ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Energy Conservation Code 2012 (IECC 2012)

Ohio Building Code

IECC—COMMERCIAL Provisions

IECC—RESIDENTIAL Provisions

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Section 5 specifies requirements for the building envelope.
Separate exterior building envelope requirements are specified for each of three categories of conditioned space: (a) nonresidential conditioned space, (b) residential conditioned space, and (c) semiheated space.
The minimum skylight area requirements in Section 5.5.4.2.3 are also specified for unconditioned spaces.
Spaces shall be assumed to be conditioned spaces and shall comply with the requirements for conditioned space at the time of construction, regardless of whether mechanical or electrical equipment is included in the building permit application or installed at that time.
In climate zones 3 through 8, a space may be designated as either semiheated or unconditioned only if approved by the building official.
Alterations to the building envelope shall comply with the requirements of Section 5 for insulation, air leakage, and fenestration applicable to those specific portions of the building that are being altered.
Exceptions: The following alterations need not comply with these requirements, provided such alterations will not increase the energy usage of the building:
  1. installation of storm windows over existing glazing
  2. replacement of glazing in existing sash and frame provided the U-factor and SHGC will be equal to or lower than before the glass replacement
  3. alterations to roof/ceiling, wall, or floor cavities, which are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0/in.
  4. alterations to walls and floors, where the existing structure is without framing cavities and no new framing cavities are created
  5. Roof recovering
  6. Removal and replacement of a roof where there is existing roof insulation integral to or below the roof deck
  7. replacement of existing doors that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided, however, that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned space from the exterior shall not be removed
  8. replacement of existing fenestration, provided, however, that the area of the replacement fenestration does not exceed 25% of the total fenestration area of an existing building and that the U-factor and SHGC will be equal to or lower than before the fenestration replacement
Determine the climate zone for the location. For US locations, follow the procedure in Section 5.1.4.1. For international locations, follow the procedure in Section 5.1.4.2.
Use Figure B-1 or Table B-1 in Appendix B to determine the required climate zone.
Exception: If there are recorded historical climatic data available for a construction site, they may be used to determine compliance if approved by the building official.
For locations in Canada that are listed in Table B-2 in Appendix B, use this table to determine the required climate zone number and, when a climate zone letter is also required, use Table B-4 and the Major Climate Type Definitions in Appendix B to determine the letter (A, B, or C). For locations in other international countries that are listed in Table B-3, use this table to determine the required climate zone number and, when a climate zone letter is also required, use Table B-4 and the Major Climate Type Definitions in Appendix B to determine the letter (A, B, or C). For all international locations that are not listed either in Table B-2 or B-3, use Table B-4 and the Major Climate Type Definitions in Appendix B to determine both the climate zone letter and number.
For the appropriate climate, space-conditioning category, and class of construction, the building envelope shall comply with Section 5.1, General; Section 5.4, Mandatory Provisions; Section 5.7, Submittals; and Section 5.8, Product Information and Installation Requirements; and either
  1. 5.5, Prescriptive Building Envelope Option, provided that
    1. the vertical fenestration area does not exceed 40% of the gross wall area for each space-conditioning category and
    2. the skylight fenestration area does not exceed 5% of the gross roof area for each space-conditioning category, or
  2. 5.6, Building Envelope Trade-Off Option.
Projects using the Energy Cost Budget Method (Section 11 of this standard) must comply with Section 5.4, the mandatory provisions of this section, as a portion of that compliance path.
Where insulation is required in Section 5.5 or 5.6, it shall comply with the requirements found in Sections 5.8.1.1 through 5.8.1.9.
Procedures for determining fenestration and door performance are described in Section 5.8.2. Product samples used for determining fenestration performance shall be production line units or representative of units purchased by the consumer or contractor.
The entire building envelope shall be designed and constructed with a continuous air barrier.
Exceptions to 5.4.3.1:
  1. Semiheated spaces in climate zones 1 thru 6.
  2. Single wythe concrete masonry buildings in climate zone 2B
The air barrier shall be designed and noted in the following manner:
  1. All air barrier components of each building envelope assembly shall be clearly identified or otherwise noted on construction documents.
  2. The joints, interconnections, and penetrations of the air barrier components including lighting fixtures shall be detailed or otherwise noted.
  3. The continuous air barrier shall extend over all surfaces of the building envelope (at the lowest floor, exterior walls, and ceiling or roof).
  4. The continuous air barrier shall be designed to resist positive and negative pressures from wind, stack effect, and mechanical ventilation.
The following areas of the continuous air barrier in the building envelope shall be wrapped, sealed, caulked, gasketed, or taped in an approved manner to minimize air leakage:
  1. Joints around fenestration and door frames (both manufactured and site-built).
  2. Junctions between walls and floors, between walls at building corners, between walls and roofs or ceilings.
  3. Penetrations through the air barrier in building envelope roofs, walls, and floors.
  4. Building assemblies used as ducts or plenums.
  5. Joints, seams, connections between planes, and other changes in air barrier materials.
Continuous air barrier materials and assemblies for the opaque building envelope shall comply with one of the following requirements:
  1. Materials that have an air permeance not exceeding 0.004 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. w.g. (1.57 psf) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178. The following materials meet the requirements of 5.4.3.1.3 a:
    1. Plywood—minimum 3/8 in.
    2. Oriented strand board—minimum 3/8 in.
    3. Extruded polystyrene insulation board—minimum 1/2 in.
    4. Foil-faced urethane insulation board—minimum 1/2 in.
    5. Exterior gypsum sheathing or interior gypsum board—minimum 1/2 in.
    6. Cement board—minimum 1/2 in.
    7. Built up roofing membrane
    8. Modified bituminous roof membrane
    9. Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane
    10. A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco, or gypsum plaster—minimum 1/2 in. thick
    11. Cast-in-place and precast concrete.
    12. Sheet metal.
    13. Closed cell 2 lb/ft3 nominal density spray polyurethane foam—minimum 1 in.
  2. Assemblies of materials and components (sealants, tapes, etc.) that have an average air leakage not to exceed 0.04 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. w.g. (1.57 psf) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2357 ASTM E 1677, ASTM E 1680 or ASTM E283; The following assemblies meet the requirements of 5.4.3.1.3 b.
    1. Concrete masonry walls that are:
      1. Fully grouted, or
      2. Painted to fill the pores.
Air leakage for fenestration and doors shall be determined in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283 as specified below. Air leakage shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council, and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Air leakage shall not exceed:
  1. 1.0 cfm/ft2 for glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283.
  2. 0.06 cfm/ft2 for curtainwall and storefront glazing, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) or higher in accordance with NFRC 400 or ASTM E283.
  3. 0.3 cfm/ft2 for unit skylights having condensation weepage openings, when tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400, or 0.5 cfm/ft2 when tested at a pressure of at least 6.24 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.
  4. 0.4 cfm/ft2 for nonswinging opaque doors, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) or higher in accordance with ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283.
  5. 0.2 cfm/ft2 for all other products when tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400, or 0.3 cfm/ft2 when tested at a pressure of at least 6.24 pounds per square foot (psf) in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S/A440.
In climate zones 4 through 8, cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.
Building entrances that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. Interior and exterior doors shall have a minimum distance between them of not less than 7 ft when in the closed position.The exterior envelope of conditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a conditioned space. The interior and exterior envelope of unconditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a semiheated space.
Exceptions:
  1. Building entrances with revolving doors.
  2. Doors not intended to be used as a building entrance.
  3. Doors opening directly from a dwelling unit.
  4. Building entrances in buildings located in climate zone 1 or 2.
  5. Building entrances in buildings located in climate zone 3 that are less than four stories above grade and less than 10,000 ft2 in area.
  6. Building entrances in buildings located in climate zone 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 that are less than 1000 ft2 in area.
  7. Doors that open directly from a space that is less than 3000 ft2 in area and is separate from the building entrance.
TABLE 5.5-1
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 1 (A, B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.063 R-15.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.218 R-3.8 ci
  Metal Buildinga U-0.065 R-19.0 U-0.065 R-19.0 U-0.167 R-6.0
  Attic and Other U-0.034 R-30.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.081 R-13.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.580 NR U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b U-0.580 NR
  Metal Building U-0.093 R-16.0 U-0.093 R-16.0 U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.124 R-13.0 U-0.124 R-13.0 U-0.352 NR
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.292 NR
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.322 NR U-0.322 NR U-0.322 NR
  Steel-Joist U-0.350 NR U-0.350 NR U-0.350 NR
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.282 NR U-0.282 NR U-0.282 NR
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.700   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-1.450   U-1.450   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-1.20   U-1.20   U-1.20  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-1.20 SHGC-0.25 all U-1.20 SHGC-0.25 all U-1.20 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-1.20   U-1.20   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-1.20   U-1.20   U-1.20  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.16 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.34 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-2
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 2 (A, B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.218 R-3.8 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.097 R-10.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.081 R-13.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b U-0.123 R-7.6 c.i. U-0.580 NR
  Metal Building U-0.093 R-16.0 U-0.093 R-16.0 U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.124 R-13.0 U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.107 R-6.3 c.i. U-0.087 R-8.3 c.i. U-0.322 NR
  Steel-Joist U-0.052 R-19.0 U-0.052 R-19.0 U-0.069 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.051 R-19.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.066 R-13.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.700   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-1.450   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.75 SHGC-0.25 all U-0.75 SHGC-0.25 all U-1.20 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.70   U-0.70   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-1.10   U-1.10   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.75   U-0.75   U-1.20  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.34 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-3
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 3 (A, B, C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.173 R-5.0 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.055 R-13.0 + R13.0 U-0.055 R-13.0 + R13.0 U-0.097 R-10.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.053 R-19.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.123 R-7.6 c.i. U-0.104 R-9.5 c.i. U-0.580 NR
  Metal Building U-0.084 R-19.0 U-0.084 R-19.0 U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.084 R-13.0 + R-3.8 c.i. U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.107 R-6.3 c.i. U-0.087 R-8.3 c.i. U-0.322 NR
  Steel-Joist U-0.052 R-19.0 U-0.052 R-19.0 U-0.069 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.051 R-19.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.066 R-13.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.900 R-10 for 24 in. F-0.900 R-10 for 24 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.700   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-1.450   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.65   U-0.65   U-1.20  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.60 SHGC-0.25 all U-0.60 SHGC-0.25 all U-1.20 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.90   U-0.90   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.65   U-0.65   U-1.20  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.65 Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.34 Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-4
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 4 (A, B, C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.173 R-5.0 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.097 R-10.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.053 R-19.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.104 R-9.5 c.i. U-0.090 R-11.4 c.i. U-0.580 NR
  Metal Building U-0.084 R-19.0 U-0.084 R-19.0 U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.089 R-13.0 U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-3.8
c.i.
U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-1.140 NR C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.087 R-8.3 c.i. U-0.074 R-10.4 c.i. U-0.137 R-4.2 c.i.
  Steel-Joist U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.069 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.066 R-13.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.730 NR F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.700   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.40   U-0.40   U-1.20  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.50 SHGC-0.40 all U-0.50 SHGC-0.40 all U-1.20 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.85   U-0.85   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.55   U-0.55   U-1.20  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.98 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—0.98 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.98 SHGCall-NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.65 Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.62 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.34 Uall—1.30 SHGCall—0.27 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.58 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—0.58 SHGCall—0.19 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-5
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 5 (A, B, C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.119 R-7.6 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.055 R-13.0 + R-13.0 U-0.083 R-13.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.053 R-19.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.090 R-11.4 c.i. U-0.080 R-13.3 c.i. U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b
  Metal Building U-0.069 R-13.0 + R-5.6 c.i. U-0.069 R-13.0 + R-5.6 c.i. U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-3.8 c.i. U-0.051 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.074 R-10.4 c.i. U-0.064 R-12.5 c.i. U-0.137 R-4.2 c.i.
  Steel-Joist U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.052 R-19.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.051 R-19.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.730 NR F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.500   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.35   U-0.35   U-1.20  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.45 SHGC-0.40 all U-0.45 SHGC-0.40 all U-1.20 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.80   U-0.80   U-1.20  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.55   U-0.55   U-1.20  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.10 SHGCall—0.77 Uall—1.10 SHGCall—0.77 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.10 SHGCall—0.62 Uall—1.10 SHGCall—0.62 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-6
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 6 (A, B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.093 R-10.0 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.049 R-13.0 + R-19.0 U-0.049 R-13.0 + R-19.0 U-0.072 R-16.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.034 R-30.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.080 R-13.3 c.i. U-0.071 R-15.2 c.i. U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b
  Metal Building U-0.069 R-13.0 + R-5.6 c.i. U-0.069 R-13.0 + R-5.6
c.i.
U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.051 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.051 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.064 R-12.5 c.i. U-0.057 R-14.6 c.i. U-0.137 R-4.2 c.i.
  Steel-Joist U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.032 R-38.0 U-0.052 R-19.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.051 R-19.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-1.020 R-7.5 for 12 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.700   U-0.500   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.35   U-0.35   U-0.65  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.45 SHGC-0.40 all U-0.45 SHGC-0.40 all U-0.60 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.80   U-0.80   U-0.90  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.55   U-0.55   U-0.65  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.98 SHGCall—0.46 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.98 SHGCall—0.36 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.87 SHGCall—0.71 Uall—0.74 SHGCall—0.65 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.87 SHGCall—0.58 Uall—0.74 SHGCall—0.55 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.58 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.49 Uall—0.58 SHGCall—0.39 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-7
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 7*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.093 R-10.0 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.049 R-13.0 + R-19.0 U-0.049 R-13.0 + R-19.0 U-0.072 R-16.0
  Attic and Other U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.027 R-38.0 U-0.034 R-30.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.071 R-15.2 c.i. U-0.071 R-15.2 c.i. U-0.123 R-7.6 c.i.
  Metal Building U-0.057 R-19.0 + R-5.6 c.i. U-0.057 R-19.0 + R-5.6
c.i.
U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.042 R-13.0 + R-15.6
c.i.
U-0.124 R-13.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.051 R-13.0 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.051 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.092 R-10.0 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.064 R-12.5 c.i. U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.107 R-6.3 c.i.
  Steel-Joist U-0.038 R-30.0 U-0.032 R-38.0 U-0.052 R-19.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.051 R-19.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.843 R-20 for 24 in. F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.900 R-10 for 24 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-1.450  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.35   U-0.35   U-0.65  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.40 SHGC-0.45 all U-0.40 SHGC-NR all U-0.60 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.80   U-0.80   U-0.90  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.45   U-0.45   U-0.65  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.68 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—1.17 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—1.98 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.87 SHGCall—0.77 Uall—0.61 SHGCall—0.77 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.87 SHGCall—0.71 Uall—0.61 SHGCall—0.77 Uall—1.90 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.68 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—0.69 SHGCall—0.64 Uall—1.36 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
TABLE 5.5-8
Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 8*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
 
Roofs
  Insulation Entirely above Deck U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.048 R-20.0 c.i. U-0.063 R-15.0 c.i.
  Metal Buildinga U-0.035 R-11.0 + R-19.0 U-0.035 R-11.0 + R-19.0 U-0.065 R-19.0
  Attic and Other U-0.021 R-49.0 U-0.021 R-49.0 U-0.034 R-30.0
Walls, Above-Grade
  Mass U-0.071 R-15.2 c.i. U-0.052 R-25.0 c.i. U-0.104 R-9.5 c.i.
  Metal Building U-0.057 R-19.0 + R-5.6
c.i.
U-0.057 R-19.0 + R-5.6
c.i.
U-0.113 R-13.0
  Steel-Framed U-0.064 R-13.0 + R-7.5
c.i.
U-0.037 R-13.0 + R-18.8
c.i.
U-0.084 R-13.0 + R-3.8 c.i.
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.036 R-13.0 + R-15.6
c.i.
U-0.036 R-13.0 + R-15.6
c.i.
U-0.089 R-13.0
Walls, Below-Grade
  Below-Grade Wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.075 R-12.5 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
  Mass U-0.057 R-14.6 c.i. U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.087 R-8.3 c.i.
  Steel-Joist U-0.032 R-38.0 U-0.032 R-38.0 U-0.052 R-19.0
  Wood-Framed and Other U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0 U-0.033 R-30.0
Slab-On-Grade Floors
  Unheated F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.510 R-20 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
  Heated F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.900 R-10.0 for 24 in.
Opaque Doors
  Swinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-0.700  
  Nonswinging U-0.500   U-0.500   U-0.500  
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max.
 
Vertical Glazing, 0%—40% of Wall
  Nonmetal framing (all)c U-0.35   U-0.35   U-0.65  
  Metal framing
(curtainwall/storefront)d
U-0.40 SHGC-0.45 all U-0.40 SHGC-NR all U-0.60 SHGC-NR all
  Metal framing (entrance door)d U-0.80   U-0.80   U-0.90  
  Metal framing (all other)d U-0.45   U-0.45   U-0.65  
Skylight with Curb, Glass, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.98 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.98 SHGCall—NR Uall—1.30 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.98 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.98 SHGCall—NR Uall—1.30 SHGCall—NR
Skylight with Curb, Plastic, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.61 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.61 SHGCall—NR Uall—1.10 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.61 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.61 SHGCall—NR Uall—1.10 SHGCall—NR
Skylight without Curb, All, % of Roof
  0%—2.0% Uall—0.58 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.58 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.81 SHGCall—NR
  2.1%—5.0% Uall—0.58 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.58 SHGCall—NR Uall—0.81 SHGCall—NR
*The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), Ls = Liner System (See Section A 2.3.2.4), NR = no (insulation) requirement.
  1. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required; otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. See Table A2.3.
  2. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  3. Nonmetal framing includes framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
  4. Metal framing includes metal framing with or without thermal break. The "all other" subcategory includes operable windows, fixed windows, and non-entrance doors.
For a conditioned space, the exterior building envelope shall comply with either the "nonresidential" or "residential" requirements in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 for the appropriate climate.
If a building contains any semiheated space or unconditioned space, then the semi-exterior building envelope shall comply with the requirements for semiheated space in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 for the appropriate climate. (See Figure 5.1.)
For all opaque surfaces except doors, compliance shall be demonstrated by one of the following two methods:
  1. Minimum rated R-values of insulation for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and continuous insulation only. Specifications listed in Normative Appendix A for each class of construction shall be used to determine compliance.
  2. Maximum U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor for the entire assembly. The values for typical construction assemblies listed in Normative Appendix A shall be used to determine compliance.
Exceptions to Section 5.5.3:
  1. For assemblies significantly different from those in Appendix A, calculations shall be performed in accordance with the procedures required in Appendix A.
  2. For multiple assemblies within a single class of construction for a single space-conditioning category, compliance shall be shown for either (1) the most restrictive requirement or (2) an area-weighted average U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor.
All roofs shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5.0, whichever is less.
Roofs, in climate zones 1 through 3 shall have one of the following:
  1. a minimum three-year-aged solar reflectance of 0.55 when tested in accordance with ASTM C1549 or ASTM E1918, and in addition, a minimum three-year-aged thermal emittance of 0.75 when tested in accordance with ASTM C1371 or ASTM E408.
  2. a minimum three-year-aged Solar Reflectance Index of 64 when determined in accordance with the Solar Reflectance Index method in ASTM E1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h•ft2•°F
  3. increased roof insulation levels found in Table 5.5.3.1.2.
Exceptions:
  1. Ballasted roofs with a minimum stone ballast of 17 lbs/ft2 or 23 lbs/ft2 pavers.
  2. Vegetated Roof Systems that contain a minimum thickness of 2.5 in. of growing medium and covering a minimum of 75% of the roof area with durable plantings.
  3. Roofs, where a minimum of 75% of the roof area:
    1. Is shaded during the peak sun angle on June 21 by permanent components or features of the building, or
    2. Is covered by off-set photovoltaic arrays, building-integrated photovoltaic arrays, or solar air or water collectors, or
    3. Is permitted to be interpolated using a combination of parts i and ii above.
  4. Steep sloped roofs.
  5. Low sloped metal building roofs in climate zones 2 and 3.
  6. Roofs over ventilated attics or roofs over semi-heated spaces or roofs over conditioned spaces that are not cooled spaces.
  7. Asphaltic membranes in climate zones 2 and 3.
The values for three-year-aged solar reflectance and three-year-aged thermal emittance shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the Cool Roof Rating Council CRRC-1 Product Rating Program, and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer.
TABLE 5.5.3.1.2
Increased Roof Insulation Levels
Roofs Non-Residential Residential
 
Opaque Elements Assembly Maximum Insulation Min.
R-Value
Assembly Maximum Insulation Min.
R-Value
Insulation Entirely Above Deck U-0.030 R-33 U-0.029 R-34
Metal Buildings U-0.028 R-35    
All above-grade walls shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8. When a wall consists of both above-grade and below-grade portions, the entire wall for that story shall be insulated on either the exterior or the interior or be integral.
  1. If insulated on the interior, the wall shall be insulated to the above-grade wall requirements.
  2. If insulated on the exterior or integral, the below-grade wall portion shall be insulated to the below-grade wall requirements, and the above-grade wall portion shall be insulated to the above-grade wall requirements.
Below-grade walls shall have a rated R-value of insulation no less than the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8.
Exception: Where framing, including metal and wood studs, is used, compliance shall be based on the maximum assembly C-factor.
All floors shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8.
All slab-on-grade floors, including heated slab-on-grade floors and unheated slab-on-grade floors, shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8.
All opaque doors shall have a U-factor not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8.
Compliance with U-factors and SHGC shall be demonstrated for the overall fenestration product. Gross wall areas and gross roof areas shall be calculated separately for each space-conditioning category for the purposes of determining compliance.
Exception: If there are multiple assemblies within a single class of construction for a single space-conditioning category, compliance shall be based on an area-weighted average U-factor or SHGC. It is not acceptable to do an area-weighted average across multiple classes of construction or multiple space-conditioning categories.
The total vertical fenestration area shall be less than 40% of the gross wall area.
Exception: Vertical fenestration complying with Exception (c) to Section 5.5.4.4.1.
The total skylight area shall not exceed 5% of the gross roof area.
In any enclosed space in a building that is four stories or less and that is:
  1. 5,000 ft2and greater and,
  2. directly under a roof with ceiling heights greater than 15 ft, and
  3. one of the following space types: office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, non-refrigerated warehouse or storage, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service, manufacturing, retail, distribution/sorting area, transportation, or workshop, the total daylight area under skylights shall be a minimum of half the floor area and either:
  4. provide a minimum skylight area to daylight area under skylights of 3% with a skylight VT of at least 0.40 or
  5. provide a minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1%.
These skylights shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze value greater than 90% when tested according to ASTM D1003. General lighting in the daylight area shall be controlled as described in Section 9.4.1.5.
Exceptions to 5.5.4.2.3:
  1. Enclosed spaces in climate zones 6 through 8.
  2. Enclosed spaces with designed general lighting power densities less than 0.5 W/ft2.
  3. Enclosed spaces where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed space for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  4. Enclosed spaces where the daylight area under rooftop monitors is greater than 50% of the enclosed space floor area.
  5. Enclosed spaces where it is documented that 90% of the skylight area is shaded on June 21in the Northern Hemisphere (December 21 in the Southern Hemisphere) at noon by permanent architectural features of the building.
  6. The required daylight area under skylights may be reduced by the amount of primary sidelighted area with a sidelighting effective aperture greater than 0.15 and with general lighting controlled as described in Section 9.4.1.4 without the use of any exceptions in Section 9.4.1.4.
  7. The required daylight area under skylights may be reduced by the amount of secondary sidelighted area with a sidelighting effective aperture greater than 0.30 and with general lighting controlled by continuous daylight dimming.
Fenestration shall have a U-factor not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 for the appropriate fenestration area.
Vertical fenestration shall have an SHGC not greater than that specified for "all" orientations in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 for the appropriate total vertical fenestration area.
Exceptions:
  1. For demonstrating compliance for vertical fenestration shaded by opaque permanent projections that will last as long as the building itself, the SHGC in the proposed building shall be reduced by using the multipliers in Table 5.5.4.4.1. Permanent projections consisting of open louvers shall be considered to provide shading, provided that no sun penetrates the louvers during the peak sun angle on June 21.
  2. For demonstrating compliance for vertical fenestration shaded by partially opaque permanent projections (e.g., framing with glass or perforated metal) that will last as long as the building itself, the PF shall be reduced by multiplying it by a factor of Os, which is derived as follows:
    where
    Os = percent opacity of the shading device
    Ai = percent of the area of the shading device that is a partially opaque infill
    Oi = percent opacity of the infill—for glass Oi = (100% — Ts), where Ts is the solar transmittance as determined in accordance with NFRC 300; for perforated or decorative metal panels Oi = percentage of solid material
    Af = percent of the area of the shading device that represents the framing members
    Of = percent opacity of the framing members; if solid, then 100%
    And then the SHGC in the proposed building shall be reduced by using the multipliers in Table 5.5.4.4.1 for each fenestration product.
  3. Vertical fenestration that is located on the street side of the street-level story only, provided that
    1. the street side of the street-level story does not exceed 20 ft in height,
    2. the fenestration has a continuous overhang with a weighted average PF greater than 0.5, and
    3. the fenestration area for the street side of the street-level story is less than 75% of the gross wall area for the street side of the street-level story.
    When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope, and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. No credit shall be given here or elsewhere in the building for not fully utilizing the fenestration area allowed.
  4. For dynamic glazing, the minimum SHGC shall be used to demonstrate compliance with this section. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other vertical fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other vertical fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.
TABLE 5.5.4.4.1
SHGC Multipliers for Permanent Projections
Projection
Factor
SHGC Multiplier
(All Other Orientations)
SHGC Multiplier
 
0—0.10 1.00 1.00
>0.10—0.20 0.91 0.95
>0.20—0.30 0.82 0.91
>0.30—0.40 0.74 0.87
>0.40—0.50 0.67 0.84
>0.50—0.60 0.61 0.81
>0.60—0.70 0.56 0.78
>0.70—0.80 0.51 0.76
>0.80—0.90 0.47 0.75
>0.90—1.00 0.44 0.73
Skylights shall have an SHGC not greater than that specified for "all" orientations in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 for the appropriate total skylight area.
Exception: Skylights are exempt from SHGC requirements provided they:
  1. Have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze value greater than 90% when tested according to ASTM D1003.
  2. Have a Skylight VT greater than 0.40, and;
  3. Have all general lighting in the daylight area under skylights controlled by multilevel photocontrols in accordance with Section 9.4.1.5.
  4. For dynamic glazing, the minimum SHGC shall be used to demonstrate compliance with this section. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other vertical fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other vertical fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.
The vertical fenestration area shall meet the following requirement:
where
As = south oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true south)
An = north oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true north)
Aw = west oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented less than 30 degrees of true west)
Ae = east oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented less than 30 degrees of true east)
In the southern hemisphere, replace As with An in the formulae above.
Exceptions to 5.5.4.5:
  1. Vertical fenestration that complies with the exception to 5.5.4.4.1 (c).
  2. Buildings that have an existing building or existing permanent infrastructure within 20 ft to the south (north in the southern hemisphere) which is at least half as tall as the proposed building.
  3. Buildings with shade on 75% of the west and east oriented vertical fenestration areas from permanent projections, existing buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice (June 21 in the northern hemisphere).
  4. Alterations and additions with no increase in vertical fenestration area.
The building envelope complies with the standard if:
  1. the proposed building satisfies the provisions of Sections 5.1, 5.4, 5.7, and 5.8, and
  2. the envelope performance factor of the proposed building is less than or equal to the envelope performance factor of the budget building.
The envelope performance factor considers only the building envelope components.
Schedules of operation, lighting power, equipment power, occupant density, and mechanical systems shall be the same for both the proposed building and the budget building.
Envelope performance factor shall be calculated using the procedures of Normative Appendix C.
The authority having jurisdiction may require submittal of compliance documentation and supplemental information, in accordance with Section 4.2.2 of this standard.
For buildings that contain spaces that will be only semiheated or unconditioned, and compliance is sought using the "semiheated" envelope criteria, such spaces shall be clearly indicated on the floor plans that are submitted for review.
Test results required in 5.8.2.6 for skylight glazing or diffusers shall be included with construction documents submitted with each application for a permit.
The rated R-value shall be clearly identified by an identification mark applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building envelope insulation.
Exception: When insulation does not have such an identification mark, the installer of such insulation shall provide a signed and dated certification for the installed insulation listing the type of insulation, the manufacturer, the rated R-value, and, where appropriate, the initial installed thickness, the settled thickness, and the coverage area.
Insulation materials shall be installed in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations and in such a manner as to achieve rated R-value of insulation.
Exception: Where metal building roof and metal building wall insulation is compressed between the roof or wall skin and the structure.
Open-blown or poured loose-fill insulation shall not be used in attic roof spaces when the slope of the ceiling is more than three in twelve.
When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation.
Insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the inside surface in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations for the framing system used. Flexible batt insulation installed in floor cavities shall be supported in a permanent manner by supports no greater than 24 in. on center.
Exception: Insulation materials that rely on air spaces adjacent to reflective surfaces for their rated performance.
Lighting fixtures; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment, including wall heaters, ducts, and plenums; and other equipment shall not be recessed in such a manner as to affect the insulation thickness unless
  1. the total combined area affected (including necessary clearances) is less than 1% of the opaque area of the assembly,
  2. the entire roof, wall, or floor is covered with insulation to the full depth required, or
  3. the effects of reduced insulation are included in calculations using an area-weighted average method and compressed insulation values obtained from Table A9.4.C.
In all cases, air leakage through or around the recessed equipment to the conditioned space shall be limited in accordance with Section 5.4.3.
Exterior insulation shall be covered with a protective material to prevent damage from sunlight, moisture, landscaping operations, equipment maintenance, and wind.
In attics and mechanical rooms, a way to access equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation shall be provided.
Foundation vents shall not interfere with the insulation.
Insulation materials in ground contact shall have a water absorption rate no greater than 0.3% when tested in accordance with ASTM C272.
The roof insulation shall not be installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels.
Insulation shall extend over the full component area to the required rated R-value of insulation, U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor, unless otherwise allowed in Section 5.8.1.
Where two or more layers of rigid insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the edge joints between each layer of boards shall be staggered.
The U-factor, SHGC, Visible Transmittance (VT), and air leakage rate for all manufactured fenestration products shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council.
All manufactured fenestration products shall have a permanent nameplate, installed by the manufacturer, listing the U-factor, SHGC, air leakage rate, and where required by the Exception to 5.5.4.4.2, Visible Transmittance (VT).
Exception: When the fenestration product does not have such nameplate, the installer or supplier of such fenestration shall provide a signed and dated certification for the installed fenestration listing the U-factor, SHGC, and the air leakage rate.
The U-factor and the air leakage rate for all manufactured doors installed between conditioned space, semi-heated space, unconditioned space, and exterior space shall be identified on a permanent nameplate installed on the product by the manufacturer.
Exception: When doors do not have such a nameplate, the installer or supplier of any such doors shall provide a signed and dated certification for the installed doors listing the U-factor and the air leakage rate.
U-factors shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100. U-factors for skylights shall be determined for a slope of 20 degrees above the horizontal.
Exceptions:
  1. U-factors from Section A8.1 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for skylights. Where credit is being taken for a low-emissivity coating, the emissivity of the coating shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 300. Emissivity shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  2. U-factors from Section A8.2 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for vertical fenestration.
  3. U-factors from Section A7 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for opaque doors.
  4. For garage doors, ANSI/DASMA105 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining U-factors.
SHGC for the overall fenestration area shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200.
Exceptions:
  1. SC of the center-of-glass multiplied by 0.86 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC requirements for the overall fenestration area. SC shall be determined using a spectral data file determined in accordance with NFRC 300. SC shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  2. SHGC of the center-of-glass shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC requirements for the overall fenestration area. SHGC shall be determined using a spectral data file determined in accordance with NFRC 300. SHGC shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  3. SHGC from Section A8.1 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC criteria for skylights. Where credit is being taken for a low-emissivity coating, the emissivity of the coating shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 300. Emissivity shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  4. SHGC from Section A8.2 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC criteria for vertical fenestration.
VT shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200. VT shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
Exception: For skylights whose transmittances are not within the scope of NFRC 200, their transmittance shall be the solar photometric transmittance of the skylight glazing material(s) determined in accordance with ASTM E972.
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