Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Residential Code

Part I ‒ Administration

Chapter 1 Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII ‒ Plumbing

Chapter 25 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 26 — 28

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 — 33

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 — 43

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of all walls and partitions for all buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Section 301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1 / 32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1 / 8 inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.

Class I or II vapor retarders are required on the interior side of frame walls in Zones 5, 6, 7, 8 and Marine 4.

Exceptions:

1. Basement walls.

2. Below grade portion of any wall.

3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.

4. Class III vapor retarders complying with Section 601.3.1.

Class III vapor retarders shall be permitted where any one of the conditions in Table 601.3.1 is met.

TABLE 601.3.1
CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS

ZONECLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS PERMITTED FOR:a
Marine 4Vented cladding over OSB
Vented cladding over plywood
Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2.5 over 2 × 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 3.75 over 2 × 6 wall
5Vented cladding over OSB
Vented cladding over plywood
Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 5 over 2 × 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 7.5 over 2 × 6 wall
6Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 7.5 over 2 × 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 11.25 over 2 × 6 wall
7 and 8Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 10 over 2 × 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 15 over 2 × 6 wall
For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.
a. Spray foam with a minimum density of 2 lb/ft3 applied to the interior cavity side of OSB, plywood, fiberboard, insulating sheathing or gypsum is deemed to meet the insulating sheathing requirement where the spray foam R-value meets or exceeds the specified insulating sheathing R-value.

The vapor retarder class shall be based on the manufacturer’s certified testing or a tested assembly.

The following shall be deemed to meet the class specified:
Class I: Sheet polyethylene, unperforated aluminum foil.
Class II: Kraft-faced fiberglass batts.
Class III: Latex or enamel paint.

For the purposes of this section, vented cladding shall include the following minimum clear air spaces. Other openings with the equivalent vent area shall be permitted.

1. Vinyl lap or horizontal aluminum siding applied over a weather resistive barrier as specified in Table 703.4.

2. Brick veneer with a clear airspace as specified in Section 703.7.4.2.

3. Other approved vented claddings.

Load-bearing dimension lumber for studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by an approved lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.
Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued by an approved lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table 602.3(5).

Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures 602.3(1) and 602.3.(2) or in accordance with AF&PA’s NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables 602.3(1) through 602.3(4). Structural wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to structural framing members. Exterior wall coverings shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table 301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table 301.2(3). Wood structural panel sheathing used for exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Table 602.3(3). Exterior walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 602.8.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables 502.5(1) and 502.5(2).

TABLE 602.3(1)
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEMDESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTSNUMBER AND TYPE OF
FASTENERa, b, c
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Roof
1Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
3Ceiling joists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions,
face nail
3-10d
4Collar tie rafter, face nail or 11/4″ × 20 gage ridge strap3-10d (3″ × 0.128″)
5Rafter to plate, toe nail2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
6Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters:
toe nail4-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
face nail3-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
Wall
7Built-up corner studs10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
8Built-up header, two pieces with 1/2″ spacer16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c. along each edge
9Continued header, two pieces16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c. along each edge
10Continuous header to stud, toe nail4-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
11Double studs, face nail10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
12Double top plates, face nail10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
13Double top plates, minimum 24-inch offset of end joints,
face nail in lapped area
8-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
14Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c.
15Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels3-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c.
16Stud to sole plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
or
2-16d 31/2″ × 0.135″)

17Top or sole plate to stud, end nail2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
18Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail2-10d (3″ × 0.128″)
191″ brace to each stud and plate, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

201″ × 6″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

211″ × 8″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
3 staples 13/4

22Wider than 1″ × 8″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
4 staples 13/4

Floor
23Joist to sill or girder, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
241″ × 6″ subfloor or less to each joist, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

252″ subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
26Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also)8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)6″ o.c.
272″ planks (plank & beam – floor & roof)2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)at each bearing
28Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers10d (3″ × 0.128″)Nail each layer as follows:
32″ o.c. at top and bottom and staggered. Two nails at ends
and at each splice.
29Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters3-16d (31/2" × 0.135″)At each joist or rafter

(continued)

TABLE 602.3(1)—continued
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEMDESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
MATERIALS
DESCRIPTION OF FASTENERb, c, eSPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)i
Intermediate
supportsc, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
303/8″ - 1/26d common (2″ × 0.113″) nail (subfloor wall)j
8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail (roof)
612g
315/16″ - 1/26d common (2″ × 0.113″) nail (subfloor, wall)
8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail (roof)f
612g
3219/32″ - 1″8d common nail (21/2″ × 0.131″)612g
3311/8″ - 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148″) nail or
8d (21/2″ × 0.131″) deformed nail
612
Other wall sheathingh
341/2″ structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing1/2″ galvanized roofing nail, 7/16″ crown or 1″ crown staple 16 ga., 11/4″ long36
3525/32″ structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing13/4″ galvanized roofing nail, 7/16″ crown or 1″ crown staple 16 ga., 11/2″ long36
361/2″ gypsum sheathingd11/2 ″ galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
11/2″ long; 11/4 screws, Type W or S
77
375/8″ gypsum sheathingd13/4 ″ glavanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
15/8″ long; 15/8″ screws, Type W or S
77
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
383/4″ and less6d deformed (2″ × 0.120″) nail or
8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail
612
397/8″ - 1″8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail or
8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120 ″) nail
612
4011/8″ - 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148 ″) nail or
8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120 ″) nail
612
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1ksi = 6.895 MPa.
a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table 602.3(2).
f. For regions having basic wind speed of 110 mph or greater, 8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum.
g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208.
i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.

TABLE 602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
up to 1/2Staple 15 ga. 13/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/436
Staple 16 ga. 13/436
19/32 and 5/80.113 Nail 236
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 248
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
23/32 and 3/4Staple 14 ga. 248
Staple 15 ga. 13/436
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
Staple 16 ga. 248
1Staple 14 ga. 21/448
0.113 Nail 21/436
Staple 15 ga. 21/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/248
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf
Plywood
1/4 and 5/1611/4 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width25
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/211/4 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/411/2 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68
Staple 16 ga. 11/268
Hardboardf
0.20011/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail66
4d cement-coated sinker nail66
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated)36
Particleboard
1/44d ring-grooved underlayment nail36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown36
3/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown36
1/2, 5/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown36
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head.
b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/AHA A135.4.

TABLE 602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL
WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,b,c

MINIMUM NAILMINIMUM
WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM
WALL STUD
SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACINGMAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
SizePenetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
BCD
6d Common
(2.0″ × 0.113)
1.524/03/8166121109085
8d Common
(2.5″ × 0.131″)
1.7524/167/1616612130110105
246121109085
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section 301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section 602.10.
c. Wood Structural Panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 oc or 24 oc shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 oc shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center.

TABLE 602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa

THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADESTUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studsWhen siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8M—1 Exterior glue16
1/2M—2 Exterior glue1616
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE 602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa

STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLSNONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
a roof-ceiling
assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
one floor, plus a
roof-ceiling
assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
two floors, plus a
roof-ceiling
assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly
(inches)
Maximum
spacing when
supporting one
floor heighta
(feet)
Laterally
unsupported
stud
heighta
(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)
2 × 3b1016
2 × 41024c16c241424
3 × 410242416241424
2 × 5102424241624
2 × 610242416242024
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093m2.
a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by analysis.
b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 602.3.(5).

Exceptions:

1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.

2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height which are in accordance with Table 602.3.1.

TABLE 602.3.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2b, c

HEIGHT
(feet)
ON-CENTER SPACING (inches)
2416128
Supporting a roof only
>102 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 42 × 42 × 4
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
162 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
18NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
24NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
Supporting one floor and a roof
>102 × 62 × 42 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
16NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
18NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
24NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
Supporting two floors and a roof
>102 × 62 × 62 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
16NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
18NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
22NAaNAaNAaNAa
24NAaNAaNAaNAa
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Design required.
b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, fb not less than 1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS tabular base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 × 106 psi, tributary dimensions for floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required.
c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted.

(continued)

TABLE 602.3.1—continued
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2

Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch-by- 6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, provided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as previously described.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.

2. A third top plate is installed.

3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.

Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls in accordance with Section 602.8. .
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch-by-3-inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, when not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 602.8.

Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.

2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures 602.6(1) and 602.6(2).

Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted when they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
NOTE: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE 602.6(1)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 602.6(2)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure 602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 602.6.1
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

For header spans see Tables 502.5(1) and 502.5(2).
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 602.7.2 and Table 602.7.2.

Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header.

TABLE 602.7.2
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa

HEADER
CONSTRUCTIONb
HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
2426283032
Wood structural panel—one side9
15
4
5
4
5
3
4
3
3

3
Wood structural panel—both sides9
15
7
8
5
8
5
7
4
7
3
6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
b. See Figure 602.7.2 for construction details.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NOTES:
a. The top plate shall be continuous over header.
b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.

FIGURE 602.7.2
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section 302.11.

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood structural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table 602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 301.1.
For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.

The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section 602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure 602.10.1.1.

FIGURE 602.10.1.1
BRACED WALL LINES

All exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure 602.10.1.1. Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure 602.10.1.1.

The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table 602.10.1.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE 602.10.1.3
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

APPLICATIONCONDITIONBUILDING TYPEBRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum SpacingException to Maximum Spacing
Wind bracing85 mph to < 110 mphDetached, townhouse60 feetNone
Seismic bracingSDC A—CDetachedUse wind bracing
SDC A—BTownhouseUse wind bracing
SDC CTownhouse35 feetUp to 50 feet when length of required bracing per Table 602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table 602.10.3(4)
SDC D0 , D1 , D2Detached, townhouses, one- and two-story only25 feetUp to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 900 sq ft. Spacing of all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0 , D1 , D2Detached, townhouse25 feetUp to 35 feet when length of required bracing per Table 602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table 602.10.3(4).
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure 602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section 602.10.1.

FIGURE 602.10.1.4
ANGLED WALLS

Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall have no vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section 602.10.4.

The bracing lengths in Table 602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with this section.

Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

1. Fastening in accordance with Table 602.3(1) where:

1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 90 mph (40 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less, or

1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section 802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.

2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2 above.

3. Bracing and fasteners designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to resist combined uplift and shear forces.

A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section 602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be no greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure 602.10.2.2.

For SI: 1 foot= 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 602.10.2.2
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS

Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of Methods WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section 602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin no more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided each end complies with one of the following:

1. A minimum 24 inch wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, BV-WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PF and 32 inch (813 mm) wide panel for Method CS-SFB is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in Condition 4 of Figure 602.10.7.

2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in Condition 5 of Figure 602.10.7.

3. For Method BV-WSP, hold-down devices shall be provided in accordance with Table 602.10.6.5 at the ends of each braced wall panel.

Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have a minimum of two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have a minimum of two braced wall panels.

The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows.

1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table 602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table 602.10.3(2).

2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table 602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table 602.10.3(2).

3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table 602.10.3(1) or 602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table 602.10.3(2) or 602.10.3(4) respectively.

4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table 602.10.3(1) or 602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table 602.10.3(2) or 602.10.3(4) respectively.

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute towards the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables 602.10.5 and 602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length towards the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure 602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected corner.
Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0 , D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed per Section 703.7 and exceeding the first story height shall be in accordance with Section 602.10.6.5.

TABLE 602.10.3(1)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT
10 FT WALL HEIGHT
2 BRACED WALL LINES
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Basic Wind Speed
(mph)
Story
Location
Braced Wall Line
Spacing (feet)
Method LIBbMethod GBMethods DWB,
WSP, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-SFBc
Methods CS-WSP,
CS-G, CS-PF
85103.53.52.01.5
206.06.03.53.0
308.58.55.04.5
4011.511.56.55.5
5014.014.08.07.0
6016.516.59.58.0
106.56.53.53.0
2011.511.56.55.5
3016.516.59.58.0
4021.521.512.510.5
5026.526.515.013.0
6031.531.518.015.5
10NP9.05.54.5
20NP17.010.08.5
30NP24.514.012.0
40NP32.018.015.5
50NP39.022.519.0
60NP46.526.522.5
≤90103.53.52.02.0
207.07.04.03.5
309.59.55.55.0
4012.512.57.56.0
5015.515.59.07.5
6018.518.510.59.0
107.07.04.03.5
2013.013.07.56.5
3018.518.510.59.0
4024.024.014.012.0
5029.529.517.014.5
6035.035.020.017.0
10NP10.56.05.0
20NP19.011.09.5
30NP27.515.513.5
40NP35.520.517.5
50NP44.025.021.5
60NP52.030.025.5

(continued)

TABLE 602.10.3(1)—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT
10 FT WALL HEIGHT
2 BRACED WALL LINES
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Basic Wind Speed
(mph)
Story
Location
Braced Wall
Line Spacing (feet)
Method LIBbMethod GBMethods DWB,
WSP, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-SFBc
Methods CS-WSP,
CS-G, CS-PF
100104.54.52.52.5
208.58.55.04.0
3012.012.07.06.0
4015.515.59.07.5
5019.019.011.09.5
6022.522.513.011.0
108.58.55.04.5
2016.016.09.08.0
3023.023.013.011.0
4029.529.517.014.5
5036.536.521.018.0
6043.543.525.021.0
10NP12.57.56.0
20NP23.513.511.5
30NP34.019.516.5
40NP44.025.021.5
50NP54.031.026.5
60NP64.036.531.0
110 c105.55.53.03.0
2010.010.06.05.0
3014.514.58.57.0
4018.518.511.09.0
5023.023.013.011.5
6027.527.515.513.5
1010.510.56.05.0
2019.019.011.09.5
3027.527.516.013.5
4036.036.020.517.5
5044.044.025.521.5
6052.552.530.025.5
10NP15.59.07.5
20NP28.516.514.0
30NP41.023.520.0
40NP53.030.526.0
50NP65.537.532.0
60NP77.544.537.5
For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.
a. Linear Interpolation shall be permitted.
b. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
c. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.

TABLE 602.10.3(2)
WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ADJUSTMENT
BASED ON
STORY/SUPPORTINGCONDITIONADJUSTMENT FACTORa,b
[multiply length from Table
602.10.3(1) by this factor]
APPLICABLE METHODS
Exposure categoryOne story structureB
C
D
1.00
1.20
1.50
All methods
Two-story structureB
C
D
1.00
1.30
1.60
Three-story structureB
C
D
1.00
1.40
1.70
Roof eave-to-ridge heightRoof only5 ft
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
0.70
1.00
1.30
1.60
Roof + 1 floor5 ft
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
0.85
1.00
1.15
1.30
Roof + 2 floors5 ft
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
0.90
1.00
1.10
Not permitted
Wall height adjustmentAny story8 ft
9 ft
10 ft, 11 ft
12 ft
0.90
0.95
1.00, 1.05
1.10
Number of braced wall lines (per plan direction)cAny story2
3
4
5
1.00
1.30
1.45
1.60
Additional 800 lb hold-down deviceTop story onlyFastened to the end studs
of each braced wall panel
and to the foundation or framing below
0.80DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS
Interior gypsum board finish (or equivalent)Any storyOmitted from inside face of braced wall panels1.40DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-SFB
Gypsum board fasteningAny story4 in. o.c. at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and all horizontal joints blocked0.7GB
For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.
a. Linear Interpolation shall be permitted.
b. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
c. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.

TABLE 602.10.3(3)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

SOIL CLASS Db
WALL HEIGHT = 10 FT
10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING
25 FT
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE a
Seismic Design
Category
Story LocationBraced Wall
Line Length (ft)
Method LIBcMethod GBMethods
DWB, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-SFB d
Method WSPMethods
CS-WSP, CS-G
C
(townhouses
only)
102.52.52.51.61.4
205.05.05.03.22.7
307.57.57.54.84.1
4010.010.010.06.45.4
5012.512.512.58.06.8
10NP4.54.53.02.6
20NP9.09.06.05.1
30NP13.513.59.07.7
40NP18.018.012.010.2
50NP22.522.515.012.8
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
D010NP2.82.81.81.6
20NP5.55.53.63.1
30NP8.38.35.44.6
40NP11.011.07.26.1
50NP13.813.89.07.7
10NP5.35.33.83.2
20NP10.510.57.56.4
30NP15.815.811.39.6
40NP21.021.015.012.8
50NP26.326.318.816.0
10NP7.37.35.34.5
20NP14.514.510.59.0
30NP21.821.815.813.4
40NP29.029.021.017.9
50NP36.336.326.322.3

(continued)

TABLE 602.10.3(3)—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

SOIL CLASS Db
WALL HEIGHT = 10 FT
10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING
25 FT
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE a
Seismic Design
Category
Story LocationBraced Wall
Line Length (ft)
Method LIB cMethod GBMethods
DWB, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-SFB d
Method WSPMethods
CS-WSP, CS-G
D110NP3.03.02.01.7
20NP6.06.04.03.4
30NP9.09.06.05.1
40NP12.012.08.06.8
50NP15.015.010.08.5
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
10NP8.58.56.05.1
20NP17.017.012.010.2
30NP25.525.518.015.3
40NP34.034.024.020.4
50NP42.542.530.025.5
D210NP4.04.02.52.1
20NP8.08.05.04.3
30NP12.012.07.56.4
40NP16.016.010.08.5
50NP20.020.012.510.6
10NP7.57.55.54.7
20NP15.015.011.09.4
30NP22.522.516.514.0
40NP30.030.022.018.7
50NP37.537.527.523.4
10NPNPNPNPNP
20NPNPNPNPNP
30NPNPNPNPNP
40NPNPNPNPNP
50NPNPNPNPNP
Cripple wall below
one- or two-story
dwelling
10NPNPNP7.56.4
20NPNPNP15.012.8
30NPNPNP22.519.1
40NPNPNP30.025.5
50NPNPNP37.531.9
For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class “D.” Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the Seismic Design Categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.5 of the building code.
c. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws per Table 602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table 702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm).
d. Method CS-SFB applies in SDC C only.

TABLE 602.10.3(4)
SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ADJUSTMENT BASED ON:STORY/SUPPORTINGCONDITIONADJUSTMENT FACTORa, b
[Multiply length from Table
602.10.3(1) by this factor]
APPLICABLE
METHODS
Story height
(Section 301.3)
Any story10 ft
> 10 ft and
12 ft
1.0
1.2
All methods
Braced wall line spacing, townhouses in SDC CAny story35 ft
> 35 ft and
50 ft
1.0
1.43
Braced wall line spacing, in SDC D0, D1, D2 cAny story> 25 ft and 30 ft>
30 ft and 35 ft
1.2
1.4
Wall dead loadAny story> 8 psf and < 15 psf
< 8 psf
1.0
0.85
Roof/ceiling dead load
for wall supporting
Roof only or roof plus one or two stories15 psf1.0
Roof plus one or two stories> 15 psf and 25 psf > 15 psf and 25 psf1.1
1.2
Roof only
Walls with stone or
masonry veneer,

townhouses in SDC d,e
1.0All intermittent &
continuous methods
1.5
1.5
Walls with stone or masonry veneer, detached one-, two- and three-family dwellings in SDC D0-D2 dAny storySee Table 602.10.6.5BV-WSP
Interior gypsum board
finish (or equivalent)
Any storyOmitted from inside face
of braced wall panels
1.5DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-SFB
For SI: 1 psf = 47.8 N/m2.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
c. The length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1. The top plate lap splice nailing shall be a minimum of 12-16d nails on each side of the splice.
d. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height. See Section 602.10.6.5 for requirements when stone or masonry veneer does not exceed the first story height.
e. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supported veneered walls.

Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section and the methods listed in Table 602.10.4.

TABLE 602.10.4
BRACING METHODS

METHODS MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSFIGURECONNECTION CRITERIAa
FastenersSpacing
LIB
Let-in-bracing
1 ×4 wood or approved
metal straps at 45° to 60°
angles for maximum 16″
stud spacing
Wood: 2-8d common nails
(21/2″ long
×0.113″dia.) nails
Wood: per stud and top
and bottom plates
Metal strap: per manufacturerMetal: per manufacturer
DWB
Diagonal wood
boards
3/4″(1″nominal)
for maximum 24″stud
spacing
2-8d (21/2″ long ×0.113″dia.)
nails or 23/4″long staples
Per stud
WSP
Wood structural
panel
(see Section 604)
3/8Exterior sheathing per
Table 602.3(3)
6″edges 12″field
Interior sheathing per
Table 602.3(1) or 602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
BV-WSPe
Wood Structural
Panels with Stone
or Masonry Veneer
(See Section
602.10.6.5)
7/16See Figure 602.10.6.58d common (21/2×0.131″)
nails
4″at panel edges12″at
intermediate supports 4″
at braced wall panel end
posts
SFB
Structural
fiberboard
sheathing
1/2″or 25/32for maximum
16 stud spacing
11/2″ long ×0.12dia. (for 1/2
thick sheathing) 13/4″ long
×
0.12 dia. (for 25/32″thick
sheathing) galvanized roofing
nails or 8d common (21/2″ long
×0.131″dia.) nails
3edges 6field
GB
Gypsum board
1/2Nails or screws per Table
602.3(1) for exterior locations
For all braced wall
panel locations: 7edges
(including top and
bottom plates) 7field
Nails or screws per Table
702.3.5 for interior locations
PBS
Particleboard
sheathing
(see Section 605)
3/8″or 1/2for maximum
16″stud spacing
For 3/8″, 6d common (2″ long ×
0.113″dia.) nails. For 1/2″, 8d
common (21/2″ long
× 0.131″
dia.) nails
3″edges 6″ field
PCP
Portland
cement plaster
See Section 703.6
For maximum 16stud
spacing
11/2″ long, 11 gage, 7/16″ dia.
head nails or 7/8″ long, 16 gage
staples
6″ o.c. on all framing
members
HPS
Hardboard
panel siding
7/16″ for maximum
16″ stud spacing
0.092″ dia., 0.225″ dia. head
nails with length to
accommodate 11/2″ penetration
into studs
4″ edges 8″ field
ABW
Alternate
braced wall
3/8See Section 602.10.6.1See Section 602.10.6.1

(continued)

TABLE 602.10.4—continued
BRACING METHODS

METHODS, MATERIALMINIMUM
THICKNESS
FIGURECONNECTION CRITERIA
FastenersSpacing
Intermittent Bracing MethodPFH
Portal frame with
hold-downs
3/8See Section 602.10.6.2See Section 602.10.6.2
PFG
Portal frame at garage
7/16See Section 602.10.6.3See Section 602.10.6.3
Continuous Sheathing MethodsCS-WSP
Continuously sheathed
wood structural panel
3/8Exterior sheathing per
Table 602.3(3)
6″ edges 12″ field
Interior sheathing per
Table 602.3(1) or 602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
CS-Gb,c
Continuously sheathed
wood structural panel
adjacent to garage
openings
3/8See Method CS-WSPSee Method CS-WSP
CS-PF
Continuously sheathed
portal frame
7/16See Section 602.10.6.4See Section 602.10.6.4
CS-SFBd
Continuously sheathed
structural fiberboard
1/2″ or 25/32″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long ×0.12″ dia. (for 1/2″ thick
sheathing) 13/4″ long ×0.12″ dia.
(for 25/32thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or 8d
common (21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.)
nails
3 edges 6 field
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm.
a. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
b. Applies to panels next to garage door opening when supporting gable end wall or roof load only. May only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2, roof covering dead load may not exceed 3 psf (0.14 kN/m2).
c. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table 502.5(1). A full height clear opening shall not be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel.
d. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 and in areas where the wind speed exceeds 100 mph.
e. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0-D2 only.

Mixing of bracing methods shall be permitted as follows:

1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from story to story shall be permitted.

2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. Within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C or in regions where the basic wind speed is less than or equal to 100 mph, mixing of intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted.

3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C provided the length of required bracing in accordance with Table 602.10.3(1) or 602.10.3(3) is the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used.

4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CSWSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line shall be permitted.

5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent bracing methods along the interior portion of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior portion of the same braced wall line shall be permitted. The length of required bracing shall be the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used in accordance with Table 602.10.3(1) or 602.10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables 602.10.3(2) and 602.10.3(4), respectively. The requirements of Section 602.10.7 shall apply to each end of the continuously sheathed portion of the braced wall line.

Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls and shall meet the requirements of Section 602.10.7.

Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails or screws in accordance with Table 602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table 702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

Exceptions:

1. Interior finish material is not required opposite wall panels that are braced in accordance with Method GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section 302.6.

2. An approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board shall be permitted to be substituted, unless otherwise required by Section 302.6.

3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is permitted to be omitted provided the required length of bracing in Tables 602.10.3(1) and 602.10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor in Tables 602.10.3(2) and 602.10.3(4) respectively, unless otherwise required by Section 302.6.

The minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with Table 602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table 602.10.5 and Figure 602.10.5. When a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length.

FIGURE 602.10.5
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

TABLE 602.10.5
MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS

METHOD
(See Table 602.10.4)
MINIMUM LENGTH a
(in)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH
(in)
Wall Height
8 ft9 ft10 ft11 ft12 ft
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP4848485358Actual b
GB4848485358Double sided = Actual
Single sided = 0.5 × Actual
LIB556269NPNPActual b
ABWSDC A, B and C, wind speed < 110 mph283234384248
SDC D0 , D1 and D2 , wind speed < 110 mph323234NPNP
PFHSupporting roof only16161618c20c48
Supporting one story and roof24242427c29c48
PFG24273033d36d1.5 × Actual b
CS-G2427303336Actual b
CS-PF16182022e24eActual b
CS-WSP, CS-SFBAdjacent clear opening height (in)
642427303336Actual b
682627303336
722727303336
763029303336
803230303336
843532323336
883835333336
924337353536
964841383636
10044403838
10449434039
10854464341
112504543
116554845
120605248
1245651
1286154
1326658
13662
14066
14472
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, NP = Not permitted
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. Use the actual length when it is greater than or equal to the minimum length.
c. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet per Figure 602.10.6.2, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
d. Maximum opening height for PFG is 10 feet per Figure 602.10.6.3, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
e. Maximum opening height for CS-PF is 10 feet per Figure 602.10.6.4, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
For purposes of computing the required length of bracing in Tables 602.10.3(1) and 602.10.3(3), the contributing length of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table 602.10.5.

For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches in length shall be considered a braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially contribute towards the required length of bracing in Tables 602.10.3(1) and 602.10.3(3), and the contributing length shall be determined from Table 602.10.5.2.

TABLE 602.10.5.2
PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH

ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (in)CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (in) a
8 ft Wall Height9 ft Wall Height
484848
423636
3627N/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CSPF and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections 602.10.6.1 through 602.10.6.5.

Method ABW braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.6.1. The hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table 602.10.6.1.

TABLE 602.10.6.1
MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
AND WIND SPEED
SUPPORTING/STORYHOLD DOWN FORCE (lb)
Height of Braced Wall Panel
8 ft9 ft10 ft11 ft12 ft
SDC A, B and COne story18001800180020002200
Wind speed < 110 mphFirst of two story30003000300033003600
SDC D0 , D1 and D2One story180018001800NPaNPa
Wind speed < 110 mphFirst of two story300030003000NPaNPa
For SI: 1 inch =25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1lb =4.45N.
a. NP = Not Permitted.

FIGURE 602.10.6.1
METHOD ABW: ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

Method PFH braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.6.2.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

FIGURE 602.10.6.2
METHOD PFH: PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.6.3 shall be permitted on either side of garage door openings.

FIGURE 602.10.6.3
METHOD PFG: PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, AND C

Continuously sheathed portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.6.4 and Table 602.10.6.4. The number of continuously sheathed portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four.

TABLE 602.10.6.4
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES
PERPENDICULAR TO METHOD PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELS

MINIMUM WALL
STUD FRAMING
NOMINAL SIZE
AND GRADE
MAXIMUM
PONY WALL
HEIGHT (ft)
MAXIMUM
TOTAL WALL
HEIGHT (ft)
MAXIMUM
OPENING
WIDTH (ft)
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (lb) a, b
Basic Wind Speed (mph)
85901008590100
Exposure BExposure C
2 x 4
No. 2 Grade
01018100010001000100010001000
1109100010001000100010001275
16100010001750180023253500
1810001200210021752725DR
2109100010001025107515502500
1615252025312532003900DR
181875240035753700DRDR
2129100012002075212527504000
1626003200DRDRDRDR
1831753850DRDRDRDR
41291775235035003550DRDR
164175DRDRDRDRDR
2 x 6
Stud Grade
2129100010001325137517502550
1616502050292530003550DR
1820252450342535004100DR
4129112515002225227527753800
1626503150DRDRDRDR
1831253675DRDRDRDR
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 lb = 4.45 N
a. DR = design required
b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

FIGURE 602.10.6.4
METHOD CS-PF: CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

Where stone and masonry veneer is installed in accordance with Section 703.7, wall bracing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply with this section.

Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section 703.7, and the veneer does not exceed the first story height, wall bracing shall be in accordance with Section 602.10.1.2.
Where detached one-, two- or three-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section 703.7, and the veneer exceeds the first story height, wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building shall be constructed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with this section and Figure 602.10.6.5. Cripple walls shall not be permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.
Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE 602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS

SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORYBRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FT)SINGLE STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE (lb)a
CUMULATIVE
HOLD DOWN
FORCE (lb)b
1020304050
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FT) OF
BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG
EACH BRACED WALL LINE
D04.07.010.514.017.5N/A
4.07.010.514.017.51900
4.59.013.518.022.535005400
6.012.018.024.030.035008900
D14.59.013.518.022.52100
4.59.013.518.022.537005800
6.012.018.024.030.037009500
D25.511.016.522.027.52300
5.511.016.522.027.539006200
NPNPNPNPNPN/AN/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.
a. Hold down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single story hold down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained.
b. Where hold down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold down force to size middle and bottom story hold down connectors.

FIGURE 602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP: WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE
AND MASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC CATEGORIES D
0, D1, AND D2

The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table 602.10.1.2(1) as adjusted by the factors in the footnotes or the Seismic Design Category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table 602.10.6.5. Angled walls shall be permitted to be counted in accordance with Section 602.10.1.3, and braced wall panel location shall be in accordance with Section 602.10.1.4. The seismic adjustment factors in Table 602.10.1.2(3) shall not be applied to the length of bracing determined using Table 602.10.6.5. In no case shall the minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken be less than 48 inches total.

Each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in Figure 602.10.7.

FIGURE 602.10.7
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 602.10.8(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or blocking shall be in accordance with Table 602.3(1).

2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 602.10.8(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16 inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 602.10.8(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table 602.3(1) and Figure 602.10.8(2).

3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section 403.1.6.

FIGURE 602.10.8(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

FIGURE 602.10.8(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section 602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.

Top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table 602.3(1) and this section. Where required by this section, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to rafters and roof trusses in accordance with Table 602.3(1). A continuous band, rim, or header joist or roof truss parallel to the braced wall panels shall be permitted to replace the blocking required by this section. Blocking shall not be required over openings in continuously-sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance with Section 802.8 and for trusses in accordance with Section 802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 806.1.

1. For SDC A, B and C and wind speeds less than 100 mph (45 m/s) where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 91/4 inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall not be required. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm) blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 602.10.8.2(1).

2. For SDC D0, D1 and D2 or wind speeds of 100 mph (45 m/s) or greater, where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses is 151/4 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 602.10.8.2(1).

3. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses exceeds 151/4 inches (387 mm), the top plates of the braced wall panel shall be connected to perpendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with one or more of the following methods:

3.1. Soffit blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.8.2(2),

3.2. Vertical blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure 602.10.8.2(3),

3.3. Full-height engineered blocking panels designed in accordance with the AF&PA WFCM,

3.4. Blocking, blocking panels, or other methods of lateral load transfer designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 602.10.8.2(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION
TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section 602.10.4.

FIGURE 602.10.8.2(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO
PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section 602.10.4.

FIGURE 602.10.8.2(3)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section 502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall panels.

2. Elevated post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure 602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section 403.1 Methods ABW and PFH shall not be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls.

4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall have reinforcement sized and located in accordance with Figure 602.10.9.

FIGURE 602.10.9
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

In one-story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, all braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to have interior braced wall panels supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) provided that:

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).

2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported on doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor beams.

3. The distance between bracing lines does not exceed twice the building width measured parallel to the braced wall line.

All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to common blocking of a minimum 11/2 inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:

1. Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permitted to occur over double studs, where adjoining panel edges are attached to separate studs with the required panel edge fastening schedule, and the adjacent studs are attached together with 2 rows of 10d box nails (3-inches by 0.128-inch) at 10 inch o.c.

2. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.

3. Where the bracing length provided is at least twice the minimum length required by Tables 602.10.1.2(1) and 602.10.1.2(2), blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.

4. When Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.

Cripple walls shall be constructed in accordance with Section 602.9 and braced in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be braced with the length and method of bracing used for the wall above in accordance with Tables 602.10.1.3(1) and 602.10.1.3(3), except that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels shall be reduced from 20 feet (6096 mm) to 14 feet (4267 mm).

In addition to the requirements in Section 602.10.11, the distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) maximum.

Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not supported on a continuous foundation below, the adjacent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be braced with Method WSP per Section 602.10.2 or Method CS-WSP per Section 602.10.4. The length of bracing required per Table 602.10.1.3(3) for the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1.5. Where the cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasteners shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the required length can still not be provided, the cripple wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
.
In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables 602.10.3(3) and 602.10.3(4).
Where all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a first story wall for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections 403.1.6 and 602.11.1.
Plate washers, a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3 / 16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 1 3 / 4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maximum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure 602.11.2.

2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections 602.10.9 and 602.10.9.1 shall apply.

3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections 403.1.6 and 602.11.1 shall apply.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Note: Where footing Section “A” is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.

FIGURE 602.11.2
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section 603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure 603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm,

FIGURE 603.1.2
IN-LINE FRAMING

Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure 603.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables 603.2(1) and 603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure 603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness.

TABLE 603.2(1)
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES

MEMBER DESIGNATIONaWEB DEPTH
(inches)
MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH
(inches)
MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH
(inches)
MINIMUM LIP SIZE
(inches)
350S162-t3.51.62520.5
550S162-t5.51.62520.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table 603.2(2)].

TABLE 603.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS

DESIGNATION THICKNESS
(mils)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
(inches)
330.0329
430.0428
540.0538
680.0677
970.0966
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 603.2(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE 603.2(2)
TRACK SECTION

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, and 50 (Class 1 and 3).

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, and 50A.

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 50 Type H.

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

1. Manufacturer’s identification.

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).

3. Minimum coating designation.

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section 702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table 603.2.4, when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE 603.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR

SCREW SIZETHINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)
3343
#81.00.67
#100.930.62
#120.860.56
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:

1. Holes shall conform to Figure 603.2.5.1;

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 11/2 inches (38 mm);

5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm); and

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section 603.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section 603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 603.2.5.1
WEB HOLES

Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section 603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section 603.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm).

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section 603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when web holes exceed the following size limits:

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web; or

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section 603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure 603.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 603.2.5.3
STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

All exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

Cold-formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table 603.3.1 and Figure 603.3.1(1), 603.3.1(2) or 603.3.1(3). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

TABLE 603.3.1
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b

FRAMING
CONDITION
WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE
85 B90 B100 B
85 C
110 B
90 C
100 C< 110 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure 603.3.1(1)1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12″ o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12″ o.c.
2 No. 8 screws at
12″ o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure
603.3.1(2)d
1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt
at 6'o.c.
1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt
at 6'o.c.
1/2″ minimum
diameter anchor bolt
at 4'o.c.
1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4'o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4'o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt
at 4'o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood
sill per Figure 603.3.1(3)
Steel plate spaced at
4'o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced at
4' o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced at
3' o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced at
3' o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced at
2' o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced at
2' o.c., with 4-No. 8
screws and 4-10d or
6-8d common nails
Wind uplift connector
strength to 16″ stud
spacingc
NRNRNRNRNR65 lb per foot of
wall length
Wind uplift connector
strength for 24″ stud
spacingc
NRNRNRNRNR100 lb per foot of
wall length
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 lb = 4.45 N.
a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts are to extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
c. NR = uplift connector not required.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

FIGURE 603.3.1(1)
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 603.3.1(2)
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 603.3.1(3)
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Tables 603.3.1.1(1) or 603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE 603.3.1.1(1)
GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)
WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
ExposureStud height, h (ft)
BC10 < h ≤1414 < h ≤1818 < h ≤ 22
851-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
901-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
100851-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
110901-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.
1001-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.
1102-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 8″ o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table 603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

TABLE 603.3.1.1(2)
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2 IN. DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
ExposureStud height, h (ft)
BC10 < h ≤1414 < h ≤1818 < h ≤22
856'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
906' - 0″ o.c.5'- 7″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
100855'- 10″ o.c.6' - 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
110904'- 10″ o.c.5'- 6″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1004'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1105'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.5'- 2″ o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table 603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figures 603.3.1(1), 603.3.1(2), or 603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(31). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(31) based upon an 85 miles per hour (38 m/s) Exposure A/B wind value and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section 603.2.4 and Table 603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:

1. Minimum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section 702 on the interior surface.

2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16 inch (11 mm) thick oriented strand board or 15/32 inch (12 mm) thick plywood is installed and fastened in accordance with Section 603.9.1 and Table 603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where a minimum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section 702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load- bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square feet (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(31).
For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when second floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 pounds per square feet) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables 603.3.2(2) through 603.3.2(21).
For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads of 40 pounds per square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables 603.3.2(22) through 603.3.2(31).

TABLE 603.3.2(1)
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTNUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERSaSPACING OF FASTENERS
Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall2-No. 8 screwsEach joist
Wall stud to top or bottom track2-No. 8 screwsEach end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studsNo. 8 screwsb6″ o.c. on edges and 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports
Roof framing to wallApproved design or tie down in accordance with Section 802.11
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
b. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.

TABLE 603.3.2(2)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333343434343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
110
mph
350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343435454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24334343434343434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(3)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(4)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(5)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333333
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(6)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
110
mph
350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434343545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(7)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(8)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435433434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435433434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343434343435468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
110
mph
350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434354545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343543333434343434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(9)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333334343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333333544343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(10)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443435468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343543333434333334354
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443435468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343543333434333334354
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24334343543343435443435468
550S16216333333433333333333333333
24333343543333434333334354
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24334343544343435443435468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434354684343545454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333435433334354
110
mph
350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354685454546868686868
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343543333435443434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(11)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343543333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333435433334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
110
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24333343544343435454545468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(12)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343433343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343433343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24334343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333334343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343545454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
110
mph
350S16216333333434343434343434343
24434343545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(13)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333334343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(14)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333434343434343
24434343545454545454545468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434343434343
110
mph
350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24434343434343434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(15)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24434343544343434343435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110
mph
350S16216333333433333333343434343
24434343544343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(16)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333434343
24434343544343435454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333343433333334343434343
24434354544343545454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434343434354
100
mph
350S16216333343434343434343434343
24434354545454545454545454
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343544343434343434354
110
mph
350S16216434343434343434343435454
24545454685454546868686868
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343434343434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(17)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333333343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24333343543333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333333343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333333343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
110
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333334333334343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(18)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333343433333434333334343
24434354544343545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
90
mph
350S16216333343433333434333334343
24434354544343545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434343
24434354684343545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354685454545454545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
100
mph
350S16216333343434343434343434354
24545454685454546854686868
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
110
mph
350S16216434343434343434343545454
24545454685454546868686868
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(19)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343543333435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343543333435443434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
100
mph
350S16216333333433333334343434343
24434343544343435454545468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334343
110
mph
350S16216333343433333334343434343
24434354544343545454545468
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(20)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354684343546854545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
90
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354684343546854545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354684343546854545468
550S16216333333433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333343434343434343434354
24434354685454546854546868
550S16216333343433333334333333343
24434354544343435443434354
100
mph
350S16216434343544343435443435454
24545454685454546868686897
550S16216333343433333334333334343
24434354544343435443435454
110
mph
350S16216434343544343435454545454
24545454685454686868686897
550S16216333343433333334333334343
24434354544343435443435454
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(21)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333333
24334343543333434333334343
90
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434343544343435443435454
550S16216333333433333333333333333
24334343543333434333334343
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333433333334333334343
24434354544343435443435468
550S16216333333433333333333333333
24334343543333434333334343
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216333343433333334333334343
24434354544343435454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333334343
100
mph
350S16216333343433333334343434343
24434354544343545454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434333434343
110
mph
350S16216333343433333434343434354
24434354685454545454545468
550S16216333333433333333333333343
24334343543333434343434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(22)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216434343433333334343434343
24545454544343545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
90
mph
350S16216434343433333334343434343
24545454544343545454545454
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216434343433333334343434343
24545454545454545454545468
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
110
mph
90
mph
350S16216434343434343434343434343
24545454545454545454546868
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
100
mph
350S16216434343434343434343434354
24545454545454545468686868
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
110
mph
350S16216434343434343434354545454
24545454685454686868686897
550S16216333343433333333333333343
24434354544343434343434354
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.
Top floor live load is 30 psf.
Middle floor live load is 40 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE 603.3.2(23)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-Foot Studs9-Foot Studs10-Foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
2030507020