CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2009 (IRC 2009)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Chapter 45 HIGH WIND ZONES

Chapter 46 COASTAL AND FLOOD PLAIN CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Radon Control Methods

Appendix G Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees

Appendix M Home Day Care - R-3 Occupancy

Appendix M WOOD DECKS

Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix N BASIC LOAD ESTIMATING

Appendix O Gray Water Recycling Systems

Appendix O FOAM PLASTIC DIAGRAMS

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix P DWELLING UNIT FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

Appendix Q ICC International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Electrical Code Crossreference

Appendix Q DISCONTINUOUS FOOTING DETAIL FOR GARAGE OR PORCH WALLS FOUNDATION WALL EXTENSION DETAIL

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of all walls and partitions for all buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.

Class I or II vapor retarders are required on the interior side of frame walls in Zones 5, 6, 7, 8 and Marine 4.

Exceptions:

1. Basement walls.

2. Below grade portion of any wall.

3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.

Class III vapor retarders shall be permitted where any one of the conditions in Table R601.3.1 is met.

TABLE R601.3.1
CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS

ZONE

CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS PERMITTED FOR:a

Marine 4

Vented cladding over OSB

Vented cladding over plywood

Vented cladding over fiberboard

Vented cladding over gypsum

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2.5 over 2 × 4 wall

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 3.75 over 2 × 6 wall

5

Vented cladding over OSB

Vented cladding over plywood

Vented cladding over fiberboard

Vented cladding over gypsum

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 5 over 2 × 4 wall

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 7.5 over 2 × 6 wall

6

Vented cladding over fiberboard

Vented cladding over gypsum

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 7.5 over 2 × 4 wall

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 11.25 over 2 × 6 wall

7 and 8

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 10 over 2 × 4 wall

Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 15 over 2 × 6 wall

For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.

a. Spray foam with a minimum density of 2 lb/ft3 applied to the interior cavity side of OSB, plywood, fiberboard, insulating sheathing or gypsum is deemed to meet the insulating sheathing requirement where the spray foam R-value meets or exceeds the specified insulating sheathing R-value.

The vapor retarder class shall be based on the manufacturer’s certified testing or a tested assembly.

The following shall be deemed to meet the class specified:

Class I: Sheet polyethylene, unperforated aluminum foil.

Class II: Kraft-faced fiberglass batts.

Class III: Latex or enamel paint.

For the purposes of this section, vented cladding shall include the following minimum clear air spaces. Other openings with the equivalent vent area shall be permitted.

1. Vinyl lap or horizontal aluminum siding applied over a weather resistive barrier as specified in Table R703.4.

2. Brick veneer with a clear airspace as specified in Section R703.7.4.2.

3. Other approved vented claddings.

Load-bearing dimension lumber for studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.
Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued by a lumber- grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3.(2) or in accordance with AF&PA’s NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Structural wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to structural framing members. Exterior wall coverings shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3). Wood structural panel sheathing used for exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3).

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

TABLE R602.3(1)
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEM

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS

NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c

SPACING OF FASTENERS

Roof

1

Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail

3-8d (21/2" × 0.113")

2

Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail

3-8d (21/2" × 0.113")

3

Ceiling joists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions,
face nail

3-10d

4

Collar tie rafter, face nail or 11/4" × 20 gage ridge strap

3-10d (3" × 0.128")

5

Rafter to plate, toe nail

2-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

6

Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters:
toe nail
face nail


4-16d (31/2" × 0.135")
3-16d (31/2" × 0.135")



Wall

7

Built-up corner studs

10d (3" × 0.128")

24" o.c.

8

Built-up header, two pieces with 1/2" spacer

16d (31/2" × 0.135")

16" o.c. along each edge

9

Continued header, two pieces

16d (31/2" × 0.135")

16" o.c. along each edge

10

Continuous header to stud, toe nail

4-8d (21/2" × 0.113")

11

Double studs, face nail

10d (3" × 0.128")

24" o.c.

12

Double top plates, face nail

10d (3" × 0.128")

24" o.c.

13

Double top plates, minimum 48-inch offset of end joints,
face nail in lapped area

8-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

14

Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail

16d (31/2" × 0.135")

16" o.c.

15

Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels

3-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

16" o.c.

16

Stud to sole plate, toe nail

3-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
or
2-16d 31/2" × 0.135")



17

Top or sole plate to stud, end nail

2-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

18

Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail

2-10d (3" × 0.128")

19

1" brace to each stud and plate, face nail

2-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
2 staples 13/4"


20

1" × 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail

2-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
2 staples 13/4"


21

1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail

2-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
3 staples 13/4"


22

Wider than 1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail

3-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
4 staples 13/4"

Floor

23

Joist to sill or girder, toe nail

3-8d (21/2" × 0.113")

24

1" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail

2-8d (21/2" × 0.113")
2 staples 13/4"

25

2" subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail

2-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

26

Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also)

8d (21/2" × 0.113")

6" o.c.

27

2" planks (plank & beam – floor & roof)

2-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

at each bearing

28

Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers

10d (3" × 0.128")

Nail each layer as follows:
32" o.c. at top and bottom and staggered. Two nails at ends and at each splice.

29

Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters

3-16d (31/2" × 0.135")

At each joist or rafter

(continued)

TABLE R602.3(1)
WALL FRAMINGa, e
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER
MINIMUM NOMINAL LENGTH IN INCHES
X MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL DIAMETER IN INCHES
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION, OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS (INCHES ON CENTER)d
Top or sole plate to stud (face nail)
3½" x 0.162" (16d common)c 2
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 4
3" x 0.120" nail
Stud to top or sole plate (toe nail)
2½" x 0.131" nail (8d common)c 4
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common) 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
3 ¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
2⅜" x 0.113" nail 5
2" x 0.113" nail
2¼" x 0.105" nail
2¼" x 0.099" nail
Cap/top plate laps and instersections
3½" x 0.162" nail (16 common)c 2 each side of lap
3" x 0.148" nail 3 each side of lap
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x x0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Diagonal bracing
2½" x 0.131" nail (8d common)c 2
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 3
3" x 0.120" nail
2⅜" x 0.113" nail
2" x 0.113" nail 4
2¼" x 0.105" nail
2¼" x 0.099" nail
Sole plate to joist or blocking
at braced panels
3½" x 0.135" nail (16d box)c 3 per 16" space
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common) 2 per 16" space
3" x 0.148 nail (10d common) 3 per 16" space
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail 4 per 16" space
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Sole plate to joist or blocking
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 16" o.c.
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 8" o.c.
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Double top plate
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)c 16" o.c.
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail 12" o.c.
3" x 0.131"
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Double Studs
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)c 12" o.c.
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail 8" o.c.
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Corner Studs
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 24" o.c.
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 16" o.c.
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 12" o.c.
3" x 0.120" nail

TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
CEILING AND ROOF FRAMINGa, e
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER
MINIMUM NOMINAL LENGTH IN INCHES
X MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL DIAMETER IN INCHES
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION, OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS (INCHES ON CENTER)d
Ceiling joist to plate
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
3¼" x 0.131" nail 5
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
2⅜" x 0.113" nail 6
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Collar tie to rafter
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)c 3
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail 4
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Jack rafter to hip, toe-nailed
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)c 3
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail 4
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Jack rafter to hip, face nailed
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 4
3" x 0.120" nail
Roof rafter to plate (toe-nailed)
2½" x 0.131" nail (8d common)c 3
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 4
3" x 0.120" nail
2⅜" x 0.113" nail 5
2" x 0.113" nail
2¼" x 0.105" nail
2¼" x 0.099" nail 6
Roof rafter to 2-by ridge beam, face nailed

(only the attachment of the top rafter is illustrated
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" x 0.148 nail (10d common) 3
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 4
3" x 0.120" nail
Roof rafter to 2-by ridge beam, toe-nailed
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 2
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 3
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 4
3" x 0.120" nail

TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
FLOOR FRAMINGa, e
CONNECTIONb
(NAIL SIZE AND POSITION EXAGGERATED
FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES)
FASTENER
MINIMUM NOMINAL LENGTH IN INCHES
X MINIMUM NOMINAL NAIL DIAMETER IN INCHES
QUANTITY PER CONNECTION, OR SPACING
BETWEEN FASTENERS (INCHES ON CENTER)d
joist to band joist
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 5
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 6
3" x 0.120" nail
Ledger strip
3½" x 0.162" nail (16d common)c 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 4
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
2½" x 0.131" nail (8d common)c 3
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail 4
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail
Bridging to joist
(listed number of fasteners at each end
2½" x 0.131" nail (8d common)c 2
3¼" x 0.120" nail 3
3" x 0.120" nail
2⅜" x 0.113" nail
2" x 0.113" nail (6d common) 4
2¼" x 0.105" nail 3
2¼" x 0.099" nail 4
Rim joist to top plate (toe-nailed)
2½" x 0.113" (3d box)c 6" o.c.
3½" x 0162" nail (16d common) 8" o.c.
3" x 0.148" nail (10d common) 4" o.c.
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail
3" x 0.120" nail 4" o.c.
2⅜" x 0.113" nail 4" o.c.
2" x 0.113" nail (6d common) 3" o.c.
2¼" x 0.105" nail
2¼" x 0.099" nail
Connectionb (Nail size and position
Exaggerated for Illustrative purposes)
Fastner minimum nominal
length in inches x minimum
nominal nail diameter in inches
Spacing of fasteners along the top and bottom of beam,
staggered on each
side of each layer
Number of fasteners at each end
and splice for each layer
Built-up girders and beams
4" x 0.192" nail
(20d common)c
32" o.c. 2
3½" x 0.162" nail
(16d common)
24" o.c. 3
3" x 0.148" nail
(10d common)
3¼" x 0.131" nail
3" x 0.131" nail
3¼" x 0.120" nail 16" o.c. 3
3" x 0.120" nail
2½" x 0.131" nail
(8d common)
16" o.c. 4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. This fastening schedule applies to framing members having an actual thickness of 1½" (nominal “2-by” lumber).
  2. Fastenings listed above may also be used for other connections that are not listed but that have the same configuration and the same code requirement for fastener quantity/spacing and fastener size (pennyweight and style, e.g., 8d common, “8-penny common nail”).
  3. This fastener, in the quantity or spacing shown in the rightmost column, comprises the most stringent fastening of the connection listed in the International, National, International One- and Two-family Dwelling, International Residential, Standard or Uniform Building Codes.
  4. Fastening schedule only applies to buildings of conventional wood frame construction where wind or seismic analysis is not required by the applicable code. In areas where wind or seismic analysis is required, required fastening must be determined by structural analysis. The following are conditions for which codes require structural analysis:
    1. For nominal dimensions of nails see Table R602.3(1a)
    2. North Carolina Residential Code – buildings located in areas where the design wind speed equals or exceeds 110 mph (177.1 km/h) (3 second gust) or assigned to seismic design categories C, D1 and D2 (with detached one- and two-family dwellings in category C being exempt).
  5. Reprinted by permission of the ICC Evaluation Service, LLC from Evaluation Report ESR-1539.

TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEM

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS

DESCRIPTION OF FASTENERb, c, e

SPACING OF FASTENERS

Edges
(inches)i

Intermediate supportsc, e
(inches)

Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing

30

3/8" - 1/2"

6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor wall) j

8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof)f

6

12g

31

5/16" - 1/2"

6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall)

8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail (roof)f

6

12g

32

19/32" - 1"

8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131")

6

12g

33

11/8" - 11/4"

10d common (3" × 0.148") nail or

8d (21/2" × 0.131") deformed nail

6

12

Other wall sheathingh

34

1/2" structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing

1/2" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/4" long

3

6

35

25/32" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing

13/4" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 11/2" long

3

6

36

1/2" gypsum sheathingd

11/2" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 11/2" long; 11/4 screws, Type W or S

7

7

37

5/8" gypsum sheathingd

13/4" glavanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 15/8" long; 15/8" screws, Type W or S

7

7

Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing

38

3/4" and less

6d deformed (2" × 0.120") nail or

8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail

6

12

39

7/8" - 1"

8d common (21/2" × 0.131") nail or

8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail

6

12

40

11/8" - 11/4"

10d common (3" × 0.148") nail or

8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120") nail

6

12

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1ksi = 6.895 MPa.

a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.

b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.

c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.

d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.

e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).

f. For regions having basic wind speed of 110 mph or greater, 8d deformed (21/2" × 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum.

g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.

h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208.

i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking. Roof sheathing 716-inch or greater in thickness does not require perimeter blocking.

j. For nominal dimensions of nails see Table R602.3(1a).

TABLE R602.3(1a)
NOMINAL DIMENSIONS OF NAILS LISTED IN TABLE R602.3.1
NAILS DESCRIBED BY PENNYWEIGHT SYSTEM
Pennyweight Length (inches) Shank diameter (inches)
Box
6d 2 0.099
8d 0.113
10d 3 0.128
Casing
6d 0.099
8d 0.113
10d 3 0.128
Common
6d 2 0.113
8d 0.131
10d 3 0.148
16d 0.162
20d 4 0.192
Cooler
5d 1⅝ 0.086
6d 1⅞ 0.092
8d 2⅜ 0.113
Deformeda
3d 0.099
4d 0.099
6d 2 0.120
8d 0.120
Finish
8d 0.099
10d 3 0.113
Siding
6d 1⅞ 0.106
8d 2⅜ 0.128
Additional Recognized Nails
Smooth shank nails 0.092
0.105
3 0.120
0.131
3
0.148
0.162
Deformed shank nailsa 0.099
2 0.113
2⅜
0.131
For SI: 1inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. A deformed shank nail must have either a helical (screw) shank or an annular (ring) shank.

TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS (inches)

DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)

SPACINGc OF FASTENERS

Edges
(inches)

Intermediate supports
(inches)

Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf

up to 1/2

Staple 15 ga. 13/4

4

8

0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4

3

6

Staple 16 ga. 13/4

3

6

19/32 and 5/8

0.113 Nail 2

3

6

Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2

4

8

0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4

4

8

23/32 and 3/4

Staple 14 ga. 2

4

8

Staple 15 ga. 13/4

3

6

0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4

4

8

Staple 16 ga. 2

4

8

1

Staple 14 ga. 21/4

4

8

0.113 Nail 21/4

3

6

Staple 15 ga. 21/4

4

8

0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/2

4

8

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)

DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)

SPACINGc OF FASTENERS

Edges
(inches)

Body of paneld
(inches)

Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf

Plywood

1/4 and 5/16

11/4 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter

3

6

Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width

2

5

11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/2

11/4 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter

6

8e

19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/4

11/2 ring or screw shank nail—minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter

6

8

Staple 16 ga. 11/2

6

8

Hardboardf

0.200

11/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail

6

6

4d cement-coated sinker nail

6

6

Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated)

3

6

Particleboard

1/4

4d ring-grooved underlayment nail

3

6

Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown

3

6

3/8

6d ring-grooved underlayment nail

6

10

Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown

3

6

1/2, 5/8

6d ring-grooved underlayment nail

6

10

Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown

3

6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head.

b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.

c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.

d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.

e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.

f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/AHA A135.4.

TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL
WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,b,c

MINIMUM NAIL

MINIMUM WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SPAN RATING

MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inches)

MAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING
(inches)

PANEL NAIL SPACING

MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)

Size

Penetration
(inches)

Edges
(inches o.c.)

Field
(inches o.c.)

Wind exposure category

B

C

D

6d Common
(2.0" × 0.113")

1.5

24/0

3/8

16

6

12

110

90

85

8d Common
(2.5" × 0.131")

1.75

24/16

7/16

16

6

12

130

110

105

24

6

12

110

90

85

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.

b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.

c. Wood Structural Panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 oc or 24 oc shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 oc shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center.

TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa

THICKNESS
(inch)

GRADE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

When siding is nailed to studs

When siding is nailed to sheathing

3/8

M—1 Exterior glue

16

1/2

M—2 Exterior glue

16

16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa

STUD SIZE
(inches)

BEARING WALLS

NONBEARING WALLS

Laterally unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)

Maximum spacing when supporting a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly, only
(inches)

Maximum spacing when supporting one floor, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly
(inches)

Maximum spacing when supporting two floors, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly
(inches)

Maximum
spacing when supporting one floor heighta
(feet)

Laterally unsupported
stud
heighta
(feet)

Maximum
spacing
(inches)

2 × 3b

10

16

2 × 4

10

24c

16c

24

14

24

3 × 4

10

24

24

16

24

14

24

2 × 5

10

24

24

24

16

24

2 × 6

10

24

24

16

24

20

24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.

a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by analysis.

b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.

c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.


d. One half of the studs interrupted by a wall opening shall be placed immediately outside the jack studs on each side of the opening as king studs to resist wind loads. King studs shall extend full height from sole plate to top plate of the wall.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE R602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).

Exceptions:

1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.

2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1.

TABLE R602.3.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2b, c, d

HEIGHT
(feet)

ON-CENTER SPACING (inches)

24

16

12

8

Supporting a roof only

>10

2 × 4

2 × 4

2 × 4

2 × 4

12

2 × 6

2 × 4

2 × 4

2 × 4

14

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 4

16

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 4

18

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

20

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

24

NAa

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

Supporting one floor and a roof

>10

2 × 6

2 × 4

2 × 4

2 × 4

12

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 4

14

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

16

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

18

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

20

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

24

NAa

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

Supporting two floors and a roof

>10

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 4

2 × 4

12

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

14

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

2 × 6

16

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

18

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

2 × 6

20

NAa

NAa

NAa

2 × 6

22

NAa

NAa

NAa

NAa

24

NAa

NAa

NAa

NAa

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Design required.

b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, fb not less than 1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS tabular base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 × 106 psi, tributary dimensions for floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required.

c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted.

d. One half of the studs interrupted by a wall opening shall be placed immediately outside the jack studs on each side of the opening as king studs to resist wind loads. King studs shall extend full height from sole plate to top plate of the wall.

(continued)

TABLE R602.3.1—continued
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2

Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch-by- 6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, provided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as previously described.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.

2. A third top plate is installed.

3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.

Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

R602.3.5 Fasteners

STATE AMENDMENT
Nails and staples shall conform to the requirements of ASTM F1667.

R602.3.5.1 Staples

STATE AMENDMENT

R602.3.5.1.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
Staples shall be manufactured from No. 18 [0.0475 inch (1.21 mm)], No. 16 [0.0625 inch (1.59 mm)], No. 15 [0.072 inch (1.83 mm)] and No. 14 [0.080 inch (2.03 mm)] gage, round, semi-flattened or flattened, plain or zinc-coated steel wire, and driven with power tools. The staples shall be available with outside crown widths varying from 316 inch to 1 inch (4.8 mm to 25 mm). Leg lengths vary from ⅝ inch to 3½ inches (15.9 mm to 89 mm). Staples shall be collated into strips and cohered with polymer coatings. Staples manufactured from aluminum and copper wire are permitted in nonstructural applications only. Staple crown widths and leg lengths specified in Table R602.3(1) are overall dimensions.
For engineered and structural construction, steel staples with the minimum bending moment are required. No. 16 gage staples shall have a minimum average bending moment of 3.6 in.-lbs. (0.41 N-m); No. 15 gage staples shall have a minimum average bending moment 4.0 in.-lbs. (0.45 N-m); and No. 14 gage staples shall have a minimum average bending moment of 4.3 in.-lbs. (0.49 N-m).

R602.3.5.2 Nails

STATE AMENDMENT

R602.3.5.2.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
Nails shall be manufactured from plain steel wire, galvanized steel wire, aluminum wire, copper wire or stainless steel wire. Aluminum and copper nails are permitted in nonstructural applications only. Nail heads include full round heads or modified round heads such as clipped heads, “D” heads, notched heads, oval heads or T-shaped heads. Nails are supplied with smooth or deformed (threaded) shanks. Deformed shanks may be annularly threaded (ring shank) or helically threaded (screw shank). Nails power driven shall be collated and cohered into strips, clips or coils for loading into a power driving tool. Nails with T-shaped heads are permitted in nonstructural connections only. Table R602.3(1a) lists shank lengths and diameters for nails.
For engineered and structural construction, steel nails meeting the minimum bending yield strength are required. Nails formed from steel wire having a nominal diameter of 0.135 inch (3.4 mm) or less shall have a minimum average bending yield strength of 100 ksi (689 MPa), and nails with diameters greater than 0.135 inch (3.4 mm) shall have a minimum average bending yield strength of 90 ksi (620 MPa). The 20d common nails described in Table R602.3(1a) shall have a minimum average bending yield strength of 80 ksi (55 MPa).
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch-by-3-inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, when not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width. Notching of bearing studs shall be on one edge only and not to exceed one-fourth the height of the stud. Notching shall not occur in the bottom or top 6 inches (152 mm) of bearing studs.
  2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notchand the hole shall not be closer than 6 inches (152 mm) from an adjacent hole or notch. Holes not exceeding ¾ inch (19 mm) diameter can be as close as 1½ inches (38.1 mm) on center spacing. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted when they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  3. Cutting and notching of studs may be increased to 65% of the width of the stud in exterior and interior walls and bearing partitions, provided that one of the following conditions are met:
    1. The wall section is reinforced with ½ inch exterior grade plywood or equivalent reinforcement on the notched side of the wall. Plywood, if used, shall reach from the floor to ceiling and at least one stud further on each side of the section that has been notched or cut.
    2. The exterior walls of a kitchen may be reinforced by placing ½ inch plywood or equivalent reinforcement on the notched side of the wall. Plywood, if used, shall reach from the floor to counter-top height and at least one stud further on each side of the section that has been notched or cut.

When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

NOTE: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE R602.6(1)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6(2)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

For header spans see Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2.

Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header.

TABLE R602.7.2
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa

HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb

HEADER DEPTH (inches)

HOUSE DEPTH (feet)

24

26

28

30

32

Wood structural panel—one side

9

15

4

5

4

5

3

4

3

3

3

Wood structural panel—both sides

9

15

7

8

5

8

5

7

4

7

3

6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.

b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

NOTES:

a. The top plate shall be continuous over header.

b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.

c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.

d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.

e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.


FIGURE R602.7.2
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood structural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

R602.10 Wall Bracing

STATE AMENDMENT

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic bracing requirements of this section. Wind speed provisions for bracing shall be applicable to detached one- and two-family dwellings.

Buildings, and portions thereof, shall be braced in accordance with one or more of the following sections using bracing materials and methods complying with Section R602.10.1 and load path detailing in accordance with Section R602.10.5:
  1. Isolated panel bracing per Section R602.10.2,
  2. Continuous sheathing per Section R602.10.3,
  3. Engineered design per Section R602.10.4, or
  4. 2012 International Residential Code.
  5. SR-102 as published by APA, The Engineered Wood Association with limitations indicated in this document.
    Note: Code references in SR-102 are referencing the 2012 International Residential Code.
     Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with Section R602.10.2, Section R602.10.3, or Section R602.10.5, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R602.10.4.

R602.10.1 Braced Wall Lines

STATE AMENDMENT

Braced wall lines shall be provided in accordance with this section. The length of a braced wall line shall be measured as the distance between the ends of the wall line. The end of a braced wall line shall be considered to be either:

1. The intersection with perpendicular exterior walls or projection thereof,

2. The intersection with perpendicular braced wall lines.

The end of the braced wall line shall be chosen such that the maximum length results.

Wall bracing materials and methods shall comply with Table R602.10.1.

TABLE R602.10.1
BRACING METHODSa, b
METHOD MINIMUMBRACE MATERIAL
THICKNESS OR SIZE
MINIMUM BRACE PANEL
LENGTH OR BRACE ANGLE
CONNECTION CRITERIA ILLUSTRATION OF BRACING
METHOD (illustrates method only, not location)
Fasteners Spacing
LIB
Let-in Bracing
1 x 4 wood brace
(or approved metal brace
installed per
manufacturer instructions)
45° angle for maximum
16" oc stud spacingc
2-8d common
nails or 3-8d
(2½" long
0.113" dia.) nails
Per stud and top
and bottom
plates
DWB
Diagonal wood
boards
¾" (1" nominal) 48" 2-8d (2½" long
0.113" diameter)
or 2 – 1¾" long
staples
Per stud and top
and bottom
plates
WSP
Wood structural
panel
⅜" 48"d 6d common nail
or 8d (2½" long
0.113" diameter)
nail See Table R602.3(3)
6" edges
12" field
SFB
Structural
Fiberboard
Sheathing
½" 48"d 1½" long
0.120" dia.
Galvanized
roofing nails
3" edges
6" field
GB
Gypsum Board
Installed on both
sides
of wall
½" 96" for use with R602.10.2
48" for use with R602.10.3
Min. 5d cooler
nails
or #6 screws
7" edges
7" field
PCP
Portland cement
plaster
¾"
(maximum 16" oc
stud spacing)
48" 1½" long,
11 gage,
716" diameter head nails or ⅞" long,
16" gage staples
6" o.c. on all
framing
members
CS-WSPe
Continuously
sheathed WSP
⅜" 24" adjacent to window
not more than 67% of wall
height; 30" adjacent to
door or window greater
than 67% and less than
85% of wall height. 48"
for taller openings.
Same as WSP Same as WSP
CS-SFBe
Continuously
sheathed SFB
½" Same as WSP Same as WSP
PF
Portal Framef
716" See Figure R602.10.1 See Figure
R602.10.1
See Figure
R602.10.1
  1. Alternative bracing materials and methods shall comply with Section 105 of the North Carolina Administrative Code and Policies, and shall be permitted to be used as a substitute for any of the bracing materials listed in Table R602.10.1 provided at least equivalent performance is demonstrated. Where the tested bracing strength or stiffness differs from tabulated materials, the bracing amount required for the alternative material shall be permitted to be factored to achieve equivalence.
  2. All edges of panel-type wall bracing shall be attached to framing or blocking, except GB bracing horizontal joints shall not be required to be blocked when joints are finished.
  3. Two LIB braces installed at a 60° angle shall be permitted to be substituted for each 45° angle LIB brace.
  4. For 8-foot or 9-foot wall height, brace panel minimum length shall be permitted to be reduced to 36-inch or 42-inch length, respectively, where not located adjacent to a door opening. A braced wall panel shall be permitted to be reduced to a 32-inch length when studs at each end of the braced wall panel are anchored to foundation or framing below using hold-down device with minimum 2,800 pounds design tension capacity. For detached single-story garages and attached garages supporting roof only, a minimum 24-inch brace panel length shall be permitted on one wall containing one or more garage door openings.
  5. Bracing methods designated CS-WSP and CS-SFB shall have sheathing installed on all sheathable surfaces above, below, and between wall openings.
  6. For purposes of bracing in accordance with Section R602.10.2, two portal frame brace panels with wood structural panel sheathing applied to the exterior face of each brace panel as shown in Figure R602.10.1 shall be considered equivalent to one braced wall panel.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 lb = 4.45 N.
FIGURE R602.10.1
METHOD PF – PORTAL FRAME CONSTRUCTION

Braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with the intermittent bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.2, or the continuous sheathing methods specified in Sections R602.10.4 and R602.10.5. Mixing of bracing method shall be permitted as follows:

1. Mixing bracing methods from story to story is permitted.

2. Mixing bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story is permitted, except that continuous sheathing methods shall conform to the additional requirements of Sections R602.10.4 and R602.10.5.

3. Mixing bracing methods within a braced wall line is permitted only in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. The length of required bracing for the braced wall line with mixed sheathing types shall have the higher bracing length requirement, in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), of all types of bracing used.

The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.1.2(1) as adjusted by the factors in the footnotes or the Seismic Design Category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table R602.10.1.2(2) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.1.2(3) or braced wall panel location requirements of Section R602.10.1.4. Only walls that are parallel to the braced wall line shall be counted toward the bracing requirement of that line, except angled walls shall be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.3. In no case shall the minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.

TABLE R602.10.1.2(1)a, b, c, d, e
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED
(as a function of braced wall line spacing)

EXPOSURE CATEGORY B, 30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT,
10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT,
10 FT WALL HEIGHT,
2 BRACED WALL LINES

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE

Basic Wind Speed
(mph)

Story
Location

Braced Wall Line Spacing (feet)

Method LIBf, h

Method GB
(double sided)g

Methods DWB,
WSP, SFB, PCP, HPSf, i

Continuous
Sheathing

≤ 85
(mph)

10

3.5

3.5

2.0

1.5

20

6.0

6.0

3.5

3.0

30

8.5

8.5

5.0

4.5

40

11.5

11.5

6.5

5.5

50

14.0

14.0

8.0

7.0

60

16.5

16.5

9.5

8.0

10

6.5

6.5

3.5

3.0

20

11.5

11.5

6.5

5.5

30

16.5

16.5

9.5

8.0

40

21.5

21.5

12.5

10.5

50

26.5

26.5

15.0

13.0

60

31.5

31.5

18.0

15.5

10

NP

9.0

5.5

4.5

20

NP

17.0

10.0

8.5

30

NP

24.5

14.0

12.0

40

NP

32.0

18.0

15.5

50

NP

39.0

22.5

19.0

60

NP

46.5

26.5

22.5

≤ 90
(mph)

10

3.5

3.5

2.0

2.0

20

7.0

7.0

4.0

3.5

30

9.5

9.5

5.5

5.0

40

12.5

12.5

7.5

6.0

50

15.5

15.5

9.0

7.5

60

18.5

18.5

10.5

9.0

10

7.0

7.0

4.0

3.5

20

13.0

13.0

7.5

6.5

30

18.5

18.5

10.5

9.0

40

24.0

24.0

14.0

12.0

50

29.5

29.5

17.0

14.5

60

35.0

35.0

20.0

17.0

10

NP

10.5

6.0

5.0

20

NP

19.0

11.0

9.5

30

NP

27.5

15.5

13.5

40

NP

35.5

20.5

17.5

50

NP

44.0

25.0

21.5

60

NP

52.0

30.0

25.5

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.1.2(1)a, b, c, d, e—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED
(as a function of braced wall line spacing)

EXPOSURE CATEGORY B, 30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT,
10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT,
10 FT WALL HEIGHT,
2 BRACED WALL LINES

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE

Basic Wind Speed
(mph)

Story
Location

Braced wall
Line Spacing (feet)

Method LIBf, h

Method GB
(doubled sided)g

Method DWB,
WSP, SFB, PCP, HPSf, i

Continuous
Sheathing

≤ 100
(mph)

10

4.5

4.5

2.5

2.5

20

8.5

8.5

5.0

4.0

30

12.0

12.0

7.0

6.0

40

15.5

15.5

9.0

7.5

50

19.0

19.0

11.0

9.5

60

22.5

22.5

13.0

11.0

10

8.5

8.5

5.0

4.5

20

16.0

16.0

9.0

8.0

30

23.0

23.0

13.0

11.0

40

29.5

29.5

17.0

14.5

50

36.5

36.5

21.0

18.0

60

43.5

43.5

25.0

21.0

10

NP

12.5

7.5

6.0

20

NP

23.5

13.5

11.5

30

NP

34.0

19.5

16.5

40

NP

44.0

25.0

21.5

50

NP

54.0

31.0

26.5

60

NP

64.0

36.5

31.0

≤ 110
(mph)

10

5.5

5.5

3.0

3.0

20

10.0

10.0

6.0

5.0

30

14.5

14.5

8.5

7.0

40

18.5

18.5

11.0

9.0

50

23.0

23.0

13.0

11.5

60

27.5

27.5

15.5

13.5

10

10.5

10.5

6.0

5.0

20

19.0

19.0

11.0

9.5

30

27.5

27.5

16.0

13.5

40

36.0

36.0

20.5

17.5

50

44.0

44.0

25.5

21.5

60

52.5

52.5

30.0

25.5

10

NP

15.5

9.0

7.5

20

NP

28.5

16.5

14.0

30

NP

41.0

23.5

20.0

40

NP

53.0

30.5

26.0

50

NP

65.5

37.5

32.0

60

NP

77.5

44.5

37.5

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.1.2(1)a, b, c, d, e—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED
(as a function of braced wall line spacing)

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

a. Tabulated bracing lengths are based on Wind Exposure Category B, a 30-ft mean roof height, a 10-ft eave to ridge height, a 10-ft wall height, and two braced wall lines sharing load in a given plan direction on a given story level. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.4 and R602.10.5. Interpolation shall be permitted.

b. For other mean roof heights and exposure categories, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table:

c. For other roof-to-eave ridge heights, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table: interpolation shall be permitted.

d. For a maximum 9-foot wall height, multiplying the table values by 0.95 shall be permitted . For a maximum 8-foot wall height, multiplying, the table values by 0.90 shall be permitted. For a maximum 12-foot wall height, the table values shall be multiplied by 1.1.

e. For three or more braced wall lines in a given plan direction, the required bracing length on each braced wall line shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table:

NUMBER OF STORIES

EXPOSURE/HEIGHT FACTORS

Exposure B

Exposure C

Exposure D

1

1.0

1.2

1.5

2

1.0

1.3

1.6

3

1.0

1.4

1.7

SUPPORT CONDITION

ROOF EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT

5 ft or less

10 ft

15 ft

20 ft

Roof only

0.7

1.0

1.3

1.6

Roof + floor

0.85

1.0

1.15

1.3

Roof + 2 floors

0.9

1.0

1.1

NP

NUMBER OF BRACED WALL LINES

ADJUSTMENT FACTOR

3

1.30

4

1.45

≥ 5

1.60

f. Bracing lengths are based on the application of gypsum board finish (or equivalent) applied to the inside face of a braced wall panel. When gypsum board finish (or equivalent) is not applied to the inside face of braced wall panels, the tabulated lengths shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table:

BRACING METHOD

ADJUSTMENT FACTOR

Method LIB

1.8

Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS

1.4

g. Bracing lengths for Method GB are based on the application of gypsum board on both faces of a braced wall panel. When Method GB is provided on only one side of the wall, the required bracing amounts shall be doubled. When Method GB braced wall panels installed in accordance with Section R602.10.2 are fastened at 4 inches on center at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and are blocked at all horizontal joints, multiplying the required bracing percentage for wind loading by 0.7 shall be permitted.

h. Method LIB bracing shall have gypsum board attached to at least one side according to the Section R602.10.2 Method GB requirements.

i. Required bracing length for Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in braced wall lines located in one-story buildings and in the top story of two or three story buildings shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.80 when an approved hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds is fastened to the end studs of each braced wall panel in the braced wall line and to the foundation or framing below.

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)a, b, c
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
(AS A FUNCTION OF BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH)

SOIL CLASS Da
WALL HEIGHT = 10 FT
10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FT

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED
ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE

Seismic Design
Category
(SDC)

Story Location

Braced Wall
Line Length

Method LIB

Methods
DWB, SFB, GB, PBS, PCP, HPS

Method WSP

Continuous
Sheathing

SDC A and B
and Detached Dwellings in C

Exempt from Seismic Requirements
Use Table R602.10.1.2(1) for Bracing Requirements

SDC C

10

2.5

2.5

1.6

1.4

20

5.0

5.0

3.2

2.7

30

7.5

7.5

4.8

4.1

40

10.0

10.0

6.4

5.4

50

12.5

12.5

8.0

6.8

10

NP

4.5

3.0

2.6

20

NP

9.0

6.0

5.1

30

NP

13.5

9.0

7.7

40

NP

18.0

12.0

10.2

50

NP

22.5

15.0

12.8

10

NP

6.0

4.5

3.8

20

NP

12.0

9.0

7.7

30

NP

18.0

13.5

11.5

40

NP

24.0

18.0

15.3

50

NP

30.0

22.5

19.1

SDC D0 or D1

10

NP

3.0

2.0

1.7

20

NP

6.0

4.0

3.4

30

NP

9.0

6.0

5.1

40

NP

12.0

8.0

6.8

50

NP

15.0

10.0

8.5

10

NP

6.0

4.5

3.8

20

NP

12.0

9.0

7.7

30

NP

18.0

13.5

11.5

40

NP

24.0

18.0

15.3

50

NP

30.0

22.5

19.1

10

NP

8.5

6.0

5.1

20

NP

17.0

12.0

10.2

30

NP

25.5

18.0

15.3

40

NP

34.0

24.0

20.4

50

NP

42.5

30.0

25.5

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)a, b, c—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
(AS A FUNCTION OF BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH)

SOIL CLASS Da
WALL HEIGHT = 10 FT
10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FT

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED
ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE

Seismic Design
Category
(SDC)

Story Location

Braced Wall
Line Length

Method LIB

METHODS DWB, SFB, GB, PBS, PCP, HPS

Method WSP

Continuous
Sheathing

SDC D2

10

NP

4.0

2.5

2.1

20

NP

8.0

5.0

4.3

30

NP

12.0

7.5

6.4

40

NP

16.0

10.0

8.5

50

NP

20.0

12.5

10.6

10

NP

7.5

5.5

4.7

20

NP

15.0

11.0

9.4

30

NP

22.5

16.5

14.0

40

NP

30.0

22.0

18.7

50

NP

37.5

27.5

23.4

10

NP

NP

NP

NP

20

NP

NP

NP

NP

30

NP

NP

NP

NP

40

NP

NP

NP

NP

50

NP

NP

NP

NP

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.

a. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class “D.” Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the seismic design categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.5 of the International Building Code.

b. Foundation cripple wall panels shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.9.

c. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.4 and R602.10.5.

TABLE R602.10.1.2(3)
ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE LENGTH OF REQUIRED SEISMIC WALL BRACINGa

ADJUSTMENT BASED ON:

MULTIPLY LENGTH OF BRACING PER WALL LINE BY:

APPLIES TO:

Story heightb (Section R301.3)

≤10 ft

1.0

All bracing methods -
Sections R602.10.2,
R602.10.4 and R602.10.5

> 10 ≤ 12 ft

1.2

Braced wall line spacing townhouses in SDC A-Cb,c

≤ 35 ft

1.0

> 35 ≤ 50 ft

1.43

Wall dead load

> 8 ≤ 15 psf

1.0

≤ 8 psf

0.85

Roof/ceiling dead load
for wall supportingb

roof only or roof plus
one story

≤ 15 psf

1.0

roof only

< 15 psf ≤ 25 psf

1.1

roof plus one story

< 15 psf ≤ 25 psf

1.2

Walls with stone or masonry veneer in SDC C-D2

See Section R703.7

Cripple walls

See Section R602.10.9

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.

a. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.

b. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.

c. Braced wall line spacing and adjustment to bracing length in SDC D0, D1, and D2 shall comply with Section R602.10.1.5.

Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:

1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 90 mph (40 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less, or

1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.

2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2 above.

3. Bracing and fasteners designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to resist combined uplift and shear forces.

R602.10.1.3 Angled Corners

STATE AMENDMENT

At corners, braced wall lines shall be permitted to angle out of plane up to 45 degrees with a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). When determining the length of bracing required, the length of each braced wall line shall be determined as shown in Figure R602.10.1.3. The placement of bracing for the braced wall lines shall begin at the point where the braced wall line, which contains the angled wall adjoins the adjacent braced wall line (Point A as shown in Figure R602.10.1.3). Where an angled corner is constructed at an angle equal to 45 degrees (0.79 rad) and the diagonal length is no more than 8 feet (2438 mm), the angled wall may be considered as part of either of the adjoining braced wall lines, but not both. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered its own braced wall line and be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1 and methods in Section R602.10.2.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.3
ANGLED CORNERS

Braced wall panels shall be located in accordance with Figure R602.10.1.4(1). Braced wall panels shall be located not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center and shall be permitted to begin no more than 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from the end of a braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1 and Figure R602.10.1.4(2). The total combined distance from each end of a braced wall line to the outermost braced wall panel or panels in the line shall not exceed 12.5 feet (3810 mm). Braced wall panels may be offset out-of-plane up to 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line provided that the total out-to-out offset of braced wall panels in a braced wall line is not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in accordance with Figures R602.10.1.4(3) and R602.10.1.4(4). All braced wall panels within a braced wall line shall be permitted to be offset from the designated braced wall line.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(1)
BRACED WALL PANELS AND BRACED WALL LINES

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL END DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS (SDC A, B AND C)

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(3)
OFFSETS PERMITTED FOR BRACED WALL LINES

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(4)
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

0, D1 and D2. Braced wall lines at exterior walls shall have a braced wall panel located at each end of the braced wall line.

Exception: For braced wall panel construction Method WSP of Section R602.10.2, the braced wall panel shall be permitted to begin no more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the braced wall line provided one of the following is satisfied in accordance with Figure R602.10.1.4.1:

1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel is applied to each side of the building corner and the two 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panels at the corner are attached to framing in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1), or

2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below. The hold- down device shall be capable of providing an uplift allowable design value of at least 1,800 pounds (8 kN). The hold-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4,448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4.1
BRACED WALL PANELS AT ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 AND D2

0, D1 and D2. Spacing between braced wall lines in each story shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) on center in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Exception: In one- and two-story buildings, spacing between two adjacent braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) on center in order to accommodate one single room not exceeding 900 square feet (84 m2) in each dwelling unit. Spacing between all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). A spacing of 35 feet (10 668 mm) or less shall be permitted between braced wall lines where the length of wall bracing required by Table R602.10.1.2(2) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor from Table R602.10.1.5, the length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm does not exceed 3:1, and the top plate lap splice face nailing is twelve 16d nails on each side of the splice.

TABLE R602.10.1.5
ADJUSTMENTS OF BRACING LENGTH FOR BRACED WALL LINES GREATER THAN 25 FEETa,b

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING
(feet)

MULTIPLY BRACING LENGTH
IN TABLE R602.10.1.2(2) BY:

25
30
35

1.0
1.2
1.4

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Linear interpolation is permitted.

b. When a braced wall line has a parallel braced wall line on both sides, the larger adjustment factor shall be used.

The construction of intermittent braced wall panels shall be in accordance with one of the methods listed in Table R602.10.2.

TABLE R602.10.2
INTERMITTENT BRACING METHODS

METHOD

MATERIAL

MINIMUM THICKNESS

FIGURE

CONNECTION CRITERIA

LIB

Let-in-bracing

1 × 4 wood or approved metal straps at 45° to 60° angles for maximum 16" stud spacing

Wood: 2-8d nails per stud including top and bottom plate metal: per manufacturer

DWB

Diagonal wood boards

3/4" (1" nominal)
for maximum 24" stud spacing

2-8d (21/2" × 0.113") nails
or 2 staples, 13/4" per stud

WSP

Wood structural panel
(see Section R604)

3/8"

For exterior sheathing
see Table R602.3(3)
For interior sheathing
see Table R602.3(1)

SFB

Structural
fiberboard sheathing

1/2" or 25/32" for maximum 16" stud spacing

11/2" galvanized roofing nails or 8d common (21/2" × 0.131) nails at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6" spacing (intermediate supports)

GB

Gypsum board

1/2"

Nails or screws at 7" spacing at panel edges including top and bottom plates; for all braced wall panel locations for exterior sheathing nail or screw size, see Table R602.3(1); for interior gypsum board nail or screw size, see Table R702.3.5

PBS

Particleboard sheathing
(see Section R605)

3/8" or 1/2" for maximum 16"
stud spacing

11/2" galvanized roofing nails or 8d common (21/2" × 0.131) nails at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6 spacing (intermediate supports)

PCP

Portland cement
plaster

See Section R703.6
For maximum 16" stud spacing

11/2", 11 gage, 7/16" head nails at 6" spacing or
7/8", 16 gage staples at 6" spacing

HPS

Hardboard panel
siding

7/16"

For maximum 16" stud spacing

0.092" dia., 0.225" head nails with length to accommodate 11/2" penetration into studs at 4" spacing (panel edges), at 8" spacing (intermediate supports)

ABW

Alternate braced
wall

See Section R602.10.3.2

See Section R602.10.3.2

PFH

Intermittent portal
frame

See Section R602.10.3.3

See Section R602.10.3.3

PFG

Intermittent portal frame
at garage

See Section R602.10.3.4

See Section R602.10.3.4

TABLE R602.10.2
NUMBER OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED FOR EACH
HOUSE ELEVATION (BUILDING SIDE) AT EACH STORY LEVELa
Wind
Velocity
Story Level
Supporting:
Longest Overall Dimension of
Floor Plan for a Given Story Level
25' 50' 75'
90 mph Roof Only 1 2 3
Roof + 1 Story 2 4 6
Roof + 2 Stories 3 6 9
100 mph Roof Only 2 3 4
Roof + 1 Story 3 5 8
Roof + 2 Stories 4 8 11
  1. Interpolation between dimensions is permitted. Extrapolation is prohibited.
    Fractions of panels shall be rounded to the nearest whole panel.
    Roof Only
    Roof + 1 Story
    Roof + 2 Stories

Intermittent braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board.

Exceptions:

1. Wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, ABW, PFG and PFH.

2. When an approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board is installed.

3. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, omitting gypsum wall board is permitted provided the length of bracing in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) is multiplied by a factor of 1.5.

R602.10.2.1 Limitations

STATE AMENDMENT
The conventional bracing requirements of Section R602.10.2.2 shall be limited to the following conditions of use:
  1. Basic design wind speed shall not exceed 100 mph, Exposure Category B.
  2. Bracing methods shall be LIB, DWB, WSP, SFB, GB, PCP, and PF in accordance with Table R602.10.1.
  3. Length of the house is limited to 75 feet. Overall plan length shall not exceed three times the overall plan width. The multiple circumscribed rectangle method from Section R602.10.3.2 may be applied to the method set forth in this section.
  4. Wall height at each story level shall not exceed 10 feet.
  5. Roof eave-to-ridge height shall not exceed 10 feet unless the roof is considered as an additional story for the purpose of determining bracing amounts required.
  6. Except when used for bracing method GB, the interior side of exterior walls and both sides of interior walls shall be sheathed continuously with minimum ½-inch-thick gypsum wall board interior finish fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5, or approved interior finish of equivalent or greater shear resistance.
  7. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  8. Townhouses shall be stabilized independently of adjacent units unless a design is provided to permit lateral load transfer between adjacent units.
  9. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.4 or the 2012 International Residential Code.
0, D1 and D2. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.

R602.10.2.2 Requirements

STATE AMENDMENT
Braced wall panels shall be constructed of bracing methods, materials, and minimum braced panel lengths complying with Table R602.10.1. The number of braced wall panels required for each side of a building (elevation view) at each story level of the building shall comply with Table R602.10.2. The following additional requirements shall apply:
  1. In no case shall the amount of bracing be less than two braced wall panels on exterior walls comprising each side of the floor plan (or plan elevation) for each story level of the building.
  2. A braced wall panel shall be located within 12 feet of both ends of each elevation view of the house. Braced wall panels on exterior walls shall be installed such that the edge-to-edge distance between braced wall panels does not exceed 21 feet. Refer to Figure R602.10.2.2.
  3. No more than one-half of bracing on parallel exterior walls shall be permitted to be relocated to interior walls oriented in the same plan direction and within one-half the floor plan dimension perpendicular to the exterior wall.
  4. Use of multiple bracing methods and materials complying with Table R602.10.1 shall be permitted.
  5. Detached garages or storage buildings connected to the house with a covered walk-way shall be considered separate buildings. Houses with skewed wings shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.3, Section R602.10.4, or the 2012 International Residential Code.
  6. Garage door openings supporting a floor load above shall be braced using the portal frame method (PF) unless the building plan level containing the garage opening wall complies with all the bracing requirements of this section.
FIGURE R602.10.2.2
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS


FIGURE R602.10.2.2(1)
PANELS SHIFTED TO INTERIOR WALLS


FIGURE R602.10.2.2(2)
PANELS MAY BE INSET 12'-0" FROM BOTH ENDS OF WALL ELEVATION

For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, each braced wall panel shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering a minimum of three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering a minimum of two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center. For Method GB, each braced wall panel and shall be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a braced wall panel and at least 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, for purposes of computing the length of panel bracing required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), the effective length of the braced wall panel shall be equal to the actual length of the panel. When Method GB panels are applied to only one face of a braced wall panel, bracing lengths required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) for Method GB shall be doubled.

Exceptions:

1. Lengths of braced wall panels for continuous sheathing methods shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.4.2.

2. Lengths of Method ABW panels shall be in accordance with Sections R602.10.3.2.

3. Length of Methods PFH and PFG panels shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.3.3 and R602.10.3.4 respectively.

4. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C: Panels between 36 inches (914 mm)and 48 inches (1219 mm) in length shall be permitted to count towards the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), and the effective contribution shall comply with Table R602.10.3.

TABLE R602.10.3
EFFECTIVE LENGTHS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH
(BRACE METHODS DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP AND HPSa)

ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)

EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)

8-foot Wall Height

9-foot Wall Height

10-foot Wall Height

48
42
36

48
36
27

48
36
N/A

48
N/A
N/A

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Interpolation shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.3
REQUIRED LENGTH OF BRACING ALONG EACH SIDE OF A CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE a, b, c, d
WIND
SPEED
EAVE-TO
RIDGE HEIGHT
(FEET)
STORY LEVEL
SUPPORTING: e
REQUIRED LENGTH OF BRACING ON ANY SIDE
Length of perpendicular side (ft)f
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
90 10 Roof Only 2.0 3.5 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0
Roof + 1 Story 3.5 6.5 9.0 12.0 14.5 17.0 19.8 22.6
Roof + 2 Stories 5.0 9.5 13.5 17.5 21.5 25.0 29.2 33.4
15 Roof Only 2.6 4.6 6.5 7.8 9.8 11.7 13.7 15.7
Roof + 1 Story 4.0 7.5 10.4 13.8 16.7 19.6 22.9 26.2
Roof + 2 Stories 5.5 10.5 14.9 19.3 23.7 27.5 32.1 36.7
20 Roof Only 2.9 5.2 7.3 8.8 11.1 13.2 15.4 17.6
Roof + 1 Story 4.5 8.5 11.8 15.6 18.9 22.1 25.8 29.5
Roof + 2 Stories 6.2 11.9 16.8 21.8 27.3 31.1 36.3 41.5
100 10 Roof Only 2.5 4.0 6.0 7.5 9.5 11.0 12.8 14.6
Roof + 1 Story 4.5 8.0 11.0 14.5 18.0 21.0 24.5 28.0
Roof + 2 Stories 6.0 11.5 16.5 21.5 26.5 31.0 36.2 41.4
15 Roof Only 3.4 5.2 7.8 9.8 12.4 14.3 16.7 19.1
Roof + 1 Story 5.2 9.2 12.7 16.7 20.7 24.2 28.2 32.2
Roof + 2 Stories 6.6 12.7 18.2 23.7 29.2 34.1 39.8 45.5
20 Roof Only 3.8 5.9 8.8 11.1 14.0 16.2 18.9 21.6
Roof + 1 Story 5.9 10.4 14.4 18.9 23.4 27.3 31.8 36.3
Roof + 2 Stories 7.5 14.4 20.6 26.8 33.0 38.5 44.9 51.3
110 10 Roof Only 3.0 4.8 7.3 9.1 11.5 13.3 15.5 17.7
Roof + 1 Story 5.5 10.0 13.3 17.5 21.8 25.4 29.6 33.8
Roof + 2 Stories 7.5 13.9 2.0 26.0 32.1 37.5 43.8 50.1
15 Roof Only 4.2 6.3 9.5 11.9 15.0 17.3 20.2 23.1
Roof + 1 Story 6.3 11.2 15.4 20.2 25.0 29.3 34.2 39.1
Roof + 2 Stories 8.0 15.4 22.0 28.7 35.3 41.3 48.2 55.1
20 Roof Only 4.6 7.2 10.6 13.4 16.9 19.6 22.9 26.2
Roof + 1 Story 7.2 12.6 17.4 22.9 28.3 33.0 38.5 44.0
Roof + 2 Stories 9.1 17.4 24.9 32.4 39.9 46.6 54.4 62.2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Roof Only
Roof + 1 Story
Roof + 2 Stories
  1. Interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. For Exposure Category C or D, multiply the required length of bracing by a factor of 1.3 or 1.6, respectively.
  3. For wall heights other than 10 ft (3048 mm), multiply the required length of bracing by the following factors: 0.90 for 8 feet (2438 mm), 0.95 for 9 feet (2743 mm), 1.05 for 11 feet (3353 mm) and 1.10 for 12 feet (3658 mm).
  4. Where minimum ½” gypsum wall board interior finish is not provided, the required bracing amount for the affected rectangle side shall be multiplied by 1.40.
  5. A floor, habitable or otherwise, contained wholly within the roof rafters or roof trusses need not be considered a story for purposes of determining wall bracing provided the eave to ridge height does not exceed 20 feet and the openings in the roof do not exceed 48 inches in height.
  6. Perpendicular sides to the front and rear sides are the left and right sides. Perpendicular sides to the left and right sides are the front and rear sides.


FIGURE R602.10.3(1)
CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLESa, b, c

  1. Each floor plan level shall be circumscribed with one or more rectangles around the floor plan or portions of the plan at the floor level under consideration as shown in Figure R602.10.3(1).
  2. Rectangles shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages for a given story level floor plan. Chimneys, partial height projections, and open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be excluded from the rectangle.
  3. Each rectangle shall have no side greater than 80 feet (24.4 m) with a maximum rectangle length-to-width ratio of 3:1. Rectangles shall be permitted to be skewed to accommodate diagonal walls.






FIGURE R602.10.3(2)
ASSIGNMENT OF BRACED WALL PANELS TO CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE SIDESa, b, c, d, e, f


  1. Exterior braced wall panels shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute to their actual length.
  2. Interior braced wall panels using Method GB shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute 0.5 times their actual length.
  3. Projected contributing lengths of angled braced wall panels shall be assigned to the closest rectangle sides.
  4. Portal frame braced wall panels shall contribute 1.5 times their actual length to their assigned rectangle side.
  5. Where multiple rectangles share a common side or sides, as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2)(a), the required length of bracing shall equal the sum of the required lengths from each of the shared rectangle sides.
  6. Braced wall panels located on a common wall where skewed rectangles intersect, as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2)(b), shall have their contributing length applied towards the required length of bracing for the parallel rectangle side and its projected contributing lengths towards the adjacent skewed rectangle sides. Where the common side of rectangle 2 as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2)(c), has no physical wall, the wall bracing required to stabilized this side of Rectangle 2 shall be determined from Table 602.10.3. This length of bracing shall be resolved into orthogonal projections, and the orthogonal projections shall be added to the length of bracing required for the walls of Rectangle 1 which connect to Rectangle 2 in the directions parallel to the projections.
FIGURE R602.10.3(3)
DISTRIBUTION OF BRACED WALL PANELSa, b, c, d, e
  1. A braced wall panel shall be located on each elevation view within 12 feet of the corners of circumscribed rectangles. Detached garages or storage buildings connected to the house with a covered walk-way shall be considered separate buildings.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels shall be no more than 21 feet (6096 mm).
  3. Segments of exterior walls greater than 12 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have a minimum of one braced wall panel.
  4. Segments of exterior wall 12 feet (2438 mm) or less in length shall be permitted to have no bracing provided a braced wall panel is located within 12 feet from the rectangle corner.
  5. Interior and exterior wall segments which contribute to the common sides of multiple rectangles shall be permitted to apply the distribution requirements given above to each wall segment independently.
FIGURE CR602.10.3(4)a
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALLS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING




FIGURE CR602.10.3(4)b
TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

When story height (H), measured in feet, exceeds 10 feet (3048 mm), in accordance with Section R301.3, the minimum length of braced wall panels specified in Section R602.10.3 shall be increased by a factor H/10. See Table R602.10.3.1. Interpolation is permitted.

TABLE R602.10.3.1
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS

SEISMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY AND
WIND SPEED

BRACING
METHOD

HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL

8 ft

9 ft

10 ft

11 ft

12 ft

SDC A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2
Wind speed < 110 mph

DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS and Method GB when double sided

4' - 0"

4' - 0"

4' - 0"

4' - 5"

4' - 10"

Method GB, single sided

8' - 0"

8' - 0"

8' - 0"

8' - 10"

9' - 8"

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

R602.10.3.1 Limitations

STATE AMENDMENT
The continuous sheathing requirements of Section R602.10.3 shall be limited to bracing methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB in accordance with Table R602.10.1 with the following conditions of use:
  1. Basic design wind speed shall not exceed 110 mph.
  2. Wall height at each story level shall not exceed 12 feet.
  3. Eave to ridge height shall not exceed 20 feet.
  4. Exterior walls shall be sheathed on all sheathable surfaces including infill areas between braced wall panels, above and below wall openings, and on gable-end walls.
  5. Except when used for bracing method GB, the interior side of exterior walls and both sides of interior walls shall be sheathed continuously with minimum ½-inch-thick gypsum wall board interior finish fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5, or approved interior finish of equivalent or greater shear resistance. Unless required for fire separation by Section R302.6, gypsum board shall be permitted to be omitted where the required length of bracing, as determined in Table R602.10.3, is multiplied by 1.40.
  6. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
  7. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be designed in accordance with Section R602.10.4 or the 2012 International Residential Code.
  8. Townhouses shall be stabilized independently of adjacent units, unless a design is provided to permit lateral load transfer between adjacent units.

Method ABW braced wall panels constructed in accordance with one of the following provisions shall be permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section R602.10.3. The maximum height and minimum length and hold-down force of each panel shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.3.2:

1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall be installed in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.2. The hold-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor framing supported directly on a foundation which is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line.

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each braced wall panel shall be in accordance with Item 1 above, except that the wood structural panel sheathing edge nailing spacing shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) on center.

TABLE R602.10.3.2
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS AND HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED

HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL

8 ft

9 ft

10 ft

11 ft

12 ft

SDC A, B and C
Wind speed < 110 mph

Minimum sheathed length

2' - 4"

2' - 8"

2' - 10"

3' - 2"

3' - 6"

R602.10.3.2, item 1 hold-down force (lb)

1800

1800

1800

2000

2200

R602.10.3.2, item 2 hold-down force (lb)

3000

3000

3000

3300

3600

SDC D0, D1 and D2
Wind speed < 110 mph

Minimum sheathed length

2' - 8"

2' - 8"

2' - 10"

NPa

NPa

R602.10.3.2, item 1 hold-down force (lb)

1800

1800

1800

NPa

NPa

R602.10.3.2, item 2 hold-down force (lb)

3000

3000

3000

NPa

NPa

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

a. NP = Not Permitted. Maximum height of 10 feet.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.3.2
ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

R602.10.3.2 Requirements

STATE AMENDMENT
The required length of bracing for each side of a rectangle circumscribed around the plan or a portion of the plan at each story level shall be determined using Table R602.10.3 and Figure R602.10.3(1). The cumulative contributing length of braced wall panels assigned to a rectangle side shall be greater than or equal to the required length of bracing specified in Table R602.10.3. The following additional requirements shall apply.
  1. Braced wall panels on exterior or interior walls shall be assigned to the nearest rectangle side as shown in Figure R602.10.3(2) for each story level floor plan.
  2. Braced wall panels shall be distributed and installed in accordance with Figure R602.10.3(3).
  3. A minimum of one-half the required bracing amount for each rectangle side should be located on exterior walls within 8 feet of the location of the rectangle side.
  4. Interior braced wall panels using Method GB shall be assigned to the closest parallel rectangle side and shall contribute 0.5 times their actual length.
  5. The bracing amount provided on an upper story building side shall be deemed-to-comply where it equals or exceeds the amount of bracing required for the story immediately below.
  6. Where the bracing amount provided on an upper story equals or exceeds the amount of bracing required for the story below, an analysis of bracing shall not be required for the upper story.

Method PFH braced wall panels constructed in accordance with one of the following provisions are also permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section R602.10.3 for use adjacent to a window or door opening with a full-length header:

1. Each panel shall be fabricated in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.3. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.3. A spacer, if used with a built-up header, shall be placed on the side of the built-up beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the first full-length outer studs of each panel. One anchor bolt not less than 5/8-inch-diameter (16 mm) and installed in accordance with Section R403.1.6 shall be provided in the center of each sill plate. The hold-down devices shall be an embedded-strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation which is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. The foundation shall be reinforced as shown on Figure R602.10.3.2. This reinforcement shall be lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall panel shall be braced in accordance with item 1 above, except that each panel shall have a length of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.3.3
METHOD PFH: PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, alternate braced wall panels constructed in accordance with the following provisions are permitted on either side of garage door openings. For the purpose of calculating wall bracing amounts to satisfy the minimum requirements of Table R602.10.1.2(1), the length of the alternate braced wall panel shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.5.

1. Braced wall panel length shall be a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) and braced wall panel height shall be a maximum of 10 feet (3048 mm).

2. Braced wall panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single layer of 7/16-inch-minimum (11 mm) thickness wood structural panel sheathing attached to framing with 8d common nails at 3 inches (76 mm) on center in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.4.

3. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed to the header at 3 inches (76 mm) on center grid in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.4.

4. The header shall consist of a minimum of two solid sawn 2×12s (51 by 305 mm) or a 3 inches × 11.25 inch (76 by 286 mm) glued-laminated header. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the first full-length outer studs of each panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.4. The clear span of the header between the inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length.

5. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4448 N) shall fasten the header to the side of the inner studs opposite the sheathing face. Where building is located in Wind Exposure Categories C or D, the strap uplift capacity shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.4.1.1.

6. A minimum of two bolts not less than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) diameter shall be installed in accordance with Section R403.1.6. A 3/16-inch by 21/2-inch (4.8 by 63 by 63 mm) by 21/2-inch steel plate washer is installed between the bottom plate and the nut of each bolt.

7. Braced wall panel shall be installed directly on a foundation.

8. Where an alternate braced wall panel is located only on one side of the garage opening, the header shall be connected to a supporting jack stud on the opposite side of the garage opening with a metal strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds. Where that supporting jack stud is not part of a braced wall panel assembly, another 1,000 pounds (4448 N) strap shall be installed to attach the supporting jack stud to the foundation.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.3.4
METHOD PFG PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C

Braced wall lines with continuous sheathing shall be constructed in accordance with this section. All braced wall lines along exterior walls on the same story shall be continuously sheathed.

Exception: Within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C or in regions where the basic wind speed is less than or equal to 100 mph (45 m/s), other bracing methods prescribed by this code shall be permitted on other braced wall lines on the same story level or on any braced wall line on different story levels of the building.

Design using bracing materials and methods listed in Table R602.10.1 or approved alternative materials and methods shall be permitted and shall comply with accepted engineering practice. Accepted engineering practice shall include the following:
  1. Design in accordance with Section R301,
  2. Design equivalent to the analysis basis of the provisions in Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.3, and R602.10.5, including determination of design loads, design unit shear values, and bracing amounts.

Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls. Braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with one of the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.1. Different bracing methods, other than those listed in Table R602.10.4.1, shall not be permitted along a braced wall line with continuous sheathing.

TABLE R602.10.4.1
CONTINUOUS SHEATHING METHODS

METHOD

MATERIAL

MINIMUM THICKNESS

FIGURE

CONNECTION CRITERIA

CS-WSP

Wood structural panel

3/8"

6d common (2" × 0.113") nails at 6" spacing (panel edges) and at 12" spacing (intermediate supports) or 16 ga. × 13/4 staples at 3" spacing (panel edges) and 6" spacing (intermediate supports)

CS-G

Wood structural panel adjacent to garage openings and supporting roof load onlya,b

3/8"

See Method CS-WSP

CS-PF

Continuous portal frame

See Section
R602.10.4.1.1

See Section
R602.10.4.1.1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.

a. Applies to one wall of a garage only.

b. Roof covering dead loads shall be 3 psf or less.

Continuous portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.1.1. The number of continuous portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four. For purposes of resisting wind pressures acting perpendicular to the wall, the requirements of Figure R602.10.4.1.1 and Table R602.10.4.1.1 shall be met. There shall be a maximum of two braced wall segments per header and header length shall not exceed 22 feet (6706 mm). Tension straps shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

TABLE R602.10.4.1.1
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES
PERPENDICULAR TO 6:1 ASPECT RATIO WALLSa,b

MINIMUM WALL STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADE

MAXIMUM PONY WALL HEIGHT (feet)

MAXIMUM TOTAL WALL HEIGHT
(feet)

MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH
(feet)

BASIC WIND SPEED (mph)

85

90

100

85

90

100

Exposure B

Exposure C

Tension strap capacity required (lbf)a,b

2 × 4
No. 2 Grade

0

10

18

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1

10

9

1000

1000

1000

1000

1000

1275

16

1000

1000

1750

1800

2325

3500

18

1000

1200

2100

2175

2725

DR

2

10

9

1000

1000

1025

1075

1550

2500

16

1525

2025

3125

3200

3900

DR

18

1875

2400

3575

3700

DR

DR

2

12

9

1000

1200

2075

2125

2750

4000

16

2600

3200

DR

DR

DR

DR

18

3175

3850

DR

DR

DR

DR

4

12

9

1775

2350

500

3550

DR

DR

16

4175

DR

DR

DR

DR

DR

2 × 6
Stud Grade

2

12

9

1000

1000

1325

1375

1750

2550

16

1650

2050

2925

3000

3550

DR

18

2025

2450

3425

3500

4100

DR

4

12

9

1125

1500

2225

2275

2775

3800

16

2650

3150

DR

DR

DR

DR

18

3125

3675

DR

DR

DR

DR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

a. DR = design required.

b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.4.1.1
METHOD CS-PF: CONTINUOUS PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

Braced wall panels along a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall be full-height with a length based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.4.2 and Figure R602.10.4.2. Within a braced wall line when a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length from Table R602.10.4.2. For Method CS-PF, wall height shall be measured from the top of the header to the bottom of the bottom plate as shown in Figure R602.10.4.1.1.

TABLE R602.10.4.2
LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHINGa (inches)

METHOD

ADJACENT CLEAR OPENING HEIGHT
(inches)

WALL HEIGHT (feet)

8

9

10

11

12

CS-WSP

64

24

27

30

33

36

68

26

27

30

72

28

27

30

76

29

30

30

80

31

33

30

84

35

36

33

88

39

39

36

92

44

42

39

96

48

45

42

100

48

45

104

51

48

108

54

51

112

54

44

116

57

120

60

122

48

132

66

144

75

CS-G

≤ 120

24

27

30

CS-PF

≤ 120

16

18

20

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Interpolation shall be permitted.

FIGURE R602.10.4.2
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

Braced wall lines with continuous sheathing shall be provided with braced wall panels in the length required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2). Only those full-height braced wall panels complying with the length requirements of Table R602.10.4.2 shall be permitted to contribute to the minimum required length of bracing.

For all continuous sheathing methods, full-height braced wall panels complying with the length requirements of Table R602.10.4.2 shall be located at each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) on center. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) wood structural panel corner return shall be provided at both ends of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing in accordance with Figures R602.10.4.4(1) and R602.10.4.4(2). In lieu of the corner return, a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) shall be fastened to the corner stud and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(3).

Exception: The first braced wall panel shall be permitted to begin 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from each end of the braced wall line in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C and 8 feet (2438 mm) in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 provided one of the following is satisfied:

1. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) long, full-height wood structural panel is provided at both sides of a corner constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) at the braced wall line ends in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(4), or

2. The braced wall panel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(5).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(1)
TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(2)
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(3)
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITHOUT CORNER RETURN PANEL

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(4)
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL
AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITHOUT TIE DOWN

For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm. 1 pound = 4.448 N.

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(5)
BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING—FIRST BRACED WALL
PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITH HOLD-DOWN

Continuously sheathed braced wall lines using structural fiberboard sheathing shall comply with this section. Different bracing methods shall not be permitted within a continuously sheathed braced wall line. Other bracing methods prescribed by this code shall be permitted on other braced wall lines on the same story level or on different story levels of the building.

R602.10.5 Load path details

STATE AMENDMENT
Construction shall comply with applicable detailing requirements of this section to ensure an adequate continuous load path for transfer of bracing loads and uplift loads from the roof to the foundation.

Continuously-sheathed braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.2 and shall comply with all of the following requirements:

1. Structural fiberboard sheathing shall be applied to all exterior sheathable surfaces of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings.

2. Only full-height or blocked braced wall panels shall be used for calculating the braced wall length in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2).

Framing connections to transfer roof uplift forces shall comply with Section R602.3.5 and Section R802.11. In the 110 mph wind zone provide uplift anchorage in accordance with Sections R4508 and Section R4504.1.

In a continuously-sheathed structural fiberboard braced wall line, the minimum braced wall panel length shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.5.2.

TABLE R602.10.5.2
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED
WALL PANELS IN A CONTINUOUSLY-SHEATHED WALLa

MINIMUM LENGTH OF STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)

MINIMUM OPENING CLEAR HEIGHT NEXT TO THE STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL
(% of wall height)

8-foot wall

9-foot wall

10-foot wall

48

54

60

100

32

36

40

85

24

27

30

67

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Interpolation is permitted.

Braced wall panels shall be connected to the foundation per Section R403.1.6 and as required in Figure R602.10.1 for portal frames.

A braced wall panel shall be located at each end of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line. A minimum 32-inch (813 mm) structural fiberboard sheathing panel corner return shall be provided at both ends of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) In lieu of the corner return, a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) shall be fastened to the corner stud and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(3).

Exception: The first braced wall panel shall be permitted to begin 12 feet 6 inches (3810 mm) from each end of the braced wall line in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C provided one of the following is satisfied:

1. A minimum 32-inch-long (813 mm), full-height structural fiberboard sheathing panel is provided at both sides of a corner constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) at the braced wall line ends in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(4), or

2. The braced wall panel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(5).

Masonry or concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1220 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.5.3. Concrete stem walls shall be 6-inches nominal minimum thickness. Continuous concrete stem walls shall be reinforced per Section R404.1.2.2.

FIGURE R602.10.5.3
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS
Where a continuously-sheathed braced wall line is used in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 or regions where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 miles per hour (45 m/s), the braced wall line shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of the International Building Code. Also, all other exterior braced wall lines in the same story shall be continuously sheathed.
When parallel to floor framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to a band, rim or header joist, floor framing or perpendicular full-height solid blocking between floor framing at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. When perpendicular to floor framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to full-height solid blocking between floor framing. Attachments shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Manufactured lumber or truss blocking panels shall be permitted to substitute for full-height solid blocking.

FIGURE CR602.10.5.4(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING


FIGURE CR602.10.5.4(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING
When parallel to roof framing, braced wall panels shall be connected to a band, rim or header joist, or roof truss. When perpendicular to roof framing, the top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be connected to the rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.10.5.5 and fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

TABLE R602.10.5.5
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTIONS
TO PERPENDICULAR ROOF FRAMING
DISTANCE FROM TOP OF BRACED WALL PANEL
TO TOP OF RAFTER OR ROOF TRUSS, (in)
REQUIREMENT REFERENCED
FIGURE
≤ 9.25 No blocking required NA
9.26 – 15.25 Solid 2x blocking between rafters or trusses R602.10.5.5(1)
15.26 – 48 Vertical blocking panels R602.10.5.5(2)
≥ 48 Designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice NA
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.5.5(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION
TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES


FIGURE R602.10.5.5(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR TRUSSES


FIGURE CR602.10.5.5(3)
ALTERNATE TO FIGURE R602.10.5.5(1)
OR FIGURE R602.10.5.5(2)
The required length of bracing for cripple walls with a maximum height of 48 inches (1220 mm) or less along its entire length shall be equal to the bracing provided for the wall above. The required length of bracing for cripple walls with a height greater than 48 inches (1220 mm) at any location along its length and for framed walls of a walk-out basement shall be determined in accordance with Section R602.10.2 or R602.10.3, considering the cripple wall or walk-out basement as an additional story. As an alternative, the required length of bracing shall be permitted to be equal to the bracing provided for the wall above multiplied by a factor of 1.15.
Open elevated foundations, such as pile foundations, shall be constructed to transfer all lateral loads from the wall bracing system to the piles or open pier system, including shears, overturning, and uplift loads. Piles or open pier systems along with their foundations shall be sized and embedded to transfer all lateral loads imposed by the wall bracing system to the ground.
Balloon frame walls shall have a maximum height of two stories and a maximum length of 20 feet unless constructed in accordance with an approved design. Wall framing shall be continuous from lowest floor to the wall top plate at the roof. Braced wall panels shall extend to the full-height of the balloon frame wall. All edges of sheathing shall be supported on and fastened to blocking or framing. The required brace wall panel length assigned to the balloon frame wall shall be based on the bracing required for the lowest floor level supporting the balloon frame wall as determined in accordance with Section R602.10.2 or R602.10.3. For balloon framed walls having a maximum height of two stories and a maximum length of 20 feet (10,160 mm), braced wall panels shall be permitted to be placed both parallel and perpendicular to the balloon framed wall on each side and at each story adjacent to the balloon framed wall, and no bracing shall be required for the balloon frame wall portion. Bracing in the direction perpendicular to the balloon framed wall may be omitted when the opening dimension in the second floor perpendicular to the balloon framed wall created by the two story space is less than one half the least overall dimension of the house.

FIGURE CR602.10.5.8
BALLOON FRAMED WALL

Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16 inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.6(2).

3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

0, D1 and D2. Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.

Exterior braced wall panels shall be connected to roof framing as follows.

1. Parallel rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to the top plates of braced wall panels in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

2. For SDC A, B and C and wind speeds less than 100 miles per hour (45 m/s), where the distance from the top of the rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is 91/4 inches (235 mm) or less, the rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and blocking need not be installed. Where the distance from the top of the rafters and perpendicular top plates is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm) the rafters shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(1) and attached in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Where the distance from the top of the roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm) the roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

3. For SDC D0, D1 and D2 or wind speeds of 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) or greater, where the distance between the top of rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is 151/4 inches (387 mm) or less, rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(1) and attached in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

4. For all seismic design categories and wind speeds, where the distance between the top of rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates exceeds 151/4 inches (387 mm), perpendicular rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels in accordance with one of the following methods:

4.1. In accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(2),

4.2. In accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(3),

4.3. With full height engineered blocking panels designed for values listed in American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM). Both the roof and floor sheathing shall be attached to the blocking panels in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

4.4. Designed in accordance with accepted engineering methods.

Lateral support for the rafters and ceiling joists shall be provided in accordance with Section R802.8. Lateral support for trusses shall be provided in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION
TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(3)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

1. Cantilevered floor joists, supporting braced wall lines, shall comply with Section R502.3.3. Solid blocking shall be provided at the nearest bearing wall location. In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, where the cantilever is not more than 24 inches (610 mm), a full height rim joist instead of solid blocking shall be provided.

2. Elevated post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1220 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.7. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1220 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section R403.1 Braced wall panels constructed in accordance with Sections R602.10.3.2 and R602.10.3.3 shall not be attached to masonry stem walls.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.7
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

2. In one-story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two-story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, all braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to have interior braced wall panels supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) provided that:

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).

2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported on doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor beams.

3. The distance between bracing lines does not exceed twice the building width measured parallel to the braced wall line.

R602.10.8 Panel Joints

STATE AMENDMENT

All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to common blocking of a minimum 11/2 inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:

1. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.

2. Where the bracing length provided is at least twice the minimum length required by Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.

3. When Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.

In Seismic Design Categories other than D2, cripple walls shall be braced with a length and type of bracing as required for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) with the following modifications for cripple wall bracing:

1. The length of bracing as determined from Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15, and

2. The wall panel spacing shall be decreased to 18 feet (5486 mm) instead of 25 feet (7620 mm).

0, D1 and D2. In addition to the requirements of Section R602.10.9, where braced wall lines at interior walls occur without a continuous foundation below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be 11/2 times the length required by Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2). Where cripple walls braced using Method WSP of Section R602.10.2 cannot provide this additional length, the capacity of the sheathing shall be increased by reducing the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) on center.

In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2).

In any Seismic Design Category, cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as the first story walls for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.

R602.11 Wall Anchorage

STATE AMENDMENT
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.
0, D1 and D2 and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C. Plate washers, a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

0, D1 and D2. In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maximum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.

2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.9 and R602.10.9.1 shall apply.

3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Note: Where footing Section “A” is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.

FIGURE R602.11.2
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

Where stone and masonry veneer is installed in accordance with Section R703.7, wall bracing shall comply with this section.

For all buildings in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, wall bracing at exterior and interior braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Section R602.10 and the additional requirements of Table R602.12(1).

For detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, wall bracing and hold downs at exterior and interior braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Sections R602.10 and R602.11 and the additional requirements of Section R602.12.1 and Table R602.12(2). In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, cripple walls are not permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.

TABLE R602.12(1)
STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS, WOOD
OR STEEL FRAMING, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B and C

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

NUMBER OF WOOD
FRAMED STORIES

WOOD FRAMED STORY

MINIMUM SHEATHING AMOUNT
(length of braced wall line length)a

A or B

1, 2 or 3

all

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

C

1

1 only

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

2

top

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

bottom

1.5 times length required by
TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

3

top

TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

middle

1.5 times length required by
TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

bottom

1.5 times length required by
TABLE R602.10.1.2(2)

a. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines.

TABLE R602.12(2)
STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS,
ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DETACHED DWELLINGS, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 and D2

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

NUMBER OF STORIESa

STORY

MINIMUM SHEATHING AMOUNT (length of braced wall line length in feet)b

MINIMUM SHEATHING THICKNESS AND FASTENING

SINGLE STORY HOLD DOWN FORCE (lb)c

CUMULATIVE HOLD DOWN FORCE (lb)d

D0

1

1 only

35

7/16-inch wood structural panel sheathing with 8d common nails spaced at 4 inches on center at panel edges, 12 inches on center at intermediate supports; 8d common nails at 4 inches on center at braced wall panel end posts with hold down attached

N/A

2

top

35

1900

bottom

45

3200

5100

3

top

40

1900

middle

45

3500

5400

bottom

60

3500

8900

D1

1

1 only

45

2100

2

top

45

2100

bottom

45

3700

5800

3

top

45

2100

middle

45

3700

5800

bottom

60

3700

9500

D2

1

1 only

55

2300

2

top

55

2300

bottom

55

3900

6200

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.

a. Cripple walls are not permitted in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

b. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines.

c. Hold down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single story hold down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained. [See Figure R602.12].

d. Where hold down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold down force to size middle and bottom story hold down connectors. (See Figure R602.12).

FIGURE R602.12
HOLD DOWNS AT EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BRACED WALL PANELS

0, D1 and D2. Wall bracing where stone and masonry veneer exceeds the first story height in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall conform to the requirements of Sections R602.10 and R602.11 and the following requirements.
The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be in accordance with Table R602.12(2).
Braced wall panels shall begin no more than 8 feet (2440 mm) from each end of a braced wall line and shall be spaced a maximum of 25 feet (7620 mm) on center.
Braced wall panels shall be constructed of sheathing with a thickness of not less than 7/16 inch (11 mm) nailed with 8d common nails spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 inches (305 mm) on center at intermediate supports. The end of each braced wall panel shall have a hold down device in accordance with Table R602.12(2) installed at each end. Size, height and spacing of wood studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(5).
Each braced wall panel shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering a minimum of 3 stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering a minimum of 2 stud spaced where studs are spaced 24 inches on center.
Alternate braced wall panels described in Section R602.10.3.2 shall not replace the braced wall panel specification of this section.
Continuously sheathed provisions of Section R602.10.4 shall not be used in conjunction with the wall bracing provisions of this section.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm,

FIGURE R603.1.2
IN-LINE FRAMING

Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables R603.2(1) and R603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness.

TABLE R603.2(1)
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES

MEMBER DESIGNATIONa

WEB DEPTH
(inches)

MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches)

MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches)

MINIMUM LIP SIZE
(inches)

350S162-t

3.5

1.625

2

0.5

550S162-t

5.5

1.625

2

0.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table R603.2(2)].

TABLE R603.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS

DESIGNATION THICKNESS
(mils)

MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
(inches)

33

0.0329

43

0.0428

54

0.0538

68

0.0677

97

0.0966

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R603.2(2)
TRACK SECTION

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, and 50 (Class 1 and 3).

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, and 50A.

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 50 Type H.

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

1. Manufacturer’s identification.

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).

3. Minimum coating designation.

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE R603.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR

SCREW SIZE

THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)

33

43

#8

1.0

0.67

#10

0.93

0.62

#12

0.86

0.56

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.5.1;

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 11/2 inches (38 mm);

5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm); and

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.5.1
WEB HOLES

Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when web holes exceed the following size limits:

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web; or

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.5.3
STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

All exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

Cold- formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

TABLE R603.3.1
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b

FRAMING
CONDITION

WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE

85 B

90 B

100 B
85 C

110 B
90 C

100 C

< 110 C

Wall bottom track to floor per Figure R603.3.1(1)

1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c.

2-No. 8 screws at 12" o.c.

2 No. 8 screws at 12" o.c.

Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure R603.3.1(2)d

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c.

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c.

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.

1/2" minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.

Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure R603.3.1(3)

Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails

Wind uplift connector strength to 16" stud spacingc

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

65 lb per foot of wall length

Wind uplift connector strength for 24" stud spacingc

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

100 lb per foot of wall length

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 lb = 4.45 N.

a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts are to extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.

c. NR = uplift connector not required.

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

FIGURE R603.3.1(1)
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(2)
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(3)
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

R603.3.1.1 Gable Endwalls

STATE AMENDMENT

Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Tables R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1)
GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)

WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION

Exposure

Stud height, h (ft)

B

C

10 < h ≤ 14

14 < h ≤ 18

18 < h ≤ 22

85

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

90

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

100

85

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

110

90

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.

100

1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.

2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c.

110

2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.

1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c.

2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.

c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

TABLE R603.3.1.1(2)
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)

MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2 IN. DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd

Exposure

Stud height, h (ft)

B

C

10 < h ≤ 14

14 < h ≤ 18

18 < h ≤ 22

85

6' - 0" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

90

6' - 0" o.c.

5' - 7" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

100

85

5' - 10" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

110

90

4' - 10" o.c.

5' - 6" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

100

4' - 1" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

110

5' - 1" o.c.

6' - 0" o.c.

5' - 2" o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.

c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

R603.3.2 Minimum Stud Sizes

STATE AMENDMENT

Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figures R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2), or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31) based upon an 85 miles per hour (38 m/s) Exposure A/B wind value and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.4 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm) ,where both of the following conditions exist:

1. Minimum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on the interior surface.

2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16 inch (11 mm) thick oriented strand board or 15/32 inch (12 mm) thick plywood is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where a minimum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load- bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square feet (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when second floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 pounds per square feet) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads of 40 pounds per square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(22) through R603.3.2(31).

TABLE R603.3.2(1)
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENT

NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERSa

SPACING OF FASTENERS

Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall

2-No. 8 screws

Each joist

Wall stud to top or bottom track

2-No. 8 screws

Each end of stud, one per flange

Structural sheathing to wall studs

No. 8 screwsb

6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate supports

Roof framing to wall

Approved design or tie down in accordance with Section R802.11

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum.

b. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.

TABLE R603.3.2(2)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(3)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(4)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(5)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(6)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(7)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(8)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

33

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

33

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(9)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

33

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(10)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

43

43

54

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

33

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

68

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(11)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(12)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(13)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(14)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(15)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(16)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(17)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

33

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(18)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

68

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

68

54

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(19)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

33

33

43

54

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(20)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(21)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

33

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

43

43

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

33

43

43

54

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Second floor dead load is 10 psf.

Second floor live load is 30 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(22)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

33

33

43

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(23)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

24

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(24)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

24

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(25)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

33

33

33

43

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

24

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(26)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(27)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

33

33

33

43

33

33

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

43

43

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(28)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
33 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

100
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

110
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

24

68

68

68

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

54

54

68

68

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(29)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

43

43

43

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

54

54

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(30)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
3 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

100
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

110
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

68

68

24

97

97

97

97

68

68

97

97

97

97

97

97

550S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

54

54

43

43

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(31)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c
50 ksi STEEL

WIND
SPEED

MEMBER SIZE

STUD SPACING
(inches)

MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)

8-Foot Studs

9-Foot Studs

10-Foot Studs

Exp. B

Exp. C

Ground Snow Load (psf)

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

20

30

50

70

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

85
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

90
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

100
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

110
mph

350S162

16

54

54

54

54

43

43

43

43

54

54

54

54

24

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

68

97

550S162

16

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

43

24

54

54

54

68

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

54

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa.

a. Deflection criterion: L/240.

b. Design load assumptions:

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf.

Top floor live load is 30 psf.

Middle floor live load is 40 psf.

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.

Attic live load is 10 psf.

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.