical and horizontal coverings.
    6. Means for adequate stability, including specific requirements for guying and cross-bracing, ground anchors or ballast for different ground conditions.
  2. Designation of responsible party: The owner of the temporary special event structure shall designate in writing a person to have responsibility for the temporary special event structure on the site. The designated person shall have sufficient knowledge of the construction documents, manufacturer's recommendations and operations plan to make judgments regarding the structure's safety and to coordinate with the building official.
  3. Operations plan: The operations plan shall reflect manufacturer's operational guidelines, procedures for environmental monitoring and actions to be taken under specified conditions consistent with the construction documents.

3113.5 Inspections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Inspections shall comply with Section 110 and Sections 3113.5.1 and 3113.5.2.

3113.5.1 Independent Inspector

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The owner of a temporary special event structure shall employ a qualified, independent approved agency or individual to inspect the installation of a temporary special event structure.

3113.5.2 Inspection Report

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The inspecting agency or individual shall furnish an inspection report to the building official. The inspection report shall indicate that the temporary special event structure was inspected and was or was not installed in accordance with the approved construction documents. Discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the installer for correction. Where any discrepancy is not corrected, it shall be brought to the attention of the building official and the designated responsible party.

3113.6 Means of Egress

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
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