CODES

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International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Part I ‒ Administrative

Part II ‒ Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Part VII ‒ Plumbing

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Chapter 22 Special Fuel Oil Piping and Storage Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC — Plumbing and Mechanical Code Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. The text of this chapter is extracted from the 2018 edition of the North Carolina Mechanical Code and has been modified where necessary to conform to the scope of application of the North Carolina Residential Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings. The section numbers appearing in parentheses after each section number are the section numbers of the corresponding text in the North Carolina Mechanical Code.

M2201.1 Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply tanks shall be listed and labeled and shall conform to UL 58 for underground tanks, UL 142 for above-ground tanks, and UL 80 for indoor tanks.

M2201.2 (1309.2) Above-Ground Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The maximum amount of fuel oil stored above ground or inside of a building shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The supply tank shall be supported on rigid noncombustible supports to prevent settling or shifting.

Exception: The storage of fuel oil, used for space or water heating, above ground or inside buildings in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.

M2201.2.1 (1309.2.1) Tanks Within Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply tanks for use inside of buildings shall be of such size and shape to permit installation and removal from dwellings as whole units. Supply tanks larger than 10 gallons (38 L) shall be placed not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from any fire or flame either within or external to any fuel-burning appliance.

M2201.2.2 (1309.2.2) Outside Above-Ground Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks installed outside above ground shall be a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm) from an adjoining property line. Such tanks shall be suitably protected from the weather and from physical damage.

M2201.3 (1309.3) Underground Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Excavations for underground tanks shall not undermine the foundations of existing structures. The clearance from the tank to the nearest wall of a basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot (305 mm). Tanks shall be set on and surrounded with noncorrosive inert materials such as clean earth, sand or gravel well tamped in place. Tanks shall be covered with not less than 1 foot (305 mm) of earth. Corrosion protection shall be provided in accordance with Section M2203.7.

M2201.4 (1309.4) Multiple Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cross connection of two supply tanks shall be permitted in accordance with Section M2203.6.

M2201.5 (1309.5, 1306.3) Oil Gauges

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Inside tanks shall be provided with a device to indicate when the oil in the tank has reached a predetermined safe level. Glass gauges or a gauge subject to breakage that could result in the escape of oil from the tank shall not be used. Liquid-level indicating gauges shall comply with UL 180.

M2201.6 (1309.6) Flood-Resistant Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), tanks shall be installed in accordance with Section R322.2.4 or R322.3.7.

M2201.7 (1301.5) Tanks Abandoned or Removed

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Exterior above-grade fill piping shall be removed when tanks are abandoned or removed. Tank abandonment and removal shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.13 of the International Fire Code.

M2202.1 Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Piping shall consist of steel pipe, copper and copper alloy pipe and tubing or steel tubing conforming to ASTM A 539. Aluminum tubing shall not be used between the fuel-oil tank and the burner units.

M2202.1 (1302.1) General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Piping materials shall conform to the standards cited in this section.

M2202.2 Joints and Fittings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Piping shall be connected with standard fittings compatible with the piping material. Cast iron fittings shall not be used for oil piping. Unions requiring gaskets or packings, right or left couplings, and sweat fittings employing solder having a melting point less than 1,000°F (538°C) shall not be used for oil piping. Threaded joints and connections shall be made tight with a lubricant or pipe thread compound.

M2202.2 (1302.2) Rated for System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All materials shall be rated for the operating temperatures and pressures of the system, and shall be compatible with the type of liquid.

M2202.3 Flexible Connectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Flexible metallic hoses shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 536 and shall be installed in accordance with their listing and labeling and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Connectors made from combustible materials shall not be used inside of buildings or above ground outside of buildings.

M2202.3 (1302.3) Pipe Standards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fuel oil pipe shall comply with one of the standards listed in Table M2202.3.

TABLE M2202.3 (1302.3)
FUEL OIL PIPING
MATERIAL STANDARD
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B42; ASTM B43; ASTM B302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L or M) ASTM B75; ASTM B88; ASTM B280
Labeled pipe (See Section 1302.4)
Nonmetallic pipe ASTM D2996
Steel pipe ASTM A53; ASTM A106
Steel tubing ASTM A254; ASTM A539

M2202.4 (1302.4) Nonmetallic Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Nonmetallic pipe shall be listed and labeled as being acceptable for the intended application for flammable and combustible liquids. Nonmetallic pipe shall be installed only outside, underground.

M2202.5 (1302.5) Fittings and Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fittings and valves shall be approved for the piping systems, and shall be compatible with, or shall be of the same material as, the pipe or tubing.

M2202.6 (1302.6) Bending of Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pipe shall be approved for bending. Pipe bends shall be made with approved equipment. The bend shall not exceed the structural limitations of the pipe.

M2202.7 (1302.7) Pumps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pumps that are not part of an appliance shall be of a positive-displacement type. The pump shall automatically shut off the supply when not in operation. Pumps shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 343.

M2202.8 (1302.8) Flexible Connectors and Hoses

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Flexible connectors and hoses shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 536.

M2202.9 (1303.1) Approval

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints and connections shall be approved and of a type approved for fuel-oil piping systems. Threaded joints and connections shall be made tight with suitable lubricant or pipe compound. Unions requiring gaskets or packings, right or left couplings, and sweat fittings employing solder having a melting point of less than 1,000°F (538°C) shall not be used in oil lines. Cast-iron fittings shall not be used. Joints and connections shall be tight for the pressure required by test.

M2202.9.1 (1303.1.1) Joints Between Different Piping Materials

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with approved adapter fittings. Joints between different metallic piping materials shall be made with approved dielectric fittings or brass converter fittings.

M2202.10 (1303.2) Preparation of Pipe Ends

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pipe shall be cut square, reamed and chamfered and be free from all burrs and obstructions. Pipe ends shall have full-bore openings and shall not be undercut.

M2202.11 (1303.3) Joint Preparation and Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where required by Sections M2202.12 through M2202.18, the preparation and installation of brazed, mechanical, threaded and welded joints shall comply with Sections M2202.11.1 through M2202.11.4.

M2202.11.1 (1303.3.1) Brazed Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joints shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.

M2202.11.2 (1303.3.2) Mechanical Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Press connect joints shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 1302.3.

M2202.11.3 (1303.3.3) Threaded Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

M2202.11.4 (1303.3.4) Welded Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned by an approved procedure. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.

M2202.12 (1303.4) Brass Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall be brazed, mechanical, threaded or welded joints complying with Section M2202.11.

M2202.13 (1303.5) Brass Tubing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between brass tubing or fittings shall be brazed or mechanical joints complying with Section M2202.11.

M2202.14 (1303.6) Copper or Copper-Alloy Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall be brazed, mechanical, threaded or welded joints complying with Section M2202.11.

M2202.15 (1303.7) Copper or Copper-Alloy Tubing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall be brazed or mechanical joints complying with Section M2202.11 or flared joints. Flared joints shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.

M2202.16 (1303.8) Nonmetallic Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between nonmetallic pipe or fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for the labeled pipe and fittings.

M2202.17 (1303.9) Steel Pipe

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between steel pipe or fittings shall be threaded or welded joints complying with Section M2202.11 or mechanical joints complying with Section M2202.17.1.

M2202.17.1 (1303.9.1) Mechanical Joints

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Mechanical joints shall be installed outside, underground, unless otherwise approved.

M2202.18 (1303.10) Steel Tubing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Joints between steel tubing or fittings shall be mechanical or welded joints complying with Section M2202.11.

M2202.19 (1303.11) Piping Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Proper allowance shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration. Piping other than tubing, connected to underground tanks, except straight fill lines and test wells, shall be provided with flexible connectors, or otherwise arranged to permit the tanks to settle without impairing the tightness of the piping connections.
Piping shall be installed in a manner to avoid placing stresses on the piping, and to accommodate expansion and contraction of the piping system.

M2203.2 Supply Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply piping used in the installation of oil burners and appliances shall be not smaller than 3/8-inch (9 mm) pipe or 3/8-inch (9 mm) outside diameter tubing. Copper tubing and fittings shall be a minimum of Type L.
The fuel oil system shall be sized for the maximum capacity of fuel oil required. The minimum size of a supply line shall be 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) inside diameter nominal pipe or 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) outside diameter tubing. The minimum size of a return line shall be 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) inside diameter nominal pipe or 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) outside diameter tubing. Copper tubing shall have 0.035-inch (0.9 mm) nominal and 0.032-inch (0.8 mm) minimum wall thickness.

M2203.2.1 (1305.3) Supply Piping Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supply piping shall connect to the top of the fuel oil tank. Fuel oil shall be supplied by a transfer pump or automatic pump or by other approved means.

Exception: This section shall not apply to inside or above-ground fuel oil tanks.

M2203.2.2 (1305.4) Return Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Return piping shall connect to the top of the fuel oil tank. Valves shall not be installed on return piping.

M2203.2.3 (1305.5) System Pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The system shall be designed for the maximum pressure required by the fuel-oil-burning appliance. Air or other gases shall not be used to pressurize tanks.

M2203.2.4 (1308.1) Testing Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fuel oil piping shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 31.

M2203.2.4.1 (1201.4) Test Gauges

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Gauges used for testing shall be as follows:
  1. Tests requiring a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch (psi) (69 kPa) or less shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or less.
  2. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi (69 kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (689 kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi (6.9 kPa) or less.
  3. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 100 psi (689 kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 2 psi (14 kPa) or less.

M2203.3 (1305.6) Fill Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fill piping shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than 2 feet (610 mm) from any building opening at the same or lower level. Fill openings shall be equipped with a tight metal cover.

M2203.4 (1305.7) Vent Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Vent piping shall be not smaller than 11/4-inch (32 mm) pipe. Vent piping shall be laid to drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which the liquid can collect. Vent pipes shall not be cross connected with fill pipes, lines from burners or overflow lines from auxiliary tanks. The lower end of a vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top and shall extend into the tank not more than 1 inch (25 mm).

M2203.5 (1305.7) Vent Termination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Vent piping shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than 2 feet (610 mm), measured vertically or horizontally, from any building opening. Outer ends of vent piping shall terminate in a weather-proof cap or fitting having an unobstructed area at least equal to the cross-sectional area of the vent pipe, and shall be located sufficiently above the ground to avoid being obstructed by snow and ice. Liquid fuel vent pipes shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than 2 feet (610 mm) measured vertically or horizontally from any building opening. Outer ends of vent pipes shall terminate in a weatherproof vent cap or fitting or be provided with a weatherproof hood. Vent caps shall have a minimum free open area equal to the cross-sectional area of the vent pipe and shall not employ screens finer than No. 4 mesh. Vent pipes shall terminate sufficiently above the ground to avoid being obstructed with snow or ice. Vent pipes from tanks containing heaters shall be extended to a location where oil vapors discharging from the vent will be readily diffused. If the static head with a vent pipe filled with oil exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (psi) (69 kPa), the tank shall be designed for the maximum static head that will be imposed.

M2203.6 (1309.7) Cross Connection of Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cross connection of two supply tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) aggregate capacity, with gravity flow from one tank to another, shall be acceptable providing that the two tanks are on the same horizontal plane.

M2203.7 (1309.8) Corrosion Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Underground tanks and buried piping shall be protected by corrosion-resistant coatings or special alloys or fiberglass-reinforced plastic.
Oil pumps shall be positive displacement types that automatically shut off the oil supply when stopped. Automatic pumps shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 343 and shall be installed in accordance with their listing.

M2204.2 Shutoff Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A readily accessible manual shutoff valve shall be installed between the oil supply tank and the burner. Where the shutoff valve is installed in the discharge line of an oil pump, a pressure-relief valve shall be incorporated to bypass or return surplus oil. Valves shall comply with UL 842.

M2204.2 (1307.1) Building Shutoff

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A shutoff valve shall be installed on the fuel-oil supply line at the entrance to the building. Inside or above-ground tanks are permitted to have valves installed at the tank. The valve shall be capable of stopping the flow of fuel oil to the building or to the appliance served where the valve is installed at a tank inside the building.

M2204.3 Maximum Pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Pressure at the oil supply inlet to an appliance shall be not greater than 3 pounds per square inch (20.7 kPa).

M2204.3 (1307.2) Appliance Shutoff

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A shutoff valve shall be installed at the connection to each appliance where more than one fuel-oil-burning appliance is installed.

M2204.4 Relief Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fuel-oil lines incorporating heaters shall be provided with relief valves that will discharge to a return line when excess pressure exists.

M2204.4 (1307.3) Pump Relief Valve

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A relief valve shall be installed on the pump discharge line where a valve is located downstream of the pump and the pump is capable of exceeding the pressure limitations of the fuel oil system.

M2204.5 (1307.4) Fuel-Oil Heater Relief Valve

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A relief valve shall be installed on the discharge line of fuel-oil-heating appliances.

M2204.6 (1307.5) Relief Valve Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The relief valve shall discharge fuel oil when the pressure exceeds the limitations of the system. The discharge line shall connect to the fuel oil tank.

Section M2205 (1306) Oil Gauging

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

M2205.1 (1306.1) Level Indication

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tanks in which a constant oil level is not maintained by an automatic pump shall be equipped with a method of determining the oil level.

M2205.2 (1306.2) Test Wells

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Test wells shall not be installed inside buildings. For outside service, test wells shall be equipped with a tight metal cover designed to discourage tampering.

M2205.3 (1306.3) Inside Tanks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The gauging of inside tanks by means of measuring sticks shall not be permitted. An inside tank provided with fill and vent pipes shall be provided with a device to indicate either visually or audibly at the fill point when the oil in the tank has reached a predetermined safe level.

M2205.4 (1306.4) Gauging Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Gauging devices such as liquid level indicators or signals shall be designed and installed so that oil vapor will not be discharged into a building from the liquid fuel supply system. Liquid-level indicating gauges shall comply with UL 180.

M2205.5 (1306.5) Gauge Glass

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A tank used in connection with any oil burner shall not be equipped with a glass gauge or any gauge which, when broken, will permit the escape of oil from the tank.
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