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International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

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About this chapter: Mechanical systems are a key element of any building. Chapter 28 regulates such systems by linking to the International Mechanical Code® and International Fuel Gas Code®, where details of mechanical system requirements are provided.

[M] 2801.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The provisions of this chapter and the Mechanical Code shall govern the design, construction, erection and installation of mechanical appliances, equipment and systems used in buildings and structures covered by this code. Masonry chimneys, fireplaces and barbecues shall comply with the Mechanical Code and Chapter 21 of this code. The Mechanical Code shall govern the use and maintenance of mechanical components, appliances, equipment and systems. The Mechanical Code shall govern the alteration, repair, relocation, replacement and addition of mechanical components, appliances, equipment and systems.

Section 2802 Fuel Oil Storage Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

2802.1 Fuel Oil Storage Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the Mechanical Code.

2802.1.1 Fuel Oil Storage Inside Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Section 444 or Sections 2802.1.1.1 through 2802.1.1.7.

2802.1.1.1 Quantity Limits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all tanks shall not exceed the following:
  1. 660 gallons (2498 L) in unsprinklered buildings, where stored in a tank complying with UL 80, UL 142 or UL 2085.
  2. 1,320 gallons (4997 L) in buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where stored in a tank complying with UL 142.
  3. 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) where stored in protected above-ground tanks complying with UL 2085 and Section 444.4.1.7.5, and the room is protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2802.1.1.2 Restricted Use and Connection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks installed in accordance with Section 2802.1.1 shall be used to supply only fuel oil to fuel-burning equipment, generators or fire pumps installed in accordance with Section 2802.1.1. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.

2802.1.1.3 Applicability of Maximum Allowable Quantity and Control Area Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 2802.1.1 shall not be counted toward the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 307.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.

2802.1.1.4 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks and piping systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the Mechanical Code, as applicable.

2802.1.1.5 Separation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Rooms containing fuel oil tanks for internal combustion engines shall be separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers, horizontal assemblies, or both, with a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 1-hour fire-protection-rated opening protectives constructed in accordance with this code.

Exception: Rooms containing protected aboveground tanks complying with Section 444.4.1.7.5 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.

2802.1.1.6 Spill Containment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks exceeding 55- gallon (208 L) capacity or an aggregate capacity of 1,000 gallons (3785 L) that are not provided with integral secondary containment shall be provided with spill containment sized to contain a release from the largest tank.

2802.1.1.7 Tanks in Basements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.

2802.2 Emergency Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.

2802.3 Refrigerant Detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector with an audible and visible alarm. Where ammonia is used as the refrigerant, detection shall comply with IIAR 2. For refrigerants other than ammonia, refrigerant detection shall comply with Section 2802.3.

2802.3.1 Refrigerants Other Than Ammonia

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to a detector, shall be provided at an approved location where refrigerant from a leak is expected to accumulate. The system shall be designed to initiate audible and visible alarms inside and outside each entrance to the refrigerating machinery room and transmit a signal to an approved location where the concentration of refrigerant detected exceeds the lesser of the following:
  1. The corresponding TLV-TWA values provided in the Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification.
  2. Twenty-five percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL).
     Detection of a refrigerant concentration exceeding the upper detection limit or 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL), whichever is lower, shall stop refrigerant equipment in the machinery room in accordance with Section 1106 of the Mechanical Code.

2802.4 Emergency Pressure Control System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 2802.4.1 and 2802.4.2.

2802.4.1 Automatic Crossover Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 2802.4.1.1 through 2802.4.1.3.

2802.4.1.1 Overpressure Limit Set Point

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.

2802.4.1.2 Manual Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where required by the building official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.

2802.4.1.3 System Design Pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.

2802.4.2 Automatic Emergency Stop

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2802.4.2.1 and 2802.4.2.2.

2802.4.2.1 Operation of an Automatic Crossover Valve

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.

2802.4.2.2 Overpressure in Low-Pressure Zone

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.

2802.5 Discharge and Termination of Pressure Relief and Purge Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 2802.5.1 through 2802.5.7.

2802.5.1 Fusible Plugs and Rupture Members

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions.

2802.5.2 Flammable Refrigerants

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 2802.5.5 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 2802.5.6. Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.

2802.5.3 Toxic and Highly Toxic Refrigerants

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 2802.5.5 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 2802.5.6.

2802.5.4 Ammonia Refrigerant

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods:
  1. Directly, where the building official determines, on review of an engineering analysis, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia. The engineering analysis shall be prepared without charge to the jurisdiction, by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or safety specialty organization acceptable to the building official. The analysis shall be prepared by and bear the stamp of a registered design professional.
  2. Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 2802.5.5.
  3. Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 2802.5.6.
  4. Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 2802.5.7.
  5. By other approved means.

    Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.

2802.5.5 Treatment Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Section 447.

2802.5.6 Flaring Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 2702.

2802.5.7 Ammonia Diffusion Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 33 feet (10058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.

2802.6 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.

Exception: Refrigeration systems containing Group A2L complying with Section 2802.8.

2802.7 Electrical Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where refrigerant of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of the Electrical Code.

Exceptions:
  1. Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the Mechanical Code.
  2. Machinery rooms for systems containing Group A2L refrigerants that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 2802.8.

2802.8 Special Requirements for Group A2L Refrigerant Machinery Rooms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Machinery rooms with systems containing Group A2L refrigerants shall comply with Sections 2802.8.1 through 2802.8.3.

Exception: Machinery rooms conforming to the Class 1, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of the Electrical Code.

2802.8.1 Refrigerant Detection System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The machinery room shall be provided with a refrigerant detection system.

     The refrigerant detection system shall be in accordance with Section 2802.3 and all of the following:
  1. The detectors shall activate at or below a refrigerant concentration of 25 percent of the LFL.
  2. Upon activation, the detection system shall activate the emergency ventilation system in Section 2802.8.3.
  3. The detection, signaling and control circuits shall be supervised.

2802.8.2 Emergency Ventilation System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
An emergency ventilation system shall be provided at the minimum exhaust rate specified in ASHRAE 15 or Table 2802.8.2. Shut down of the emergency ventilation system shall be by manual means.

TABLE 2802.8.2
MINIMUM EXHAUST RATE
REFRIGERANT Q (m3/sec) Q (cfm)
R32 15.4 32,600
R143a 13.6 28,700
R444A 6.46 13,700
R444B 10.6 22,400
R445A 7.83 16,600
R446A 23.9 50,700
R447A 23.8 50,400
R451A 7.04 15,000
R451B 7.05 15,000
R1234yf 7.80 16,600
R1234ze(E) 5.92 12,600

2802.8.3 Emergency Ventilation System Discharge

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The point of discharge to the atmosphere shall be located outside the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
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