SWIMMING POOLS, SPAS AND HOT TUBS
(The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.)(The provisions contained in this appendix are adopted as part of this code.)
Pools that are located in flood hazard areas established by Table R301.2(1), including above-ground pools, on-ground pools and in-ground pools that involve placement of fill, shall comply with Sections AG101.2.1 or AG101.2.2.
Exception: Pools located in riverine flood hazard areas which are outside of designated floodways.
For the purposes of these requirements, the terms used shall be defined as follows and as set forth in Chapter 2.
ABOVE-GROUND/ON-GROUND POOL. See “Swimming pool.”
BARRIER. A fence, wall, building wall or combination thereof which completely surrounds the swimming pool and obstructs access to the swimming pool.
HOT TUB. See “Swimming pool.”
IN-GROUND POOL. See “Swimming pool.”
SPA, NONPORTABLE. See “Swimming pool.”
SPA, PORTABLE. A nonpermanent structure intended for recreational bathing, in which all controls, water-heating and water-circulating equipment are an integral part of the product.
SWIMMING POOL. Any structure intended for swimming or recreational bathing that contains water over 24 inches (610 mm) deep. This includes in-ground, above-ground and on-ground swimming pools, hot tubs and spas.
SWIMMING POOL, INDOOR. A swimming pool which is totally contained within a structure and surrounded on all four sides by the walls of the enclosing structure.
SWIMMING POOL, OUTDOOR. Any swimming pool which is not an indoor pool.
An outdoor swimming pool, including an in-ground, above-ground or on-ground pool, hot tub or spa shall be surrounded by a barrier which shall comply with the following:
1. The top of the barrier shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade measured on the side of the barrier which faces away from the swimming pool. The maximum vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be 2 inches (51 mm) measured on the side of the barrier which faces away from the swimming pool. Where the top of the pool structure is above grade, such as an above-ground pool, the barrier may be at ground level, such as the pool structure, or mounted on top of the pool structure. Where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, the maximum vertical clearance between the top of the pool structure and the bottom of the barrier shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
2. Openings in the barrier shall not allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
3. Solid barriers which do not have openings, such as a masonry or stone wall, shall not contain indentations or protrusions except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints.
4. Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the swimming pool side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
5. Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
6. Maximum mesh size for chain link fences shall be a 21/4-inch (57 mm) square unless the fence has slats fastened at the top or the bottom which reduce the openings to not more than 13/4 inches (44 mm).
7. Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, such as a lattice fence, the maximum opening formed by the diagonal members shall not be more than 13/4 inches (44 mm).
8. Access gates shall comply with the requirements of Section AG105.2, Items 1 through 7, and shall be equipped to accommodate a locking device. Pedestrian access gates shall open outward away from the pool and shall be self-closing and have a self-latching device. Gates other than pedestrian access gates shall have a self-latching device. Where the release mechanism of the self-latching device is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the gate, the release mechanism and openings shall comply with the following:
8.1. The release mechanism shall be located on the pool side of the gate at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the top of the gate; and
8.2. The gate and barrier shall have no opening larger than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism.
9. Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the barrier, one of the following conditions shall be met:
9.1. The pool shall be equipped with a powered safety cover in compliance with ASTM F 1346; or
9.2. Doors with direct access to the pool through that wall shall be equipped with an alarm which produces an audible warning when the door and/or its screen, if present, are opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2017. The deactivation switch(es) shall be located at least 54 inches (1372 mm) above the threshold of the door; or
9.3. Other means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, which are approved by the governing body, shall be acceptable as long as the degree of protection afforded is not less than the protection afforded by Item 9.1 or 9.2 described above.
10. Where an above-ground pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, and the means of access is a ladder or steps:
10.1. The ladder or steps shall be capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access; or
10.2. The ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier which meets the requirements of Section AG105.2, Items 1 through 9. When the ladder or steps are secured, locked or removed, any opening created shall not allow the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
ANSI—American National Standards Institute
11 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10036
APSP—Association of Pool and Spa Professionals
NSPI—National Spa and Pool Institute
2111 Eisenhower Avenue
Alexandria, VA 22314
ASCE—American Society of Civil Engineers
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 98411-0700
100 Barr Harbor Drive,
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
UL—Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
ANSI/NSPI-3-99 Standard for Permanently Installed Residential Spas AG104.1
ANSI/NSPI-4-99 Standard for Above-ground/ On-ground Residential Swimming Pools AG103.2
ANSI/NSPI-5-2003 Standard for Residential In-ground Swimming Pools AG103.1
ANSI/NSPI-6-99 Standard for Residential Portable Spas AG104.2
ANSI/APSP-7-06 Standard for Suction Entrapment avoidance in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Catch Basins AG106.1
ASCE/SEI-24-05 Flood Resistant Design and Construction AG103.3
UL 2017-2000 Standard for General-purpose Signaling Devices and Systems—with Revisions through June 2004 AG105.2