ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — Definitions

Part III — Building Planning and Construction

Part IV — Energy Conservation

Part V — Mechanical

Part VI — Fuel Gas

Part VII — Plumbing

Part VIII — Electrical

Part IX — Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C 208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C 208.
Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.
Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

R602.3 Design and Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).


TABLE R602.3(1)
WALL FRAMINGa, e, f
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER MINIMUM NOMINAL LENGTH
IN INCHES × MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL
DIAMETER (inches)
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS
(inches o.c.)d
31/2" × 0.162" (16d common)c 2
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 4
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common)c 4
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common) 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
21/8" × 0.113" nail 5
2" × 0.113" nail
21/4" × 0.105" nail
21/4" × 0.099" nail
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16 common)c 2 each side of lap
3" × 0.148" nail 3 each side of lap
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common)c 2
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 3
3" × 0.120" nail
21/8" × 0.113" nail
2" × 0.113" nail 4
21/4" × 0.105" nail
21/4" × 0.099" nail
31/2" × 0.135" nail (16d box)c 3 per 16" space
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common) 2 per 16" space
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 3 per 16" space
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail 4 per 16" space
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail


CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER MINIMUM NOMINAL LENGTH
IN INCHES × MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL
DIAMETER (inches)
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS
(inches o.c.)d
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 16" o.c.
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 8" o.c.
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)c 16" o.c.
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail 12" o.c.
3" × 0.131"
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)c 12" o.c.
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail 8" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 24" o.c.
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 16" o.c.
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 12" o.c.
3" × 0.120" nail


TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
CEILING AND ROOF FRAMINGa, e
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER MINIMUM NOMINAL
LENGTH × MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL
DIAMETER (inches)
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS
(inches)d
31/2" × 0.162" (16d common)c 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
31/4" × 0.131" nail 5
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
23/8" × 0.113" nail 6
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)c 3
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail 4
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)c 3
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail 4
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/2" × 0.120" nail 4
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common)c 3
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 4
3" × 0.120" nail
23/8" × 0.113" nail 5
2" × 0.113" nail
21/4" × 0.105" nail
21/4" × 0.099" nail 6
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 4
3" × 0.120" nail
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
31/2" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 4
3" × 0.120" nail


TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
FLOOR FRAMINGa, e
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER MINIMUM NOMINAL
LENGTH × MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL
DIAMETER (inches)
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERSd
31/2" × 0.162" (16d common)c 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 5
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 6
3" × 0.120" nail
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common)c 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail 4
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common)c 2
31/4" × 0.120" nail 3
3" × 0.120" nail
21/8" × 0.113" nail
2" × 0.113" nail (6d common) 4
21/4" × 0.105" nail 3
21/4" × 0.99" nail 4
21/2" × 0.113" (3d box)c 4" o.c.
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common) 8" o.c
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common) 6" o.c.
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail
3" × 0.120" nail 4" o.c.
21/8" × 0.113" nail 4" o.c.
2" × 0.113" nail (6d common) 3" o.c.
21/4" × 0.105" nail
21/4" × 0.099" nail


CONNECTIONb
(Nail size and position exaggerated

for illustrative purposes)
FASTNER MINIMUM NOMINAL
LENGTH × MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL
DIAMETER (inches)
SPACING OF FASTENERS
ALONG THE TOP AND
BOTTOM OF BEAM,
STAGGERED ON EACH
SIDE OF EACH LAYER
NUMBER OF FASTENERS AT
EACH END AND SPLICE
FOR EACH LAYER
4" × 0.192" nail (20d common)c 32" o.c. 2
31/2" × 0.162" nail (16d common) 24" o.c. 3
3" × 0.148" nail (10d common)
31/4" × 0.131" nail
3" × 0.131" nail
31/4" × 0.120" nail 16" o.c. 3
3" × 0.120" nail
21/2" × 0.131" nail (8d common) 16" o.c. 4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. This fastening schedule applies to framing members having an actual thickness of 11/2 inches (nominal "2-by" lumber).
  2. Fastenings listed above may also be used for other connections that are not listed but that have the same configuration and the same code requirement for fastener quantity/spacing and fastener size (pennyweight and style, e.g., 8d common, "8-penny common nail").
  3. This fastener, in the quantity or spacing shown in the rightmost column, comprises the most stringent fastening of the connection listed in the International Residential Code.
  4. Fastening schedule only applies to buildings of conventional wood frame construction where wind or seismic analysis is not required by the applicable code. In areas where wind or seismic analysis is required, required fastening must be determined by structural analysis. The following are conditions for which codes require structural analysis:
    1. For nominal dimensions of nails see Table R602.3(1a)
    2. North Carolina Residential Code—buildings located in areas where the design wind speed equals or exceeds 130 mph (58 m/s) or townhouses assigned to Seismic Design Category C.
  5. Reprinted by permission of the ICC Evaluation Service®, LLC from Evaluation Report ESR-1539-09. Use of ESR 1539-15 is permitted.
  6. Nails and staples shall conform to the requirements of ASTM F1667.


TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERSj, k
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
MATERIALS
DESCRIPTION OF FASTENERb, c, e SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)i
Intermediate supportsc, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
3/8" — 1/2" 6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor wall)
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof)f
6 12g
19/32" — 1" 8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131") 6 12g
11/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail or
8d (21/2" × 0.131") deformed nail
6 12
Other wall sheathingh
1/2" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 11/2" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long 3 6
25/32" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 13/4" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/2" long 3 6
1/2" gypsum sheathingd 11/2" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
11/2" long; 11/4" screws, Type W or S
7 7
5/8" gypsum sheathingd 13/4" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
15/8" long; 15/8" screws, Type W or S
7 7
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
3/4" and less 6d deformed (2" × 0.120") nail or
8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail
6 12
7/8" — 1" 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail or
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail
6 12
11/8" — 11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail or
8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail
6 12

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1ksi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deleted.
  2. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. For regions having ultimate wind speed of 130 mph or greater, 8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum.
  7. For regions having ultimate wind speed of 120 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
  8. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C79 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C208.
  9. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking. Roof sheathing 7/16-inch or greater in thickness does not require perimeter blocking.
  10. For nominal dimensions of nails see Table R602.3(1a).
  11. Nails and staples shall conform to the requirements of ASTM F1667.
TABLE R602.3(1a)
NOMINAL DIMENSIONS OF NAILS LISTED IN TABLE R602.3(1)
NAILS DESCRIBED BY PENNYWEIGHT SYSTEM
Pennyweight Length
(inches)
Shank Diameter
(inches)
Box
6d 2 0.099
8d 21/2 0.113
10d 3 0.128
Casing
6d 21/4 0.099
8d 21/2 0.113
10d 3 0.128
Common
6d 2 0.113
8d 21/2 0.131
10d 3 0.148
16d 31/2 0.162
20d 4 0.192
Cooler
5d 15/8 0.086
6d 17/8 0.092
8d 23/8 0.113
Deformeda
3d 11/4 0.099
4d 11/2 0.099
6d 2 0.120
8d 21/2 0.120
Finish
8d 21/2 0.099
10d 3 0.113
Siding
6d 17/8 0.106
8d 23/8 0.128
Additional Recognized Nails
Smooth shank nails 21/4 0.092
21/4 0.105
3 0.120
31/4
11/2 0.131
3
31/4
11/2 0.148
21/2 0.162
Deformed shank nailsa 21/4 0.099
2 0.113
23/8
21/2 0.131

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1ksi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. A deformed shank nail must have either a helical (screw) shank or an annular (ring) shank.

TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)i
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2 Staple 15 ga. 13/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 16 ga. 13/4 3 6
19/32 and 5/8 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
23/32 and 3/4 Staple 14 ga. 2 4 8
Staple 15 ga. 13/4 3 6
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
Staple 16 ga. 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.113 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 15 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/2 4 8
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
1/4 3d, corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 1/4 crown
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
11/4 long × 0.121 shank × 0.375 head diameter corrosion-resistant
(galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish)
8 8
11/4 long, No. 8 × .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws
(for tile finish)
8 8
Plywood
1/4 and 5/16 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width 2 5
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/2 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/4 11/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8
Staple 16 ga. 11/2 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 11/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 6
4d cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
1/4 4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown 3 6
3/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6
1/2, 5/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4
  7. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C 1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.
  9. Nails and staples shall conform to the requirements of ASTM F1667.
TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c
MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING


PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACING ULTIMATE DESIGN
WIND SPEED Vult

(mph)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
B C D
6d Common
(2.0" × 0.113")
1.5 24/0 3/8 16 6 12 140 115 110
8d Common
(2.5" × 0.131")
1.75 24/16 7/16 16 6 12 170 140 135
24 6 12 140 115 110

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.
The delayed effective date of this Rule is January 1, 2021.
The Statutory authority for Rule-making is G. S. 143-136; 143-138.
UpCodes note: Prior to January 1, 2021, Table R602.3(3) was unamended.
TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa
THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADE STUD SPACING  (inches)
When siding is nailed to studs When siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8 M-1 Exterior glue 16
1/2 M-2 Exterior glue 16 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail not less than 3/8 inch from panel edges.



TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa
STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting a
roof-ceiling assembly
or a habitable attic
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting one
floor, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
two floors, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
one floor heighta

(inches)
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta

(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)
       
2 × 3b 10 16
2 × 4 10 24c 16c d 24 14 24
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 24 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  4. 2 × 4 studs at 12 inches maximum spacing are permitted in accordance with Table R4505(b).
The delayed effective date of this Rule is January 1, 2021.
The Statutory authority for Rule-making is G. S. 143-136; 143-138. 
UpCodes note: Prior to January 1, 2021, footnote d of TABLE R602.3(5) was "One half of the studs interrupted by a wall opening shall be placed immediately outside the jack studs on each side of the opening as king studs to resist wind loads. King studs shall extend full height from sole plate to top plate of the wall." This is now deleted and replaced by the previous footnote e.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS
The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).
Exceptions:
  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 14 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center. Studs shall be minimum No. 2 grade lumber.

R602.3.2 Top Plate for Bearing Walls and Braced Wall Lines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:
  1. The single top plate shall be tied at corners, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.

TABLE R602.3.2 SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS FOR BEARING WALLS AND BRACED WALL LINES

CONDITION TOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting walls Butt joints in straight walls
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C 3" × 6" × 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(6) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails
3" × 12" × 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(12) 8d box
(21/2" × 0.113") nails

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:
  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.
Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:
    1. The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.
    2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.
  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3- inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

R602.6 Drilling and Notching of Studs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall be permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall be permitted to be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width. Notching of bearing studs shall be on one edge only and not to exceed one-fourth the height of the stud. Notching shall not occur in the bottom or top 6 inches (152 mm) of bearing studs.
  2. Drilling. Any stud shall be permitted to be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is not more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is not more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole shall not be closer than 6 inches (152 mm) from an adjacent hole or notch. Holes not exceeding 3/4 inch (19 mm) diameter can be as close as 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) on center spacing. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall be doubled with not more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted where they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
  3. Cutting and notching of studs shall be permitted to be increased to 65 percent of the width of the stud in exterior and interior walls and bearing partitions, provided that one of the following conditions are met:
    1. The wall section is reinforced with 1/2 inch (13 mm) exterior grade plywood or equivalent reinforcement on the notched side of the wall. Plywood, if used, shall reach from the floor to ceiling and at least one stud further on each side of the section that has been notched or cut.
    2. The exterior walls of a kitchen may be reinforced by placing 1/2 inch (13 mm) plywood or equivalent reinforcement on the notched side of the wall. Plywood, if used, shall reach from the floor to counter-top height and at least one stud further on each side of the section that has been notched or cut.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.


FIGURE R602.6(1) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.6(2) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS
When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.
Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1 TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

R602.7 Headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
ILLUSTRATION
For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

TABLE R602.7(1)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pineb and spruce-pine-fir and required number of jack studs)
GIRDERS AND
HEADERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
Roof and ceiling
1-2 × 8 4-6 1 3-10 1 3-5 1 3-9 1 3-2 1 2-10 2
1-2 × 10 5-8 1 4-11 1 4-4 1 4-9 1 4-1 1 3-7 2
1-2 × 12 6-11 1 5-11 2 5-3 2 5-9 2 4-8 2 3-8 2
2-2 × 4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2-10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1 2-10 1 2-6 1 2-3 1
2-2 × 6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2 4-2 1 3-8 2 3-3 2
2-2 × 8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2 5-4 2 4-7 2 4-1 2
2-2 × 10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 5-0 2
2-2 × 12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-6 2 6-6 2 5-10 3
3-2 × 8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-8 1 5-9 2 5-2 2
3-2 × 10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2 8-2 2 7-0 2 6-4 2
3-2 × 12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-4 2
4-2 × 8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-8 1 6-8 1 5-11 2
4-2 × 10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-3 2
4-2 × 12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-11 2 9-5 2 8-5 2
Roof, ceiling
and one center-
bearing floor
1-2 × 8 3-11 1 3-5 1 3-0 1 3-7 1 3-0 2 2-8 2
1-2 × 10 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-4 2
1-2 × 12 5-10 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 5-5 2 4-2 2 3-4 2
2-2 × 4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2 × 6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2
2-2 × 8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2 × 10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2 × 12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3
3-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 10 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2
3-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 × 8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2
4-2 × 10 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 × 12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-7 2
Roof, ceiling
and one clear
span floor
1-2 × 8 3-6 1 3-0 1 2-8 1 3-5 1 2-11 1 2-7 2
1-2 × 10 4-6 1 3-10 1 3-3 1 4-4 1 3-9 1 3-1 2
1-2 × 12 5-6 1 4-2 2 3-3 2 5-4 2 3-11 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-5 1 2-1 1 1-10 1
2-2 × 6 3-11 1 3-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2 3-6 2 3-1 2 2-9 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-6 2
2-2 × 10 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 3
2-2 × 12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-4 2 5-6 3 5-0 3
3-2 × 8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-7 2 4-11 2 4-5 2
3-2 × 10 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-10 2 6-0 2 5-4 2
3-2 × 12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
4-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2 6-6 1 5-8 2 5-1 2
4-2 × 10 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-2 2
4-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
Roof, ceiling
and two center-
bearing floors
2-2 × 4 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 1-11 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 1
2-2 × 6 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2 3-8 2 3-2 2 2-10 2 3-5 2 3-0 2 2-8 2
2-2 × 8 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-7 2 4-0 2 3-8 2 4-4 2 3-9 2 3-5 2
2-2 × 10 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-8 2 4-11 2 4-5 3 5-3 2 4-7 3 4-2 3
2-2 × 12 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-6 2 5-9 3 5-2 3 6-1 3 5-4 3 4-10 3
3-2 × 8 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 2 5-5 2 4-9 2 4-3 2
3-2 × 10 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2 7-1 2 6-2 2 5-7 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-3 2
3-2 × 12 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 3 7-8 2 6-9 2 6-1 3
4-2 × 8 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2 6-8 1 5-10 2 5-3 2 6-3 2 5-6 2 4-11 2
4-2 × 10 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 2 7-7 2 6-8 2 6-0 2
4-2 × 12 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-8 2 9-5 2 8-3 2 7-5 2 8-10 2 7-9 2 7-0 2
Roof, ceiling,
and two clear-
span floors
2-2 × 4 2-1 1 1-8 1 1-6 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2
2-2 × 6 3-1 2 2-8 2 2-4 2 3-0 2 2-7 2 2-3 2 2-11 2 2-7 2 2-3 2
2-2 × 8 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 3 3-10 2 3-4 2 2-11 3 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 3
2-2 × 10 4-9 2 4-1 3 3-8 3 4-8 2 4-0 3 3-7 3 4-7 3 4-0 3 3-6 3
2-2 × 12 5-6 3 4-9 3 4-3 3 5-5 3 4-8 3 4-2 3 5-4 3 4-7 3 4-1 4
3-2 × 8 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-9 2 4-1 2 3-8 2 4-8 2 4-1 2 3-8 2
3-2 × 10 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-10 2 5-0 2 4-6 3 5-9 2 4-11 2 4-5 3
3-2 × 12 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-9 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-8 2 5-9 3 5-2 3
4-2 × 8 5-7 2 4-10 2 4-4 2 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 2 5-5 2 4-8 2 4-2 2
4-2 × 10 6-10 2 5-11 2 5-3 2 6-9 2 5-10 2 5-2 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-1 2
4-2 × 12 7-11 2 6-10 2 6-2 3 7-9 2 6-9 2 6-0 3 7-8 2 6-8 2 5-11 3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
TABLE R602.7(2)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pineb and spruce-pine-fir and required number of jack studs)
HEADERS AND
GIRDERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE BUILDING Widthc (feet)
20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd

One floor only
2-2 × 4 3-1 1 2-8 1 2-5 1
2-2 × 6 4-6 1 3-11 1 3-6 1
2-2 × 8 5-9 1 5-0 2 4-5 2
2-2 × 10 7-0 2 6-1 2 5-5 2
2-2 × 12 8-1 2 7-0 2 6-3 2
3-2 × 8 7-2 1 6-3 1 5-7 2
3-2 × 10 8-9 1 7-7 2 6-9 2
3-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-10 2
4-2 × 8 9-0 1 7-8 1 6-9 1
4-2 × 10 10-1 1 8-9 1 7-10 2
4-2 × 12 11-9 1 10-2 2 9-1 2

Two floors
2-2 × 4 2-2 1 1-10 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 3-2 2 2-9 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 4-1 2 3-6 2 3-2 2
2-2 × 10 4-11 2 4-3 2 3-10 3
2-2 × 12 5-9 2 5-0 3 4-5 3
3-2 × 8 5-1 2 4-5 2 3-11 2
3-2 × 10 6-2 2 5-4 2 4-10 2
3-2 × 12 7-2 2 6-3 2 5-7 3
4-2 × 8 6-1 1 5-3 2 4-8 2
4-2 × 10 7-2 2 6-2 2 5-6 2
4-2 × 12 8-4 2 7-2 2 6-5 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
TABLE R602.7(3)
GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSa FOR OPEN PORCHES
(Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)
SIZE SUPPORTING ROOF SUPPORTING FLOOR
GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
30 50 70
DEPTH OF PORCHc (feet)
8 14 8 14 8 14 8 14
2-2 × 6 7-6 5-8 6-2 4-8 5-4 4-0 6-4 4-9
2-2 × 8 10-1 7-7 8-3 6-2 7-1 5-4 8-5 6-4
2-2 × 10 12-4 9-4 10-1 7-7 8-9 6-7 10-4 7-9
2-2 × 12 14-4 10-10 11-8 8-10 10-1 7-8 11-11 9-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)
SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL


FIGURE R602.7.1(2)
ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE
Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.



For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.
FIGURE R602.7.2
RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.

TABLE R602.7.3
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa
HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel—one side 9 4 4 3 3
15 5 5 4 3 3
Wood structural panel—both sides 9 7 5 5 4 3
15 8 8 7 7 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTES:
  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.
FIGURE R602.7.3
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.

R602.7.5 Supports for Headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header with four-16d nails (3.5 inches × 0.135 inches). The minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with Table R602.7.5.

TABLE R602.7.5
MINIMUM NUMBER OF FULL HEIGHT KING STUDS AT EACH END OF HEADERS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
HEADER SPAN (feet)  MINIMUM NUMBER OF
FULL HEIGHT STUDS (King)
Up to 3' 1
>3' to 6' 2
>6' to 9' 3
>9' to 12' 4
>12' to 15'  5

The delayed effective date of this Rule is January 1, 2021.
The Statutory authority for Rule-making is G. S. 143-136; 143-138.
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

R602.10 Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1 Braced Wall Lines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.1 Length of a Braced Wall Line

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.2 Offsets Along a Braced Wall Line

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.3 Spacing of Braced Wall Lines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.1.4 Angled Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2 Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.1 Braced Wall Panel Uplift Load Path

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.2 Locations of Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.2.1 Location of Braced Wall Panels in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.2.3 Minimum Number of Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.3 Required Length of Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4 Construction Methods for Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.1 Mixing Methods

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.2 Continuous Sheathing Methods

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.4.3 Braced Wall Panel Interior Finish Material

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5 Minimum Length of a Braced Wall Panel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5.1 Contributing Length

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.5.2 Partial Credit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6 Construction of Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.1 Method ABW: Alternate Braced Wall Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.2 Method PFH: Portal Frame With Hold-Downs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.3 Method PFG: Portal Frame at Garage Door Openings in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.4 Method CS-PF: Continuously Sheathed Portal Frame

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.6.5.1 Length of Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.7 Ends of Braced Wall Lines With Continuous Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8 Braced Wall Panel Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8.1 Braced Wall Panel Connections for Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.8.2 Connections to Roof Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.9 Braced Wall Panel Support

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.9.1 Braced Wall Panel Support for Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.10 Panel Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11 Cripple Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11.2 Cripple Wall Bracing for Seismic Design Category D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10.11.3 Redesignation of Cripple Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.10 Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Buildings, and portions thereof, shall be braced in accordance with one or more of the following sections using bracing materials and methods complying with Section R602.10.1 and load path detailing in accordance with Section R602.10.4:
  1. Isolated panel bracing in accordance with Section R602.10.2;
  2. Continuous sheathing in accordance with Section R602.10.3;
  3. Engineered design in accordance with Section R602.10.5;
  4. 2015 International Residential Code (IRC), Section R602.10; or
  5. SR-102 as published by APA, The Engineered Wood Association with limitations indicated in this document.
Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with Section R602.10.2, R602.10.3, or R602.10.4, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R602.10.5.

R602.10.1 Bracing Materials and Methods

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Wall bracing materials and methods shall comply with Table R602.10.1.

TABLE R602.10.1
BRACING METHODSa, b
METHOD MINIMUM BRACE MATERIAL THICKNESS OR SIZE MINIMUM BRACE PANEL LENGTH OR BRACE ANGLE CONNECTION CRITERIA FIGURE OF BRACING METHOD, NOT NECESSARILY LOCATION
Fasteners Spacing
LIB
Let-in-bracing
1 × 4 wood brace (or approved metal brace installed per manufacturer instructions) 45° angle for maximum 16" o.c.stud spacingc 2-8d common nails or 3-8d (21/2" long × 0.113" dia.) nails Per stud and top and bottom plates
DWB
Diagonal wood boards
3/4" (1" nominal) 48" 2-8d (21/2" long × 0.113" diameter) or
2 - 13/4" long staples
Per stud and top andbottom plates
WSP
Wood structural panel
3/8" 48"d [See Table R602.3(3)] 6" edges 12" field
SFB
Structural fiber board sheathing
1/2" 48"d 11/2" long × 0.120" diameter galvanized roofing nails 3" edges 6" field
GB
Gypsum board installed on both sides of wall
1/2" 96" for use with R602.10.2
48" for use with R602.10.3
Minimum 5d coolernails or #6 screws 7" edges
7" field
PCP
Portland cement plaster
3/4" (maximum 16"o.c. stud spacing) 48" 11/2" long, 11 gage,7/16" diameter head nails or 7/8" long,
6 gage staples
6" o.c. on all framing members
CS-WSPe, i
Continuously sheathed WSP
3/8" 24" adjacent to window not more than 67% of wall height;
30" adjacent to door or window greater than 67% and less than 85% of wall height. 48" for taller openings.
Same as WSP Same as WSP
CS-SFBe, i
Continuously sheathed SFB
1/2" Same as SFB Same as SFB
PF
Portal Framef, g, h
7/16" See Figure R602.10.1 See Figure R602.10.1 See Figure R602.10.1

Notes:
  1. Alternative bracing materials and methods shall comply with Section 105 of the North Carolina Administrative Code and Policies, and shall be permitted to be used as a substitute for any of the bracing materials listed in Table R602.10.1 provided at least equivalent performance is demonstrated. Where the tested bracing strength or stiffness differs from tabulated materials, the bracing amount required for the alternative material shall be permitted to be factored to achieve equivalence.
  2. All edges of panel-type wall bracing required from Section R602.10.2 or Section R602.10.3 shall be attached to framing or blocking, except GB bracing horizontal joints shall not be required to be blocked when joints are finished.
  3. Two LIB braces installed at a 60° angle shall be permitted to be substituted for each 45° angle LIB brace.
  4. For 8-foot (2483 mm) or 9-foot (2743 mm) wall height, brace panel minimum length shall be permitted to be reduced to 36-inch (914 mm) or 42-inch length (1067 mm), respectively, where not located adjacent to a door opening. A braced wall panel shall be permitted to be reduced to a 32-inch (813 mm) length when studs at each end of the braced wall panel are anchored to foundation or framing below using hold-down device with minimum 2,800 pounds design tension capacity. For detached single story garages and attached garages supporting roof only, a minimum 24-inch (610 mm) brace panel length shall be permitted on one wall containing one or more garage door openings.
  5. Bracing methods designated CS-WSP and CS-SFB shall have sheathing installed on all sheathable surfaces above, below, and between wall openings.
  6. For purposes of bracing in accordance with Section R602.10.2, two portal frame brace panels with wood structural panel sheathing applied to the exterior face of each brace panel as shown in Figure R602.10.1 shall be considered equivalent to one braced wall panel.
  7. Structural fiberboard (SFB) shall not be used in portal frame construction.
  8. No more than three portal frames shall be used in a single building elevation.
  9. CS-WSP and CS-SFB cannot be mixed on the same story. Gable ends shall match the panel type of the wall below.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 lb = 4.45 N.


FIGURE R602.10.1
METHOD PF—PORTAL FRAME CONSTRUCTION

R602.10.2 Isolated Panel Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
TABLE R602.10.2
NUMBER OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED FOR EACH HOUSE ELEVATION (BUILDING SIDE) AT EACH STORY LEVELa
WIND SPEED STORY LEVELSUPPORTING LONGEST OVERALL DIMENSION OF FLOOR PLANFOR A GIVEN STORY LEVEL
25' 50' 75'
115 mph Roof Only 1 2 3
Roof + 1 Story 2 4 6
Roof + 2 Stories 3 6 9
120 mph Roof Only 2 3 4
Roof + 1 Story 3 5 8
Roof + 2 Stories 4 8 11


Roof Only Roof + 1 Story Roof + 2 Stories

a. Interpolation between dimensions is permitted. Extrapolation is prohibited. Fractions of panels shall be rounded to the nearest whole panel.

R602.10.2.1 Limitations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The conventional bracing requirements of Section R602.10.2.2 shall be limited to the following conditions of use:
  1. Ultimate design wind speed shall not exceed 120 mph (53 m/s), Exposure Category B.
  2. Bracing methods shall be LIB, DWB, WSP, SFB, GB, PCP, and PF in accordance with Table R602.10.1.
  3. Length of the house is limited to 75 feet (22.9 m). Overall plan length shall not exceed 3 times the overall plan width. The multiple circumscribed rectangle method from Section R602.10.3.2 may be applied to the method set forth in this section.
  4. Wall height at each story level shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
  5. Roof eave-to-ridge height shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) unless the roof is considered as an additional story for the purpose of determining bracing amounts required.
  6. Except when used for bracing method GB, the interior side of exterior walls and both sides of interior walls shall be sheathed continuously with minimum 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) thick gypsum wall board interior finish fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5, or approved interior finish of equivalent or greater shear resistance.
  7. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  8. Townhouses shall be stabilized independently of adjacent units unless a design is provided to permit lateral load transfer between adjacent units.
  9. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.5 or the 2015 International Residential Code.

R602.10.2.2 Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Braced wall panels shall be constructed of bracing methods, materials, and minimum braced panel lengths complying with Table R602.10.1. The number of braced wall panels required for each side of a building (elevation view) at each story level of the building shall comply with Table R602.10.2. The following additional requirements shall apply:
  1. In no case shall the amount of bracing be less than two braced wall panels on exterior walls comprising each side of the floor plan (or plan elevation) for each story level of the building.
  2. A braced wall panel shall be located within 12 feet (3658 mm) of both ends of each elevation view of the house. Braced wall panels on exterior walls shall be installed such that the edge-to-edge distance between braced wall panels does not exceed 21 feet (6401 mm). See Figures R602.10.2.2(1) and R602.10.2.2(2).
  3. No more than one-half of bracing on parallel exterior walls shall be permitted to be relocated to interior walls oriented in the same plan direction and within one-half the floor plan dimension perpendicular to the exterior wall. See Figure R602.10.2.2(3).
  4. Use of multiple bracing methods and materials complying with Table R602.10.1 shall be permitted.
  5. Detached garages or storage buildings connected to the house with a covered walk-way shall be considered separate buildings. Houses with skewed wings shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.3, Section R602.10.5, or the 2015 International Residential Code (Section R602.10).
  6. Garage door openings supporting a floor load above shall be braced using the portal frame method (PF) unless the building plan level containing the garage opening wall complies with all the bracing requirements of this section.


FIGURE R602.10.2.2(1)
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS


FIGURE R602.10.2.2(2)
PANELS INSET 12'-0" FROM BOTH ENDS OF WALL ELEVATION




Note: Bracing shown in one direction only for clarity. Braced panel locations may be shifted along the walls to any location meeting the distribution rules in Figure R602.10.2.2(3). desired by the permit holder.

FIGURE R602.10.2.2(3)
PANELS SHIFTED TO INTERIOR WALLS

R602.10.3 Continuous Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
TABLE R602.10.3
REQUIRED LENGTH OF BRACING ALONG EACH SIDE OF A CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLEa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h
7/16-inch Wood Structural Panel Sheathing with 1/2-inch gypsum on inside wall
Panels are blocked
Nails to be 8d common or galvanized box (2-1/2 inches long X 0.113-inch diameter)
6-inch nail spacing on edges and 6-inch nail spacing in field
Each story is 10 feet maximum
Maximum stud spacing of 24 inches
Maximum roof slope 12:12
Building length to width ratio is 2

WIND
SPEED
EAVE TO
RIDGE
HEIGHT (feet)
STORIES
SUPPORTED
WALL PERPENDICULAR TO WIND (Wall Wind Loads)
Building Width in Feet
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Length (ft) of Braced Panel in Each Exterior Wall
115 10 Roof Only 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8.0 9.6 11.2 12.8
Roof + 1 Story 2.9 5.9 8.8 11.8 14.7 17.7 20.6 23.6
Roof + 2 Stories 4.4 8.8 13.2 17.7 22.1 26.5 30.9 35.3
15 Roof Only 2.0 4.0 6.1 8.1 10.1 12.1 14.2 16.2
Roof + 1 Story 3.3 6.6 10.0 13.3 16.6 19.9 23.3 26.6
Roof + 2 Stories 4.8 9.6 14.5 19.3 24.1 28.9 33.8 38.6
20 Roof Only 2.4 4.7 7.1 9.4 11.8 14.2 16.5 18.9
Roof + 1 Story 3.7 7.4 11.1 14.8 18.5 22.2 25.9 29.6
Roof + 2 Stories 5.2 10.5 15.7 20.9 26.2 31.4 36.6 41.9
120 10 Roof Only 1.8 3.7 5.5 7.4 9.2 11.0 12.9 14.7
Roof + 1 Story 3.2 6.4 9.7 12.9 16.1 19.3 22.6 25.8
Roof + 2 Stories 4.8 9.6 14.4 19.3 24.1 28.9 33.7 38.5
15 Roof Only 2.2 4.4 6.6 8.8 11.0 13.2 15.4 17.6
Roof + 1 Story 3.6 7.3 10.9 14.5 18.2 21.8 25.4 29.1
Roof + 2 Stories 5.3 10.5 15.8 21.0 26.3 31.6 36.8 42.1
20 Roof Only 2.6 5.1 7.7 10.3 12.8 15.4 18.0 20.5
Roof + 1 Story 4.0 8.1 12.1 16.2 20.2 24.3 28.3 32.4
Roof + 2 Stories 5.7 11.4 17.1 22.8 28.5 34.2 39.9 45.6
130 10 Roof Only 2.2 4.3 6.5 8.6 10.8 12.9 15.1 17.3
Roof + 1 Story 3.8 7.6 11.4 15.1 18.9 22.7 26.5 30.3
Roof + 2 Stories 5.7 11.4 17.0 22.7 28.4 34.1 39.8 45.5
15 Roof Only 2.6 5.2 7.7 10.3 12.9 15.5 18.1 20.7
Roof + 1 Story 4.3 8.5 12.8 17.1 21.3 25.6 29.9 34.1
Roof + 2 Stories 6.2 12.4 18.6 24.8 31.0 37.2 43.4 49.7
20 Roof Only 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.1 18.1 21.1 24.1
Roof + 1 Story 4.7 9.5 14.2 19.0 23.7 28.5 33.2 38.0
Roof + 2 Stories 6.7 13.5 20.2 26.9 33.7 40.4 47.1 53.8

For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. If the stud spacing is reduced to 16 inches, table values for 7/16-inch sheathing may be multiplied by
    0.93.
  2. If the stud spacing is reduced to 16 inches or the sheathing thickness is greater then 7/16-inch, the
    interior field nail spacing may be increased to 12 inches.
  3. If the 1/2-inch gypsum is not applied to the inside of the wall, the table lengths are to be multiplied by
    1.22.
  4. Table values shall be multiplied by the following values for different wall heights:
    8ft. walls 0.87
    9ft. walls 0.92
    11ft. walls 1.08
    12ft. walls 1.15
  5. If 3/8-inch wood structural sheathing is used instead of 7/16-inch wood structural sheathing, table lengths
    are to be multiplied by 1.07.
  6. If 1/2-inch structural fiberboard is used instead of 7/16-inch wood structural sheathing, table lengths are to
    be multiplied by 1.31.
  7. Interpolation is permitted, extrapolation is prohibited.
  8. For Exposure Category C or D, multiply the required length of bracing by a factor of 1.5 or 1.8
    respectively.
Roof Only Roof + 1 Story Roof + 2 Stories


The delayed effective date of this Rule is January 1, 2021.
The Statutory authority for Rule-making is G. S. 143-136; 143-138.


  1. Each floor plan level shall be circumscribed with one or more rectangles around the floor plan or portions of the plan at the floor level under consideration as shown in Figure R602.10.3(1).
  2. Rectangles shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages for a given story level floor plan. Chimneys, partial height projections, and open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be excluded from the rectangle.
  3. Each rectangle shall have no side greater than 80 feet (24.4 m) with a maximum rectangle length-to-width ratio of 3:1. Rectangles shall be permitted to be skewed to accommodate diagonal walls.
FIGURE R602.10.3(1)
CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLESa, b, c



  1. Exterior braced wall panels shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute their actual length.
  2. Interior braced wall panels using method GB shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute 0.5 times their actual length.
  3. Projected contributing lengths of angled braced wall panels shall be assigned to the closest rectangle sides.
  4. Portal frame braced wall panels shall contribute 1.5 times their actual length to their assigned rectangle side.
  5. Where multiple rectangles share a common side or sides, as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2) plan a, the required length of bracing shall equal the sum of the required lengths from each of the shared rectangle sides.
  6. Braced wall panels located on a common wall where skewed rectangles intersect, as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2) plan b, shall have their contributing length applied towards the required length of bracing for the parallel rectangle side and its projected contributing lengths towards the adjacent skewed rectangle sides. Where the common side of rectangle 2 as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2) plan c, has no physical wall, the wall bracing required to stabilize this side of Rectangle 2 shall be determined from Table 602.10.3. This length of bracing shall be resolved into orthogonal projections, and the orthogonal projections shall be added to the length of bracing required for the walls of Rectangle 1 which connect to Rectangle 2 in the directions parallel to the projections.
FIGURE R602.10.3(2)
ASSIGNMENT OF BRACED WALL PANELS TO CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE SIDESa, b, c, d, e, f




For SI: 1 feet = 304.8 mm.
  1. A braced wall panel shall be located on each elevation view within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the corners of circumscribed rectangles. Detached garages or storage buildings connected to the house with a covered walk-way shall be considered separate buildings.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels shall be no more than 21 feet (6401 mm).
  3. Segments of exterior walls greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length shall have a minimum of one braced wall panel.
  4. Segments of exterior wall 12 feet (3658 mm) or less in length shall be permitted to have no bracing provided a braced wall panel is located within 12 feet (3658 mm) from the rectangle corner.
  5. Interior and exterior wall segments which contribute to the common sides of multiple rectangles shall be permitted to apply the distribution requirements given above to each wall segment independently.
  6. See Figures R602.10.3(4) and R602.10.3(5) for end conditions for braced walls with continuous sheathing.
FIGURE R602.10.3(3)
DISTRIBUTION OF BRACED WALL PANELSa, b, c, d, e, f


FIGURE R602.10.3(4)
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALLS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.3(5)
TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

R602.10.3.1 Limitations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The continuous sheathing requirements of Section R602.10.3 shall be limited to bracing methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB in accordance with Table R602.10.1 with the following conditions of use:
  1. Ultimate design wind speed shall not exceed 130 mph (58 m/s).
  2. Wall height at each story level shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm).
  3. Eave-to-ridge height shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm).
  4. Exterior walls shall be sheathed on all sheathable surfaces including infill areas between braced wall panels, above and below wall openings, and on gable end walls.
  5. Except when used for bracing method GB, the interior side of exterior walls and both sides of interior walls shall be sheathed continuously with minimum 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) thick gypsum wall board interior finish fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5, or approved interior finish of equivalent or greater shear resistance. Unless required for fire separation by Section R302.6, gypsum board shall be permitted to be omitted where the required length of bracing, as determined in Table R602.10.3, is multiplied by 1.40.
  6. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (610 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  7. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.5 or the 2015 International Residential Code.
  8. Townhouses shall be stabilized independently of adjacent units, unless a design is provided to permit lateral load transfer between adjacent units.
  9. CS-WSP and CS-SFB cannot be mixed on the same story. Gable ends shall match the panel type of the wall below.

R602.10.3.2 Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The required length of bracing for each side of a rectangle circumscribed around the plan or a portion of the plan at each story level shall be determined using Table R602.10.3 and Figure R602.10.3(1). The cumulative contributing length of braced wall panels assigned to a rectangle side shall be greater than or equal to the required length of bracing specified in Table R602.10.3. The following additional requirements shall apply.
  1. Braced wall panels on exterior or interior walls shall be assigned to the nearest rectangle side as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2) for each story level floor plan.
  2. Braced wall panels shall be distributed and installed in accordance with Figures R602.10.3(3), R602.10.3(4) and R602.10.3(5).
  3. A minimum of one-half the required bracing amount for each rectangle side should be located on exterior walls within 8 feet (2438 mm) of the location of the rectangle side.
  4. Interior braced wall panels using method GB shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute 0.5 times their actual length.
  5. The bracing amount provided on an upper story building side shall be deemed to comply where it equals or exceeds the amount of bracing required for the story immediately below.
  6. Where the bracing amount provided on an upper story equals or exceeds the amount of bracing required for the story below, an analysis of bracing shall not be required for the upper story.

R602.10.4 Load Path Details

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Construction shall comply with applicable detailing requirements of this section to ensure an adequate continuous load path for transfer of bracing loads and uplift loads from the roof to the foundation.

R602.10.4.1 Wind Uplift Load Path

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Framing connections to transfer roof uplift forces shall comply with Section R602.3.5 and Section R802.11. In the 130 mph (58 m/s) wind zone, provide uplift anchorage in accordance with Sections R4508 and R4504.1.

R602.10.4.2 Foundation Anchorage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Braced wall panels shall be connected to the foundation in accordance with Section R403.1.6, Section R602.11 and as required in Figure R602.10.1 for portal frames.

R602.10.4.3 Masonry or Concrete Pedestals

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Masonry or concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.3. Concrete stem walls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) nominal minimum thickness. Continuous concrete stem walls shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R404.1.3.2.





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R602.10.4.3
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

R602.10.4.4 Blocking of Floor Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
When perpendicular to floor framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to full-height solid blocking between floor framing in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1). When parallel to floor framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to a band, rim or header joist, floor framing or perpendicular full-height solid blocking between floor framing at 16 inches (406 mm) on center in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(2). Attachments shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Manufactured lumber or truss blocking panels shall be permitted to substitute for full-height solid blocking.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.4.4(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

R602.10.4.5 Blocking of Roof Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
When parallel to roof framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to a band, rim or header joist, or roof truss. When perpendicular to roof framing, the top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be connected to the rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.10.4.5 and fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

TABLE R602.10.4.5
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTIONS TO PERPENDICULAR ROOF FRAMING
DISTANCE FROM TOP OF BRACED WALL PANEL TO TOP OF RAFTER OR ROOF TRUSS
(inches)
REQUIREMENT REFERENCED FIGURE
≤ 9.25 No blocking required NA
9.26 — 15.25 Solid 2× blocking between rafters or trusses R602.10.4.5(1) or (2)
15.26 — 48 Vertical blocking panels R602.10.4.5(2) or (3)
> 48 Designed in accordance with acceptedengineering practice NA

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
FIGURE R602.10.4.5(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES


FIGURE R602.10.4.5(2)
ALTERNATE TO FIGURE R602.10.4.5(1) OR FIGURE R602.10.4.5(3)


FIGURE R602.10.4.5(3)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR TRUSSES

R602.10.4.6 Cripple Walls and Framed Walls of Walkout Basements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The required length of bracing for cripple walls with a maximum height of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less along its entire length shall be equal to the bracing provided for the wall above. The required length of bracing for cripple walls with a height greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) at any location along its length and for framed walls of a walk-out basement shall be determined in accordance with Section R602.10.2 or R602.10.3, considering the cripple wall or walk-out basement as an additional story. As an alternative, the required length of bracing shall be permitted to equal to the bracing provided for the wall above multiplied by a factor of 1.15.

R602.10.4.7 Open Elevated Foundations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Open elevated foundations, such as pile foundations, shall be constructed to transfer all lateral loads from the wall bracing system to the piles or open pier system, including shears, overturning, and uplift loads. Piles or open pier systems along with their foundations shall be sized and embedded to transfer all lateral loads imposed by the wall bracing system to the ground.

R602.10.4.8 Balloon Frame Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Balloon frame walls shall have a maximum height of two stories and a maximum length of 20 feet (6096 mm) unless constructed in accordance with an approved design. Wall framing shall be continuous from lowest floor to the wall top plate at the roof. Braced wall panels shall extend to the full-height of the balloon frame wall. All edges of sheathing shall be supported on and fastened to blocking or framing. The required brace wall panel length assigned to the balloon frame wall shall be based on the bracing required for the lowest floor level supporting the balloon frame wall as determined in accordance with Section R602.10.2 or R602.10.3. For balloon framed walls having a maximum height of two stories and a maximum length of 20 feet (6096 mm), braced wall panels shall be permitted to be placed both parallel and perpendicular to the balloon framed wall on each side and at each story adjacent to the balloon framed wall, and no bracing shall be required for the balloon frame wall portion. Bracing in the direction perpendicular to the balloon framed wall may be omitted when the opening dimension in the second floor perpendicular to the balloon framed wall created by the two story space is less than one half the least overall dimension of the house. See Figure R602.10.4.8.

FIGURE R602.10.4.8
BALLOON FRAMED WALL

R602.10.5 Wall Bracing by Engineered Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Design using bracing materials and methods listed in Table R602.10.1 or approved alternative materials and methods shall be permitted and shall comply with accepted engineering practice. Accepted engineering practice shall include the following:
  1. Design in accordance with Section R301,
  2. Design equivalent to the analysis basis of the provisions in Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.3, and R602.10.4, including determination of design loads, design unit shear values, and bracing amounts.

R602.11 Wall Anchorage

ILLUSTRATION
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.
Plate washers, not less than 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

R602.11.2 Stepped Foundations in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12 Simplified Wall Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.1 Circumscribed Rectangle

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.2 Sheathing Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.3 Bracing Unit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.3.1 Multiple Bracing Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.4 Number of Bracing Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.5 Distribution of Bracing Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.6 Narrow Panels

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.6.1 Method CS-G

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.6.2 Method CS-PF

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.6.3 Methods ABW, PFH and PFG

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.7 Lateral Support

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R602.12.8 Stem Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section R603 Cold-Formed Steel Wall Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.1.1 Applicability Limits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.1.2 In-Line Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2 Structural Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.1 Material

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.2 Corrosion Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.3 Dimension, Thickness and Material Grade

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.4 Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.5 Fastening

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.6 Web Holes, Web Hole Reinforcing and Web Hole Patching

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.6.1 Web Holes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.6.2 Web Hole Reinforcing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.2.6.3 Hole Patching

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3 Wall Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.1 Wall to Foundation or Floor Connection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.1.1 Gable Endwalls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.2 Minimum Stud Sizes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.2.1 Gable Endwalls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.3 Stud Bracing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.4 Cutting and Notching

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.3.5 Splicing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.4 Corner Framing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.5 Exterior Wall Covering

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.6 Headers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.6.1 Headers in Gable Endwalls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.7 Jack and King Studs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.8 Head and Sill Track

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9 Structural Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.1 Sheathing Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.2 Determination of Minimum Length of Full-Height Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.2.1 Full Height Sheathing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.2.2 Full-Height Sheathing in Lowest Story

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.3 Structural Sheathing Fastening

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.4 Uplift Connection Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.4.1 Ultimate Design Wind Speeds Greater Than 126 mph

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.4.2 Hold-Down Anchor

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.5 Structural Sheathing for Stone and Masonry Veneer

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.5.1 Seismic Design Category C

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R603.9.5.2 Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Wood structural panels shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or ANSI/APA PRP 210, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
The maximum allowable spans for wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the values set forth in Table R602.3(3).
Wood structural panel wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(3).
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified in Table R602.3(4).
Masonry construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, TMS 403 or in accordance with the provisions of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

R606.1.1 Professional Registration Not Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
When the empirical design provisions of Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, the provisions of TMS 403, or the provisions of this section are used to design masonry, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the registered design professional responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.
Concrete masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 55 for concrete brick; ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick; ASTM C 90 for load-bearing concrete masonry units; ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units; or ASTM C 1634 for concrete facing brick.
Clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 34 for structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 56 for structural clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 62 for building brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 1088 for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C 126 for ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and solid masonry units; ASTM C 212 for structural clay facing tile; ASTM C 216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C652 for hollow brick (hollow masonry units made from clay or shale); or ASTM C1405 for glazed brick (single-fired solid brick units).
Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not be required to meet the compressive strength specifications. The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and shall comply with the requirements of Section R302.
AAC masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 1386 for the strength class specified.
Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 503 for marble building stone (exterior); ASTM C 568 for limestone building stone; ASTM C 615 for granite building stone; ASTM C 616 for sandstone building stone; or ASTM C 629 for slate building stone.
Architectural cast stone shall conform to ASTM C 1364.

R606.2.6 Second Hand Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Second hand masonry units shall not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before reuse.

Exception: Second hand units are permitted to be used for interior nonbearing conditions.
Except for mortars listed in Sections R606.2.8, R606.2.9 and R606.2.10, mortar for use in masonry construction shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R606.2.7 or the property specifications of ASTM C 270. The type of mortar shall be in accordance with Sections R606.2.7.1, R606.2.7.2 and R606.2.7.3.

TABLE R606.2.7
MORTAR PROPORTIONSa, b
    PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials)  
MORTAR TYPE Portland cement or
blended cement
Mortar cement Masonry cement Hydrated limec or
lime putty
Aggregate ratio
(measured in damp,
loose conditions)
M S N M S N
Cement-lime M 1 1/4 Not less than 21/4 and
not more than 3 times
the sum of separate
volumes of lime, if
used, and cement
S 1 over 1/4 to 1/2
N 1 over 1/2 to 11/4
O 1 over 11/4 to 21/2
Mortar cement M 1 1
M 1
S 1/2 1
S 1
N 1
O 1
Masonry cement M 1       1
M       1
S 1/2       1
S       1
N       1
O       1

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
  1. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows:
    Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag
    Mortar Cement Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds
    Lime Putty (Quicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand
  2. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar.
  3. Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 207.
Mortar for masonry foundation walls constructed as set forth in Tables R404.1.1(1) through R404.1.1(4) shall be Type M or S mortar.
Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force-resisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C shall be Type M, S or N mortar.

R606.2.7.3 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Surface-bonding mortar shall comply with ASTM C 887. Surface bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.
Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.1 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6. Mortar used for the leveling courses of AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Mortar for use with adhered masonry veneer shall conform to ASTM C 270 Type S or Type N or shall comply with ANSI A118.4 for latex-modified portland cement mortar.
Grout shall consist of cementitious material and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 476 or the proportion specifications of Table R606.2.11. Type M or Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added to produce pouring consistency shall be permitted to be used as grout.

TABLE R606.2.11
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
TYPE PORTLAND CEMENT
OR BLENDED CEMENT
SLAG CEMENT
HYDRATED LIME
OR LIME PUTTY
AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION
Fine Coarse
Fine 1 0 to 1/10 21/4 to 3 times the sum of the volume
of the cementitious materials
Coarse 1 0 to 1/10 21/4 to 3 times the sum of the volume
of the cementitious materials
1 to 2 times the sum of the volumes
of the cementitious materials
Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Article 2.4 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.

R606.3.1 Bed and Head Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Unless otherwise required or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints shall be 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick, except that the thickness of the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations shall be not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) and not more than 11/2 inch (38 mm). Mortar joint thickness for load-bearing masonry shall be within the following tolerances from the specified dimensions:
  1. Bed joint: + 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
  2. Head joint: - 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), + 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
  3. Collar joints: - 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), + 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
The mortar shall be sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient pressure to extrude mortar from the joint and produce a tight joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces voids shall not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the extent that initial bond is broken after initial placement shall be removed and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be in contact with mortar shall be clean and free of deleterious materials.
Solid masonry units shall be laid with full head and bed joints and all interior vertical joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be filled.
For hollow masonry units, head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the thickness of the face shell.
The installation of wall ties shall be as follows:
  1. The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar joints. Wall ties shall have not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face.
  2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout or mortar.
  3. For solid masonry units, solid grouted hollow units, or hollow units in anchored masonry veneer, wall ties shall be embedded in mortar bed not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
  4. For hollow masonry units in other than anchored masonry veneer, wall ties shall engage outer face shells by not less than 1/2 inch (13 mm).
Bars shall be completely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement embedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. Other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of one bar diameter over all bars, but not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm), except where exposed to weather or soil, in which case the minimum coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm).
Minimum corrosion protection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fabric for use in masonry wall construction shall conform to Table R606.3.4.1.

TABLE R606.3.4.1
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION
MASONRY METAL
ACCESSORY
STANDARD
Joint reinforcement, interior walls ASTM A 641, Class 1
Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls
completely embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A 641, Class 3
Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls not
completely embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A 153, Class B-2
Joint reinforcement in exterior walls or
interior walls exposed to moist environment
ASTM A 153, Class B-2
Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed to
weather
ASTM A 153, Class B-2
Sheet metal ties or anchors completely
embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A 653, Coating
Designation G60
Stainless steel hardware for any exposure ASTM A 167, Type 304
Grout shall be a plastic mix suitable for pumping without segregation of the constituents and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed by pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall be placed before any initial set occurs and not more than 11/2 hours after water has been added. Grout shall be consolidated by puddling or mechanical vibrating during placing and reconsolidated after excess moisture has been absorbed but before plasticity is lost. Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes.

Maximum pour heights and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided for grout placement shall conform to Table R606.3.5.1. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8-foot (2438 mm) maximum height. Where a total grout pour exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout shall be placed in lifts not exceeding 64 inches (1626 mm) and special inspection during grouting shall be required. If the work is stopped for 1 hour or longer, the horizontal construction joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same elevation and with the grout 1 inch (25 mm) below the top.

TABLE R606.3.5.1
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS
GROUT TYPE GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT
(feet)
MINIMUM WIDTH OF
GROUT SPACESa, b

(inches)
MINIMUM GROUTb, c SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR
GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS
(inches × inches)
Fine 1 0.75 1.5 × 2
5 2 2 × 3
12 2.5 2.5 × 3
24 3 3 × 3
Coarse 1 1.5 1.5 × 3
5 2 2.5 × 3
12 2.5 3 × 3
24 3 3 × 4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. For grouting between masonry wythes.
  2. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the horizontal projection of the diameters of the horizontal bars within the cross section of the grout space.
  3. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space.
Provisions shall be made for cleaning the space to be grouted. Mortar that projects more than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) into the grout space and any other foreign matter shall be removed from the grout space prior to inspection and grouting. Where required by the building official, cleanouts shall be provided in the bottom course of masonry for each grout pour where the grout pour height exceeds 64 inches (1626 mm). In solid grouted masonry, cleanouts shall be spaced horizontally not more than 32 inches (813 mm) on center. The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and after inspection.
Requirements for grouted masonry construction shall be as follows:
  1. Masonry shall be built to preserve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the cells or spaces to be filled. In partially grouted construction, cross webs forming cells to be filled shall be full-bedded in mortar to prevent leakage of grout. Head and end joints shall be solidly filled with mortar for a distance in from the face of the wall or unit not less than the thickness of the longitudinal face shells.
  2. Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at top and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 diameters of the reinforcement.
  3. Cells containing reinforcement shall be filled solidly with grout.
  4. The thickness of grout or mortar between masonry units and reinforcement shall be not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), except that 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) bars shall be permitted to be laid in horizontal mortar joints not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick, and steel wire reinforcement shall be permitted to be laid in horizontal mortar joints not less than twice the thickness of the wire diameter.
Grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements specified in Section R606.3.5 and the requirements of this section.
Where all interior vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiple-wythe construction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section R606.13.2 to prevent spreading of the wythes and to maintain the vertical alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be installed in accordance with Section R606.13.2 where the backup wythe in multiple-wythe construction is fully grouted.
Vertical grout barriers or dams shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the entire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout horizontally. Grout barriers shall be not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall between control barriers shall be completed in one day without interruptions greater than 1 hour.
Masonry laid in running and stack bond shall conform to Sections R606.3.7.1 and R606.3.7.2.
In each wythe of masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive courses shall be offset by not less than one-fourth the unit length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudinally as required in Section R606.3.7.2.

R606.3.7.2 Masonry Laid in Stack Bond

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In unreinforced masonry where masonry units are laid in stack bond, longitudinal reinforcement consisting of not less than two continuous wires each with a minimum aggregate cross-sectional area of 0.017 square inch (11 mm2) shall be provided in horizontal bed joints spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center vertically.
The nominal thickness of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections R606.4.1 through R606.4.4.
The minimum thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story dwellings and garages shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness where not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, provided that where gable construction is used, an additional 6 feet (1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable. Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals as required by Section R606.6.4.
The minimum thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm).
Where walls of masonry of hollow units or masonry-bonded hollow walls are decreased in thickness, a course of solid masonry or masonry units filled with mortar or grout shall be constructed between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or special units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to those below.

R606.4.4 Parapet Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Unreinforced solid masonry parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their height shall not exceed three times their thickness. Masonry parapet walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) on townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R606.12.
Corbeled masonry shall be in accordance with Sections R606.5.1 through R606.5.3.
Solid masonry units or masonry units filled with mortar or grout shall be used for corbeling.
The maximum projection of one unit shall not exceed one-half the height of the unit or one-third the thickness at right angles to the wall. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall shall not exceed:
  1. One-half of the wall thickness for multiwythe walls bonded by mortar or grout and wall ties or masonry headers.
  2. One-half the wythe thickness for single wythe walls, masonry-bonded hollow walls, multiwythe walls with open collar joints and veneer walls.
Where corbeled masonry is used to support floor or roof-framing members, the top course of the corbel shall be a header course or the top course bed joint shall have ties to the vertical wall.
Bearing and support conditions shall be in accordance with Sections R606.6.1 through R606.6.4.
Each masonry wythe shall be supported by at least two-thirds of the wythe thickness.
Cavity wall or masonry veneer construction shall be permitted to be supported on an 8-inch (203 mm) foundation wall, provided the 8-inch (203 mm) wall is corbeled to the width of the wall system above with masonry constructed of solid masonry units or masonry units filled with mortar or grout. The total horizontal projection of the corbel shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) with individual corbels projecting not more than one-third the thickness of the unit or one-half the height of the unit. The hollow space behind the corbeled masonry shall be filled with mortar or grout.
Beams, girders or other concentrated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to the beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a continuous reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the face of the wall.
Joists shall have a bearing of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm), except as provided in Section R606.6.3, and shall be supported in accordance with Figure R606.11(1).
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. The maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not exceed the distances in Table R606.6.4. Lateral support shall be provided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame members where the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by floors or roofs where the limiting distance is taken vertically.

TABLE R606.6.4
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS
CONSTRUCTION MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS
OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESSa, b
Bearing walls:  
   Solid or solid grouted 20
   All other 18
Nonbearing walls:  
   Exterior 18
   Interior 36

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall shall be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for parapets, the ratio of height to nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for solid masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section R606.4.4.
  2. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end walls.
Lateral support in the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section R606.6.4.1.1 or R606.6.4.1.2.
Fifty percent of the units at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below.
Interior nonload-bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersections, at vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) with joint reinforcement of not less than 9 gage [0.148 inch (4mm)], or 1/4-inch (6 mm) galvanized mesh hardware cloth. Intersecting masonry walls, other than interior nonloadbearing walls, shall be anchored at vertical intervals of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) with joint reinforcement of not less than 9 gage and shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in each direction at the intersection. Other metal ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide equivalent area of anchorage to that required by this section.
Vertical lateral support of masonry walls in Seismic Design Category A, B or C shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods in Section R606.6.4.2.1 or R606.6.4.2.2.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to roof structures with metal strap anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 1/2-inch (13 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. Anchors shall be embedded not less than 16 inches (406 mm) into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the top of the wall.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor diaphragm framing by metal strap anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 1/2-inch-diameter (13 mm) bolts spaced at intervals not to exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed as shown in Figure R606.11(1), or by other approved methods.
The unsupported height of masonry piers shall not exceed 10 times their least dimension. Where structural clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for isolated piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be filled solidly with grout or Type M or S mortar, except that unfilled hollow piers shall be permitted to be used if their unsupported height is not more than four times their least dimension. Where hollow masonry units are solidly filled with grout or Type M, S or N mortar, the allowable compressive stress shall be permitted to be increased as provided in Table R606.9.

R606.7.1 Pier Cap

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete for one story and 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry or concrete for two stories and two and one-half stories or shall have cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout or other approved methods.
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maximum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and between adjacent chases or recesses and the jambs of openings. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required fire resistance of the wall and in no case shall a chase or recess be permitted within the required area of a pier. Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on noncombustible lintels.
Allowable compressive stresses in masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table R606.9. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts shall be taken into account.

TABLE R606.9
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY
CONSTRUCTION;
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
OF UNIT, GROSS AREA
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE
STRESSESa GROSS
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAb
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
Solid masonry of brick and
other solid units of clay or
shale; sand-lime or
concrete brick:
   
   8,000 + psi 350 300
   4,500 psi 225 200
   2,500 psi 160 140
   1,500 psi 115 100
Groutedc masonry, of clay
or shale; sand-lime or
concrete:
   
   4,500 + psi 225 200
   2,500 psi 160 140
   1,500 psi 115 100
Solid masonry of solid concrete
masonry units:
   
   3,000 + psi 225 200
   2,000 psi 160 140
   1,200 psi 115 100
Masonry of hollow load-
bearing units:
   
   2,000 + psi 140 120
   1,500 psi 115 100
   1,000 psi 75 70
   700 psi 60 55
Hollow walls (cavity or
masonry bondedd) solid
units:
   
   2,500 + psi 160 140
   1,500 psi 115 100
   Hollow units 75 70
Stone ashlar masonry:    
   Granite 720 640
   Limestone or marble 450 400
   Sandstone or cast stone 360 320
Rubble stone masonry:    
   Coarse, rough or random 120 100

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between those given in the table.
  2. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than nominal dimensions.
  3. See Section R606.13.
  4. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as cavity walls unless the collar joints are filled with mortar or grout.
In walls or other structural members composed of different kinds or grades of units, materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of units, materials and mortars of which the member is composed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to resist stress shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
Masonry over openings shall be supported by steel lintels, reinforced concrete or masonry lintels or masonry arches, designed to support load imposed.

R606.11 Anchorage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor and roof systems in accordance with the details shown in Figure R606.11(1) or R606.11(2). Footings shall be permitted to be considered as points of lateral support.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0.479 kPa.
Note: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid.


FIGURE R606.11(1) ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R606.11(2) REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C

R606.12 Seismic Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.12.2. These requirements shall not apply to glass unit masonry conforming to Section R607, anchored masonry veneer conforming to Section R703.8 or adhered masonry veneer conforming to Section R703.12.

R606.12.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Masonry structures and masonry elements shall comply with the requirements of Sections R606.12.2 based on the seismic design category established in Table R301.2(1). Masonry structures and masonry elements shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.12 and Figures R606.11(1) and R606.11(2) or shall be designed in accordance with TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 or TMS 403.

R606.12.1.1 Floor and Roof Diaphragm Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of wood structural panels attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Additionally, sheathing panel edges perpendicular to framing members shall be backed by blocking, and sheathing shall be connected to the blocking with fasteners at the edge spacing. For Seismic Design Category C, where the width-to-thickness dimension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to-1, edge spacing of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center.
Townhouses located in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R606.12.2.1 Minimum Length of Wall Without Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Table R606.12.2.1 shall be used to determine the minimum required solid wall length without openings at each masonry exterior wall. The provided percentage of solid wall length shall include only those wall segments that are 3 feet (914 mm) or longer. The maximum clear distance between wall segments included in determining the solid wall length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). Shear wall segments required to meet the minimum wall length shall be in accordance with Section R606.12.2.2.3.

TABLE R606.12.2.1 MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES

SESIMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent)a
One story or
top story of two story
Wall supporting light-framed second
story and roof
Wall supporting masonry second
story and roof
Townhouses in C 20 25 35

  1. For all walls, the minimum required length of solid walls shall be based on the table percent multiplied by the dimension, parallel to the wall direction under consideration, of a rectangle inscribing the overall building plan.
Elements not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall be analyzed to determine their effect on the response of the system. The frames or columns shall be adequate for vertical load carrying capacity and induced moment caused by the design story drift.
Masonry partition walls, masonry screen walls and other masonry elements that are not designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other than those induced by their own weight, shall be isolated from the structure so that vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors between these elements and the structure shall be designed to accommodate the design story drift.
Masonry elements listed in Section R606.12.2.2.2 shall be reinforced in either the horizontal or vertical direction as shown in Figure R606.11(2) and in accordance with the following:
  1. Horizontal reinforcement. Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of not less than two longitudinal W1.7 wires spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 inches (102 mm) in width and not less than one longitudinal W1.7 wire spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) for walls not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm) in width; or not less than one No. 4 bar spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Where two longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement are used, the space between these wires shall be the widest that the mortar joint will accommodate. Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top and bottom of these masonry elements.
  2. Vertical reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement shall consist of not less than one No. 4 bar spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Vertical reinforcement shall be located within 16 inches (406 mm) of the ends of masonry walls.
Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces between masonry walls and horizontal elements in accordance with the requirements of Section 4.1.4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. Connectors shall be designed to transfer horizontal design forces acting either perpendicular or parallel to the wall, but not less than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of wall. The maximum spacing between connectors shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). Such anchorage mechanisms shall not induce tension stresses perpendicular to grain in ledgers or nailers.
Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces between masonry columns and horizontal elements in accordance with the requirements of Section 4.1.4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. Where anchor bolts are used to connect horizontal elements to the tops of columns, the bolts shall be placed within lateral ties. Lateral ties shall enclose both the vertical bars in the column and the anchor bolts. There shall be not less than two No. 4 lateral ties provided in the top 5 inches (127 mm) of the column.
Vertical reinforcement of not less than one No. 4 bar shall be provided at corners, within 16 inches (406 mm) of each side of openings, within 8 inches (203 mm) of each side of movement joints, within 8 inches (203 mm) of the ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 10 feet (3048 mm).

Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of not less than two wires of W1.7 spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement of not less than one No. 4 bar spaced not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be provided. Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided at the bottom and top of wall openings and shall extend not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor less than 40 bar diameters past the opening; continuously at structurally connected roof and floor levels; and within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top of walls.

R606.12.3 Seismic Design Category D0 or D1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.1 Design Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.2 Minimum Reinforcement Requirements for Masonry Walls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.2.1 Shear Wall Reinforcement Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.3 Minimum Reinforcement for Masonry Columns

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.4 Material Restrictions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.3.5 Lateral Tie Anchorage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.4 Seismic Design Category D2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.4.1 Design of Elements Not Part of the Lateral Force-Resisting System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

R606.12.4.2 Design of Elements Part of the Lateral Force-Resisting System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The facing and backing of multiple-wythe masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section R606.13.1, R606.13.2 or R606.13.3. In cavity walls, neither the facing nor the backing shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness and the cavity shall be not more than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width. The backing shall be not less than as thick as the facing.
Exception: Cavities shall be permitted to exceed the 4-inch (102 mm) nominal dimension provided tie size and tie spacing have been established by calculation.
Bonding with solid or hollow masonry headers shall comply with Sections R606.13.1.1 and R606.13.1.2.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are bonded by means of masonry headers, not less than 4 percent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the backing. The distance between adjacent full-length headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either vertically or horizontally. In walls in which a single header does not extend through the wall, headers from the opposite sides shall overlap not less than 3 inches (76 mm), or headers from opposite sides shall be covered with another header course overlapping the header below not less than 3 inches (76 mm).
Where two or more hollow units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping not less than 3 inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at vertical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with units that are not less than 50 percent thicker than the units below.
Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement shall comply with Section R606.13.2.3.
Bonding with wall ties, except as required by Section R607, where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are bonded with 3/16-inch-diameter (5 mm) wall ties embedded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be not less than one metal tie for each 41/2 square feet (0.418 m2) of wall area. Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered. The maximum vertical distance between ties shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum horizontal distance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the cells vertical. In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to 90-degree (0.79 rad) angles to provide hooks not less than 2 inches (51 mm) long. Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all openings, spaced not more than 3 feet (914 mm) apart around the perimeter and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the opening.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be not less than one tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m2) of wall area. Neither the vertical nor the horizontal spacing of the adjustable wall ties shall exceed 24 inches (610 mm). The maximum vertical offset of bed joints from one wythe to the other shall be 1.25 inches (32 mm). The maximum clearance between connecting parts of the ties shall be 1/16 inch (2 mm). Where pintle legs are used, ties shall have not less than two 3/16-inch-diameter (5 mm) legs.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint reinforcement, there shall be not less than one cross wire serving as a tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m2) of wall area. The vertical spacing of the joint reinforcement shall not exceed 16 inches (406 mm). Cross wires on prefabricated joint reinforcement shall not be smaller than No. 9 gage. The longitudinal wires shall be embedded in the mortar.
Bonding with natural and cast stone shall conform to Sections R606.13.3.1 and R606.13.3.2.
In ashlar masonry, bonder units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) into the backing wall.
Rubble stone masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 feet (914 mm) vertically and 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally, and if the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 inches (610 mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 square feet (0.557 m2) of wall surface on both sides.

R606.14.1 Anchored Veneer

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Anchored masonry veneer installed over a backing of wood shall meet the requirements of Section R703.8.
Adhered masonry veneer shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section R703.12.
Panels of glass unit masonry located in load-bearing and nonload-bearing exterior and interior walls shall be constructed in accordance with this section.
Hollow glass units shall be partially evacuated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/16 inch (5 mm). The surface of units in contact with mortar shall be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. The use of reclaimed units is prohibited.
Hollow or solid glass block units shall be standard or thin units.
The specified thickness of standard units shall be not less than 37/8 inches (98 mm).
The specified thickness of thin units shall be not less than 31/8 inches (79 mm) for hollow units and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units.
Isolated panels of glass unit masonry shall conform to the requirements of this section.
The maximum area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 144 square feet (13.4 m2) where the design wind pressure is 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa). The maximum area of such panels subjected to design wind pressures other than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa) shall be in accordance with Figure R607.4.1. The maximum panel dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

FIGURE R607.4.1
GLASS UNIT MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE
The maximum area of each individual thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet (7.9 m2). The maximum dimension between structural supports shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the design wind pressure as stated in Table R301.2(1) exceeds 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa).
The maximum area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2 m2). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150 square feet (13.9 m2). The maximum dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
The width of curved panels shall conform to the requirements of Sections R607.4.1, R607.4.2 and R607.4.3, except additional structural supports shall be provided at locations where a curved section joins a straight section, and at inflection points in multicurved walls.
Glass unit masonry panels shall conform to the support requirements of this section.
The maximum total deflection of structural members that support glass unit masonry shall not exceed 1/600.
Glass unit masonry panels shall be laterally supported along the top and sides of the panel. Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be designed to resist not less than 200 pounds per lineal feet (2918 N/m) of panel, or the actual applied loads, whichever is greater. Except for single unit panels, lateral support shall be provided by panel anchors along the top and sides spaced not greater than 16 inches (406 mm) on center or by channel-type restraints. Single unit panels shall be supported by channel-type restraints.

Exceptions:
  1. Lateral support is not required at the top of panels that are one unit wide.
  2. Lateral support is not required at the sides of panels that are one unit high.
Panel anchors shall be spaced not greater than 16 inches (406 mm) on center in both jambs and across the head. Panel anchors shall be embedded not less than 12 inches (305 mm) and shall be provided with two fasteners so as to resist the loads specified in Section R607.5.2.
Glass unit masonry panels shall be recessed not less than 1 inch (25 mm) within channels and chases. Channel-type restraints shall be oversized to accommodate expansion material in the opening, packing and sealant between the framing restraints, and the glass unit masonry perimeter units.
Before bedding of glass units, the sill area shall be covered with a water base asphaltic emulsion coating. The coating shall be not less than 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick.
Glass unit masonry panels shall be provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at all structural supports. Expansion joints shall be not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm) in thickness and shall have sufficient thickness to accommodate displacements of the supporting structure. Expansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar and other debris and shall be filled with resilient material.
Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S or N mortar. Mortar shall not be retempered after initial set. Mortar unused within 11/2 hours after initial mixing shall be discarded.
Glass unit masonry panels shall have horizontal joint reinforcement spaced not greater than 16 inches (406 mm) on center located in the mortar bed joint. Horizontal joint reinforcement shall extend the entire length of the panel but shall not extend across expansion joints. Longitudinal wires shall be lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) at splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed joint immediately below and above openings in the panel. The reinforcement shall have not less than two parallel longitudinal wires of size W1.7 or greater, and have welded cross wires of size W1.7 or greater.
Glass units shall be placed so head and bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed. Head and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial panels shall be not less than 1/8 inch (3 mm) or greater than 5/8 inch (16 mm). The bed joint thickness tolerance shall be minus 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) and plus 1/8 inch (3 mm). The head joint thickness tolerance shall be plus or minus 1/8 inch (3 mm).

R608.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exterior concrete walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in accordance with the provisions of PCA 100 or ACI 318. Where PCA 100, ACI 318 or the provisions of this section are used to design concrete walls, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the registered design professional, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.
These provisions are based on the assumption that interior walls and partitions, both load-bearing and nonload-bearing, floors and roof/ceiling assemblies are constructed of light-framed construction complying with the limitations of this code and the additional limitations of Section R608.2. Design and construction of light-framed assemblies shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code. Where second-story exterior walls are of light-framed construction, they shall be designed and constructed as required by this code.

Aspects of concrete construction not specifically addressed by this code, including interior concrete walls, shall comply with ACI 318.
Exterior concrete walls constructed in accordance with this code shall comply with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions of Table R608.3. Other types of forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with this section shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction of exterior concrete walls for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in plan dimensions, floors with clear spans not greater than 32 feet (9754 mm) and roofs with clear spans not greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm). Buildings shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) in mean roof height or two stories in height above grade. Floor/ceiling dead loads shall not exceed 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa), roof/ceiling dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (718 Pa) and attic live loads shall not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa). Roof overhangs shall not exceed 2 feet (610 mm) of horizontal projection beyond the exterior wall and the dead load of the overhangs shall not exceed 8 pounds per square foot (383 Pa).

Walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to buildings subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 160 mph (72 m/s) Exposure B, 136 mph (61 m/s) Exposure C and 125 mph (56 m/s) Exposure D. Walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses assigned to Seismic Design Category A or B, and detached one- and two-family dwellings assigned to Seismic Design Category C.

Buildings that are not within the scope of this section shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or ACI 318.
Concrete walls constructed in accordance with these provisions shall comply with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions of Table R608.3.

TABLE R608.3
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLSa, b
WALL TYPE
AND NOMINAL
THICKNESS
MAXIMUM
WALL WEIGHTc

(psf)
MINIMUM
WIDTH, W, OF
VERTICAL CORES
(inches)
MINIMUM
THICKNESS, T, OF
VERTICAL CORES
(inches)
MAXIMUM
SPACING OF
VERTICAL CORES
(inches)
MAXIMUM
SPACING OF
HORIZONTAL
CORES
(inches)
MINIMUM WEB
THICKNESS
(inches)
4" Flatd 50 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
6" Flatd 75 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
8" Flatd 100 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
10" Flatd 125 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
6" Waffle-grid 56 8e 5.5e 12 16 2
8" Waffle-grid 76 8f 8f 12 16 2
6" Screen-grid 53 6.25g 6.25g 12 12 N/A

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 2402.77 kg/m3, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 inch4 = 42 cm4.
  1. Width "W," thickness "T," spacing and web thickness, refer to Figures R608.3(2) and R608.3(3).
  2. N/A indicates not applicable.
  3. Wall weight is based on a unit weight of concrete of 150 pcf. For flat walls the weight is based on the nominal thickness. The tabulated values do not include any allowance for interior and exterior finishes.
  4. Nominal wall thickness. The actual as-built thickness of a flat wall shall not be more than 1/2 inch less or more than 1/4 inch more than the nominal dimension indicated.
  5. Vertical core is assumed to be elliptical-shaped. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5 inches, the moment of inertia, I, about the centerline of the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 65 inch4, and the area, A, is not less than 31.25 square inches. The width used to calculate A and I shall not exceed 8 inches.
  6. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 7 inches, the moment of inertia, I, about the centerline of the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 200 inch4, and the area, A, is not less than 49 square inches. The width used to calculate A and I shall not exceed 8 inches.
  7. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5.5 inches, the moment of inertia, I, about the centerline of the wall is not less than 76 inch4, and the area, A, is not less than 30.25 square inches. The width used to calculate A and I shall not exceed 6.25 inches.


FIGURE R608.3(1)
FLAT WALL SYSTEM


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R608.3(2)
WAFFLE-GRID WALL SYSTEM


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R608.3(3)
SCREEN-GRID WALL SYSTEM
Flat concrete wall systems shall comply with Table R608.3 and Figure R608.3(1) and have a minimum nominal thickness of 4 inches (102 mm).
Waffle-grid wall systems shall comply with Table R608.3 and Figure R608.3(2) and shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores). The core and web dimensions shall comply with Table R608.3. The maximum weight of waffle-grid walls shall comply with Table R608.3.
Screen-grid wall systems shall comply with Table R608.3 and Figure R608.3(3) and shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores). The core dimensions shall comply with Table R608.3. The maximum weight of screen-grid walls shall comply with Table R608.3.
Stay-in-place concrete forms shall comply with this section.
The flame spread index and smoke-developed index of forming material, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the interior shall comply with Section R302.9. The surface burning characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating concrete forms shall comply with Section R316.3.
Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the interior of the building as required by Sections R316.4 and R702.3.4. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening system. Use of adhesives is permitted in addition to mechanical fasteners.
Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be protected from sunlight and physical damage by the application of an approved exterior wall covering complying with this code. Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems shall be protected in accordance with this code.

Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and other finishes on the exterior of concrete walls and other construction details not covered in this section shall comply with the requirements of this code.
Flat ICF wall system forms shall conform to ASTM E 2634.

R608.5 Materials

ILLUSTRATION
Materials used in the construction of concrete walls shall comply with this section.
Materials used in concrete, and the concrete itself, shall conform to requirements of this section, PCA 100 or ACI 318.
The following standards as referenced in Chapter 44 shall be permitted to be used.
  1. ASTM C 150
  2. ASTM C 595
  3. ASTM C 1157
Mixing and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685.
The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between reinforcing bars or between a bar and the side of the form.
Exception: When approved, these limitations shall not apply where removable forms are used and workability and methods of consolidation permit concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids.
Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in removable forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm).
Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures that are resistant to segregation, and are in accordance with the form manufacturer's recommendations.

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 143.
The minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f 'c, shall comply with Section R402.2 and shall be not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (17.2 MPa) at 28 days.
Concrete shall be consolidated by suitable means during placement and shall be worked around embedded items and reinforcement and into corners of forms. Where stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by internal vibration.
Exception: When approved, self-consolidating concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for placement without internal vibration need not be internally vibrated.
Steel reinforcement shall comply with ASTM A 615, ASTM A 706, or ASTM A 996. ASTM A 996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R.
Anchor bolts for use with connection details in accordance with Figures R608.9(1) through R608.9(12) shall be bolts with heads complying with ASTM A 307 or ASTM F 1554. ASTM A 307 bolts shall be Grade A with heads. ASTM F 1554 bolts shall be Grade 36 minimum. Instead of bolts with heads, it is permissible to use rods with threads on both ends fabricated from steel complying with ASTM A 36. The threaded end of the rod to be embedded in the concrete shall be provided with a hex or square nut.

R608.5.2.3 Sheet Steel Angles and Tension Tie Straps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Angles and tension tie straps for use with connection details in accordance with Figures R608.9(1) through R608.9(6) shall be fabricated from sheet steel complying with ASTM A 653 SS, ASTM A 792 SS, or ASTM A 875 SS. The steel shall be minimum Grade 33 unless a higher grade is required by the applicable figure.
Forms shall be made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and wood chips, or other approved material suitable for supporting and containing concrete. Forms shall provide sufficient strength to contain concrete during the concrete placement operation.

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a composite of cement and wood chips, a composite of cement and foam plastic, or other suitable material capable of resisting the forces created by fluid pressure of fresh concrete.
TABLE R608.5.4(1)
LAP SPLICE AND TENSION DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS
  BAR SIZE
NO.
YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL, fy- psi (MPa)
40,000 (280) 60,000 (420)
Splice length or tension development length
(inches)
Lap splice length-tension 4 20 30
5 25 38
6 30 45
Tension development length for straight bar 4 15 23
5 19 28
6 23 34
Tension development length for: 4 6 9
a. 90-degree and 180-degree standard hooks with not less than 21/2 inches
of side cover perpendicular to plane of hook, and
5 7 11
b. 90-degree standard hooks with not less than 2 inches of cover on the bar
extension beyond the hook.
6 8 13
Tension development length for bar with 90-degree or 180-degree standard
hook having less cover than required above.
4 8 12
5 10 15
6 12 18

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


TABLE R608.5.4(2)
MAXIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATIVE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATIVE GRADE OF STEELa, b, c
BAR SPACING FROM
APPLICABLE TABLE IN
SECTION R608.6
(inches)
BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R608.6
#4 #5 #6
Alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel desired
Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40
#5 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #5 #4 #5 #6
Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches)
8 12 18 5 8 12 5 11 3 5 8 4 6 2 4 5
9 14 20 6 9 13 6 13 4 6 9 4 6 3 4 6
10 16 22 7 10 15 6 14 4 7 9 5 7 3 5 7
11 17 24 7 11 16 7 16 5 7 10 5 8 3 5 7
12 19 26 8 12 18 8 17 5 8 11 5 8 4 6 8
13 20 29 9 13 19 8 18 6 9 12 6 9 4 6 9
14 22 31 9 14 21 9 20 6 9 13 6 10 4 7 9
15 23 33 10 16 22 10 21 6 10 14 7 11 5 7 10
16 25 35 11 17 23 10 23 7 11 15 7 11 5 8 11
17 26 37 11 18 25 11 24 7 11 16 8 12 5 8 11
18 28 40 12 19 26 12 26 8 12 17 8 13 5 8 12
19 29 42 13 20 28 12 27 8 13 18 9 13 6 9 13
20 31 44 13 21 29 13 28 9 13 19 9 14 6 9 13
21 33 46 14 22 31 14 30 9 14 20 10 15 6 10 14
22 34 48 15 23 32 14 31 9 15 21 10 16 7 10 15
23 36 48 15 24 34 15 33 10 15 22 10 16 7 11 15
24 37 48 16 25 35 15 34 10 16 23 11 17 7 11 16
25 39 48 17 26 37 16 35 11 17 24 11 18 8 12 17
26 40 48 17 27 38 17 37 11 17 25 12 18 8 12 17
27 42 48 18 28 40 17 38 12 18 26 12 19 8 13 18
28 43 48 19 29 41 18 40 12 19 26 13 20 8 13 19
29 45 48 19 30 43 19 41 12 19 27 13 20 9 14 19
30 47 48 20 31 44 19 43 13 20 28 14 21 9 14 20
31 48 48 21 32 45 20 44 13 21 29 14 22 9 15 21
32 48 48 21 33 47 21 45 14 21 30 15 23 10 15 21
33 48 48 22 34 48 21 47 14 22 31 15 23 10 16 22
34 48 48 23 35 48 22 48 15 23 32 15 24 10 16 23
35 48 48 23 36 48 23 48 15 23 33 16 25 11 16 23
36 48 48 24 37 48 23 48 15 24 34 16 25 11 17 24
37 48 48 25 38 48 24 48 16 25 35 17 26 11 17 25
38 48 48 25 39 48 25 48 16 25 36 17 27 12 18 25
39 48 48 26 40 48 25 48 17 26 37 18 27 12 18 26
40 48 48 27 41 48 26 48 17 27 38 18 28 12 19 27
41 48 48 27 42 48 26 48 18 27 39 19 29 12 19 27
42 48 48 28 43 48 27 48 18 28 40 19 30 13 20 28
43 48 48 29 44 48 28 48 18 29 41 20 30 13 20 29
44 48 48 29 45 48 28 48 19 29 42 20 31 13 21 29
45 48 48 30 47 48 29 48 19 30 43 20 32 14 21 30
46 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 32 14 22 31
47 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 33 14 22 31
48 48 48 32 48 48 31 48 21 32 45 22 34 15 23 32

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. This table is for use with tables in Section R608.6 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Section R608.6 is based on Grade 60 (420 MPa) steel reinforcement.
  2. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall be not less than one-half the nominal wall thickness.
  3. For Grade 50 (350 MPa) steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R), use spacing for Grade 40 (280 MPa) bars or interpolate between Grade 40 (280 MPa) and Grade 60 (420 MPa).


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R608.5.4(1)
LAP SPLICES



For SI: 1 degree = 0.0175 rad.

FIGURE R608.5.4(2)
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND COVER FOR HOOKS AND BAR EXTENSION



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad.

FIGURE R608.5.4(3)
STANDARD HOOKS
Reinforcement shall be secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire or other bar support system such that displacement will not occur during the concrete placement operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover of 3 inches (76 mm). Minimum cover for reinforcement in concrete cast in removable forms that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 inches (50 mm) for No. 6 bars and larger. For concrete cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm). The minus tolerance for cover shall not exceed the smaller of one-third the required cover and 3/8 inch (10 mm). See Section R608.5.4.4 for cover requirements for hooks of bars developed in tension.
For location of reinforcement in foundation walls and above-grade walls, see Sections R404.1.3.3.7.2 and R608.6.5, respectively.
Vertical and horizontal wall reinforcement required by Sections R608.6 and R608.7 shall be the longest lengths practical. Where splices are necessary in reinforcement, the length of lap splices shall be in accordance with Table R608.5.4(1) and Figure R608.5.4(1). The maximum gap between noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure R608.5.4(1).
Where bars are required to be developed in tension by other provisions of this code, development lengths and cover for hooks and bar extensions shall comply with Table R608.5.4(1) and Figure R608.5.4(2). The development lengths shown in Table R608.5.4(1) shall apply to bundled bars in lintels installed in accordance with Section R608.8.2.2.
Where reinforcement is required by this code to terminate with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with Figure R608.5.4(3).
Reinforcement, including stirrups, shall not be placed in webs of waffle-grid walls, including lintels. Webs are permitted to have form ties.
Where tables in Sections R404.1.3 and R608.6 specify vertical wall reinforcement based on minimum bar size and maximum spacing, which are based on Grade 60 (420 MPa) steel reinforcement, different size bars or bars made from a different grade of steel are permitted provided an equivalent area of steel per linear foot of wall is provided. Use of Table R608.5.4(2) is permitted to determine the maximum bar spacing for different bar sizes than specified in the tables and/or bars made from a different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced less than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center.
Construction joints shall be made and located to not impair the strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain concrete walls, including walls required to have not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center by Section R608.6, shall be located at points of lateral support, and not less than one No. 4 bar shall extend across the construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint reinforcement shall have not less than 12 inches (305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls shall be located in the middle third of the span between lateral supports, or located and constructed as required for joints in plain concrete walls.

Exception: Vertical wall reinforcement required by this code is permitted to be used in lieu of construction joint reinforcement, provided the spacing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), or the combination of wall reinforcement and No. 4 bars described in Section R608.5.5 does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm).

R608.6 Above-Grade Wall Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R608.6(1) ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION ONE STORY


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R608.6(2) ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION CONCRETE FIRST STORY AND LIGHT-FRAMED SECOND STORY


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R608.6(3) ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION TWO-STORY


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R608.6(4) ABOVE-GRADE CONCRETE WALL SUPPORTED ON MONOLITHIC SLAB-ON-GROUND FOOTING

TABLE R608.6(1) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa, b, c, d, e

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED
WALL HEIGHT PER STORY
(feet)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, g
Nominalh wall thickness (inches)
Exposure Category 4 6 8 10
B C D Topi Sidei Topi Sidei Topi Sidei Topi Sidei
115 8 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 4@39 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@41 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
120 8 4@48 4@43 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 4@36 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@37 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
130 110 8 4@48 4@38 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@39 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@34 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
140 119 110 8 4@43 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@34 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@34 4@31 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
150 127 117 8 4@37 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@34 4@33 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@31 4@27 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
160 136 125 8 4@34 4@34 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@34 4@29 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
10 4@27 4@24 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square inch = 1.895 kPa, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 feet, interior wall area 4, an effective wind area of 10 square feet, topographic factor, Kzt, equal to 1.0, and Risk Category II.
b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi.
c. See Section R608.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall.
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where No. 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table as indicated by shaded cells, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted.
g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R608.5.4.7 and Table R608.5.4(2).
h. See Table R608.3 for tolerances on nominal thicknesses.
i. "Top" means gravity load from roof or floor construction bears on top of wall. "Side" means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood ledger bolted to side of wall. For nonload-bearing walls where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, use of the "Top" bearing condition is permitted.


TABLE R608.6(2) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR WAFFLE-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa, b, c, d, e

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED
WALL HEIGHT PER STORY
(feet)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, g
Nominalh wall thickness (inches)
Exposure Category 6 8
B C D Topi Sidei Topi Sidei
115 8 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 5@43 4@48 4@48
10 5@47 5@37 4@48 4@48
120 8 4@48 5@48 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 5@40 4@48 4@48
10 5@43 5@37 4@48 4@48
130 110 8 4@48 5@42 4@48 4@48
9 5@45 5@37 4@48 4@48
10 5@37 5@37 4@48 4@48
140 119 110 8 4@48 5@38 4@48 4@48
9 5@39 5@37 4@48 4@48
10 5@37 5@35 4@48 4@48
150 127 117 8 5@43 5@37 4@48 4@48
9 5@37 5@37 4@48 4@48
10 5@36 6@44 4@48 4@48
160 136 125 8 5@38 5@37 4@48 4@48
9 5@37 6@47 4@48 4@48
10 6@45 6@39 4@48 6@46

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 feet, interior wall area 4, an effective wind area of 10 square feet, topographic factor, Kzt, equal to 1.0, and Risk Category II.
b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi.
c. See Section R608.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall.
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where No. 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table as indicated by shaded cells, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted.
g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches such as, 12, 24, 36 and 48, that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R608.5.4.7 and Table R608.5.4(2).
h. See Table R608.3 for minimum core dimensions and maximum spacing of horizontal and vertical cores.
i. "Top" means gravity load from roof or floor construction bears on top of wall. "Side" means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood ledger bolted to side of wall. For nonload-bearing walls and where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, the "top" bearing condition is permitted to be used.


TABLE R608.6(3) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH SCREEN-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa, b, c, d, e

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED
WALL HEIGHT PER STORY
(feet)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, g
Nominalh wall thickness (inches)
Exposure Category 6
B C D Topi Sidei
115 8 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 5@41
10 4@48 6@48
120 8 4@48 4@48
9 4@48 5@38
10 5@42 6@48
130 110 8 4@48 5@41
9 5@44 6@48
10 5@35 6@48
140 119 110 8 4@48 5@36
9 5@38 6@48
10 6@48 6@48
150 127 117 8 5@42 6@48
9 6@48 6@48
10 6@48 6@42
160 136 125 8 5@37 6@48
9 6@48 6@45
10 6@44 6@38

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 feet, interior wall area 4, an effective wind area of 10 square feet, topographic factor, Kzt, equal to 1.0, and Risk Category II.
b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi.
c. See Section R608.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall.
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where No. 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table as indicated by shaded cells, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted.
g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches such as, 12, 24, 36 and 48, that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R608.5.4.7 and Table R608.5.4(2).
h. See Table R608.3 for minimum core dimensions and maximum spacing of horizontal and vertical cores.
i. "Top" means gravity load from roof or floor construction bears on top of wall. "Side" means gravity load from floor construction is transferred to wall from a wood ledger bolted to side of wall. For nonload-bearing wall and where floor framing members span parallel to the wall, use of the "Top" bearing condition is permitted.


TABLE R608.6(4) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT, WAFFLE- AND SCREEN-GRID ABOVE-GRADE WALLS DESIGNED CONTINUOUS WITH FOUNDATION STEM WALLSa, b, c, d, e, k, l

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
HEIGHT OF
STEM WALLh,
i

(feet)
MAXIMUM
DESIGN
LATERAL
SOIL LOAD
(psf/ft)
MAXIMUM
UNSUPPORTED
HEIGHT OF ABOVE-
GRADE WALL
(feet)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)f, g
Wall type and nominal thicknessj (inches)
Exposure Category Flat Waffle Screen
B C D 4 6 8 10 6 8 6
115 3 30 8 4@30 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@22 4@26 4@21
10 4@23 5@43 4@48 4@48 4@17 4@20 4@16
60 10 4@19 5@37 4@48 4@48 4@14 4@17 4@14
6 30 10 DR 5@21 6@35 4@48 DR 4@10 DR
60 10 DR 5@12 6@25 6@28 DR DR DR
120 3 30 8 4@28 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@21 4@48 4@20
10 4@22 5@41 4@48 4@48 4@16 4@19 4@15
60 10 4@18 5@35 4@48 4@48 4@14 4@17 4@13
6 30 10 DR 5@21 6@35 4@48 DR 4@10 DR
60 10 DR 5@12 6@25 6@28 DR DR DR
130 110 3 30 8 4@25 4@48 4@48 4@48 4@18 4@22 4@18
10 4@19 5@36 4@48 4@48 4@14 4@17 4@13
6 60 10 4@16 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@12 4@17 4@12
30 10 DR 5@19 6@35 4@48 DR 4@9 DR
60 10 DR 5@12 6@24 6@28 DR DR DR
140 119 110 3 30 8 4@22 5@42 4@48 4@48 4@16 4@20 4@16
10 4@17 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@21 4@17 4@12
60 10 4@15 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@11 4@17 4@10
6 30 10 DR 5@18 6@35 6@35 DR 4@48 DR
60 10 DR 5@11 6@23 6@28 DR DR DR
150 127 117 3 30 8 4@20 5@37 4@48 4@48 4@15 4@18 4@14
10 4@15 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@11 4@17 4@11
60 10 4@13 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@10 4@16 4@9
6 30 10 DR 5@17 6@33 6@32 DR 4@8 DR
60 10 DR DR 6@22 6@28 DR DR DR
160 136 125 3 30 8 4@18 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@13 4@17 4@13
10 4@13 5@34 4@48 4@48 4@10 4@16 4@9
60 10 4@11 5@31 6@45 4@48 4@9 4@14 4@8
6 30 10 DR 5@15 6@31 6@30 DR 4@7 DR
60 10 DR DR 6@21 6@27 DR DR DR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Table is based on ASCE 7 components and cladding wind pressures for an enclosed building using a mean roof height of 35 feet, interior wall area 4, an effective wind area of 10 square feet, topographic factor, Kzt, equal to 1.0, and Risk Category II.
b. Table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi.
c. See Section R608.6.5 for location of reinforcement in wall.
d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the wall in inches from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the above-grade wall.
e. Interpolation is not permitted. For intermediate values of basic wind speed, heights of stem wall and above-grade wall, and design lateral soil load, use next higher value.
f. Where No. 4 reinforcing bars at a spacing of 48 inches are specified in the table as indicated by shaded cells, use of bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 60,000 psi is permitted.
g. Other than for No. 4 bars spaced at 48 inches on center, table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. In waffle and screen-grid walls where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches such as, 12, 24, 36 and 48, that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R608.5.4.7 and Table R608.5.4(2).
h. Height of stem wall is the distance from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the slab-on-ground.
i. Where the distance from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the slab-on-ground is equal to or greater than 4 feet, the stem wall shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. Where the wall is designed and constructed to be continuous with the above-grade wall, temporary supports bracing the top of the stem wall shall remain in place until the above-grade wall is laterally supported at the top by floor or roof construction.
j. See Table R608.3 for tolerances on nominal thicknesses, and minimum core dimensions and maximum spacing of horizontal and vertical cores for waffle- and screen-grid walls.
k. Tabulated values are applicable to construction where gravity loads bear on top of wall, and conditions where gravity loads from floor construction are transferred to wall from a wood ledger bolted to side of wall. See Tables R608.6(1), R608.6(2) and R608.6(3).
l. DR = Design Required.
The minimum thickness of load-bearing and nonload-bearing above-grade walls and reinforcement shall be as set forth in the appropriate table in this section based on the type of wall form to be used. The wall shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318 where the wall or building is not within the limitations of Section R608.2, where design is required by the tables in this section or where the wall is not within the scope of the tables in this section.

Above-grade concrete walls shall be constructed in accordance with this section and Figure R608.6(1), R608.6(2), R608.6(3) or R608.6(4). Above-grade concrete walls that are continuous with stem walls and not laterally supported by the slab-on-ground shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section. Concrete walls shall be supported on continuous foundation walls or slabs-on-ground that are monolithic with the footing in accordance with Section R403. The minimum length of solid wall without openings shall be in accordance with Section R608.7. Reinforcement around openings, including lintels, shall be in accordance with Section R608.8. Lateral support for above-grade walls in the out-of-plane direction shall be provided by connections to the floor framing system, if applicable, and to ceiling and roof framing systems in accordance with Section R608.9. The wall thickness shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above.
Vertical wall reinforcement for resistance to out-of-plane wind forces shall be determined from Table R608.6(1), R608.6(2), R608.6(3) or R608.6(4). For the design of nonload-bearing walls, in Tables R608.6(1), R608.6(2) and R608.6(3) use the appropriate column labeled "Top." (see Sections R608.7.2.2.2 and R608.7.2.2.3). There shall be a vertical bar at corners of exterior walls. Unless more horizontal reinforcement is required by