Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
SCOPE

Part 2 applies to electric elevators installed at an angle greater than 70 deg from the horizontal. It applies to other equipment only as referenced in the applicable Part.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to electric elevators.

Where fire-resistive construction is required, hoistways shall be enclosed in conformance with the requirements of the building code (see Section 1.3).
Partitions between hoistways and

(a) machinery spaces outside the hoistway

(b) machine rooms

(c) control spaces outside the hoistway

(d) control rooms

that have a fire-resistance rating shall be of noncombustible solid or openwork construction that meets the requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(1), (2), and (3). Partitions of solid construction shall be permitted to have openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.

Openwork construction shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, except where there are openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.

Hoistway enclosure openings shall be protected with entrances or access doors having a fire-protection rating conforming to the requirements of the building code.
Where fire-resistive construction is not required by the building code, hoistway construction shall conform to 2.1.1.2.2 or 2.1.1.3.
The hoistway shall be fully enclosed conforming to 2.1.1.2.2(a), (b), (c), and (d); or 2.1.1.2.2(a), (b), and (e).

(a) Enclosures and doors shall be unperforated to a height of 2 000 mm (79 in.) above each floor or landing and above the treads of adjacent stairways. The enclosure shall be unperforated, adjacent to, and for 150 mm (6 in.) on either side of any moving equipment that is within 100 mm (4 in.) of the enclosure.

(b) Partitions between hoistways and

  1. machinery spaces outside the hoistway
  2. machine rooms
  3. control spaces outside the hoistway
  4. control rooms

shall be of solid or openwork construction that meets the requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(1), (2), and (3). Partitions of solid construction shall be permitted to have openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment. Openwork construction shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, except where there are openings for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.

(c) Openwork enclosures, where used above the 2 000 mm (79 in.) level, shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.

(d) Openwork enclosures shall be

(1) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick wire, if of steel wire grille

(2) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick, if of expanded metal

(3) so supported and braced as to deflect not over 15 mm (0.6 in.) when subjected to a force of 450 N (100 lbf) applied horizontally at any point

(e) Enclosures shall be permitted to be glass, provided it is laminated glass conforming to ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Markings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on each separate piece of glass and shall remain visible after installation.

Entrances shall be in conformance with Section 2.11, except 2.11.14, 2.11.15, 2.11.16, and 2.11.18.
For elevators that are not fully enclosed, protection at least 2 400 mm (94.5 in.) high shall be provided on the hoistway sides that are located 1 500 mm (59 in.) or less from elevator equipment to areas accessible to other than elevator personnel. Such protection shall comply with 2.1.1.2.
The number of elevators permissible in a hoistway shall be in conformance with the building code.
The hoistway enclosure adjacent to a landing opening shall be of sufficient strength to maintain, in true lateral alignment, the hoistway entrances. Operating mechanisms and locking devices shall be supported by the building wall, if load-bearing, or by other building structure. Adequate consideration shall be given to pressure exerted on hoistway enclosures as a result of windage and elevator operation.
The top of the hoistway shall be enclosed as required by the building code.
Pits extending to the ground shall have noncombustible floors, and shall be designed to prevent entry of groundwater into the pit. The pit floor of any hoistway not extending to the ground shall be of construction having a fire-resistance rating at least equal to that required for the hoistway enclosure. (See also Sections 2.2 and 2.6.)
The pit equipment, beams, floor, and their supports shall be designed and constructed to meet the applicable building code requirements and to withstand the following loads, without permanent deformation, in the manner in which they occur:

(a) the impact load due to car or counterweight buffer engagement at 125% of the rated speed or 125% of the striking speed where reduced stroke buffers are used (see 8.2.3)

(b) the part of the load transmitted due to the application of the car safety, or where applicable, the counterweight safety

(c) compensation up-pull load where compensation tie-down is applied (see 2.21.4.2)

(d) the loads imposed by a driving machine where applicable (see Section 2.9)

(e) any other elevator-related loads that are transmitted to the pit floor

A metal or concrete floor shall be provided at the top of the hoistway

(a) where a machine room or control room is located above the hoistway

(b) below overhead sheaves and other equipment that are located over the hoistway and means of access conforming to 2.7.6.3.3 are not provided

(c) below governors that are located over the hoistway and means of access conforming to 2.7.6.3.4 are not provided

Floors are not required below secondary and deflecting sheaves of traction-type machines located over the hoistway.
Overhead floors shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 1 000 N (225 lbf) on any 2 000 mm2 (3 in.2) area, and in addition, where it constitutes the floor of the main or secondary level machinery space, it shall be designed for a live load of not less than 6 kPa (125 lbf/ft2) in all open areas.

Where the elevator driving machine is to be supported solely by the machine room floor slab, the floor slab shall be designed in accordance with 2.9.4 and 2.9.5.

Floors shall be of concrete or metal construction with or without perforations. Metal floors shall conform to the following:

(a) If of bar-type grating, the openings between bars shall reject a ball 20 mm (0.8 in.) in diameter.

(b) If of perforated sheet metal or of fabricated openwork construction, the openings shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.

Where a floor over a hoistway is required by 2.1.3.1, the floor shall extend over the entire area of the hoistway where the cross-sectional area is 10 m2 (108 ft2) or less. Where the cross-sectional area is greater, the floor shall extend not less than 600 mm (24 in.) beyond the general contour of the machine or sheaves or other equipment, and to the entrance to the machinery space at or above the level of that floor. Where the floor does not cover the entire horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed sides shall be provided with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2.

When required by the building code, hoistways shall be provided with means to prevent the accumulation of smoke and hot gases.

Where hoistway pressurization is provided, it shall be designed, installed, and maintained so as not to impede elevator operation.

NOTE (2.1.4): Excessive pressurization could prevent doors, complying with 2.13.4, from closing. Air introduced into the hoistway could cause erratic operation by impingement of traveling cables, selector tapes, governor ropes, compensating ropes, and other components sensitive to excessive movement or deflection.

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, windows in the walls of hoistway enclosures are prohibited.

Windows and skylights and their frames and sashes in machine rooms and control rooms shall conform to the requirements of the building code (see Section 1.3).

Hoistway enclosures shall have flush surfaces on the hoistway side, subject to the requirements of 2.1.6.1 and 2.1.6.2.

On sides for loading and unloading, landing sills, hoistway doors, door tracks, and hangers shall be permitted to project inside the hoistway enclosure. Sills shall be guarded as required by 2.11.10.1.
On sides not used for loading and unloading

(a) beams, floor slabs, or other building construction making an angle less than 75 deg with the horizontal shall not project more than 100 mm (4 in.) inside the hoistway enclosure unless the top surface of the projection is beveled at an angle not less than 75 deg with the horizontal

(b) separator beams between adjacent elevators are not required to have bevels

(c) where recesses or setbacks exceeding 100 mm (4 in.) occur in the enclosure wall, the top of the recess or setback shall be beveled at an angle of not less than 75 deg with the horizontal

(d) bevels are not required if the projections, recesses, and setbacks are covered with material conforming to the following:

(1) It shall be equal to or stronger than 1.110 mm (0.0437 in.) wire.

(2) It shall have openings not exceeding 25 mm (1 in.).

(3) It shall be supported and braced such that it will not deflect more than 25 mm (1 in.) when subjected to a force of 4.79 kPa (100 lbf/ft2) applied horizontally at any point.

A pit shall be provided for every elevator.

The construction of the pit walls, the pit floor, and any pit access doors (see 2.2.4) shall conform to 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
The floor of the pit shall be approximately level, except that

(a) trenches or depressions shall be permitted for the installation of buffers, compensating sheaves and frames, and vertically sliding biparting hoistway doors, where structural conditions make such trenches or depressions necessary

(b) in existing buildings, where new elevators are installed or existing elevators are altered, existing foundation footings extending above the general level of the pit floor shall be permitted to remain in place, provided that the maximum encroachment of such footings does not exceed 15% of the cubic content of the pit, and further provided that it is impracticable to remove the footing

Permanent provisions shall be made to prevent accumulation of groundwater in the pit (see 2.1.2.2).
Drains and sump pumps, where provided, shall comply with the applicable plumbing code, and they shall be provided with a positive means to prevent water, gases, and odors from entering the hoistway.
In elevators provided with Firefighters' Emergency Operation, a drain or sump pump shall be provided. The sump pump/drain shall have the capacity to remove a minimum of 11.4 m3/h (3,000 gal/h) per elevator.
Sumps and sump pumps in pits, where provided, shall be covered. The cover shall be secured and level with the pit floor.
Where there is a difference in level between the floors of adjacent pits, a metal guard, unperforated, or perforated with openings that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, shall be installed for separating such pits. Guards shall extend not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above the level of the higher pit floor and a self-closing access door shall be permitted.
Where the difference in level is 600 mm (24 in.) or less, a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be permitted to be installed in lieu of the guard.

Safe and convenient access shall be provided to all pits, and shall conform to 2.2.4.1 through 2.2.4.6.

Access shall be by means of the lowest hoistway door or by means of a separate pit access door.
There shall be installed in the pit of each elevator, where the pit extends more than 900 mm (35 in.) below the sill of the pit access door (lowest hoistway door or separate pit access door), a fixed vertical ladder of noncombustible material, located within reach of the access door. The ladder is permitted to be retractable or nonretractable. Nonretractable ladders, where provided, shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 through 2.2.4.2.6. Retractable ladders, where provided, shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 through 2.2.4.2.3 and 2.2.4.2.5 through 2.2.4.2.8. When in the extended position, retractable ladders shall conform to 2.2.4.2.4.
The ladder shall extend not less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) above the sill of the access door or handgrips shall be provided to the same height.
The ladder rungs, cleats, or steps shall be a minimum of 400 mm (16 in.) wide. When obstructions are encountered, the width shall be permitted to be decreased to less than 400 mm (16 in.). The reduced width shall be as wide as the available space permits, but not less than 225 mm (9 in.).
The ladder rungs, cleats, or steps shall be spaced 300 mm (12 in.) ± 13 mm (± 0.5 in.) on center, shall be provided to not less than the height of access door sill, and shall be designed to minimize slipping (e.g., knurling, dimpling, coating with skid-resistant material, etc.).
A clear distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from the centerline of the rungs, cleats, or steps to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder shall be provided.
Side rails, if provided, shall have a clear distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from their centerline to the nearest permanent object.
The ladder and its attachments shall be capable of sustaining a load of 135 kg (300 lb).
Retractable ladders that are in the line of movement of the car or counterweight when not fully retracted, shall operate a retractable ladder electrical device (see 2.26.2.38) that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake unless the ladder is in its fully retracted position.
Retractable ladders shall be capable of being extended, mechanically secured and unsecured, and retracted from the access door, and

(a) the force(s) required to extend a retractable ladder from the fully retracted position to the extended and mechanically secured position shall not exceed 220 N (50 lbf)

(b) after being extended and mechanically secured, a retractable ladder shall remain secured in the extended position when subjected to a horizontal force not to exceed 2 220 N (500 lbf)

(c) the force(s) required to retract a retractable ladder from its extended position to its fully retracted position, after being unsecured, shall not exceed 220 N (50 lbf)

(d) the ladder shall be mechanically secured when in the retracted position

Pit access by a ladder shall not be permitted when the pit floor is more than 3 000 mm (120 in.) below the sill of the access door, except where there is no building floor below the bottom terminal landing, this height shall be permitted to be greater but not more than 4 200 mm (165 in.).
Pits shall be accessible only to elevator personnel.
Separate pit access door, when provided, shall be subject to the following requirements:

(a) If the door swings into the pit, it shall be located so that it does not interfere with moving equipment.

(b) If the door swings out, and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers or safety jaw assemblies, projects below the top of the separate pit access door opening when the car is level with the bottom terminal landing

(1) an electric contact conforming to 2.26.2.26 shall be provided to prevent operation of the elevator when the door is open

(2) the door shall be provided with a vision panel(s) that is glazed with clear wired glass not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick, will reject a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter, and have an area of not more than 0.03 m2 (47 in.2)

(c) The door shall provide a minimum opening of 750 mm (29.5 in.) in width and 1 825 mm (72 in.) in height.

(d) The door shall be equipped with a barrier conforming to 2.11.1.2(i), where the door sill is located more than 300 mm (12 in.) above the pit floor.

(e) The door shall be self-closing and provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be opened from inside of the pit without a key. Such doors shall be kept closed and locked. A key shall be required to unlock the lock from outside the hoistway. The key shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

Means to unlock the access door from inside the pit shall be provided. The means shall be located

(a) when no pit ladder is provided, not more than 1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above the pit floor, or

(b) when a pit ladder is provided, not more than 1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above a rung, cleat, or step. The minimum distance from the top rung, cleat, or step to the top of the pit ladder or handhold shall not be less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) (see 2.2.4.2.1 and Nonmandatory Appendix J, Fig. J-1), and

(c) with the door in the closed position, in a plane not more than 1 000 mm (39 in.) horizontally from a rung, cleat, or step of the pit ladder (see Nonmandatory Appendix J, Fig. J-1).

A permanent lighting fixture shall be provided and shall conform to 2.2.5.1 through 2.2.5.3.

The lighting shall provide an illumination of not less than 100 lx (10 fc) at the pit floor and at a pit platform, when provided.
The light bulb(s) shall be externally guarded to prevent contact and accidental breakage.
The light switch shall be so located as to be accessible from the pit access door.

An enclosed stop switch(es), meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.7 and 2.2.6.1 through 2.2.6.3, shall be installed in the pit of each elevator.

The stop switch shall be so located as to be accessible from the pit access door. Where access to the pits of elevators in a multiple hoistway is by means of a single access door, the stop switch for each elevator shall be located adjacent to the nearest point of access to its pit from the access door.
In elevators where access to the pit is through the lowest landing hoistway door, a stop switch shall be located approximately 450 mm (18 in.) above the floor level of the landing, within reach from this access floor and adjacent to the pit ladder, if provided. When the pit exceeds 1 700 mm (67 in.) in depth, an additional stop switch is required adjacent to the pit ladder and approximately 1 200 mm (47 in.) above the pit floor. Where more than one switch is provided, they shall be wired in series.

The pit depth shall be not less than is required for the installation of the buffers, compensating sheaves, if any, and all other elevator equipment located therein and to provide the minimum bottom car clearance and runby required by 2.4.1.

Where the distance from the pit floor to the underside of the plank channels or slings exceeds 2 100 mm (83 in.), with the car at the lowest landing, a means shall be permanently installed or permanently stored in the pit to provide access to the equipment on the underside of the car. When access is provided by means of a working platform it shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.5.3.2 through 2.7.5.3.6.

Counterweights shall be located in the hoistway of the elevator that they serve, or in a remote hoistway subject to the limitations and requirements of 2.3.3.

Metal guards shall be installed in the pit and/or a machine room or control room located underneath the hoistway on all open sides of the counterweight runway, except that

(a) the guard, or portion thereof, is not required on the side facing the car where there is no space greater than 500 mm (20 in.) between any adjacent combination of compensation means, suspension means, counterweight rails, and guard(s) that blocks the access to the counterweight runway

(b) where pit-mounted buffers are used, the guard is not required where the bottom of the counterweight resting on its compressed buffer is 2 130 mm (84 in.) or more above the pit floor, or above the machine or control room floor if located underneath the hoistway

Guards shall

(a) extend from the lowest part of the counterweight assembly when the counterweight is resting on the fully compressed buffer to a point not less than 2 100 mm (83 in.) and not more than 2 450 mm (96 in.) above the pit floor

(b) be the full width of the area being guarded

(c) not prevent determination of the counterweight runby

(d) be fastened to a metal frame reinforced and braced to be at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm (0.074 in.) thick sheet steel

(e) if perforated, reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter

Where a counterweight is located between elevators, the counterweight runway shall be guarded on the side next to the adjacent elevator. The guard shall be of noncombustible material. The guard, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and be made from material equal to or stronger than 1.110 mm (0.0437 in.) diameter wire. The guard shall be so supported that when subjected to a force of 450 N (100 lbf) applied over an area of 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) at any location, the deflection shall not reduce the clearance between the guard and the counterweight below 25 mm (1 in.).

Where elevators are not provided with either compensating means or counterweight safeties, the counterweights shall be permitted to be located in a remote hoistway conforming to 2.3.3.1 through 2.3.3.6.

The hoistway shall be fully enclosed and shall have a fire-resistance rating, conforming to 2.1.1.1 if it penetrates a fire barrier.
Construction at the top and bottom of the hoistway shall conform to 2.1.2.
Permanent means shall be provided for inspection, repair, and maintenance of the counterweight, deflecting and secondary sheaves, hoistway, ropes, counterweight guide rails, and counterweight buffers or bumpers. Entry doors into the separate counterweight hoistway shall be provided at top, bottom, and center of counterweight hoistway, but in no case shall the entry doors be more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to sill. Doors shall be located and of such width to provide unobstructed access to the space between the counterweight guides. The height of the door shall be at least 1 975 mm (78 in.). Doors shall conform to 2.11.1.2(b) through (e), inclusive. An enclosed stop switch, meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.5(a), (b), and (c), a permanent electric light switch, duplex receptacle, and light shall be provided in the hoistway immediately inside the entry door.
Ropes and sheaves leading to the separate counterweight hoistways shall be protected against unauthorized access.
Not more than four counterweights shall be located in a single separate counterweight hoistway. Multiple counterweights located in a single hoistway shall be separated by means of an unperforated metal guard at the top, bottom, and center of the hoistway. Guards shall extend a minimum of 2 450 mm (96 in.) in length opposite the entry door. Doors and all other means described in 2.3.3.3 shall be provided for each counterweight.
There shall be a clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the weight in the counterweight frame and the wall containing the entry door.

Where a counterweight is located in the same hoistway as the car, the runway for the counterweight shall be permitted to be separated from the runway for the car, provided it conforms to 2.3.4.1 and 2.3.4.2.

The partition shall be noncombustible. Unperforated metal partitions shall be equal to or stronger than 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) thick sheet steel. Openwork partitions shall be either wire grille at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) in diameter or expanded metal at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) in thickness.
The counterweight runway shall be permitted to be fully enclosed for the full height, provided that the partitions are removable in sections weighing not more than 25 kg (55 lb), that permit inspection and maintenance of the entire counterweight assembly and the inspection of the counterweight guide rails and guide-rail brackets.
When the car rests on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except as specified in 2.4.1.2.
The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not apply to

(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from any side of the car platform

(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the plane of the guide rails

(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rail

In no case shall the available refuge space be less than either of the following:

(a) a horizontal area of 600 mm × 1 200 mm (24 in. × 48 in.) with a height of 600 mm (24 in.)

(b) a horizontal area of 450 mm × 900 mm (18 in. × 35 in.) with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.)

Trenches and depressions or foundation encroachments permitted by 2.2.2.2 shall not be considered in determining these clearances.
When the car is resting on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, no part of the car, or any equipment attached thereto or equipment traveling with the car, shall strike any part of the pit or any equipment mounted therein.
In any area in the pit, outside the refuge space, where the vertical clearance is less than 600 mm (24 in.), that area shall be clearly marked on the pit floor. Markings shall not be required in the area under the platform guard and guiding means if that is the only area in the pit where the vertical clearance is less than 600 mm (24 in.). The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on the hoistway enclosure and be visible from within the pit and the entrance to the pit. The sign shall

(a) conform to the requirements of ANSI Z535.4 or CAN/CSA-Z321 (see Part 9)

(b) be made of durable material and shall be securely fastened

The bottom runby of cars and counterweights shall be not less than the requirements stated in 2.4.2.1 and 2.4.2.2.

Where oil buffers are used, the bottom runby shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.), except that

(a) where practical difficulties prevent a sufficient pit depth or where a top clearance cannot be provided to obtain the runby specified, it shall be permitted to be reduced

(b) where spring-return-type oil buffers are used, the runby shall be permitted to be eliminated so that the buffers are compressed by amounts not exceeding those permitted by 2.22.4.8, when the car floor is level with the terminal landings

Where spring buffers, elastomeric buffers, or solid bumpers are used, the bottom runby shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.), except for rheostatic and single-speed AC control, not less than shown in Table 2.4.2.2.

Table 2.4.2.2 Minimum Bottom Runby for Counterweight Elevators With Spring Buffers, Elastomeric Buffers, or Solid Bumpers and Rheostatic Control or Single-Speed AC Control

Rated Speed, m/s (ft/min) Runby, mm (in.)
Not over 0.13 (not over 25)            75 (3)
Over 0.13 to 0.25 (over 25 to 50)   150 (6)  
Over 0.25 to 0.50 (over 50 to 100) 225 (9)  
Over 0.50 to 1.0 (over 100 to 200) 300 (12)

The bottom runby of uncounterweighted elevators shall be not less than

(a) 75 mm (3 in.) where the rated speed does not exceed 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min)

(b) 150 mm (6 in.) where the rated speed exceeds 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min)

In no case shall the maximum bottom runby exceed

(a) 600 mm (24 in.) for cars

(b) 900 mm (35 in.) for counterweights

A data plate permanently and securely attached shall be provided in the pit, in the vicinity of the counterweight buffer, indicating the maximum designed counterweight runby. The data plate shall conform to 2.16.3.3, except that the letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) in height.

The maximum upward movement of a counterweighted elevator above the top landing shall be no more than the sum of either of the following:

(a) for elevators without tie-down compensation, dimensions specified in 2.4.6.1.1(a) through (c)

(b) for elevators with tie-down compensation, dimensions specified in 2.4.6.1.1(a), (b), and (d)

The following shall be used when calculating the maximum upward movement of a counterweighted elevator:

(a) the designed maximum bottom counterweight runby [see 2.4.4(b)]

(b) the stroke of the counterweight buffer, determined as follows:

(1) for full-stroke buffers, the stroke of the buffer used, or the remaining stroke when the buffer is compressed with the car at the top terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8); or

(2) for reduced-stroke oil buffers (see 2.22.4.1.2), the stroke of the buffer used.

(c) one-half of the gravity stopping distance, based on

(1) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emergency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no compensating-rope tie-down device in conformance with 2.21.4.2 is provided (see 8.2.4 for gravity stopping distances); or

(2) the governor tripping speed where spring buffers or elastomeric buffers are used.

(d) the distance to which the compensating-rope tie-down device, if provided (see 2.21.4.2), limits the jump of the car when the counterweight strikes the buffers at speeds specified in 2.4.6.1.1(c) plus the distance to account for the amount of compensation rope stretch.

The maximum upward movement of an uncounterweighted elevator above the top landing shall be no more than the distance from the top landing to the point

(a) where the driving machine operates the final terminal stopping switch (2.25.3.3.2) for a winding-drum machine; or

(b) where the car operates the upper final terminal stopping device (2.25.3.3.1) plus gravity stopping distance based on 115% of the rated speed for a traction machine.

When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, the clearance above the car top, measured vertically up to the horizontal plane described by the lowest part of the overhead structure or other obstruction and measured within the projection of the car enclosure top exclusive of the area outside the standard railing (2.10.2) where provided, shall be not less than 1 100 mm (43 in.). In no case shall the following additional clearances be less than:

(a) 600 mm (24 in.) above the car crosshead assembly except as permitted in 2.4.7.1(b) when the crosshead is located over the car enclosure top or the distance which any sheave assembly mounted in or on the crosshead projects above the top of the car crosshead, whichever is greater, but in no case shall there be less than 150 mm (6 in.) clearance above the sheave assembly.

(b) 300 mm (12 in.) above the car crosshead assembly where the crosshead is adjacent to the car enclosure top. The crosshead shall not overlap the car enclosure top by more than 100 mm (4 in.) horizontally.

(c) 600 mm (24 in.) above equipment attached to and projecting above the car enclosure top, exclusive of

(1) standard railings (see also 2.14.1.7.2)

(2) areas outside of the standard railing, the vertical clearance shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.)

(3) roller and sliding guide assemblies (see also 2.4.9)

(4) gatepost(s) for vertically sliding gates (see also 2.4.9). Spreader bars between gateposts with horizontal and vertical clearances not in compliance with 2.14.1.7.2 shall have yellow and black diagonal stripes of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) wide along the length of the spreader bar, mounted at a location visible from the car top

Any horizontal area above the car enclosure top and within the railing if supplied which could contain a circle with a diameter of equal to or greater than 350 mm (14 in.) that does not have a vertical clearance of 1 100 mm (43 in.) when the car has reached its maximum upward movement shall be clearly marked. The marking shall consist of alternating 50 mm (2 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, when markings are provided, sign(s) with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on the crosshead and be visible from the hoistway entrance(s). The sign(s) shall

(a) conform to the requirements of ANSI Z535.4 or CAN/CSA-Z321 (see Part 9)

(b) be made of durable material and shall be securely fastened

NOTE (2.4.7): See Nonmandatory Appendix G.

The top of counterweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following items:

(a) the bottom car runby (see 2.4.2)

(b) the stroke of the car buffer used, or the remaining stroke when the buffer is compressed with the car at the bottom terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8)

(c) 150 mm (6 in.)

(d) one-half of the gravity stopping distance based on

(1) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emergency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no provision is made to prevent the jump of the car at counterweight buffer engagement; or

(2) the governor tripping speed where spring buffers or elastomeric buffers are used (see 8.2.5 for gravity stopping distances)

(e) the distance to which the compensating-rope tie-down device, if provided (see 2.21.4.2), limits the jump of the counterweight when the car strikes the buffers at speeds specified in 2.4.8(d) plus the distance to account for the amount of compensation rope stretch

When the car has reached its maximum upward movement (2.4.6), roller and sliding guide assemblies and gateposts for vertically sliding gates shall not strike any part of the overhead structure or the equipment located in the hoistway.

The clearance between the car and the hoistway enclosure shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.), except on the sides used for loading and unloading.
The clearance between the car and the counterweight shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.). The clearance between the car and the counterweight guard, counterweight and the counterweight guard, and between the counterweight and the hoistway enclosure shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.).
The running clearance between the cars and any equipment attached thereto, of elevators operating in a multiple hoistway, shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.).
The clearance between the car platform sill and the hoistway edge of any landing sill, or the hoistway side of any vertically sliding counterweighted or counterbalanced hoistway door, or of any vertically sliding counterbalanced biparting hoistway door, shall be not less than

(a) where car side guides are used

  1. 13 mm (0.5 in.) for all elevators except freight elevators
  2. 20 mm (0.8 in.) for freight elevators

(b) where car corner guides are used, 20 mm (0.8 in.) The maximum clearance shall be not more than 32 mm (1.25 in.).

The clearance between the edge of the car platform sill and the hoistway enclosure or fascia plate for the full width of the clear hoistway door opening shall be not more than

(a) 190 mm (7.5 in.) for vertically sliding doors

(b) 125 mm (5 in.) for other doors

This clearance shall be maintained until the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer.
The clearance is not limited on passenger elevators, provided that

(a) a car door interlock conforming to 2.14.4.2 is provided to prevent a door from being opened unless the car is within the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1)

(b) the strength of the door complies with 2.11.11.2, 2.11.11.4, 2.11.11.6, 2.11.11.7, and 2.11.11.8

Where the lowest landing sill projects into the hoistway, the clearance between the car platform apron and the pit enclosure or fascia plate shall be not more than 32 mm (1.25 in.). This clearance shall be maintained until the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer.
The clearances specified in 2.5.1 shall be measured with no load on the car platform.

Where a hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the building and there is space below the hoistway that is accessible, requirements of 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 shall be complied with.

Where the space is underneath the counterweight and/or its guides

(a) the counterweight shall be provided with a counterweight safety conforming to 2.17.4

(b) spring buffers, if used, shall conform to 2.22, except that they shall not be fully compressed when struck by the counterweight at the following speeds (see 2.1.2.3):

  1. at governor tripping speed where the counterweight safety is governor operated, or
  2. 125% of the rated speed where the counterweight safety is not governor operated

Where the space is underneath the car and/or its guides and if spring buffers are used, they shall be so designed and installed that they will not be fully compressed solid or to a fixed stop when struck by the car with its rated load at the governor tripping speed (see 2.1.2.3).

A machinery space outside the hoistway containing an electric driving machine and a motor controller shall be a machine room.

Machinery space and control space enclosures located outside the hoistway and machine room and control room enclosures shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.1 or 2.7.1.2, and shall also conform to 2.7.1.3, as applicable.

Where the building code requires fire-resistive construction, the construction shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.1.1 and 2.7.1.1.2.
Spaces containing machines, motor controllers, sheaves, and other machinery shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a fire-resistive enclosure conforming to the requirements of the building code.
Openings in room and space enclosures shall be protected with access doors having a fire-protection rating conforming to the requirements of the building code.

NOTES (2.7.1.1):

  1. See 2.1.3 for floors of machine rooms and control rooms over the hoistway.
  2. See 2.8.1 for separating elevator machinery from building machinery.
  3. See 2.1.1.1.2 for partitions between machine rooms and hoistways.
Where the building code does not require fire-resistive construction, the construction shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.2.1 and 2.7.1.2.2.
Enclosure of the rooms or spaces shall comply with the following:

(a) Machine rooms and control rooms shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).

(b) Machinery spaces shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.), or to the height of the machinery space if it is less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).

(c) Control spaces shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).

The room and space enclosure, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
Where there is a difference in level exceeding 400 mm (16 in.), a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.3.1 and 2.7.3.3.2).

NOTE: Differences in levels of floors should be avoided where practicable.

Where machine beams are provided, the floor shall be located above or level with the top of the machine beams.
A clear path of not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be provided to all components that require maintenance.
All components requiring maintenance in machinery spaces and control spaces shall have safe and convenient access.
A clearance of not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be provided in the direction required for maintenance access.
Where a space is intended to be accessed with full bodily entry, then the requirements of 2.7.2.3 shall apply.
Where a space is not intended to be accessed with full bodily entry, then all components requiring maintenance shall have safe and convenient access.

NOTE (2.7.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).

A permanent and unobstructed means of access shall be provided to

(a) machine rooms and control rooms

(b) machinery spaces and control spaces outside the hoistway

(c) machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway that do not have a means of access to the space as specified in 2.7.3.1.2

Access to machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway

(a) from the pit shall comply with 2.2.4 and 2.7.5.2.4

(b) from the car top shall comply with 2.12.6 and 2.12.7

(c) from a platform shall comply with 2.7.5.3.5

(d) from inside the car shall comply with 2.7.5.1.4

Access to other locations within the building or access to machinery and equipment not related to elevators through the machinery space, machine room, control spaces, or control rooms shall not be permitted.
The requirements of 2.7.3.2.1 and 2.7.3.2.2 shall be conformed to where passage over roofs is necessary to reach the means of access to machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms.
A stairway with a swinging door and platform at the top level, conforming to 2.7.3.3, shall be provided from the top floor of the building to the roof level. Hatch covers, as a means of access to roofs, shall not be permitted.
Where the passage is over a roof having a slope exceeding 15 deg from the horizontal, or over a roof where there is no parapet or guardrail at least 1 070 mm (42 in.) high around the roof or passageway, a permanent, unobstructed and substantial walkway not less than 600 mm (24 in.) wide, equipped on each side with a railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided from the building exit door at the roof level to the means of access.
The means of access to the following shall conform to 2.7.3.3.1 through 2.7.3.3.6:

(a) machine rooms, control rooms, and machinery spaces and control spaces outside the hoistway, and machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway that do not have a means of access to the space as specified in 2.7.3.1.2

(b) between different floor levels in machine rooms, in control rooms, and in machinery spaces or control spaces outside the hoistway

(c) from within machine rooms or control rooms to machinery spaces and control spaces

A permanent, fixed, noncombustible ladder or stair shall be provided where the floor of the room or the space above or below the floor or roof from which the means of access leads, or where the distance between floor levels in the room or space, is more than 200 mm (8 in.).
A permanent, noncombustible stair shall be provided where the floor of the room or the space above or below the floor or roof from which the means of access leads, or where the distance between floor levels in the room or space, is 900 mm (35 in.) or more. Vertical ladders with handgrips shall be permitted to be used in lieu of stairs for access to overhead machinery spaces, except those containing controllers and motor generators.
Permanent, fixed, noncombustible ladders shall conform to ANSl A14.3.
Permanent, noncombustible stairs shall have a maximum angle of 60 deg from the horizontal, and shall be equipped with a noncombustible railing conforming to 2.10.2.1, 2.10.2.2, and 2.10.2.3.
A permanent, noncombustible platform or floor shall be provided at the top of the stairs conforming with the following:

(a) Railings conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided on each open side.

(b) The floor of the platform shall be at the level of not more than 200 mm (8 in.) below the level of the access-door sill.

(c) The depth of the platform shall be not less than 750 mm (29.5 in.), and the width not less than the width of the door.

(d) The size of the platform shall be sufficient to permit the full swing of the door plus 600 mm (24 in.) from the top riser to the swing line of the door.

Where a ladder is provided, a permanent, noncombustible platform or floor shall be provided at the top of the ladder, conforming with the following:

(a) Railings conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided on each open side.

(b) The floor of the platform shall be located below the level of the access-door sill by a vertical distance of not more than 200 mm (8 in.) where full bodily entry is required, and by a vertical distance of not more than 900 mm (35 in.) where full bodily entry is not required.

(c) The depth of the platform shall be not less than 915 mm (36 in.) and the width not less than the width of the door or a minimum of 915 mm (36 in.), whichever is greater.

(d) The size of the platform shall be sufficient to permit the full swing of the door plus 600 mm (24 in.) from the standard railing to the swing line of the door.

(e) The ladder or handgrips shall extend a minimum of 1 220 mm (48 in.) above the platform floor level and shall be located on the access door/panel strike jamb side of the platform.

(f) The railing on the access side shall be provided with a hinged section not less than 600 mm (24 in.) wide with a latchable end adjacent to the ladder.

Access doors shall be

(a) self-closing and self-locking

(b) provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the doors to be opened from the inside without a key

(c) kept closed and locked

Access doors to machine rooms and control rooms shall be provided. They shall be of a minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) and a minimum height of 2 030 mm (80 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see Section 8.1).
Access doors for spaces specified in 2.7.4.2, 2.7.4.3, and 2.7.4.4 other than those for machine rooms or control rooms shall be a minimum width and height of 750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see Section 8.1).
Access doors for control spaces outside the hoistway shall be a minimum width and height of 750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see Section 8.1).
Doors are not required at openings in machine room or control room floors for access to machinery spaces outside the hoistway, provided the access opening is provided on all four sides with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2, one side of which is arranged to slide or swing to provide access to the ladder or stairs leading to the space. Trap doors, where provided, shall have a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 or guard wings on all open nonaccess sides.
Access openings located in the machinery space floor, secondary level floor, machine room floor, control space floor, or control room floor for access into the hoistway shall be provided with doors that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys to unlock the access doors shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).
Access openings in elevator hoistway enclosures where full bodily entry is not necessary for maintenance and inspection of components shall be

(a) located to permit the required maintenance and inspection.

(b) of maximum width of 600 mm (24 in.) and a maximum height of 600 mm (24 in.). These dimensions shall be permitted to be increased, provided that any resultant opening through the access opening into the hoistway shall reject a 300 mm (12 in.) diameter ball.

(c) provided with doors that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys to unlock the access doors to the elevator hoistways shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.24, or a disconnecting means where required by NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), accessible and visible from the point of access to machinery spaces or control spaces shall be provided for each elevator. Where access to machinery spaces is from the pit, from the top of the car, or from inside the car, the stop switch in the pit, the stop switch on top of the car, or, where provided, the emergency stop switch in the car, respectively, meet these requirements.
Elevator machine rooms, control rooms, and machinery spaces containing an elevator driving machine not located in the hoistway shall have a clear headroom of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.). (See also 2.7.4.5.)
Where a floor or platform is provided at the top of the hoistway (see 2.1.3), machinery spaces above such a floor or platform shall have a clear headroom of not less than the following:

(a) spaces containing motor-generators, 2 130 mm (84 in.)

(b) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, 1 070 mm (42 in.)

(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or other equipment, 1 350 mm (53 in.)

Where floors are provided under overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves [see 2.7.4.2(b) and (c)], the machine and supporting beams shall be permitted to encroach on the required headroom, provided there is a clearance of not less than 900 mm (35 in.) high and minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) in the path of access to sheaves, governors, signal machines, or other equipment.
Where a machinery space is located outside but not above the hoistway, the headroom of the area from which any work is performed on the equipment located inside such space shall be not less than 2 000 mm (78 in.), except

(a) spaces containing motor-generators, the headroom shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.)

(b) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, the headroom shall be not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.)

(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or other equipment, the headroom shall be not less than 1 350 mm (53 in.)

(d) as permitted in 2.7.4.3

When working from inside the car, or from the top of the car in accordance with 2.7.5.1, or from the pit in accordance with 2.7.5.2, the headroom when the means required by 2.7.5.1 or 2.7.5.2 are engaged shall

(a) comply with the height of working space requirements of NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)

(b) in no case be less than 1 350 mm (53 in.)

Control spaces outside the hoistway intended for full bodily entry shall have a clear headroom of not less than 2 000 mm (78 in.) or the height of the equipment, whichever is the greater.

NOTE: For control spaces outside the hoistway not intended for full bodily entry, see NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).

The requirements of 2.7.5.1.1 through 2.7.5.1.4 shall be complied with if maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving-machine brake, emergency brake, elevator motion controller, or motor controller are to be carried out from inside the car or from the car top.
If maintenance or inspection of the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers from inside the car or from the car top could result in unexpected vertical car movement, a means to prevent this movement shall be provided.
The means shall

(a) be independent of the elevator driving-machine brake, emergency brake, motion controller, and motor controller.

(b) support not less than the unbalanced weight of the system with no load and up to rated load (see also 2.16.8) in the car and all suspension ropes in place. The minimum factor of safety shall be not less than 3.5, and the materials used shall not have an elongation of less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8.

(c) when in the engaged position, actuate an electrical device conforming to 2.26.2.34, that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake.

(d) not cause stresses and deflections that exceed the applicable requirements for the structure(s) to which the means transmits load based on 100% of the static unbalanced weight of the system (see also 2.16.8).

(e) have a sign in conformance with the requirements of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable, that shall be prominently posted in the work area stating: "WARNING! Engage '_______' before maintaining or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or controller. Follow manufacturers instructions for use of '_______'" (see 8.6.11.6). Unless the means has been designed to support not less than the unsuspended car with rated load (see also 2.16.8), it shall also contain the following wording: "Elevator suspension means must be in place during use."

NOTE: Substitute name of actual means for "_______" in the above signage.

(f) be so designed as to prevent accidental disengagement.

(g) when engaged, not require electrical power or the completion or maintenance of an electrical circuit to remain engaged.

When the means required in 2.7.5.1.1 is engaged, egress from the working area shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.4.3 and 8.6.11.7).

The use of the car top emergency exit for egress and re-entry is permitted subject to the following:

(a) All edges of the exit opening are smooth and free of burrs.

(b) Means shall be provided to descend safely to the floor of the car, and subsequently ascend safely to the car top.

(c) The means required in 2.7.5.1.1 shall not be arranged to be engaged at a position that would permit a vertical gap between the bottom of the vertical face of the platform guard and the elevator landing sill.

If provided, equipment access panels in the car for access to equipment outside the car shall comply with 2.14.2.2(g)(1), (2), and (5) and shall be provided with

(a) a key-operated lock capable of being locked without a key

(b) an electrical switch that shall cause the power to be removed from the driving machine motor and brake when the access panel is open (see 2.26.2.35)

(c) a key that shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1)

The access panels shall be kept closed and locked, shall not be self-closing, and shall be self-locking.

The requirements of 2.7.5.2.1 through 2.7.5.2.4 shall be complied with if maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers is to be carried out from the pit.
The following shall be provided:

(a) a means in compliance with 2.7.5.1.1, 2.7.5.1.2, and 2.7.4.5 shall be provided; or

(b) a mechanical device shall be provided to stop vertical car movement to create a vertical clearance as required by 2.7.4.5 between the floor of the working area and the lowest part of the car, and between the floor of the working area and the counterweight where a counterweight guard in conformance with 2.3.2 is not provided.

(1) The mechanical device shall be able to stop vertical car movement at up to and including 115% of rated speed with rated load. The retardation shall not exceed that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable.

(2) The mechanical device shall be permitted to be moved into the active position manually or automatically.

(3) When the mechanical device is in the active position, it shall operate an electrical contact, which when in the open position, shall permit the car to move only on inspection operation [see 2.26.1.4.1 and 2.26.9.3(d)]. The electrical contact shall be positively opened mechanically and its opening shall not depend solely on springs.

(4) A sign in conformance with the requirements of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable, shall be prominently posted in the work area stating: "WARNING! Position '____' before maintaining or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or controller. Follow manufacturers instructions for use of '____'" (see 8.6.11.6).

NOTE: Substitute name of actual device for "____" in the above signage.

(5) The mechanical device shall be designed to prevent accidental movement from the active position.

(6) The mechanical device shall not require electrical power or the completion or maintenance of an electrical circuit to be maintained in the active position.

Pit inspection operation, in compliance with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be provided in the pit (see 2.26.1.4.4).
When the means required in 2.7.5.2.1 is in the active position, safe and convenient egress from the working area shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.4.3 and 8.6.11.7).

(a) Where the egress is through the landing door

(1) the landing door shall be openable from the hoistway side

(2) the means shall be arranged to provide vertical clearance of not less than 1 220 mm (48 in.) between the bottom edge of the platform guard and the elevator landing

(b) Where the egress is through a separate pit access door, the door opening shall not be blocked by the car.

Where maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers is to be carried out from the pit, and the distance from the pit floor to this equipment is more than 2 100 mm (83 in.), a means shall be permanently installed or permanently stored in the pit to provide access to the equipment.
A platform located in the car, on the car, or in the hoistway shall be permitted for access to and maintenance and inspection of equipment in machinery spaces or control spaces in the hoistway and shall comply with 2.7.5.3.1 through 2.7.5.3.6 (see also 8.6.11.8).
A working platform shall be permanently installed, and it shall be permitted to be retractable. Retractable platforms, that are in the line of movement of the car or counterweight when in the operating position, shall operate a working platform electrical device(s) (see 2.26.2.36) that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake unless the platform is in its fully retracted position (see 8.6.11.8).
A working platform shall be able to support in any position at least 2 000 N (450 lbf), with a load concentration of at least 1 000 N (225 lbf) over an area of 40 000 mm2 (64 in.2) with a factor of safety of not less than 5. If the platform is to be used for handling heavy equipment, the dimensions and the strength of the platform shall be considered accordingly.
A working platform shall be provided with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 on all open or exposed sides where a 300 mm (12 in.) ball can pass between the edges of the platform and the adjacent hoistway enclosure and the difference in level between the platform and the surrounding surface exceeds 400 mm (16 in.).
Where a car or counterweight passes within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from a working platform, a means of protection against shearing hazards shall be provided to a height as measured from the platform standing surface of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.), or not less than the maximum upward movement of the car or counterweight. The means shall be at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm (0.074 in.) thick sheet steel. If perforated, it shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.
Where the access to a working platform that is in the line of movement of the car or counterweight is not through the elevator landing doors, but through an access panel or door in the hoistway, the access panel or door shall meet the requirements of 2.11.1.2(b), (d), and (e) through (i).
Working platform inspection operation, in compliance with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be provided at the location of a working platform. [See 2.7.5.5(b) for additional requirements when the working platform is in the line of movement of the car.]
Working platforms in the line of movement of the car or counterweight shall be permitted

(a) where retractable stops are provided and the car is

(1) below the platform, the travel of the elevator shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner that the car shall be stopped below the platform at least the distance required for top-of-car clearance (see 2.4.7)

(2) above the platform, the travel of the elevator shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner that the car shall be stopped above the platform at least the distance required in 2.7.4.5; or

(b) where the elevator is provided with a device conforming to 2.7.5.1.1 and 2.7.5.1.2

Retractable stops, where provided, shall

(a) be equipped with a retractable stop electrical device(s) (see 2.26.2.37), that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake, unless the stops are completely in the retracted position.

(b) be permitted to be equipped with an electrical device(s) that permits operation of the car only on inspection operation when the platform is in the operating position and the stops are in the fully extended position. When provided with such an electrical device and the stop(s) is in the extended position, an additional stopping device conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.3 through 2.25.3.5 shall cause the car to stop before it strikes the movable stop(s). This additional stopping device shall be rendered ineffective when the stop(s) is in the retracted position. Any electrical device(s) used to render the additional stopping device ineffective shall be in conformance with 2.26.4.3, 2.26.9.3.1(a), 2.26.9.3.2, and 2.26.9.4.

(c) be operable from outside the hoistway or from the platform.

(d) be able to stop the car traveling at 115% of rated speed with rated load. The retardation shall not exceed that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable.

(e) be so designed as to prevent accidental disengagement.

Elevator machine rooms and control rooms, where provided, shall not be located in the hoistway.
Machinery spaces and control spaces shall be permitted to be located inside or outside the hoistway.

NOTE: Inside the hoistway includes, but is not limited to, on or in the car, on the counterweight, or in the pit.

The location of equipment used directly in connection with the elevator shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.6.3.1 through 2.7.6.3.4.
The electric driving machine shall be located in a machinery space or machine room.
The motor controller shall be located in a machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.

A motor controller shall be permitted to be located outside the specified spaces, provided it is enclosed in a locked cabinet. The locked cabinet shall be

(a) readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times.

(b) provided with cabinet door(s) or panel(s) that are not self-closing, that are self-locking, and that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) lit by permanently installed electric lighting with a lighting intensity of at least 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level.

(d) located in a space that is provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer to ensure safe and normal operation of the elevator. The temperature and humidity range shall be permanently posted on the cabinet.

(e) labeled/marked "AGP" in accordance with the requirements of CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5 (see 2.26.4.2).

(f) provided with a sign in conformance with the requirements of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, that shall be prominently posted on the inside of the motor controller cabinet door indicating in letters not less than 25 mm (1 in.) high, "DOOR TO BE CLOSED AND LOCKED WHEN ELEVATOR PERSONNEL ARE NOT PRESENT AT THIS CONTROLLER."

NOTE (2.7.6.3.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).

Where sheaves and other equipment (except governors) are located overhead inside the hoistway, they shall be provided with a means of access from outside the hoistway conforming to the requirements of 2.7.3.3, unless they can be inspected and serviced from the top of the car.
Where a governor is located inside the hoistway, means of access conforming to the requirements of 2.7.3.3 and 2.7.3.4 for inspection and servicing the governor shall be provided from outside the hoistway. The access opening shall not be required where

(a) the governor can be inspected and serviced from the top of the car or adjacent car, and the governor can be tripped for testing from the adjacent car or outside the hoistway; and means are furnished to prevent movement of the car when servicing the governor. A sign with the words "SECURE CAR AGAINST MOVEMENT BEFORE SERVICING THE GOVERNOR" shall be prominently posted and be visible from the governor. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable. The sign shall be of such material and construction that the letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily legible; and

(b) for elevators in a single hoistway, the governor can be reset automatically when the car is moved in the up direction or the governor can be reset from outside the hoistway.

Where an elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or an elevator motion controller or motor controller is located in the hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests that require movement of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or emergency brake, shall be provided and arranged so that they can be operated from outside the hoistway and shall conform to 2.7.6.4.1 through 2.7.6.4.3. These means are also permitted to be used by elevator personnel for passenger rescue.
Where direct observation of the elevator drive sheave or ropes is not possible from the location of the means necessary for tests that require movement of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or emergency brake, display devices or the equivalent shall be provided. They shall be visible from the location of the means and shall convey the following information about the elevator simultaneously:

(a) the direction of movement

(b) the reaching of a position within the door unlocking zone (see 2.12.1)

(c) an indication of the speed

The display devices or the equivalent shall remain operable during a failure of the normal building power supply. The power source shall be capable of providing for the operation of the display devices or the equivalent for at least 4 h. Where batteries are used, a monitoring system shall be provided. In the event that during normal operation of the car, the monitoring indicates insufficient power to operate the display devices or the equivalent, the car shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop at a landing.

The means necessary for tests shall be permitted to be located within an inspection and test panel conforming to the requirements of 2.7.6.5.2.
A means to move the car from outside the hoistway shall be provided and it shall conform to the following:

(a) It shall not be dependent on the availability of normal power.

(b) It shall be accessible for operation by elevator personnel only with a key that is Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) It shall allow the car to move only with continuous effort.

(d) If the car is moved manually, the effort required to move the car in the direction of load imbalance shall not exceed 400 N (90 lbf). If the means used is removable, it shall be stored outside the hoistway and access to the means shall be with a key that is Group 1 Security. It shall be suitably marked to indicate the machine for which it is intended.

(e) Where the manual effort required to move the car exceeds 400 N (90 lbf), a means of electrical operation shall be provided to allow the car to be moved. This means of electrical operation shall require constant pressure operating devices to move the car, and when activated, operation of the car by all other operating means shall be prevented. A failure of a single constant pressure operating device shall not permit the elevator to move or continue to move. Where batteries are used for this electrical operation, a monitoring system shall be provided. In the event that during normal operation of the car the monitoring system indicates insufficient power to move the car, the car shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop at a landing.

The inspection and test panel shall be required where any of the following are not accessible from outside the hoistway:

(a) the devices necessary for the manual reset of the detection means for ascending car overspeed protection [see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against unintended car movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)], or

(b) the circuits of the following devices:

(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9)

(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 2.26.2.22)

(3) the top and bottom final terminal stopping devices (see 2.26.2.11)

(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, where provided (see 2.26.2.10)

The inspection and test panel, where provided, shall be accessible from outside the hoistway and shall

(a) be readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times.

(b) have the required devices located behind a locked door or panel that does not open into the hoistway, that is not self-closing, that is self-locking, and that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

(c) be provided with a stop switch, conforming to 2.26.2.24.

(d) be lit by permanently installed electric lighting with a lighting intensity of at least 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. A switch placed inside or close to the enclosure shall control lighting of the enclosure.

(e) include the display devices as required by 2.7.6.4.1.

(f) include the "CAR DOOR BYPASS" and "HOISTWAY DOOR BYPASS" switches where required by 2.26.1.5.

(g) include the devices necessary for the manual reset of the detection means for ascending car overspeed protection [see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against unintended car movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)] where these devices are not accessible from outside the hoistway.

(h) where the circuits of the devices in 2.7.6.5.1(b)(1) through (4) are not accessible from outside the hoistway, include landing inspection operation in conformance with 2.26.1.4.4, and that shall be permitted to render ineffective the following electrical protective devices, individually or as a group or groups, in conformance with the requirements of 2.26.9.3.1(a), 2.26.9.3.2, and 2.26.9.4:

(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9)

(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 2.26.2.22)

(3) the top and bottom final terminal stopping devices (see 2.26.2.11)

(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, where provided (see 2.26.2.10)

NOTE (2.7.6.5): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). See also 2.8.3.3.2.

Machines, control equipment, sheaves, and other machinery shall not be exposed to the weather unless they are suitable for the application.

When a machine room or control room is located underneath the hoistway, it shall conform to 2.7.7.1 through 2.7.7.5.

The machine or control room shall have a solid ceiling (pit floor, at the normal pit depth) of concrete or steel above the machine room or control room, with a minimum 2 130 mm (84 in.) clearance above the machine room or control room floor.
The ceiling of the machine or control room shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 1 000 N (225 lbf) on any 2 000 mm2 (3 in.2) area, and it shall be designed for a live load of 6 kPa (125 lbf/ft2) and loads imposed by rails and/or buffers, if applicable.
The car and counterweight guide rails and buffer supports shall be permitted to extend into the machine room and be supported by the machine room floor. If the counterweight buffer or buffer support extends to the machine room or control room floor, a counterweight safety is not required unless the space below the machine room is not permanently secured against access. If a counterweight buffer is supported at the machine room ceiling (pit floor), a counterweight safety is required. (See 2.6.1 for additional requirements.)
The solid ceiling (pit floor at normal pit depth) shall be permitted to be slotted for the penetration of equipment (suspension ropes, selector drives, electrical conduit, rails, buffers, etc.). Passage and guards shall be provided in conformance with 2.3.2 and 2.10.1 for both the machine or control room and pit. A counterweight guard shall be installed at the pit floor as well as the machine or control room floor if the counterweight extends into the machine or control room and 2.3.2.1(a) does not apply. The guard in the machine or control room shall extend to the ceiling.
Compensating ropes or chains and traveling cables shall not extend into the machine room located underneath the hoistway.

Elevators that are provided with remote machine rooms and/or control rooms shall conform to 2.7.8.1 through 2.7.8.4.

Ropes and sheaves leading to the remote machine room that penetrate fire barriers shall be fully enclosed, and the enclosures shall conform to 2.1.1.1.
Rope and sheave enclosures leading to the remote machine room shall be protected against unauthorized access.
Permanent means of access shall be provided to the enclosures for inspection, repair, and maintenance of hoist ropes passing over sheaves that are not located in the hoistway or remote machine rooms. Access doors to these enclosures shall be provided at each sheave location, conforming to 2.7.3.4. Access openings shall be provided for inspection and maintenance of hoist ropes passing over sheaves and shall conform to 2.7.3.4. A stop switch meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.23, a permanent electric duplex receptacle, a light switch, and light shall be provided in the enclosures immediately inside the access doors and openings.
A permanent means of communication between the elevator car and remote machine room and or control room shall be provided.
Permanently installed electric lighting shall be provided in all machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms. The illumination shall be not less than 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level, at the standing surface of a working platform (see 2.7.5.3), or at the level of the standing surface when the car is in the blocked position (see 2.7.5.1). The light switch shall be located at the point of entry

(a) for machinery spaces and control spaces, and

(b) for machine rooms and control rooms, inside the room and where practicable on the lock-jamb side of the access door

Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall be provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer to ensure safe and normal operation of the elevator. The temperature and humidity range shall be permanently posted in the machine room, control room, control space, or where specified by the equipment manufacturer, in the machinery space.

Only machinery and equipment used directly in connection with the elevator shall be permitted in elevator hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms.

Installation of electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to NFPA 70 or CSA C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
Only such electrical wiring, raceways, cables, coaxial wiring, and antennas used directly in connection with the elevator, including wiring for signals, for communication with the car, for lighting, heating, air conditioning, and ventilating the car, for fire detecting systems, for pit sump pumps, and for heating and lighting the hoistway and/or the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be permitted to be installed inside the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
Bonding conductors from the lightning protection system grounding down conductor to long vertical metal bodies in the hoistway such as elevator rails and vertical wireways shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway as required by NFPA 780, or CAN/CSA-B72, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The lightning protection system grounding down conductor shall not be permitted in the hoistway, and the elevator rails shall not be used as the lightning protection system grounding down conductor. Bonding conductors installed in the hoistway shall not interfere with the operation of the elevator.
Steam and hot-water pipes shall be permitted to be installed in hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms for the purpose of heating these areas only, subject to 2.8.3.1.1 through 2.8.3.1.3.
Heating pipes shall convey only low-pressure steam [100 kPa (15 psi) or less] or hot water [100°C (212°F) or less].
All risers and return pipes shall be located outside the hoistway. When the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room is located above the roof of the building, heating pipes for the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be permitted to be located in the hoistway between the top floor and the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
Traps and shutoff valves shall be provided in accessible locations outside the hoistway.
Ducts shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room for the purpose of heating, cooling, ventilating, and venting these areas only and shall not encroach upon the required clearances.
Sprinkler systems conforming to NFPA 13 or the NBCC, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room subject to 2.8.3.3.1 through 2.8.3.3.4.
All risers shall be located outside these spaces. Branch lines in the hoistway shall supply sprinklers at not more than one floor level. When the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room is located above the roof of the building, risers and branch lines for these sprinklers shall be permitted to be located in the hoistway between the top floor and the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, where elevator equipment is located or its enclosure is configured such that application of water from sprinklers could cause unsafe elevator operation, means shall be provided to automatically disconnect the main line power supply to the affected elevator and any other power supplies used to move the elevator upon or prior to the application of water.

(a) This means shall be independent of the elevator control and shall not be self-resetting.

(b) Heat detectors and sprinkler flow switches used to initiate main line elevator power shutdown shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 72.

(c) The activation of sprinklers outside of such locations shall not disconnect the main line elevator power supply. See also 2.27.3.3.6.

Smoke detectors shall not be used to activate sprinklers in these spaces or to disconnect the main line power supply.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, when sprinklers are installed not more than 600 mm (24 in.) above the pit floor, 2.8.3.3.4(a) and (b) apply to elevator electrical equipment and wiring in the hoistway located less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) above the pit floor, except earthquake protective devices conforming to 8.4.10.1.2(e); and on the exterior of the car at the point where the car platform sill and the lowest landing hoistway door sill are in vertical alignment.

(a) Elevator electrical equipment shall be weatherproof (Type 4 as specified in NEMA 250).

(b) Elevator wiring, except traveling cables, shall be identified for use in wet locations in accordance with the requirements in NFPA 70.

Other pipes or ducts conveying gases, vapors, or liquid and not used in connection with the operation of the elevator shall not be installed in any hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room. Where a machinery space, machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway extend above the roof of a building, pipes shall be permitted from roof drains to the closest point where they can be diverted out of this space. Pipes shall be covered to prevent leakage or condensate from entering the machinery space, machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway.
Where permitted and provided, pipes, drains, and tanks, or similar equipment that contains liquids, shall not be located directly above the elevator equipment and shall not encroach upon the required clearances in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.

Listed/certified electrical heaters shall be permitted.

Air conditioning equipment is permitted to be installed in machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, or control rooms for the purpose of cooling these areas only, subject to 2.8.5.1 through 2.8.5.5.

Air conditioning equipment shall not be located directly above elevator equipment.
The clear headroom below suspended air conditioning equipment shall conform to 2.7.4.
Means shall be provided to collect and drain condensation water from these spaces. Condensation drains shall not be located directly above elevator equipment. Drains connected directly to sewers shall not be installed.
Safe and convenient access within the elevator machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be provided to the air-conditioning equipment for servicing and maintaining.

NOTE: See also 2.7.3.1.

There shall be no exposed gears, sprockets, belts, pulleys, or chains.

NOTES (2.8.5):

  1. See 2.8.3.2 for requirements for duct work.
  2. These requirements do not pertain to air-conditioning equipment used to cool selective elevator equipment.

Enclosed moving, rotating, hanging machinery, equipment, stationary decorative lighting, stationary signage or other stationary special effects devices, securely attached to either one or more of the car, counterweight, or hoistway shall be permitted, provided that the elevator, including the equipment and devices, conforms to 2.4, 2.5, 2.8.1, 2.14.2.1.1, 2.15.7, 8.2.2.1, and 8.2.9.1. Any unenclosed moving, rotating, or hanging machinery or equipment, attached to the exterior of the car or counterweight, interior of the hoistway, exterior of the car, or any other elevator equipment in the hoistway is prohibited unless it is used in conjunction with the designed use of the elevator.

Machines, machinery, sheaves, and hitches shall be supported by overhead beams, structural floors, structural walls, or guide rails.

Machines, machinery, and sheaves shall be so supported and maintained in place as to prevent any part from becoming loose or displaced under the conditions imposed in service.
Supporting beams, if used, shall be of steel or reinforced concrete.
Beams are not required under machine(s), sheave(s), and machinery or control equipment that is supported on floors, provided such floors are designed and installed to support the load imposed thereon, or where supported by guide rails or structural walls designed to meet the requirements of 2.9.3.3.
Overhead beams, floors, and their supports shall be designed for not less than the sum of the following loads:

(a) the load resting on the beams and supports, that shall include the complete weight of the machine, sheaves, controller, governor, and any other equipment, together with that portion, if any, of the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room floor supported thereon

(b) two times the sum of the tensions in all wire ropes supported by the beams, floors, and their supports with rated load in the car

NOTE [2.9.2.1(b)]: These tensions are doubled to take care of accelerations and decelerations.

The supports for machines and sheaves located below or at the sides of the hoistway shall meet the requirements of 2.9.2.2.1 through 2.9.2.2.4.
The foundation shall support the total weight of the machine, sheaves, and other equipment, and the floor, if any.
The sheave beams and the foundation bolts shall withstand two times the vertical force component acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes, less the weight of the machine or sheaves.
The sheave beams and the foundation bolts shall withstand two times the horizontal force component, if any, acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes.
The foundation shall withstand two times the overturning moment, if any, acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes.
Where overhead beams and floors are used to support machinery or equipment, the machinery or equipment shall be secured to and supported on or from the top of overhead beams or floors, except for the following equipment:

(a) secondary or deflecting sheaves of traction elevators

(b) devices and their accessories for limiting or retarding car speed

Securing bolts or fastenings are not required where sound isolation in compression is used between bases of machinery or equipment and supporting beams or floors.
Machines and sheaves located below or at one side of a hoistway shall be anchored to beams, foundations, or floors with bolts, conforming to ASTM A307, of sufficient size and number to withstand the applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based on these initial loads, total tension in anchor bolts shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the total shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
Where bolts are used through greater than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural shapes, the bolt heads shall be of the tipped or beveled head type or shall be fitted with beveled steel washers, and nuts on greater than 5 deg sloping flanges shall seat on beveled steel washers.
Machines, sheaves, equipment, and hitches shall be permitted to be secured to and supported by the guide rails or structural walls, provided that the tension in the hoisting ropes and the weight of the equipment will not develop direct tensions in the bolts or rivets.
Securing bolts or fastenings are not required where sound isolation in compression is used between bases of machinery or equipment and their supports.
Bolts used to secure equipment to the guide rails or structural walls shall conform to ASTM A307, and be of sufficient size and number to withstand the applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based on these initial loads, total tension in support bolts shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the total shear in bolts and rivets shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. The requirements of 2.9.3.2.2 for bolts and 2.9.3.4.3 and 2.9.3.4.4 for hitch plates shall also apply. The stresses in welds due to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa (8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
Guide rails used to support machines, equipment, sheaves, and hitches shall meet the requirements of 2.23.4.
Where hoisting ropes are secured to the structure above a hoistway, the hitch plates and hitchplate blocking beams, where used, shall be secured to and mounted on top of overhead beams, machine beams, or on top of auxiliary beams connected to the webs of overhead beams.
Hitch plates, blocking, or auxiliary beams shall be secured by bolts conforming to ASTM A307, rivets conforming to ASTM A502, or welding conforming to 8.8, and shall be so located that the tension in the hoisting ropes will not develop direct tensions in the bolts or rivets. Where bolts and rivets are subjected to shearing stresses due to tension in the hoisting ropes, the total shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. The stresses in welds due to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa (8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
The hitch plate supporting structure shall be designed to withstand two times the sum of the tensions in all hoisting ropes attached to the hitch plates. (See also 2.15.13.)
Total stresses in hitch plates and hitchplate shapes shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi).
Bolts made of steel used to comply with the requirements of 2.9.3.2.1, 2.9.3.3.3, and 2.9.3.4.2 having a greater strength than specified by ASTM A307 shall be permitted, provided that the maximum allowable stresses increased proportionally based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths. Elongation shall conform to the requirements of the corresponding ASTM specification.
Cast metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with ASTM E8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall not be used to support machinery or equipment from the underside of overhead beams or floors.
The unit stresses for all machinery and sheave beams and floors and their supports, based on the loads computed as specified in 2.9.2 or 2.9.6, whichever is greater, shall not exceed 80% of those permitted for static loads by the following standards:

(a) Structural Steel. AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).

(b) Reinforced Concrete. ANSI/ACI 318 or CAN3-A23.3, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).

Where stresses due to loads, other than elevator loads supported on the beams or floor, exceed those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the permitted stresses are permitted.
Cast metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with ASTM E8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall not be used to support machinery or equipment from guide rails or structural walls.

The allowable deflections of machinery and sheave beams, their immediate supports, and any support members loaded in bending that transmit load to guide rails or structural walls under static load shall not exceed 1/1666 of the span.

Machinery and sheave beams, supports, any support members that transmit load to guide rails or structural walls and any fastenings subject to forces due to the application of the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to withstand the maximum forces developed during the retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the resulting stresses due to the emergency braking and all other loading acting simultaneously, if applicable, shall not exceed those specified in 2.9.4.

In machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms, the following shall be guarded to protect against accidental contact:

(a) driving-machine sheaves and ropes whose vertical projection upon a horizontal plane extends beyond the base of the machine, unless the driving-machine sheave is so located as to minimize the possibility of contact

(b) sheaves

(c) exposed gears, sprockets, tape or rope sheaves, or drums of selectors, floor controllers, or signal machines, and their driving ropes, chains, or tapes

(d) keys, keyways, and screws in projecting shafts

Handwinding wheels and flywheels that are not guarded shall have yellow markings.

A standard railing shall be substantially constructed of metal and shall consist of a top rail, intermediate rail or equivalent structural member or solid panel, and toe-board.

The top rail shall have a smooth surface, and the upper surface shall be located at a vertical height of not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) and not more than 1 095 mm (43 in.) from the working surface.
The intermediate rail or equivalent structural member or solid panel shall be located approximately centered between the top rail and the working surface.
The toe-board shall be securely fastened and have a height not less than 100 mm (4 in.) above the working surface.
A standard railing shall be capable of resisting anywhere along its length the following forces when applied separately, without deflecting more than 75 mm (3 in.) and without permanent deformation:

(a) a force of at least 890 N (200 lbf) applied in any lateral or downward vertical direction, at any point along the top rail.

(b) a force of at least 666 N (150 lbf) applied in any lateral or downward vertical direction at any point along the center of the intermediate rail, member, or panel. If the standard railing is a solid panel extending from the top rail to the toe-board, the application of the force specified in 2.10.2.4(a) shall be considered to meet the requirements of 2.10.2.4(b).

(c) a force of 225 N (50 lbf) applied in a lateral direction to the toe-board.

All elevator hoistway landing openings shall be provided with entrances that shall guard the full height and width of the openings. Entrances shall be at least 2 030 mm (80 in.) in height and 800 mm (31.5 in.) in width.
Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, there shall be installed in the blind portion of the hoistway an emergency door at every third floor, but not more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to sill, conforming to the following:

(a) The clear opening shall be at least 700 mm (28 in.) wide and 2 030 mm (80 in.) high.

(b) It shall be easily accessible and free from fixed obstructions.

(c) It shall be either of the horizontally sliding or swinging single-section type, irrespective of the type of door installed at other landings.

(d) It shall be self-closing and self-locking and shall be marked, in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high, "DANGER, ELEVATOR HOISTWAY."

(e) It shall be provided with an electric contact that will prevent the operation of the driving machine unless the door is closed (see 2.26.2.25).

(f) It shall be unlocked from the landing side only through the use of a cylinder-type lock, having not less than five pins or five discs. The cylinder lock shall

(1) not be unlocked by any key that will open any other lock or device used for any purpose in the building

(2) be so designed that the key shall be removable only in the locked position

(g) It shall be openable from the hoistway side without the use of a key.

(h) The key shall be of Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1). This key shall also be made available to emergency personnel during an emergency.

(i) A hinged self-closing barrier independent of the door shall be installed horizontally across the entrance on the hoistway side at a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.). The barrier shall not open into the hoistway.

Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, and there are no landings from which to gain access through an emergency door, a means of two-way conversation conforming to 2.27.1.1.4 shall be provided.

NOTE: Examples are pulp mills, grain elevators, dams, or similar locations.

Nonremovable sliding or swing panels or doors in the hoistway conforming to 2.11.1.2(d), (f), (g), and (i) shall be permitted for access to car or hoistway transparent enclosures for cleaning purposes. An electromechanical device shall be provided that will prevent the operation of the driving machine unless the access panels or doors are closed and locked (see 2.26.2.32). Keys used to unlock the access panels or doors shall be Group 2 Security (see Section 8.1).
For passenger elevators, entrances shall be one of the following types:

(a) horizontally sliding

(b) horizontally swinging, single-section

(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging

(d) hand- or power-operated vertically sliding that slide up to open

For freight elevators, entrances shall be one of the following types:

(a) horizontally sliding

(b) swinging, single-section

(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging

(d) center-opening, two-section horizontally swinging, subject to restrictions of 2.11.2.3

(e) vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced (see 2.16.4)

(f) vertically sliding counterweighted, single- or multisection

Center-opening swinging entrances shall be permitted only

(a) for freight elevators that can be operated only from the car; or

(b) for freight elevators not accessible to the general public that can be operated from outside the hoistway, and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar industrial buildings

2.11.3.1 Horizontally sliding or single-section swinging doors of automatic-operation elevators shall be provided with door closers arranged to close an open door automatically if the car, for any reason, leaves the landing zone.

2.11.3.2 On center-opening doors, if there is an interlock on only one panel, the door closer required by 2.11.3.1 shall be provided on the leading panel that operates in the opposite direction (see 2.11.11.7).

Horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall be so located that the distance from the hoistway face of the doors to the edge of the hoistway landing sill, measured from the face of the door section nearest to the car, shall be not more than the requirements specified in 2.11.4.1 and 2.11.4.2.

For elevators that can be operated only from the car, 100 mm (4 in.), except that where new elevators are installed in existing multiple hoistways or where alterations involving replacement of the doors are made to existing elevators in multiple hoistways, and the location of the door openings is such that the 100 mm (4 in.) dimension specified cannot be maintained, the distance specified is permitted to be increased to not more than 125 mm (5 in.) where horizontally sliding doors are used.
For elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, 19 mm (0.75 in.) for swinging doors and 57 mm (2.25 in.) for sliding doors, except that

(a) freight elevators not accessible to the general public, and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar industrial buildings are permitted to have single-section or center-opening two-section horizontally swinging doors conforming to 2.11.4.1; or

(b) for swinging doors used on elevators with automatic and continuous-pressure operation, the distance shall be permitted to be increased from 19 mm to 57 mm (0.75 in. to 2.25 in.) if such doors are emergency doors conforming to 2.11.1. (See also 2.14.4.5.)

Entrances and equipment shall not project into an elevator hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill, except for

(a) equipment required for interlocking, indicator and signal devices, door operating devices, door guiding devices, and door retaining devices

(b) vertical slide entrances

When the car is within the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1), the hoistway doors shall be openable by hand from within the car without the use of tools.
Means shall not be provided for locking out of service the doors at

(a) the top terminal landing

(b) the bottom terminal landing

(c) the designated and alternate landings for elevators equipped with Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, when Phase I is effective

(d) no landing for elevators equipped with Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation when Phase II is effective

Egress from the interior of the car to any elevator landing by means of the car and hoistway doors shall be unrestricted once the car and hoistway doors are open. Additional doors or devices, that are not part of nor function with the elevator but are provided in lieu of an enclosed elevator lobby in order to guard against the migration of smoke in or out of the hoistway, shall comply with the following:

(a) The building code.

(b) The additional door or device, in any position, shall not interfere with the function and operation of the elevator.

(c) The additional door or device shall not interfere with the fire-resistance rating and operation of the hoistway entrance. Direct or mechanical attachment (i.e., welding, holes, bolts, or rivets) shall not be made to hoistway doors or frames, unless the additional door or device and the hoistway elevator entrance are listed as a complete assembly by a certifying organization.

(d) Additional doors or devices when in the closed position shall not prevent firefighters from visually observing the elevator landing (lobby) when the elevator hoistway door is no more than one-quarter open.

(e) Additional doors or devices shall be permitted to be deployed only at those hoistway openings of elevators where fire alarm initiating devices used to initiate Phase I Emergency Recall Operation associated with that elevator have been activated.

NOTE: It is recommended that all additional doors or devices deployed in front of hoistway doors shall be cleared (returned to open/standby position) by authorized or emergency personnel prior to removing the elevator from Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and returning to normal operation. It is recommended in the case of an unintended deployment, authorized personnel should return doors to the open or standby position.

Handles or other means provided for operation of manually operated doors shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach the back of any panel, jamb, or sash to operate them.
Manually operated or self-closing hoistway doors of the vertically or horizontally sliding type, for elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, shall be provided with a vision panel. Vision panels shall not be required at landings of automatic operation elevators where a hall position indicator is provided. In multisection doors, the vision panel is required in one section only, but is permitted to be placed in all sections. All horizontally swinging elevator doors shall be provided with vision panels. Vision panels are permitted for any type of hoistway door.

Where required or used, vision panels shall conform to 2.11.7.1.1 through 2.11.7.1.7.

The area of any single vision panel shall be not less than 0.015 m2 (24 in.2), and the total area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door shall be not more than 0.055 m2 (85 in.2).
Each clear panel opening shall reject a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter.
Muntins used between panel sections shall be of noncombustible material and of substantial construction.
Panel opening shall be glazed with either of the following:

(a) clear wire glass not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(b) other transparent glazing material not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick that meets the impact safety standard 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)

The center of the panel shall be located not less than 1 300 mm (51 in.) and not more than 1 700 mm (67 in.) above the landing, except that for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, it shall be located to conform to the dimensions specified insofar as the door design will permit.
Vision panels in power-operated doors shall be substantially flush with the surface of the landing side of the door.
Vision panels shall be protected by protective grilles made of steel not less than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick, in accordance with the following specifications:

(a) Grilles shall be sized to fit within or over the vision panel frame and completely cover the vision panel opening in the hoistway door.

(b) Grilles shall be secured by means that deter removal by common tools.

(c) Grilles shall contain openings that shall be not larger than 19 mm × 19 mm (0.75 in. × 0.75 in.) in diameter. Such openings shall be spaced at 25 mm (1 in.) center-to-center.

(d) Grille edges shall be free of burrs and beveled.

(e) Grilles shall be installed on the hoistway side of the door.

Where provided, glass hoistway doors shall conform to 2.11.7.2.1 through 2.11.7.2.5.
The glass shall be laminated glass conforming to 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1. Markings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on each separate piece of glass and shall remain visible after installation.
The glass shall be not less than 60% of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the landing side of the doors. Door lap shall not be used in calculating glass size.