ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of an access panel or similar removable obstruction. For energy purposes, ACCESSIBLE means admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").
ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the necessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction.
ACCESSORY BUILDINGS. In one- and two-family dwellings not more than three stories high with separate means of egress, a building, the use of which is incidental to that of the main building and which is detached and located on the same lot. An accessory building is a building that is roofed over and more than 50 percent of its exterior walls are enclosed. Examples of accessory buildings are garages, storage buildings, workshops, and boat houses.
ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in floor area, and not over two stories in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the same lot. An accessory structure is any structure not roofed over and enclosed more than 50 percent of its perimeter walls, located on one- and two-family dwelling sites which is incidental to that of the main building. Examples of accessory structures are fencing, decks, gazebos, arbors, retaining walls, barbecue pits, detached chimneys, tree houses (supported by tree only), playground equipment, yard art, docks, piers, etc. Accessory structures are not required to meet the provisions of this code except decks, gazebos, retaining walls as required by Section R404.4, detached masonry chimneys built less than 10 feet from other buildings, pools or spas per Appendix G, or detached carports.
ACH50. Air Changes per Hour of measured air flow in relation to the building volume while the building is maintained at a pressure difference of 50 Pascals.
ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure. For energy purposes, an extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.
ADHERED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing.
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a negative pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by gravity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressure.
AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material, or a combination of materials.
AIR BARRIER MATERIAL. Material(s) that have an air permeability not to exceed 0.004 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. water (1.57 psf) (0.02 L/s.m2 @ 75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178.
AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement in which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of the receptor, and above the trap seal.
AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into which it is discharging.
AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having an air permanence equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m2 at 75 Pa pressure differential tested according to ASTM E 2178 or E 283.
ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.
ANCHORED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing.
ANCHORS. See "Supports."
ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.
APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and designed to utilize energy and for which this code provides specific requirements.
APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official.
ASPECT RATIO. The ratio of longest to shortest perpendicular dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to length.
ATTIC, HABITABLE. A finished or unfinished area, not considered a story, complying A finished attic area meeting the definition of Habitable Space and complying with all of the following requirements:
- The occupiable floor area is at least 70 square feet (17 m2), in accordance with Section R304,
- The occupiable floor area has a ceiling height in accordance with Section R305, and
- The occupiable space is enclosed by the roof assembly above, knee walls (if applicable) on the sides and the floor-ceiling assembly below.
BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drainage system.
BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent backflow.
BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED—PRESSURE- ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of relief means.
BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.
BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses one side of a basement and has an average below grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque and non-opaque area of that enclosing side. For energy purposes, a wall 50 percent or more below grade and enclosing conditioned space.
BEDROOM. Sleeping room.
BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see "Elbow" and "Sweep").
BOAT SLIP. A berthing place for one or two watercraft where the watercraft can be securely moored to cleats, piling, or other devices while the boats are in the water. Boat slips are commonly configured as "side-ties" or as single- or double-loaded "U" shaped berths.
BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1102 kPa gauge) and at water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).
BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.
BPI ENVELOPE PROFESSIONAL. An individual that has successfully passed the Building Performance Institute written and field examination requirements for the Building Envelope certification.
BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance provided by the wall bracing.
BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method, and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1.
BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage."
BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.
BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, absorption unit or burner expressed in British thermal units input per hour.
BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combination thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto.
BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the discharge from all other drainage piping inside the house and extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.
BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.
BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code.
BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-disposal system or other point of disposal.
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building element that enclose conditioned spaces. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space.
BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.
CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the wood structural panel facing on both sides.
CFM25. Cubic Feet per Minute of measured air flow while the building is maintained at a pressure difference of 25 Pascals (0.1 inches w.p.).
CFM50. Cubic Feet per Minute of measured air flow while the building is maintained at a pressure difference of 50 Pascals (0.2 inches w.p.).
CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the finished floor to the finished ceiling.
CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended cement, portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys include masonry and factory-built types.
CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind.
CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system used for the removal of possible obstruction.
CLOSED CRAWL SPACE. A foundation without wall vents that uses air sealed walls, ground and foundation moisture control, and mechanical drying potential to control crawl space moisture. Insulation may be located at the floor level or at the exterior walls.
CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage.
CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as noncombustible.
CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from flue gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the cooling coil in air conditioning equipment.
CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, relative humidity or quality.
CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building provided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 68°F (20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) during the cooling season, or has a fixed opening directly adjacent to a conditioned area.
CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equipment or systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 50°F (10°C) during the heating season and 85°F (29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or appliance. An area or room within a building being heated or cooled, containing uninsulated ducts, or with a fixed opening directly into an adjacent conditioned space.
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.
CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control responsive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or unintentional flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown of mechanical equipment.
CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening located above the heating element.
CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.
CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two otherwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow from one system to the other.
CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER. A prefabricated engineered wood product consisting of not less than three layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber where the adjacent layers are cross-oriented and bonded with structural adhesive to form a solid wood element.
DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system terminating at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. Dead ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a rough-in for future connection.
DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment.
DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.
DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings.
DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appliance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere.
DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to provide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance; and neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent on the operation of the appliance.
DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics.
DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide connections in the drainage system that have provisions for establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see "Durham fitting").
DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for use in the durham systems installations in which the joints are made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as opposed to bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented or soldered joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) to provide for proper slope in otherwise rigid connections.
DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other such rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.
DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for living purposes.
DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This is applicable to air gap.)
EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and other components of systems other than appliances that are permanently installed and integrated to provide control of environmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also include other systems specifically regulated in this code.
ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimenthyoil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.
EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air temperature by the process of evaporating water into an airstream.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish coat.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.
EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and basement walls with an average below-grade wall area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and nonopaque area of that enclosing side.
FAMILY. Family is an individual, two or more persons related by blood, marriage or law, or a group of not more than any five persons living together in a dwelling unit. Servants having common housekeeping facilities with a family consisting of an individual, or more persons related by blood, marriage or law, are a part of the family for this code.
FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. Additives which enhance manufacturing or product performance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior wall and related applications.
FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire chamber and smoke chamber, beginning at the hearth and ending at the top of the smoke chamber, of noncombustible material and provided with a chimney, for use with solid fuels.
Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and chimney system composed of factory-made components, and assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.
FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.
FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.
Other means during manufacture. A process where the wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formulation while undergoing creation as a finished product.
Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an initial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure above atmospheric.
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:
- To the closest interior lot line; or
- To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or
- To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot.
FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."
Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessible from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.
FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture grouping such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more individual fixture branch pipes are connected.
FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE (d.f.u.). A measure of probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.
FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY (w.s.f.u.). A measure of the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a single supply operation and on the average time between successive operations.
FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the collection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the floor and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the floor.
FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combustion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the appliance from such space.
FLUE. See "Vent."
FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in appliance flues or heat exchangers.
FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding applications where the foam plastic is a component of the siding.
FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3) unless it is used as interior trim.
FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.
FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 percent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe.
FULLY ENCLOSED ATTIC FLOOR SYSTEM. The ceiling insulation is enclosed on all six sides by an air barrier system, such as taped drywall below, solid framing joists on the sides, solid blocking on the ends, and solid sheathing on top which totally enclose the insulation. This system provides for full depth insulation over the exterior walls.
GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements.
GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope."
GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building.
GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Piping buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liquid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other source.
GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to the lower level.
HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
HANGERS. See "Supports."
HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or other highly combustible substances.
HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an annual basis, of the difference between 65°F (18°C) and the mean temperature for each day as determined from "NOAA Annual Degree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 1960-1990 Normals" or other weather data sources acceptable to the code official.
HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
HERS RATER. An individual that has completed training and been certified by RESNET (Residential Energy Services Network) Accredited Rating Provider.
- 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts.
- 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts.
- 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.
HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land surface characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction.
HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.
HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110°F (43°C).
HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.
HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 miles per hour (40 m/s),or equal to 110 miles per hour (145 km/h), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and America Samoa.
HYDROGEN GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages of integrated systems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen generating appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical, or other processes to generate hydrogen.
IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching devices.
INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.
INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.
INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for constructing cast-in-place concrete walls.
JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.
LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.")
LABELED. Appliances, equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization as approved by the North Carolina Building Code Council concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the appliance, equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.
LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.
LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.
LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.
MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of discharge.
MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A fabricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fitted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is distributed separately to fixtures from each branch.
MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, when erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m2) or more, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure that meets all the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title. For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance to the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at the time of manufacture is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured home.
MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules. (See also "Mark" and "Label.")
MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Label.")
MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burning heating appliance constructed predominantly of concrete or solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds (500 kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to absorb and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in the firebox by routing exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox includes at least one 180-degree (3.14-rad) change in flow direction before entering the chimney and which deliver heat by radiation through the masonry surface of the heater.
Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.
Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent or more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m2), solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 pounds per square foot (98 kg/m2), and any other walls having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft2 • °F [266 J/(m2 • K)].
MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal to 10 degrees (0.18 rad).
MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static pressure.
MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for removing air from a room or space by mechanical means.
METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.
METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.
MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or levels are located.
MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.
MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate.
NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.
Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of Western red cedar.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary materials set forth in ASTM E 136.
OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or structures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code.
OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.
OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.
PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
PITCH. See "Slope."
PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands no additional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the system. It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and aerators.
PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptor or device that requires both a water-supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and sinks. Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further defined.
PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distribution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurtenances; soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and building sewers to an approved point of disposal.
POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.
PORTABLE-FUEL-CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell generator of electricity, which is not fixed in place. A portable-fuel-cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a grid-isolated load and has an integral fuel supply.
POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.
POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality to the requirements of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to automatically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set.
PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.
PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use controlled by public authority.
PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances.
QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes automatically when released manually or controlled by mechanical means for fast-action closing.
R-VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope element from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . ft2 . °F/Btu) [(m2 × K)/W].
REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration by its expansion or evaporation.
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. A direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the air or other substance to be cooled or heated.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Design by a registered design professional is not required where exempt under the registration or licensure laws.
RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel.
ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering.
ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.
ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building.
SCREEN ENCLOSURE. A building or part thereof, in whole or in part self-supporting, and having walls of insect screening with or without removable vinyl or acrylic wind break panels 10 mil or less with a Class A Flame Spread, and a roof.
SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.
SEMI-CONDITIONED SPACE. A space indirectly conditioned within the thermal envelope that is not directly heated or cooled. For energy purposes, semi-conditioned spaces are treated as conditioned spaces.
SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the discharge of a building sanitary drainage system and is constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit.
SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as mandatory.
SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limitations in Section R301.2 of this code.
SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is field applied using one layer of membrane material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.
SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section R308.6.1.
SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1.
SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fixture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a (slip) nut.
SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe.
SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative to the incident solar radiation (Btu/h × ft2 × °F). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. This value is related to the Shading Coefficient (SC) by the formula SHGC = 0.87 × SC.
SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing construction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 or C 216.
SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same material used for the panel facings, used to connect two structural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the structural insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure R613.8.
STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running bond.
STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or exterior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another within or attached to a building, porch or deck.
STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages which constitute an automatically-operated assembly of integrated systems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable thermal energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place.
STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above. A flood resistant enclosure, designed to break away so as not to cause collapse, shall not be considered as a story when determining height.
STORY, ATTIC. Any story situated wholly or partly in the roof, so designated, arranged or built as to be used for storage or habitation. If an attic which is accessible by a fixed stairway has a 7 foot clear height for greater than 50 percent of the floor area of the story below, then the space shall be considered as a story.
STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the basement meets any one of the following:
- Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
- Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground level for more than 50 percent of the total building perimeter.
- Is more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usually operated by level controllers.
SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow").
TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which it is set.
TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preservative treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in Section R318.1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material.
THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s) consisting of existing or new walls, doors and/or windows. The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.
THERMAL RESISTANCE, R-VALUE. The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . ft2 . °F/Btu).
THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, U-FACTOR. The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building envelope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h . ft2 . °F).
TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a row of group of three or more attached units separated by property lines in which each unit extends from foundation to roof and with open space a yard or public way on at least two sides.
TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an individual truss, which describes the design and physical characteristics of the truss.
U-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE. The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building envelope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h . ft2 . °F).
UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent slope) or greater, is applied.
VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents back- siphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.
VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering having a permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 . 10-10 kg/Pa . s . m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.
VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A of ASTM E 96 as follows:
Class I: 0.1 perm or less
Class II: 0.1 < perm ≤ 1.0 perm
Class III: 1.0 < perm ≤ 10 perm
VEHICULAR ACCESS DOOR. A door that is used primarily for vehicular traffic at entrances of buildings such as garages and parking lots, and that is not generally used for pedestrian traffic.
VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance and that is designed to open the venting system automatically when the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting system automatically when the appliance is in a standby or shutdown condition.
VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors.
VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if used, assembled to form the open passageway.
VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.
WALL, ABOVE-GRADE. A wall more than 50 percent above grade and enclosing conditioned space. This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts.
WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads.
Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Nonbearing wall is a wall which does not support vertical loads other than its own weight.
WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which conveys water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, including fittings and control valves.
WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use.
WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumbing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow prevention device for protection of the supply system.
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.
WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the water-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the building or premises.
WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane-prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 120 miles per hour (54 m/s); or Hawaii.
WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.
WIND BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane prone regions defined as that area east of the Intracoastal waterway from the NC/SC state line north to Beaufort Inlet and from that point to include the barrier islands to the NC/VA state line.
WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and plastic.
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, OSB or composite panels.
ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.