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The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the floors for buildings, including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical or plumbing fixtures and equipment.
Floor construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Preservative treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Section R317.2.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R502.1.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5055.
Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC-400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in accordance with ANSI AWC NDS.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R502.2
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION
A load path for lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and braced wall panels located above or below a floor, as specified in Section R602.10.4.
Blocking for fastening panel edges or fixtures shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber, No. 4 common grade boards or wood structural panels as specified in Section R503.2. Fireblocking shall be of any grade lumber.
Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Tables R502.3.1(1) and R502.3.1(2). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AWC STJR.
Table R502.3.1(1) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling joists that support attics used for limited storage or no storage shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4.

TABLE R502.3.1(1) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)a

JOIST
SPACING
(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12 2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas fir-larch SS 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7
Douglas fir-larch #1 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8 12-0 15-7 19-0 22-0
Douglas fir-larch #2 11-10 15-7 19-10 23-4 11-8 14-9 18-0 20-11
Douglas fir-larch #3 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10 8-11 11-3 13-9 16-0
Hem-fir SS 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2
Hem-fir #1 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-3 18-9 21-9
Hem-fir #2 11-0 14-6 18-6 22-6 11-0 14-4 17-6 20-4
Hem-fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Southern pine SS 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1
Southern pine #1 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 18-7 22-0
Southern pine #2 11-3 14-11 18-1 21-4 10-9 13-8 16-2 19-1
Southern pine #3 9-2 11-6 14-0 16-6 8-2 10-3 12-6 14-9
Spruce-pine-fir SS 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7
Spruce-pine-fir #1 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-pine-fir #2 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-pine-fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
16 Douglas fir-larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 21-4 10-8 13-6 16-5 19-1
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-9 14-2 17-5 20-3 10-1 12-9 15-7 18-1
Douglas fir-larch #3 8-7 10-11 13-4 15-5 7-8 9-9 11-11 13-10
Hem-fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-1 10-6 13-4 16-3 18-10
Hem-fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 19-8 9-10 12-5 15-2 17-7
Hem-fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Southern pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern pine #1 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-4 10-9 13-9 16-1 19-1
Southern pine #2 10-3 13-3 15-8 18-6 9-4 11-10 14-0 16-6
Southern pine #3 7-11 10-0 11-1 14-4 7-1 8-11 10-10 12-10
Spruce-pine-fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-4
Spruce-pine-fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6


(continued)

TABLE R502.3.1(1)—continued FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)a

JOIST
SPACING
(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12 2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft.- in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
19.2 Douglas fir-larch SS 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-10 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-4
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-4 13-7 16-9 19-6 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-1 13-0 15-11 18-6 9-3 11-8 14-3 16-6
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-10 10-0 12-2 14-1 7-0 8-11 10-11 12-7
Hem-fir SS 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-8 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-7
Hem-fir #1 9-10 13-0 16-7 19-3 9-7 12-2 14-10 17-2
Hem-fir #2 9-5 12-5 15-6 17-1 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Southern pine SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Southern pine #1 10-1 13-4 16-5 19-6 9-11 12-7 14-8 17-5
Southern pine #2 9-6 12-1 14-4 16-10 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-1
Southern pine #3 7-3 9-1 11-0 13-1 6-5 8-2 9-10 11-8
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-10 13-0 16-7 20-2 9-10 13-0 16-7 19-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #2 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
24 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-11 13-1 16-8 20-3 9-11 13-1 16-5 19-1
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-7 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-3 11-8 14-3 16-6 8-3 10-5 12-9 14-9
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-0 8-11 10-11 12-7 6-3 8-0 9-9 11-3
Hem-fir SS 9-4 12-4 15-9 19-2 9-4 12-4 15-9 18-5
Hem-fir #1 9-2 12-1 14-10 17-2 8-7 10-10 13-3 15-5
Hem-fir #2 8-9 11-4 13-10 16-1 8-0 10-2 12-5 14-4
Hem-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
Southern pine SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-8
Southern pine #1 9-4 12-4 14-8 17-5 8-10 11-3 13-1 15-7
Southern pine #2 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-1 7-7 9-8 11-5 13-6
Southern pine #3 6-5 8-2 9-10 11-8 5-9 7-3 8-10 10-5
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-0 17-5
Spruce-pine-fir #1 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
  1. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.


TABLE R502.3.1(2) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)b

JOIST
SPACING
(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12 2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas fir-larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3
Douglas fir-larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-0 10-11 14-2 17-4 20-1
Douglas fir-larch #2 10-9 14-2 18-0 20-11 10-8 13-6 16-5 19-1
Douglas fir-larch #3 8-11 11-3 13-9 16-0 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Hem-fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-1 19-10
Hem-fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 20-4 10-0 13-1 16-0 18-6
Hem-fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Southern pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern pine #1 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 16-11 20-1
Southern pine #2 10-3 13-6 16-2 19-1 9-10 12-6 14-9 17-5
Southern pine #3 8-2 10-3 12-6 14-9 7-5 9-5 11-5 13-6
Spruce-pine-fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
16 Douglas fir-larch SS 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-11 13-1 16-5 19-1 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-9 12-9 15-7 18-1 9-3 11-8 14-3 16-6
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-8 9-9 11-11 13-10 7-0 8-11 10-11 12-7
Hem-fir SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11
Hem-fir #1 9-6 12-7 16-0 18-10 9-6 12-2 14-10 17-2
Hem-fir #2 9-1 12-0 15-2 17-7 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Southern pine SS 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9
Southern pine #1 9-9 12-10 16-1 19-1 9-9 12-7 14-8 17-5
Southern pine #2 9-4 11-10 14-0 16-6 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-1
Southern pine #3 7-1 8-11 10-10 12-10 6-5 8-2 9-10 11-8
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Spruce-pine-fir #1 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #2 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-pine-fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4


(continued)

TABLE R502.3.1(2)—continued FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)b

JOIST
SPACING
(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12 2 × 6 2 × 8 2 × 10 2 × 12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
19.2 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-10 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-6
Douglas fir-larch #1 9-4 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-10 11-3 13-8 15-11
Douglas fir-larch #2 9-2 11-8 14-3 16-6 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1
Douglas fir-larch #3 7-0 8-11 10-11 12-7 6-5 8-2 9-11 11-6
Hem-fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9
Hem-fir #1 9-0 11-10 14-10 17-2 8-9 11-1 13-6 15-8
Hem-fir #2 8-7 11-3 13-10 16-1 8-2 10-4 12-8 14-8
Hem-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
Southern pine SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Southern pine #1 9-2 12-1 14-8 17-5 9-0 11-5 13-5 15-11
Southern pine #2 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-1 7-9 9-10 11-8 13-9
Southern pine #3 6-5 8-2 9-10 11-8 5-11 7-5 9-0 10-8
Spruce-pine-fir SS 9-0 11-10 15-1 18-4 9-0 11-10 15-1 17-9
Spruce-pine-fir #1 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
24 Douglas fir-larch SS 9-0 11-11 15-2 18-5 9-0 11-11 15-0 17-5
Douglas fir-larch #1 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Douglas fir-larch #2 8-3 10-5 12-9 14-9 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Douglas fir-larch #3 6-3 8-0 9-9 11-3 5-9 7-3 8-11 10-4
Hem-fir SS 8-6 11-3 14-4 17-5 8-6 11-3 14-4 16-10a
Hem-fir #1 8-4 10-10 13-3 15-5 7-10 9-11 12-1 14-0
Hem-fir #2 7-11 10-2 12-5 14-4 7-4 9-3 11-4 13-1
Hem-fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
Southern pine SS 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-1 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-0
Southern pine #1 8-6 11-3 13-1 15-7 8-1 10-3 12-0 14-3
Southern pine #2 7-7 9-8 11-5 13-6 7-0 8-10 10-5 12-4
Southern pine #3 5-9 7-3 8-10 10-5 5-3 6-8 8-1 9-6
Spruce-pine-fir SS 8-4 11-0 14-0 17-0 8-4 11-0 13-8 15-11
Spruce-pine-fir #1 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-pine-fir #2 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-pine-fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
  1. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
  2. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.
Table R502.3.1(2) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support other areas of the building, other than sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1.92 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa).
Floor cantilever spans shall not exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor cantilevers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(1) shall be permitted where supporting a light-frame bearing wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers supporting an exterior balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(2).

TABLE R502.3.3(1) CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLYa, b, c, f, g, h (Floor Live Load 40 psf, Roof Live Load20 psf)

MEMBER & SPACING MAXIMUM CANTILEVER SPAN (uplift force at backspan support in lbs.)d, e
Ground Snow Load
20 psf 30 psf 50 psf 70 psf
Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width
24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft
2 × 8 @ 12" 20"
(177)
15"
(227)
18"
(209)
2 × 10 @ 16" 29"
(228)
21"
(297)
16"
(364)
26"
(271)
18"
(354)
20"
(375)
2 × 10 @ 12" 36"
(166)
26"
(219)
20"
(270)
34"
(198)
22"
(263)
16"
(324)
26"
(277)
19"
(356)
2 × 12 @ 16" 32"
(287)
25"
(356)
36"
(263)
29"
(345)
21"
(428)
29"
(367)
20"
(484)
23"
(471)
2 × 12 @ 12" 42"
(209)
31"
(263)
37"
(253)
27"
(317)
36"
(271)
27"
(358)
17"
(447)
31"
(348)
19"
(462)
2 × 12 @ 8" 48"
(136)
45"
(169)
48"
(164)
38"
(206)
40"
(233)
26"
(294)
36"
(230)
29"
(304)
18"
(379)

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls.
  2. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. No.1 or better shall be used for southern pine or spans shall be multiplied by 0.85 for No. 2 southern pine.
  3. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be not less than 3:1.
  4. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
  5. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio).
  6. See Section R301.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C.
  7. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. Where the cantilever length is 24 inches or less, solid blocking at the support for the cantilever shall not be required.
  8. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown.


TABLE R502.3.3(2) CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONYa, b, e, f

MEMBER SIZE SPACING MAXIMUM CANTILEVER SPAN
(uplift force at backspan support in lbs.)c, d
Ground Snow Load
30 psf 50 psf 70 psf
2 × 8 12" 42" (139) 39" (156) 34" (165)
2 × 8 16" 36" (151) 34" (171) 29" (180)
2 × 10 12" 61" (164) 57" (189) 49" (201)
2 × 10 16" 53" (180) 49" (208) 42" (220)
2 × 10 24" 43" (212) 40" (241) 34" (255)
2 × 12 16" 72" (228) 67" (260) 57" (268)
2 × 12 24" 58" (279) 54" (319) 47" (330)

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. No.1 or better shall be used for southern pine or spans shall be multiplied by 0.85 for No. 2 southern pine.
  2. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be not less than 2:1.
  3. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
  4. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio).
  5. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. Where the cantilever length is 24 inches or less, solid blocking at the support for the cantilever shall not be required.
  6. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown.
Upcodes Diagrams
Joists under parallel bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. Double joists, sized to adequately support the load, that are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.
The allowable spans of girders and headers fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values set forth in Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).
The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall have not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or concrete except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by the use of approved joist hangers. The bearing on masonry or concrete shall be direct, or a sill plate of 2-inch-minimum (51 mm) nominal thickness shall be provided under the joist, beam or girder. The sill plate shall provide a minimum nominal bearing area of 48 square inches (30 865 square mm).
Joists framing from opposite sides over a bearing support shall lap not less than 3 inches (76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 10d face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted.
Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by approved framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a full-depth header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation.

Exceptions:
  1. Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. Deleted.
Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a continuous 1 inch by 3 inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm).
Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.
Structural floor members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section. See Figures R502.8(1) and R502.8(2).



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


FIGURE R502.8(1)
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING




For SI: 1 inch = 24.5 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
  1. Do not drill in center 2/10's of joist span.
  2. Do not drill directly under load bearing walls at end.
  3. Do not drill closer than 2 inch to top or bottom edge.
  4. Apply 4 feet joist width × 1/2 inch CDX plywood with face grain running with joist to both sides using 6d nails or 11/2 inch screws 1 inch from top and bottom 4 inches o.c.
  5. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches o.c. within unhatched area only.
  6. Plywood shall be attached such that 2 feet minimum of plywood is centered on each side of the hole location, except when the hole is located within 2 feet of the end of joist.
FIGURE R502.8(2)
ACCEPTABLE LOCATION OF 35/8-inch DIAMETER HOLE IN 2 × 10 JOIST
Notches in solid lumber joists, rafters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the member. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch.
Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members, cross-laminated timber members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.
Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Where posts and beam or girder construction is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement.
Openings in floor framing shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. Where the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header joist shall be a single member the same size as the floor joist. Single trimmer joists shall be used to carry a single header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bearing. Where the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the header.
Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering practice. The design and manufacture of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design professional.
Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements specified in the construction documents for the building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with accepted industry practices, such as, the SBCA Building Component Safety Information (BCSI) Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without the approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load that exceed the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading.
Truss design drawings, prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1, shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified as follows:
  1. Slope or depth, span and spacing.
  2. Location of all joints.
  3. Required bearing widths.
  4. Design loads as applicable:
    1. Top chord live load.
    2. Top chord dead load.
    3. Bottom chord live load.
    4. Bottom chord dead load.
    5. Concentrated loads and their points of application.
    6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads.
  5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design values for conditions of use.
  6. Each reaction force and direction.
  7. Joint connector type and description, such as size, thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each joint connector except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface.
  8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member.
  9. Connection requirements for:
    1. Truss-to-girder-truss.
    2. Truss ply-to-ply.
    3. Field splices.
  10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum description for live and total load.
  11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to enable the building designer to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental documents.
  12. Required permanent truss member bracing location.
Draftstopping shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.12.
Upcodes Diagrams
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.
Upcodes Diagrams
Maximum allowable spans for lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503.1, R503.2.1.1(1) and R503.2.1.1(2).

TABLE R503.1
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING
JOIST OR BEAM
SPACING (inches)
MINIMUM NET THICKNESS
Perpendicular to joist Diagonal to joist
24 11/16 3/4
16 5/8 5/8
48a 11/2 T & G N/A
54b
60c

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. N/A = Not applicable.
  1. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 675 and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).
  2. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 765 and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).
  3. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 855 and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).
End joints in lumber used as subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on not less than two joists. Subflooring shall be permitted to be omitted where joist spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch (25 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring is applied perpendicular to the joists.
Wood structural panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification and Performance Category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. The Performance Category value shall be used as the "nominal panel thickness" or "panel thickness" wherever referenced in this code.
Where used as subflooring or combination subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1(1). Where sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor underlayment, the grade, bond classification, and Performance Category shall be as specified in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

TABLE R503.2.1.1(1)
ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa, b, c
SPAN RATING MINIMUM NOMINAL
PANEL THICKNESS
(inch)
ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD
(psf)h, I
MAXIMUM SPAN
(inches)
LOAD (pounds per square
foot, at maximum span)
MAXIMUM SPAN
(inches)
SPAN
@ 16" o.c.
SPAN
@ 24" o.c.
With edge
supportd
Without edge
support
Total load Live load
Sheathinge     Rooff Subfloorj
16/0 3/8 30 16 16 40 30 0
20/0 3/8 50 20 20 40 30 0
24/0 3/8 100 30 24 20g 40 30 0
24/16 7/16 100 40 24 24 50 40 16
32/16 15/32, 1/2 180 70 32 28 40 30 16h
40/20 19/32, 5/8 305 130 40 32 40 30 20h, i
48/24 23/32, 3/4 175 48 36 45 35 24
60/32 7/8 305 60 48 45 35 32
Underlayment, C-C plugged, single floore     Rooff Combination subfloor
underlaymentk
16 o.c. 19/32, 5/8 100 40 24 24 50 40 16i
20 o.c. 19/32, 5/8 150 60 32 32 40 30 20i, j
24 o.c. 23/32, 3/4 240 100 48 36 35 25 24
32 o.c. 7/8 185 48 40 50 40 32
48 o.c. 13/32, 11/8 290 60 48 50 40 48

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly.
  2. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possible effect of concentrated loads.
  3. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.
  4. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports where span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove panel edges, or other approved type of edge support.
  5. Includes Structural I panels in these grades.
  6. Uniform load deflection limitation: 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 of span under live load only.
  7. Maximum span 24 inches for 15/32-and 1/2-inch panels.
  8. Maximum span 24 inches where 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists.
  9. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor.
  10. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment with end and edge joints offset not less than 2 inches or 11/2 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with
    ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf.
  11. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment with end and edge joints offset not less than 2 inches or 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span.
  12. Allowable live load values at spans of 16 inches on center and 24 inches on center taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to reference standard for allowable spans not listed in the table.
TABLE R503.2.1.1(2)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa
IDENTIFICATION SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
16 20 24
Species groupb
1 1/2 5/8 3/4
2, 3 5/8 3/4 7/8
4 3/4 7/8 1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except where nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment or 3/4-inch wood finish floor is used. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with ASTM C 1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 psf.
  2. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood.
The maximum allowable span for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(2).
Wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall be not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness.
Particleboard underlayment shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
Pressure preservative treated-wood basement floors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301.
Unless special provision is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less.
Joists in wood basement floors shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system.
Where required, resistance to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls anchored in the supporting soil below.
The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to ensure uniform support of the pressure preservative treated-wood floor sleepers.
A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granular base of gravel having a maximum size of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth.
Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure preservative treated-wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath the footing plates of the exterior walls.
Framing materials, including sleepers, joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency.
Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or ACI 332. Floors shall be a minimum 31/2 inches (89 mm) thick. The specified compressive strength of concrete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2.
The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material removed.
Fill material shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to ensure uniform support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth.
Exception: #57 or #67 stone may be used as fill without a compaction test for a maximum depth of 4 feet.

The delayed effective date of this Rule is January 1, 2021.
The Statutory authority for Rule-making is G. S. 143-136; 143-138.
A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course consisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone, crushed concrete or crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve shall be placed on the prepared subgrade where the slab is below grade.
Exception: A base course is not required where the concrete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I according to the United Soil Classification System in accordance with Table R405.1.
A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 152 µm) polyethylene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared subgrade where no base course exists.

Exception: The vapor retarder is not required for the following:
  1. Garages, utility buildings and other unheated accessory structures.
  2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports.
  3. Driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date.
  4. Where approved by the building official, based on local site conditions.
Where provided in slabs-on-ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain in place from the center to upper one-third of the slab for the duration of the concrete placement.