This chapter shall apply to concrete, including:
(a) Properties to be used for design
(b) Durability requirements
This chapter shall apply to durability requirements for grout used for bonded tendons in accordance with 19.4.
The value of fc' shall be specified in construction documents and shall be in accordance with (a) through (c):
(a) Limits in Table 126.96.36.199
(b) Durability requirements in Table 188.8.131.52
(c) Structural strength requirements
Table 184.108.40.206—Limits for fc'
|Application||Concrete||Minimum fc', psi||Maximum fc', psi|
|General||Normalweight and lightweight||2500||None|
|Special moment frames and special structural walls||Normalweight||3000||None|
The limit is permitted to be exceeded where demonstrated by experimental evidence that members made with lightweight concrete provide strength and toughness equal to or exceeding those of comparable members made with normalweight concrete of the same strength.
Unless otherwise specified, fc' shall be based on 28-day tests. If other than 28 days, test age for fc' shall be indicated in the construction documents.
Modulus of elasticity, Ec, for concrete shall be permitted to be calculated as (a) or (b):
(a) For values of wc between 90 and 160 lb/ft3
(b) For normalweight concrete
To account for the properties of lightweight concrete, a modification factor λ is used as a multiplier of in all applicable provisions of this Code.
The value of λ shall be based on the composition of the aggregate in the concrete mixture in accordance with Table 220.127.116.11 or as permitted in 18.104.22.168.
Table 22.214.171.124—Modification factor λ
|Concrete||Composition of aggregates||λ|
|All-lightweight||Fine: ASTM C330 Coarse: ASTM C330||0.75|
|Lightweight, fine blend||Fine: Combination of ASTM C330 and C33 Coarse: ASTM C330||0.75 to 0.85|
|Sand-lightweight||Fine: ASTM C33 Coarse: ASTM C330||0.85|
|Sand-lightweight, coarse blend||Fine: ASTM C33 Coarse: Combination of ASTM C330 and C33||0.85 to 1|
|Normalweight||Fine: ASTM C33 Coarse: ASTM C33||1|
Linear interpolation from 0.75 to 0.85 is permitted based on the absolute volume of normalweight fine aggregate as a fraction of the total absolute volume of fine aggregate.
Linear interpolation from 0.85 to 1 is permitted based on the absolute volume of normalweight coarse aggregate as a fraction of the total absolute volume of coarse aggregate.
If the measured average splitting tensile strength of lightweight concrete, fct, is used to calculate λ, laboratory tests shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM C330 to establish the value of fct and the corresponding value of fcm and λ shall be calculated by:
The licensed design professional shall assign exposure classes in accordance with the severity of the anticipated exposure of members for each exposure category in Table 126.96.36.199.
Table 188.8.131.52—Exposure categories and classes
|Freezing and thawing (F)||F0||Concrete not exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles|
|F1||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with limited exposure to water|
|F2||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water|
|F3||Concrete exposed to freezing-and-thawing cycles with frequent exposure to water and exposure to deicing chemicals|
|Sulfate (S)||Water-soluble sulfate (SO42-) in soil, percent by mass||Dissolved sulfate (SO42-) in water, ppm|
|S0||SO42-< 0.10||SO42-< 150|
|S1||0.10 ≤ SO42-< 0.20||150 ≤ SO42-< 1500 or seawater|
|S2||0.20 ≤ SO42-≤ 2.00||1500 ≤ SO42-≤ 10,000|
|In contact with water (W)||W0||Concrete dry in service
Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is not required
|W1||Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is required|
|Corrosion protection of reinforcement (C)||C0||Concrete dry or protected from moisture|
|C1||Concrete exposed to moisture but not to an external source of chlorides|
|C2||Concrete exposed to moisture and an external source of chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, brackish water, seawater, or spray from these sources|
Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined by ASTM C1580.
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water, in ppm, shall be determined by ASTM D516 or ASTM D4130.
Based on the exposure classes assigned from Table 184.108.40.206, concrete mixtures shall conform to the most restrictive requirements in Table 220.127.116.11.
Table 18.104.22.168—Requirements for concrete by exposure class
|Exposure class||Maximum w/cm||Minimum fc' psi||Additional requirements||Limits on cementitious materials|
|Cementitious materials — Types||Calcium chloride admixture|
|ASTM C150||ASTM C595||ASTM C1157|
|S0||N/A||2500||No type restriction||No type restriction||No type restriction||No restriction|
|S1||0.50||4000||II||Types IP, IS, or IT with (MS) designation||MS||No restriction|
|S2||0.45||4500||V||Types IP, IS, or IT with (HS) designation||HS||Not permitted|
|S3||0.45||4500||V plus pozzolan or slag cement||Types IP, IS, or IT with (HS) designation plus pozzolan or slag cement||HS plus pozzolan or slag cement||Not permitted|
|Maximum water-soluble chloride ion (Cl—) content in concrete, percent by weight of cement||Additional provisions|
|Nonprestressed concrete||Prestressed concrete|
The maximum w/cm limits in Table 22.214.171.124 do not apply to lightweight concrete.
For plain concrete, the maximum w/cm shall be 0.45 and the minimum fc' shall be 4500 psi.
Alternative combinations of cementitious materials to those listed in Table 126.96.36.199 are permitted when tested for sulfate resistance and meeting the criteria in 188.8.131.52(c).
For seawater exposure, other types of portland cements with tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contents up to 10 percent are permitted if the w/cm does not exceed 0.40.
Other available types of cement such as Type I or Type III are permitted in Exposure Classes S1 or S2 if the C3A contents are less than 8 percent for Exposure Class S1 or less than 5 percent for Exposure Class S2.
The amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount that has been determined by service record to improve sulfate resistance when used in concrete containing Type V cement. Alternatively, the amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount tested in accordance with ASTM C1012 and meeting the criteria in 184.108.40.206(c).
Water-soluble chloride ion content that is contributed from the ingredients including water, aggregates, cementitious materials, and admixtures shall be determined on the concrete mixture by ASTM C1218 at age between 28 and 42 days.
Normalweight and lightweight concrete subject to freezing-and-thawing Exposure Classes F1, F2, or F3 shall be air entrained. Except as permitted in 220.127.116.11, air content shall conform to Table 18.104.22.168.
Table 22.214.171.124—Total air content for concrete exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing
|Nominal maximum aggregate size, in.||Target air content, percent|
|F1||F2 and F3|
Concrete shall be sampled in accordance with ASTM C172, and air content shall be measured in accordance with ASTM C231 or ASTM C173.
For fc' exceeding 5000 psi, reduction of air content indicated in Table 126.96.36.199 by 1.0 percentage point is permitted.
Alternative combinations of cementitious materials to those listed in 19.3.2 are permitted when tested for sulfate resistance. Testing and acceptance criteria shall conform to Table 188.8.131.52(c).
Water-soluble chloride ion content of grout for bonded tendons shall not exceed 0.06 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM C1218, measured by mass of chloride ion to mass of cement.