CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Plumbing Code 2009 (IPC 2009)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Plumbing Code

Ordinance

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect/Special Waste

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps, Interceptors and Separators

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 13 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Plumbing Permit Fee Schedule

Appendix B Rates of Rainfall for Various Cities

Appendix C Gray Water Recycling Systems

Appendix C1 RAINWATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Appendix D Degree Day and Design Temperatures

Appendix E Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix F Structural Safety

Appendix G Vacuum Drainage System

Appendix H RODENTPROOFING

This chapter shall govern the materials, design and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, for utilization in connection with human occupancy and habitation and shall govern the installation of individual water supply systems.
Solar energy systems used for heating potable water or using an independent medium for heating potable water shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code. The use of solar energy shall not compromise the requirements for cross connection or protection of the potable water supply system required by this code.
Existing metallic water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved means of grounding is provided.
The potable water distribution system shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.5.
Every structure equipped with plumbing fixtures and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at the pressures specified in this chapter.
Only potable water shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, bathing or culinary purposes, or for the processing of food, medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise provided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures.
Where a potable public water supply is not available, individual sources of potable water supply shall be utilized.

602.3.1 Sources

STATE AMENDMENT
Dependent on geological and soil conditions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug well, bored well, spring, stream or cistern. Surface bodies of water and land cisterns shall not be sources of individual water supply unless properly treated by approved means to prevent contamination.

602.3.2 Minimum Quantity

STATE AMENDMENT
The combined capacity of the source and storage in an individual water supply system shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pressures as required by this chapter.

602.3.3 Water Quality

STATE AMENDMENT
Water from an individual water supply shall be approved as potable by the authority having jurisdiction prior to connection to the plumbing system.
After construction or major repair, the individual water supply system shall be purged of deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance with Section 610.

602.3.5 Pumps

STATE AMENDMENT
Pumps shall be rated for the transport of potable water. Pumps in an individual water supply system shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contamination from entering a potable water supply through the pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or covered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed to maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is provided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for repairs.

602.3.5.1 Pump Enclosure

STATE AMENDMENT
The pump room or enclosure around a well pump shall be drained and protected from freezing by heating or other approved means. Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits shall be prohibited.
The water service pipe shall be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities and at the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of water service pipe shall be 3/4 inch (19.1 mm).

Water service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet (1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth.

Exceptions:

1. The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Table 702.3.

2. Water service pipe is permitted to be located in the same trench with a building sewer, provided such sewer is constructed of materials listed in Table 702.2.

3. The required separation distance shall not apply where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, provided the water service pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe centerline on both sides of such crossing with pipe materials listed in Table 605.3, 702.2 or 702.3.

Potable water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seepage pits (see Section 605.1 for soil and groundwater conditions).
The design of the water distribution system shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods utilized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved.
At the points of interconnection between the hot and cold water supply piping systems and the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions shall be made to prevent flow between such piping systems.

The water distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capacities at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less than shown in Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure provided to fixtures and appliances not listed in Table 604.3 shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

TABLE 604.3
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA
REQUIRED CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS

FIXTURE SUPPLY
OUTLET SERVING

FLOW RATEa
(gpm)

FLOW PRESSURE (psi)

Bathtub, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermo- static mixing valve

4

20

Bidet, thermostatic mixing valve

2

20

Combination fixture

4

8

Dishwasher, residential

2.75

8

Drinking fountain

0.75

8

Laundry tray

4

8

Lavatory

2

8

Shower

3

8

Shower, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermo- static mixing valve

3

20

Sillcock, hose bibb

5

8

Sink, residential

2.5

8

Sink, service

3

8

Urinal, valve

12

25

Water closet, blow out, flushometer valve

25

45

Water closet, flushometer tank

1.6

20

Water closet, siphonic, flushometer valve

25

35

Water closet, tank, close coupled

3

20

Water closet, tank, one piece

6

20

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa,
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 604.4.

The maximum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance with Table 604.4.

Exceptions:

1. Blowout design water closets having a maximum water consumption of 31/2 gallons (13 L) per flushing cycle.

2. Vegetable sprays.

3. Clinical sinks having a maximum water consumption of 41/2 gallons (17 L) per flushing cycle.

4. Service sinks.

5. Emergency showers.

TABLE 604.4
MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR
PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS

PLUMBING FIXTURE
OR FIXTURE FITTING

MAXIMUM FLOW RATE
OR QUANTITYb

Lavatory, private

2.2 gpm at 60 psi

Lavatory, public (metering)

0.25 gallon per metering cycle

Lavatory, public
(other than metering)

0.5 gpm at 60 psi

Shower heada

2.5 gpm at 80 psi

Sink faucet

2.2 gpm at 60 psi

Urinal

1.0 gallon per flushing cycle

Water closet

1.6 gallons per flushing cycle

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head.

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards.

604.4.1 Lavatory faucets

STATE AMENDMENT
Lavatory faucets shall be of the metering type when located in the following public restrooms:
  1. In all occupancies in restrooms which have six or more lavatories.
  2. In school occupancies in student-use restrooms.
  3. In assembly occupancies in all customer or public-use restrooms.

The minimum size of a fixture supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture supply pipe shall not terminate more than 30 inches (762 mm) from the point of connection to the fixture. A reduced-size flexible water connector installed between the supply pipe and the fixture shall be of an approved type. The supply pipe shall extend to the floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. The minimum size of individual distribution lines utilized in gridded or parallel water distribution systems shall be as shown in Table 604.5.

Exception: The length of restriction shall not apply to residential dishwashers or ice makers.

TABLE 604.5
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES

FIXTURE

MINIMUM PIPE SIZE
(inch)

Bathtubsa (60" × 32" and smaller)

1/2

Bathtubsa (larger than 60" × 32")

1/2

Bidet

3/8

Combination sink and tray

1/2

Dishwasher, domestica

1/2

Drinking fountain

3/8

Hose bibbs

1/2

Kitchen sinka

1/2

Laundry, 1, 2 or 3 compartmentsa

1/2

Lavatory

3/8

Shower, single heada

1/2

Sinks, flushing rim

3/4

Sinks, service

1/2

Urinal, flush tank

1/2

Urinal, flush valve

3/4

Wall hydrant

1/2

Water closet, flush tank

3/8

Water closet, flush valve

1

Water closet, flushometer tank

3/8

Water closet, one piecea

1/2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm,
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less, and the available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 35 psi, the minimum size of an individual distribution line supplied from a manifold and installed as part of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size smaller than the sizes indicated.

Where street water main pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall be designed for the minimum pressure available.
Wherever water pressure from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient to provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under Table 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to Section 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply system.

Where water pressure within a building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, an approved water-pressure reducing valve conforming to ASSE 1003 with strainer shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the building water distribution piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less.

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less at individual fixtures.

The pressure-reducing valve shall be designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water flow in case of valve failure.
All water-pressure reducing valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer from the pipeline.

604.9 Water Hammer

STATE AMENDMENT
The flow velocity of the water distribution system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed where quick-closing valves are utilized. (example: clothes washers, dishwashers, ice makers) and metallic piping is used. The water-hammer arrestor shall not be required on any valves where plastic pipe is used for water distribution piping. Water-hammer arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to ASSE 1010.
Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with gridded or parallel connected individual distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance with Sections 604.10.1 through 604.10.3.

Hot water and cold water manifolds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604.10.1. The total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets supplied.

TABLE 604.10.1
MANIFOLD SIZING

NOMINAL SIZE
INTERNAL DIAMETER
(inches)

MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm)

Velocity at 4 feet per second

Velocity at 8 feet per second

1/2

2

5

3/4

6

11

1

10

20

11/4

15

31

11/2

22

44

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,
1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s.

Individual fixture shutoff valves installed at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture being supplied.

604.10.3 Access

STATE AMENDMENT
Access shall be provided to manifolds with integral factory- or field-installed valves.
Where individual pressure balancing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings are installed, such valves shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be installed in an accessible location and shall not be utilized alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required in Section 424.3.
The installation of a water service or water distribution pipe shall be prohibited in soil and ground water contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic compounds or other detrimental materials causing permeation, corrosion, degradation or structural failure of the piping material. Where detrimental conditions are suspected, a chemical analysis of the soil and ground water conditions shall be required to ascertain the acceptability of the water service or water distribution piping material for the specific installation. Where detrimental conditions exist, approved alternative materials or routing shall be required.
Pipe and pipe fittings, including valves and faucets, utilized in the water supply system shall have a maximum weighted average of 8 0.25-percent lead content when used with respect to the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures.

Exceptions:
  1. Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, or fixtures, including backflow preventers, that are used exclusively for non-potable services such as manufacturing, industrial processing, irrigation, outdoor watering, or any other uses where the water is not anticipated to be used for human consumption; or
  2. Toilets, bidets, urinals, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, service saddles, or water distribution main gate valves that are 2-inches in diameter or larger.

605.3 Water Service Pipe

STATE AMENDMENT

Water service pipe shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.3. All water service pipe or tubing, installed underground and outside of the structure, shall have a minimum working pressure rating of 160 psi (1100 kPa) at 73.4°F (23°C). Where the water pressure exceeds 160 psi (1100 kPa), piping material shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate 5 feet (1524 mm) outside the building. at or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the structure. All ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104.

TABLE 605.3
WATER SERVICE PIPE

MATERIAL

STANDARD

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe

ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282

Asbestos-cement pipe

ASTM C 296

Brass pipe

ASTM B 43

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe

ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6

Copper or copper-alloy pipe

ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302

Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM)

ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing

ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5

Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe

ASTM F 1281; ASTM F 2262; CAN/CSA B137.10M

Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE)

ASTM F 1986

Ductile iron water pipe

AWWA C151; AWWA C115

Galvanized steel pipe

ASTM A 53

Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe

ASTM D 2239; ASTM D 3035; CSA B137.1

Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing

ASTM D 2737; CSA B137.1

Polyethylene/aluminum/polethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe

ASTM F 1282; CAN/CSA B137.9

Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing

ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe

ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B137.3

Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

Where a dual check-valve backflow preventer is installed on the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024 or CSA B64.6.

Water distribution pipe shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.4. All Hot water distribution pipe and tubing shall have a minimum pressure rating of 100 psi (690 kPa) at 180°F (82°C). Cold water distribution pipe and tubing shall have a minimum pressure rating of 160 psi (1100 kPa) at 73.4°F (23°C).

TABLE 605.4
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE

MATERIAL

STANDARD

Brass pipe

ASTM B 43

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing

ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6

Copper or copper-alloy pipe

ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302

Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM)a

ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing

ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5

Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe

ASTM F 1281; ASTM F 2262; CAN/CSA B137.10M

Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE)

ASTM F 1986

Ductile iron pipe

AWWA C151/A21.51; AWWA C115/A21.15

Galvanized steel pipe

ASTM A 53

Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe

ASTM F 1282

Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing

ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11

Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

  1. Below grade Type K, WK, L, WL

605.5 Fittings

STATE AMENDMENT

Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall conform to the respective pipe standards or one of the standards comply with the applicable standards listed in Table 605.5. All pipe fittings utilized in water supply systems shall also comply with NSF 61. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the piping. Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104.

TABLE 605.5
PIPE FITTINGS

MATERIAL

STANDARD

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic

ASTM D 2468

Cast-iron

ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic

ASSE 1061; ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439; CSA B137.6

Copper or copper alloy

ASSE 1061; ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22; ASME B16.23; ASME B16.26; ASME B16.29; ASME B16.51

Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE)

ASTM F 1986

Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing

ASSE 1061; ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960; ASTM F 2080; ASTM F 2098; ASTM F 2159; ASTM F 2434; CSA B137.5

Gray iron and ductile iron

AWWA C110; AWWA C153

Insert fittings for polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX)

ASTM F 1974; ASTM F1281; ASTM F1282; CAN/CSA B137.9; CAN/CSA B137.10

Malleable iron

ASME B16.3

Metal (brass) insert fittings for

polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and cross-linked

polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX)

ASTM F 1974

Polybutylene (PB) plastic

ASSE 1061; CSA B137.8

Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe

ASTM D 2609; ASTM D 2683; ASTM D 3261;
ASTM F 1055; CSA B137.1

Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing

ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic

ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B137.2; CSA B137.3

Stainless steel (Type 304/304L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

Stainless steel (Type 316/316L)

ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

Steel

ASME B16.9; ASME B16.11; ASME B16.28

Mechanically extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times the thickness of the branch tube wall.
Branch tubes shall not restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspection purposes, a second dimple shall be placed 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned with the tube run.
Mechanically formed tee fittings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 605.14.1.
Flexible water connectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to ASME A112.18.6. Access shall be provided to all flexible water connectors.
All valves shall be of an approved type and compatible with the type of piping material installed in the system. Ball valves, gate valves, globe valves and plug valves intended to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 61.

Manufactured pipe nipples shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.8.

TABLE 605.8
MANUFACTURED PIPE NIPPLES

MATERIAL

STANDARD

Brass-, copper-, chromium-plated

ASTM B 687

Steel

ASTM A 733

The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

1. Cement or concrete joints.

2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.

4. Saddle-type fittings.

Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.3.
Mechanical joints on water pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall only be installed in underground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed only in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between asbestos-cement pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring conforming to ASTM D 1869.
Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.4.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.
Joints for gray and ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA C111 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 605.14.5.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder and fluxes. “Lead free” shall mean a chemical composition equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 through 605.15.4.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Flared joints for water pipe shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders and fluxes. “Lead free” shall mean a chemical composition equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead.
Press-connect joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Press-connect joints shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.5.
Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.16.1 through 605.16.3.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be applied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to ASTM F 493, shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

Exception: A primer is not required where all of the following conditions apply:

1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified as conforming to ASTM F 493.

2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color.

3. The solvent cement is used only for joining 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) through 2 inch (51 mm) diameter CPVC pipe and fittings.

4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2846.

Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.17.1 and 605.17.2.
Flared pipe ends shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table 605.5 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. PEX tubing shall be factory marked with the appropriate standards for the fittings that the PEX manufacturer specifies for use with the tubing.
Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.18.1 and 605.18.2.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.19.1 through 605.19.4.
Flared joints shall be permitted where so indicated by the pipe manufacturer. Flared joints shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Polyethylene pipe shall be cut square, with a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to remove sharp edges. Kinked pipe shall not be installed. The minimum pipe bending radius shall not be less than 30 pipe diameters, or the minimum coil radius, whichever is greater. Piping shall not be bent beyond straightening of the curvature of the coil. Bends shall not be permitted within 10 pipe diameters of any fitting or valve. Stiffener inserts installed with compression-type couplings and fittings shall not extend beyond the clamp or nut of the coupling or fitting.
Joints between PP plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section 605.20.1 or 605.20.2.
Heat-fusion joints for polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 2389.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX pipe and fittings shall comply with Section 605.21.1.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX as described in ASTM F 1974, ASTM F 1281, ASTM F 1282, CAN/CSA B137.9 and CAN/CSA B137.10 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.22.1 through 605.22.3.
Mechanical joints on water pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

605.22.2 Solvent Cementing

STATE AMENDMENT
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer or an ultraviolet purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. When an ultraviolet primer is used, the installer shall provide an ultraviolet light to the inspector to be used during the inspection. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564 or CSA-B137.3 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 605.23.1 and 605.23.2.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved filler metal as referenced in ASTM A 312.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as permitted in Sections 605.24.1, 605.24.2 and 605.24.3. Connectors or adapters shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 1869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting or dielectric fitting or a dielectric union conforming to ASSE 1079. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.
Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between stainless steel and different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type or a dielectric fitting or a dielectric union conforming to ASSE 1079.

605.25 Polybutylene plastic

STATE AMENDMENT
Joints between polybutylene plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.25.1 through 605.25.3.

605.25.1 Flared joints

STATE AMENDMENT
Flared pipe ends shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.

605.25.2 Heat-fusion joints

STATE AMENDMENT
Joints shall be of the socketfusion or butt-fusion type. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to the melting temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657, ASTM D 3309 or CAN3-B137.8M.

605.25.3 Mechanical joints

STATE AMENDMENT
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

Full-open valves shall be installed in the following locations:

1. On the building water service pipe from the public water supply near the curb.

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance into the structure. 1. A full-open valve shall be located either outside the building within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the foundation wall in a readily accessible valve box, in the crawl space within 3 feet (914 mm) of the crawl space access door or within the building in a location where it may be accessed without the use of a ladder or a tool.

3. On the discharge side of every water meter.

4 2. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies other than multiple-family residential occupancies that are two stories or less in height and in one- and two-family residential occupancies.

5 3. On the top of every water down-feed pipe in occupancies other than one- and two-family residential occupancies.

6 4. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwelling unit, except where supplying a single fixture equipped with individual stops.

7 5. On the water supply pipe to a gravity or pressurized water tank.

8 6. On the water supply pipe to every water heater.

Shutoff valves shall be installed in the following locations:

1. On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture other than bathtubs and showers. in one- and two-family residential occupancies, and other than in individual sleeping units that are provided with unit shutoff valves in hotels, motels, boarding houses and similar occupancies.

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock.

3 2. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechanical equipment.

Each supply branch line serving more than one fixture shall have a shut-off valve installed so as to isolate all fixtures and all pieces of equipment supplied by the branch line. The shut-off valve shall be labeled and located as close to the connection to the supply main and riser as practical.
Access shall be provided to all full-open valves and shutoff valves.

606.4 Valve Identification

STATE AMENDMENT
Service and hose bibb valves shall be identified. All other valves installed in locations that are not adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, indicating the fixture or appliance served.
Water pressure booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 606.5.1 through 606.5.10.
Where the water pressure in the public water main or individual water supply system is insufficient to supply the minimum pressures and quantities specified in this code, the supply shall be supplemented by an elevated water tank, a hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pressure booster pump installed in accordance with Section 606.5.5.
All water supply tanks shall be supported in accordance with the International Building Code.
All water supply tanks shall be covered to keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The covers of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe with an area not less than the area of the down-feed riser pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 787 mesh per m).

Each gravity or suction water supply tank shall be provided with an overflow with a diameter not less than that shown in Table 606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain; floor or floor drain; or over an open water-supplied fixture. The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 787 mesh per m) and by 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardware cloth or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat check valve. Drainage from overflow pipes shall be directed so as not to freeze on roof walks.

TABLE 606.5.4
SIZES FOR OVERFLOW PIPES FOR WATER SUPPLY TANKS

MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF WATER SUPPLY LINE TO TANK (gpm)

DIAMETER OF OVERFLOW PIPE (inches)

0 - 50

2

50 51 - 150

21/2

150 151 - 200

3

200201 - 400

4

400401 - 700

5

700701 - 1,000

6

Over 1,000

8

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all booster pumps in a water pressure booster system to prevent creation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suction side of the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi (68.94 kPa) or less occurs on the suction side of the pump.
Potable water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a fill valve or other automatic supply valve installed so as to prevent the tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be terminated so as to provide an air gap not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the overflow.

606.5.7 Tank Drain Pipes

STATE AMENDMENT

A valved pipe shall be provided at the lowest point of each tank to permit emptying of the tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified in Table 606.5.7.

TABLE 606.5.7
SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS

TANK CAPACITY (gallons)

DRAIN PIPE (inches)

Up to 750

1

751 to 1,500

11/2

1,501 to 3,000

2

3,001 to 5,000

21/2

5,000 5,001 to 7,500

3

Over 7,500

4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil or waste piping or any source of contamination.

All water pressure tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at the top of the tank that will operate up to a maximum water pressure of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maximum temperature of 200°F (93°C). The minimum size of such vacuum relief valve shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks.

Every pressure tank in a hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be protected with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve shall be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rating of the tank. The relief valve shall be installed on the supply pipe to the tank or on the tank. The relief valve shall discharge by gravity to a safe place of disposal.
Upon completion of a section of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.

607.1 Where Required

STATE AMENDMENT
In residential occupancies, hot water shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment utilized for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, hot water shall be supplied for culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or building maintenance purposes. In nonresidential occupancies, hot water or tempered water shall be supplied for bathing and washing purposes. Tempered water shall be supplied through a water temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070 and shall limit the tempered water to a maximum of 110°F (43°C). This provision shall not supersede the requirement for protective shower valves in accordance with Section 424.3. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a source of hot water for each family unit in accordance with Appendix E. Central water heating facilities shall be accessible for emergency maintenance without entering any individual apartment or living unit when supplying hot water to that unit. In other occupied structures, hot water may be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment utilized for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or building maintenance.
Where the developed length of hot water piping from the source of hot water supply to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 feet (30 480 mm), the hot water supply system shall be provided with a method of maintaining the temperature in accordance with the International Energy Conservation Code.
Circulating hot water system piping shall be insulated in accordance with the International Energy Conservation Code.
Automatic circulating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when the hot water system is not in operation.

607.2.3 Recirculating Pump

STATE AMENDMENT
Where a thermostatic mixing valve is used in a system with a hot water recirculating pump, the hot water or tempered water return line shall be routed to the cold water inlet pipe of the water heater and the cold water inlet pipe or the hot water return connection of the thermostatic mixing valve.
A means of controlling increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be provided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 and 607.3.2.
For water service system sizes up to and including 2 inches (51 mm), a device for controlling pressure shall be installed where, because of thermal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing valve setting.
Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage water heating equipment such that thermal expansion causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pressure shall be installed.

Fixture fittings, faucets and diverters shall be installed and adjusted so that the flow of hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand side of the fixture fitting.

Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves conforming to ASSE 1016 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1, where the flow of hot water corresponds to the markings on the device.

A potable water supply system shall be designed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases being introduced into the potable water supply through cross-connections or any other piping connections to the system. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 608.16.10.

TABLE 608.1
APPLICATION OF BACKFLOW PREVENTERS

DEVICE

DEGREE OF HAZARDa

APPLICATIONb

APPLICABLE STANDARDS

Air gap

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage or backpressure

ASME A112.1.2

Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage or backpressure

ASME A112.1.3

Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity water closet flush tanks

High hazard

Backsiphonage only

ASSE 1002, CSA B125.3

Backflow preventer for carbonated beverage machines

Low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/4"- 3/8"

ASSE 1022

Backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric vents

Low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/4" - 3/4"

ASSE 1012, CAN/CSA B64.3

Barometric loop

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage only

(See Section 608.13.4)

Double check backflow prevention assembly and double check fire protection backflow prevention assembly

Low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 3/8" - 16"

ASSE 1015, AWWA C510,
CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1

Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies

Low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage (Fire sprinkler systems)
Sizes 2" - 16"

ASSE 1048

Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventer

Low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/4" - 1"

ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6

Hose connection backflow preventer

High or low hazard

Low head backpressure, rated working pressure, backpressure
or backsiphonage Sizes 1/2"-1"

ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2.1.1

Hose connection vacuum breaker

High or low hazard

Low head backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 1/2", 3/4", 1"

ASSE 1011, CAN/CSA B64.2,
CSA B64.2.1

Laboratory faucet backflow preventer

High or low hazard

Low head backpressure and backsiphonage

ASSE 1035, CSA B64.7

Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breaker

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage only
Sizes 1/4" - 4"

ASSE 1001, CAN/CSA B64.1.1

Pressure vacuum breaker assembly

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage only
Sizes 1/2" - 2"

ASSE 1020, CSA B64.1.2

Reduced pressure principle backflow preventer and reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow preventer

High or low hazard

Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 3/8"- 16"

ASSE 1013, AWWA C511,
CAN/CSA B64.4, CSA B64.4.1

Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage or backpressure (Fire sprinkler systems)

ASSE 1047

Spillproof vacuum breaker

High or low hazard

Backsiphonage only
Sizes 1/4"-2"

ASSE 1056

Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, frost-resistant, automatic draining type

High or low hazard

Low head backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 3/4", 1"

ASSE 1019, CAN/CSA B64.2.2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Low hazard–See Pollution (Section 202).

High hazard–See Contamination (Section 202).

b. See Backpressure (Section 202).

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202).

See Backsiphonage (Section 202).

The supply lines and fittings for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1.
All devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as sterilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that connect to the water supply system, shall be provided with protection against backflow and contamination of the water supply system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other appliances and devices that handle or treat potable water shall be protected against contamination.
The water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer, an atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall not be located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or laboratory areas shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.
Water service piping shall be protected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2.1.
Chemicals and other substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, odor or discoloration in a potable water system shall not be introduced into, or utilized in, such systems.
Cross connections shall be prohibited, except where approved protective devices are installed.
Cross connections between a private water supply and a potable public supply shall be prohibited.

Potable water outlets and combination stop-and-waste valves shall not be installed underground or below grade. Freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground are considered to be stop-and-waste valves.

Exception: Freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground shall be permitted to be installed, provided that the potable water supply to such hydrants is protected upstream of the hydrants in accordance with Section 608 and the hydrants are permanently identified as nonpotable outlets by approved signage that reads as follows: “Caution, Nonpotable Water. Do Not Drink.”

In buildings where nonpotable water systems are installed, the piping conveying the nonpotable water shall be identified either by color marking or metal tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 608.8.3. All nonpotable water outlets such as hose connections, open ended pipes, and faucets shall be identified at the point of use for each outlet with the words, “Nonpotable-not safe for drinking.” The words shall be indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches in height and color in contrast to the background on which they are applied.
Pipe identification shall include the contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also contain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe identification shall be repeated at maximum intervals of 25 feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily observable within the room or space where the piping is located.
The color of the pipe identification shall be discernable and consistent throughout the building. The color purple shall be used to identify reclaimed, rain and gray water distribution systems.

608.8.3 Size

STATE AMENDMENT

The size of the background color field and lettering shall comply with Table 608.8.3.


TABLE 608.8.3
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION

PIPE DIAMETER
(inches)

LENGTH BACKGROUND COLOR FIELD
(inches)

SIZE OF LETTERS (inches)

3/ 4 8 to 11/4

8

0.5

11/2 to 2

8

0.75

21/2 to 6

12

1.25

8 to 10

24

2.5

over 10

32

3.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Water utilized for the cooling of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to the potable water system. Such water shall be discharged into a drainage system through an air gap or shall be utilized for non- potable purposes.
Piping that has been utilized for any purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be utilized for conveying potable water.
The interior surface of a potable water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any material that changes the taste, odor, color or potability of the water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, service.
Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other devices that handle or treat potable water shall be protected against contamination.
Means of protection against backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections 608.13.1 through 608.13.9.
The minimum required air gap shall be measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into which such potable water outlet discharges. Air gaps shall comply with ASME A112.1.2 and air gap fittings shall comply with ASME A112.1.3.
Reduced pressure principle backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, CAN/CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector assembly backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Backflow preventers with intermediate atmospheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CAN/CSA B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Barometric loops shall precede the point of connection and shall extend vertically to a height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall only be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breaker.
Pressure-type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA B64.1.2 and spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with ASSE 1056. These devices are designed for installation under continuous pressure conditions when the critical level is installed at the required height. Pressure-type vacuum breakers shall not be installed in locations where spillage could cause damage to the structure.
Pipe- applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1001 or CAN/CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CAN/CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA B64.2.1.1, CAN/CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the critical level is installed at the required height.
Double check- valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double-detector check-valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These devices shall be capable of operating under continuous pressure conditions.
Spillproof vacuum breakers (SVB) shall conform to ASSE 1056. These devices are designed for installation under continuous-pressure conditions when the critical level is installed at the required height.
Back- flow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply with ASSE 1055 or shall be equipped with an air gap fitting.
Access shall be provided to backflow preventers as specified by the installation instructions of the approved manufacturer.
Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention devices shall comply with ASSE 1060.
Backflow preventers shall not be located in areas subject to freezing except where they can be removed by means of unions or are protected from freezing by heat, insulation or both.
The termination of the piping from the relief port or air gap fitting of a backflow preventer shall discharge to an approved indirect waste receptor or to the outdoors where it will not cause damage or create a nuisance.
All potable water openings and outlets shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 608.15.3, 608.15.4, 608.15.4.1 or 608.15.4.2.

Openings and outlets shall be protected by an air gap between the opening and the fixture flood level rim as specified in Table 608.15.1. Openings and outlets equipped for hose connection shall be protected by means other than an air gap.

TABLE 608.15.1
MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR GAPS

FIXTURE

MINIMUM AIR GAP

Away from a walla (inches)

Close to a wall (inches)

Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than 1/2 inch in diameter

1

11/2

Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 3/4 inch in diameter

11/2

21/2

Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 1 inch in diameter

2

3

Drinking water fountains, single orifice not greater than 7/16 inch in diameter or multiple orifices with a total area of 0.150 square inch (area of circle 7/16 inch in diameter)

1

11/2

Effective openings greater than 1 inch

Two times the diameter
of the effective opening

Three times the diameter
of the effective opening

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside-edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls.

Openings and outlets shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
Openings and outlets shall be protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent.
Openings and outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum breaker shall be set a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Fill valves shall be set in accordance with Section 425.3.1. Vacuum breakers shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar locations that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe-applied vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture, receptor or device served.
Approved deck-mounted or equipment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with integral atmospheric or spillproof vacuum breakers shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the requirements for labeling with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level rim.

Sillcocks, hose bibbs, wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached hose connection vacuum breaker.

Exceptions:

1. This section shall not apply to water heater and boiler drain valves that are provided with hose connection threads and that are intended only for tank or vessel draining.

2. This section shall not apply to water supply valves intended for connection of clothes washing machines where backflow prevention is otherwise provided or is integral with the machine.

Connections to the potable water system shall conform to Sections 608.16.1 through 608.16.10.
The water supply connection to beverage dispensers shall be protected against backflow by a backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 1022 or by an air gap. The portion of the backflow preventer device downstream from the second check valve and the piping downstream therefrom shall not be affected by carbon dioxide gas.
The potable supply to the boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 or CAN/CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water connection shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer, complying with ASSE 1013, CAN/CSA B64.4 or AWWA C511.
Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap open to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic transfer fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall construction.

The potable water supply to automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow by a double check-valve assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.

Exceptions:

1. Where systems are installed as a portion of the water distribution system in accordance with the requirements of this code and are not provided with a fire department connection, isolation of the water supply system shall not be required.

2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not required for deluge, preaction or dry pipe systems.

Where systems under continuous pressure contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. Where chemical additives or antifreeze are added to only a portion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure principle backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of the system. Where systems are not under continuous pressure, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a pipe applied atmospheric vacuum breaker conforming to ASSE 1001 or CAN/CSA B64.1.1.
The potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be protected against backflow by an atmospheric-type vacuum breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. A valve shall not be installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
Where a potable water connection is made to a nonpotable line, fixture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment subject to backpressure, the potable water connection shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
Where chemical dispensers connect to the potable water distribution system, the water supply system shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 608.13.6, 608.13.8 or 608.13.9.
Where the portable cleaning equipment connects to the water distribution system, the water supply system shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 608.13.7 or 608.13.8.
Where dental pumping equipment connects to the water distribution system, the water supply system shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8.
The water supply connection to coffee machines and noncarbonated beverage dispensers shall be protected against backflow by a backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 1022 or by an air gap.
An individual water supply shall be located and constructed so as to be safeguarded against contamination in accordance with Sections 608.17.1 through 608.17.8.

608.17.1 Well Locations

STATE AMENDMENT

A potable ground water source or pump suction line shall not be located closer to potential sources of contamination than the distances shown in Table 608.17.1. In the event the underlying rock structure is limestone or fragmented shale, the local or state health department shall be consulted on well site location. The distances in Table 608.17.1 constitute minimum separation and shall be increased in areas of creviced rock or limestone, or where the direction of movement of the ground water is from sources of contamination toward the well.

TABLE 608.17.1
DISTANCE FROM CONTAMINATION TO
PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND PUMP SUCTION LINES

SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION

DISTANCE (feet)

Barnyard

100

Farm silo

25

Pasture

100

Pumphouse floor drain of cast iron draining to ground surface

2

Seepage pits

50

Septic tank

25

Sewer

10

Subsurface disposal fields

50

Subsurface pits

50

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

608.17.2 Elevation

STATE AMENDMENT
Well sites shall be positively drained and shall be at higher elevations than potential sources of contamination.

608.17.3 Depth

STATE AMENDMENT
Private potable well supplies shall not be developed from a water table less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface.
Each well shall be provided with a water-tight casing to a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. All casings shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the well platform. The casing shall be large enough to permit installation of a separate drop pipe. Casings shall be sealed at the bottom in an impermeable stratum or extend several feet into the water-bearing stratum.
Drilled or driven well casings shall be of steel or other approved material. Where drilled wells extend into a rock formation, the well casing shall extend to and set firmly in the formation. The annular space between the earth and the outside of the casing shall be filled with cement grout to a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. In an instance of casing to rock installation, the grout shall extend to the rock surface.
Dug or bored well casings shall be of water-tight concrete, tile, or galvanized or corrugated metal pipe to a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. Where the water table is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface, the water-tight casing shall extend below the table surface. Well casings for dug wells or bored wells constructed with sections of concrete, tile, or galvanized or corrugated metal pipe shall be surrounded by 6 inches (152 mm) of grout poured into the hole between the outside of the casing and the ground to a minimum depth of 10 feet (3048 mm).

608.17.7 Cover

STATE AMENDMENT
Every potable water well shall be equipped with an overlapping water-tight cover at the top of the well casing or pipe sleeve such that contaminated water or other substances are prevented from entering the well through the annular opening at the top of the well casing, wall or pipe sleeve. Covers shall extend downward at least 2 inches (51 mm) over the outside of the well casing or wall. A dug well cover shall be provided with a pipe sleeve permitting the withdrawal of the pump suction pipe, cylinder or jet body without disturbing the cover. Where pump sections or discharge pipes enter or leave a well through the side of the casing, the circle of contact shall be water tight.

608.17.8 Drainage

STATE AMENDMENT
All potable water wells and springs shall be constructed such that surface drainage will be diverted away from the well or spring.
This section shall govern those aspects of health care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform to the requirements of this section in addition to the other requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall apply to the special devices and equipment installed and maintained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with similar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing.
All hospitals shall have two water service pipes installed in such a manner so as to minimize the potential for an interruption of the supply of water in the event of a water main or water service pipe failure.
Hot water shall be provided to supply all of the hospital fixture, kitchen and laundry requirements. Special fixtures and equipment shall have hot water supplied at a temperature specified by the manufacturer. The hot water system shall be installed in accordance with Section 607.
Vacuum breakers shall be installed a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture or device in accordance with Section 608. The flood level rim of hose connections shall be the maximum height at which any hose is utilized.
Jet- or water-supplied orifices, except those supplied by the flush connections, shall not be located in or connected with a water closet bowl or clinical sink. This section shall not prohibit an approved bidet installation.
All clinical, hydrotherapeutic, radiological or any equipment that is supplied with water or that discharges to the waste system shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 608.
A water supply shall be provided for cleaning, flushing and resealing the condensate trap, and the trap shall discharge through an air gap in accordance with Section 608.
Each water sterilizer filled with water through directly connected piping shall be equipped with an approved leakage diverter or bleed line on the water supply control valve to indicate and conduct any leakage of unsterile water away from the sterile zone.

610.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT

Permitted new or repaired potable water systems shall be purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to utilization. The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the health authority or water purveyor having jurisdiction or, in the absence of a prescribed method, the procedure described in either AWWA C651 or AWWA C652, or as described in this section. This requirement shall apply to “on-site” or “in-plant” fabrication of a system or to a modular portion of a system.

1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until dirty water does not appear at the points of outlet.

2. The system or part thereof shall be filled with a water/chlorine solution containing at least 50 parts per million (50 mg/L) of chlorine, and the system or part thereof shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 hours; or the system or part thereof shall be filled with a water/chlorine solution containing at least 200 parts per million (200 mg/L) of chlorine and allowed to stand for 3 hours.

3. Following the required standing time, the system shall be flushed with clean potable water until the chlorine is purged from the system.

4. The procedure shall be repeated where shown by a bacteriological examination that contamination remains present in the system.

Drinking water treatment units shall meet the requirements of NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53 or NSF 62.
The discharge from a reverse osmosis drinking water treatment unit shall enter the drainage system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the requirements of NSF 58.
The tubing to and from drinking water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recommended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61.
The construction, installation, alterations and repair of systems, equipment and appliances intended to utilize solar energy for space heating or cooling, domestic hot water heating, swimming pool heating or process heating shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Temperature- actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 1016 or ASSE 1017.
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prohibit the connection to the domestic water distribution system of a system of one or more fire suppression sprinkler heads in one or more rooms of a one- or two-family dwelling, nor shall such installation impose additional requirements on the domestic water distribution system with regard to pipe size, water pressure, meter size, monitoring or alarm, provided that:
  1. The sprinkler heads used are residential fast-response type.
  2. Each branch feeding one or more sprinkler heads shall be provided with an isolation valve which shall be readily accessible and the function thereof shall be marked.
  3. Each isolation valve shall be identified as to function with a tag or other device which shall indicate that the system does not meet the requirements of NFPA 13D.
  4. The piping installation and material shall comply with the requirements of the North Carolina Plumbing Code.

615.1 Full fire protection

STATE AMENDMENT
Where a full fire sprinkler system is installed, it shall comply with NFPA 13D.
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