(a)   Scope. Subdivisions (b) through (m) as amended up to and including the rules amended on December 13, 1968, are supplementary and additional to the requirements of the provisions of the Administrative Code (Building Code) in effect prior to enactment of Local Law No. 76/68.  Subdivisions (n) through (r) are supplementary and additional to the requirements of the Administrative Code (Building Code) as enacted by Local Law No. 76/68.  However, nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit the Commissioner of Buildings from permitting, on an application filed pursuant to the provisions of the Administrative Code in effect to enactment of Local Law 76/68, the use of subdivisions (n)-(r) in lieu of subdivisions (b)-(m).
   (b)   General provisions.
      (1)   Application for permits.
         (i)   No person shall perform gas or electric welding on structures or parts thereafter erected or to be erected within the City of New York except as provided in these Rules and in conformity with § C27-616(b)(1) of the Administrative Code.
         (ii)   The commencement of any structural welding work is forbidden until an application for a permit to perform such work is filed with and approved by the Borough Superintendent. The Borough Superintendent shall be notified in writing at least 48 hours prior to the date when the structural welding work is to commence.  Filing of the request for a permit shall be the responsibility of the owner or his authorized representative.
      (2)   Welding safety. Welding safety precautions shall comply with A. W. S. publication "Safety in Welding and Cutting" A. W. S., Z. 49.1 of 1967, the best known practices in the industry, and all laws, ordinances, and rules of the Board, and shall be maintained at all times.
   (c)   Definitions.
      Arc welding. "Arc welding" shall mean a group of welding processes wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an electric arc or arcs, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Pressure as herein used refers to pressure necessary to the welding process.
      Base metal. "Base metal" shall mean the metal upon which the weld or cut is made.
      Board. "Board" shall mean the Board of Standards and Appeals of the City of New York, unless specifically designated otherwise.
      Butt weld. "Butt weld" shall mean a weld in a butt joint.
      Continuous weld. "Continuous weld" shall mean a weld, which extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other; where the joint is essentially circular completely around the joint.
      Crater. "Crater" shall mean a depression at the termination of a weld bead.
      Filler metal. "Filler metal" shall mean metal especially prepared for addition to the weld. This term shall apply to this material only before deposition.
      Fillet weld. "Fillet weld" shall mean a weld of approximately triangular cross-section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint or corner joint. The size of an equal leg fillet weld shall be expressed in terms of leg length of the largest isosceles right-triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet-weld cross-section. The size of an unequal leg fillet-weld shall be expressed in terms of the leg lengths of the largest right-triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet-weld cross-section.
      Flat position. "Flat position" shall mean the position of welding wherein welding is performed from the upper side of the joint and the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.
      Gas welding. "Gas welding" shall mean a group of welding processes where coalescence is produced by heating with a gas flame or flames, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Pressure as herein used refers to pressure necessary to the welding process.
      Groove weld. "Groove weld" shall mean a weld made in the groove between two members to be joined. The size of a groove weld shall be expressed in terms of joint penetration or depth of chamfering plus the root penetration.
      Horizontal position.
         (i)   Fillet welds. "Fillet welds" shall mean the position of welding wherein welding is performed on the upper side of an approximately horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical surface.
         (ii)   Groove weld. "Groove weld" shall mean the position of welding wherein the axis of the weld lies in an approximately horizontal plane and the face of the weld lies in an approximately vertical plane.
      Layer. "Layer" shall mean a stratum of weld metal consisting of one or more interwoven beads.
      Overhead position. "Overhead position" shall mean the position of welding wherein welding is performed from the underside of the joint.
      Overlap. "Overlap" shall mean protrusion of weld metal beyond the bond at the toe of the weld.
      Oxygen cutting. "Oxygen cutting" shall mean a group of cutting processes wherein the severing of metal is effected by means of the chemical reaction of oxygen with a base metal at elevated temperatures. In the case of oxidation-resistant metals, the reaction is facilitated by the use of a flux.
      Penetration. "Penetration" shall mean the linear distance that the deposited metal penetrates below the original surface of the base metal.
      Plug weld. "Plug weld" shall mean a circular weld made by either arc or gas welding through one member of a lap or tee joint joining that member to the other. The weld may or may not be made through a hole in the first member. If a hole is used, the walls may or may not be parallel and the hole may be partially or completely filled with weld metal. (A fillet-welded hole or a spot weld should not be construed as conforming to this definition.)
      Root of weld. "Root of weld" shall mean the points as shown in cross-section at which the bottom of the weld intersects the base metal surfaces.
      Slot weld. "Slot weld" shall mean a weld made in an elongated hole in one member of a lap or tee joint joining that member to that portion of the surface of the other member which is exposed through the hole. The hole may be open at one end and may be partially or completely filled with weld metal (a fillet-welded slot should not be construed as conforming to this definition).
      Superintendent. Wherever the word "Superintendent" appears in these rules, it shall mean the Borough Superintendent of Buildings of the borough having jurisdiction.
      Tack weld. "Tack weld" shall mean a weld made to hold parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.
      Undercut. "Undercut" shall mean a groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal.
      Vertical position. "Vertical position" shall mean the position of welding wherein the axis of the weld is approximately vertical.
      Weld dimensions. The term "weld dimensions" shall be expressed in terms of their size and length.
      Weld length. The term "weld length" shall mean the unbroken length of the full cross-section of the weld exclusive of the length of any craters.
      Welding contractor. "Welding contractor" shall mean a person, partnership, company or corporation approved by the Department of Buildings to perform welding operations.
      Welding symbols. "Welding symbols" shall be used and interpreted according to best engineering practice and as shown in Fig. 9 of these rules.
      Welding terminology. "Welding terminology" shall be used and applied according to best engineering practice.
   (d)   Design and supervision.
      (1)   The registered architect or licensed professional engineer designing or supervising the construction of a welded structure shall be experienced and skilled in such work.
      (2)   Structural details shall conform to all provisions of the Building Code.
         (i)   Welded joints shall be so proportioned that the maximum stresses shall be not more than those stated in the Building Code, and the stresses specified for combinations of electrodes and base metals in the Administrative Code.
         (ii)   Adequate provision shall be made for bending stresses due to eccentricity in the disposition or section of base metal parts.
      (3)   Working stresses for windloads. When the stress in any member due to wind is less than 33 1/3 percent of the stress due to live and dead loads, it may be neglected. For combined stresses due to wind and other loads, the permissible working stresses may be increased 33 1/3 percent, provided the section thus found is at least that required by the dead and live loads alone. For stresses due to wind only, the permissible working stress shall be the same as for live and dead loads.
      (4)   Welded girders. In welded girders the connection of component parts of flanges to each other and of flanges to webs shall be by continuous or intermittent welds designed to transmit the stress.
      (5)   Girders shall be proportioned by the moments of inertia or by the flange-area method; in the latter method, when applied to a welded girder having no holes in the web, 1/6 of the web area may be considered a part of the area of each flange.
      (6)   Beams. The use of continuous beams and girders, shall be permitted provided their welded connections be designed to transmit the stresses involved in, continuous beam construction and columns are designed for the moment added by such construction. At the ends of non-continuous beams, the connections shall be designed to avoid excessive secondary stresses due to bending.
      (7)   Fillet welds. Intermittent fillet welds may be used to transfer calculated stress across a joint of faying surfaces when the strength required is less than that developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest practical size. The effective length of any segment of intermittent fillet welding shall be not less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 1 1/2 inches. The clear spacing between the effective lengths of such segments at the edges of plates and the unsupported edges of rolled shapes carrying calculated stress shall not exceed the following number of times the thickness of the thinner part joined:  16 times for compression  24 times for tension and shall, in no case, be more than 12 inches. The effective length of longitudinal fillet welds at the edges of built-up members shall be not less than the width of the component part joined.
      (8)   Welds in slot or holes.
         (i)   Plug or slot welds my be used in plates where subjected principally to shearing stresses or where needed to prevent buckling of lapped parts.
         (ii)   The transverse spacing between slots shall not exceed 8 inches unless the design otherwise prevents excessive transverse bending in the connection.
         (iii)   If the material is not over 5/8 inch in thickness, the hole shall be filled with weld metal approximately flush with the surface of the part; if the material is over 5/8 inch in thickness, the hole shall be filled with weld metal at least to 5/8 inch in depth.
         (iv)   Holes for plug welds shall be circular. The diameter of the hole shall not be less than the thickness of the part containing the hole plus 5/16 inch, rounded to the next greater odd sixteenth. It shall not be greater than 3 times the thickness of the weld metal.
         (v)   The width of slot shall not be less than the above-specified diameter for plug welds. The maximum length of slot shall not exceed 10 times the thickness of the part containing the slot.
         (vi)   The ends of slot shall be semi-circular or shall have the corners rounded to a radius not less than the thickness of the part containing the slot.
      (9)   Field riveted, bolted and welded connections.
         (i)   In tier structures less than 125 feet high, in which the height is less than two and one-half times the minimum horizontal dimension, all column splices and field connections may be bolted.
         (ii)   In structures in which the height is over 100 feet and is more than two and one-half times the minimum horizontal dimension, and in structures 100 feet or less in height in which the height is more than four times the minimum horizontal dimension, column splices and connection to columns shall be riveted, welded or bolted with high strength bolts.
         (iii)   In structures over 125 feet in height and in all structures of a special character, connections of beams and girders to columns, and beams and girders bracing columns shall be riveted, welded or bolted with high strength bolts. Column splices in structures 200 feet or more in height shall be riveted, welded or bolted with high strength bolts. Column splices in tier structures less than 200 feet high (except as provided in the preceding sub-paragraph) may be bolted.
         (iv)   All other field connections may be bolted except that, in all structures, the connections for supports for running machinery or other moving loads shall be riveted, welded or bolted with high strength bolts.
         (v)   Within existing structures, steel work for alterations, or additions (except to the main structural framework), which do not affect existing column splices, connections and other riveted or welded work, may be bolted.
         (vi)   For the purpose of these rules, a tier shall be considered a single story.
      (10)   Completion of work. Upon the completion of all structural welding operations, the registered architect or licensed professional engineer responsible for the design of the structure shall certify to the Borough Superintendent that the fabrication and welding of such structure have been properly inspected and that the requirements of his design and these rules have been fulfilled in every respect by the contractor who has done the welding.  The design engineer or architect shall consider the necessity for non-destructive testing. When non-destructive testing is specified by the design engineer or architect responsible for the design of the structure, he shall designate:
         (i)   The weld to be tested.
         (ii)   The extent of the examination for each such weld.
         (iii)   The non-destructive testing system to be used.
   (e)   Board of Examiners for welders.
      (1)   The Board of Examiners for Welders shall be appointed by the Commissioner of Buildings from members of the staff of the Department as recommended by the Borough Superintendents. All certificates of qualification issued shall be uniform for the five Boroughs. There shall be a separate certificate for electric arc welding, and for gas welding, which certificates shall not be interchangeable and shall apply specifically to the type of work to be done and shall be issued in accordance with §25-01(f).
      (2)   Welders to be qualified. No person shall perform welding work on any structural member of a structure without having obtained a certificate of qualification from the Board of Examiners for Welders.
         (i)   Before a certificate of qualification may be issued authorizing a person to perform welding work on any structural member of a structure, the person applying for such certificate shall have been qualified as provided in §27-6161(b)(i).
         (ii)   No person shall be eligible for a certificate of qualification to perform welding work as provided in this paragraph (2) unless he is a citizen of the United States of America or unless he is a North American Indian by birth.
         (iii)   The Commissioner of Buildings may revoke or suspend a certificate of qualification of any person, if workmanship on any structural welding is such as to indicate incompetency or negligence which might endanger a structure or result in injury to human beings.
         (iv)   Renewal of a certificate may be made without additional requalification test if the applicant's record indicates one month of satisfactory welding experience during the previous year.
      (3)   Exceptions to requirements for welder qualification.
         (i)   Certificate of qualification will not be required for the attachment of steel studs to structural steel members by semi-automatic welding equipment when the steel studs and method of attachment have been approved by the Board.
         (ii)   Certificate of qualification will not be required for operators of automatic welding equipment of a type approved by the Board when used under the supervision of a trained welder holding a certificate of qualification.
   (f)   Qualification tests for welders.
      (1)   Before the examiners for welder shall issue a certificate of qualification, the applicant shall pass the applicable manual shielded metal-arc groove and/or fillet weld test prescribed in Part II, Appendix D, of the American Welding Society – Code for Welding in Building Construction AWS D1.0-66 and addenda dated September 1967. Such qualification tests shall be conducted by the examiners, or by their representatives, or they shall accept documentary evidence from a testing laboratory acceptable to the Department of Buildings, attesting that the applicant has passed the prescribed qualification tests and has thereby demonstrated fitness to make structural welds.
      (2)   The foregoing provisions are not intended to bar an applicant from further trial in case of one or more failures, or to require a welder who has passed the tests to qualify anew for every job he may undertake.
      (3)   Classifications of Certifications:
         Class 1
         Shop and Field – For groove and fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials, in all positions, the test candidate shall weld test plates in the vertical and overhead positions, using one inch thick test plates.
         Class 1 – Restricted
         Shop and Field – For groove welding materials of limited thickness (3/4 inch maximum) and for fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials, in all positions, the test candidate shall weld test plates in the vertical and overhead positions using 3/8 inch thick test plates.
         Class 2
         Shop and Field – For groove welding of unlimited thickness in the flat position and for fillet welding in the flat and horizontal positions only, the test candidate shall weld a test plate in the flat position using one inch thick test plates.
         Class 2 – Restricted 
         Shop only – For groove welding of limited thickness materials (3/4 inch maximum) in the flat position and fillet welding in the flat and horizontal only, the test candidate shall weld a test plate in the flat position using 3/8 inch thick test plates.
         Class 3
         Shop and Field – For fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials in all positions, the test candidate shall weld test plates in the vertical and overhead positions using 3/8 inch thick test plates.
         Class 3 – Restricted
         Shop only – For fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials in the flat and horizontal positions only, the test candidate shall weld test a plate in the horizontal position using 3/8 inch thick test plates.
      (4)   Qualification requirements.
         (i)   For qualification to make groove welds in material up to and including 3/4 inch thick, the welder shall be required to make a test weld in material 3/8 inch thick as shown in Fig. l(a). (Figure l(b) may be used for oxy-acetylene welding). A welder who has been qualified to make groove welds in all positions (horizontal, vertical and overhead) under this subparagraph (i) shall also be qualified to make fillet welds in all positions without further qualification tests. All primary stressed joints of any type shall be welded by welders who have been qualified under this subparagraph (i).  For qualification to make groove welds in material over 3/4 inch thick, the welder shall be required to make a test weld in material 1 inch thick as shown in Figure 2(a). (Fig. 2(b) may be used for oxy-acetylene welding.)
Figure 1(a). But Joint for Plate 3/8 In. Thick. Figure 1(b). Alternate Butt Joint for Plate 3/8 In. Thick. Figure 2(a). Butt Joint for Plate 1 In. Thick. Figure 2(b). Alternate Butt Joint for Plate 1 In. Thick.
If a test weld is made in the one inch thickness, no test need be made in the 3/8 inch thickness. The prescribed test weld shall be made in the vertical and overhead positions by all welders except those welders who are to be permitted to make groove welds only in the flat position in the shop; such welders shall be required to make a test weld in the flat position only.
         (ii)   For qualification to make fillet welds, a test weld as shown in Figure 3 shall be made in the vertical and overhead positions by each welder except those welders who are to be permitted to make fillet welds only in the flat and horizontal positions in the shop; such welders shall be required to make a test weld in the horizontal position only. A welder who has been qualified under this subdivision (ii) shall be qualified to make fillet welds only.
         (iii)   Two specimens as shown in Figure 4 shall be removed from each test groove weld in the 3/8 inch thick material. Two specimens as shown in Figure 5 shall be removed from each test groove weld in the 1 inch thick material. Two specimens as shown in Figure 6 shall be removed from each test filled weld.
Figure 3. Test Weld for Soundness Tests.
NOTE: WELD REINFORCEMENT AND BACKING STRIP, IF ANY, SHALL BE REMOVED FLUSH WITH THE SURFACE OF THE SPECIMEN. IF A RECESSED STRIP IS USED THIS SURFACE3 OF THE SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINED TO A DEPTH NOT EXCEEDING THE DEPTH OF THE RECESS TO REMOVE THE STRIP, EXCEPT THAT IN SUCH CASES THE THICKNESS OF THE FINISHED SPECIMEN SHALL BE THAT SPECIFIED ABOVE.
Figure 4. Face- and Root-Bend Specimens. Figure 5. Side-Bend Specimen.
 
Figure 6. Fillet-Weld-Soundness Test Specimen.
         (iv)   Each of the specimens shall be bent in a jig having a working contour shown in Figure 7 and otherwise substantially in accordance with that figure. Any convenient means may be used for moving the plunger member with relation to the die member.  The specimens shall be placed on the die member of the jig with the weld at mid-span. One of the specimens removed from the 3/8 inch groove welded material shall be placed with the face of the weld directed toward the gap, the other with the root of the weld directed toward the gap. Both specimens removed from the 1 inch groove-welded material shall be placed with that side showing the greater defects, if any, directed toward the gap. Both fillet welded specimens shall be placed with the root of the weld directed toward the gap. The two members of the jig shall be forced together until the curvature of the specimen is such that a 1/32 inch diameter wire cannot be passed between the curved portion of the plunger member and the specimen. The specimen shall then be removed from the jig.
         (v)   The convex surface of each specimen tested shall be examined for the appearance of cracks or other open defects. Any specimen in which a crack or other open defect is present after bending, exceeding 1/8 inch measured in any direction, shall be considered as having failed. Cracks occurring on the corners of the specimen during testing shall not be considered unless there is definite evidence that they result from slag inclusions or other internal defects.
         (vi)   In the foregoing tests, base material and filler metal, conforming to the specifications listed in §25-01(h), in an amount adequate to provide for the removal of the required specimens shall be provided. A minimum of 1 1/8 inches from the end of each test weld shall be discarded before removing the test specimens. All welds shall conform to the general requirements of good workmanship and the particular practices set forth in §25-01(g).
         (vii)   Welder qualification tests shall be manual shielded metal-arc welding, using base material conforming to ASTM A36-67 and filler metal conforming to AWS Group Designation F 4 using ASTM E70XX, low hydrogen electrodes. When welders are so qualified they shall be permitted without further testing to weld weldable grades of steel prescribed in the Administrative Building Code or approved by the Board.
Figure 7. Guided-Ben Test Jig.
      (5)   Re-test. In case a welder fails to meet the requirements of one or more test welds, a re-test may be allowed under the following conditions:
         (i)   An immediate re-test may be made which shall consist of two test welds of each type of which he failed, all of which shall meet all the requirements specified for such welds.
         (ii)   A re-test may be made provided there is evidence that the welder has had further training or practice. In this case a complete re-test shall be made.
      (6)   Welders who have been certified by the Board of Examiners may be assigned to other electric arc welding processes. As a prerequisite to such an assignment, the welder shall have been trained in the process by his employer and said welder shall be given a certificate for the required Test. No further certification by the Board of Examiners for Welders will be required.
      (7)   Existing licenses. All persons holding a valid welder certificate of qualification, issued prior to the promulgation of these revised rules of the Board, shall be considered to have qualified under the tests prescribed herein.
   (g)   Quality control.
      (1)   The quality of welds permitted under these rules shall conform to the requirements of § 2, Design of Welded Connections, and Section 4. Workmanship and technique – as contained in AWS D1.0-66 – Welding in Building Construction shall conform to the following:
         (i)   Weld metal shall be solid throughout except that very small gas pockets and small inclusions of oxide or slag may be overlooked if well dispersed.
         (ii)   There shall be complete fusion between the weld metal and the base metal and between successive passes throughout the joint.
         (iii)   Welds shall be free from overlap and the base metal free from undercutting. Acceptable and defective weld profiles are shown in Figure 8.
         (iv)   All craters shall be filled to the full cross-section of the weld.
      (2)   Defective or unsound welds shall be corrected by removing or replacing the welds, or where possible, by the removal of the defective portions of base metal and weld metal down to sound metal and the disposition of additional weld metal. A cracked weld shall be removed throughout its entire length.  Unless by the use of acid etching, magnetic inspection or other equally positive means, the extent of the crack can be ascertained to be limited in which case sound metal 2 inches or more beyond each end of the crack need not be removed.
   (h)   Specifications for base and filler materials.
      (1)   Base materials to be welded shall conform to the following material specifications:
         (i)   ASTM A36-67 – Structural Steel.
         (ii)   ASTM A4-11-66T – High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Manganese Vanadium Steel.
         (iii)   ASTM A7-66 – Steel for Bridges and Buildings. (Not over one inch thick and restricted use.)
         (iv)   ASTM A242-66T – High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel. (Weldable Grade Only).
         (v)   Structural steels other than those listed above may be welded when the suitability of the procedure for welding has been qualified by the tests prescribed in Appendix D Part 1 of AWS D1.0-66 – Welding in Building Construction – and approved by the Board.
      (2)   Filler metal.
         (i)   All mild steel and low-alloy welding electrodes shall comply with the classifications, physical, and chemical requirements of the following listed applicable codes that have been jointly established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Welding Society (AWS).
         (ii)   AWS A5.1-64 – ASTM A233-64T – Tentative Specification for Mild Steel Covered-Arc Welding Electrodes.
         (iii)   AWS A5.5-64 – ASTM A316-64T – Tentative Specification for low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes.
Figure 8. Acceptable and Defective Weld Profiles.
         (iv)   AWS A5.17-65 – ASTM A558-65T – Tentative Specification for Bare Mild Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged-Arc Welding.
         (v)   AWS A5.18-65 – ASTM A559-65T – Tentative Specification for Mild Steel Electrodes for Gas Metal-Arc Welding.
         (vi)   Only Low Hydrogen type electrode shall be used for welding ASTM A242 (Weldable Grade) and ASTM A441 classified steels. This is not limited to stick electrodes.
         (vii)   AWS A5.2-66 – ASTM A251-66T – Tentative Specification for Iron, and Steel Gas-Welding Rods.
         (viii)   Drying procedures for Low Hydrogen electrodes shall be strictly followed in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations or applicable filler metal speci- fications.
         (ix)   Electrodes shall be capable of providing weld metal of a tensile strength not less than minimum tensile strength of the base metal being welded.
         (x)   The Borough Superintendent shall have the right to request special capability tests of filler metal, flux and base material combinations whenever a material not specifically covered by the classifications herein listed is proposed for use in a welded structure.
         (i)   Oxygen cutting of structural steel. Use of Oxygen Cutting Torch. § C26-526.0(a) to (g) of the Administrative Code.
      (1)   Competence to use oxygen cutting torch. Contractors desiring to do oxygen cutting shall satisfy the superintendent as to their ability to produce satisfactory oxygen cuts. Workmen using oxygen cutting of welding equipment, in conjunction with a fuel gas, must possess a certificate of fitness issued by the Fire Department.
      (2)   Oxygen cutting of structural steel while carrying stress. It shall be unlawful to do oxygen cutting on any member while it is carrying stress, except for detail cutting to correct minor fabricating errors where the removal of metal resulting from such detail cutting would leave unimpaired the required strength of the members to be cut.
      (3)   Oxygen cut edges. Oxygen cut edges shall be smooth and regular in contour.
      (4)   Oxygen cutting in preparation for welding. Oxygen cutting may be used in the preparation of base metal parts for welding provided the edges are thoroughly cleaned after cutting so as to expose clean steel.
      (5)   Milling of surfaces by oxygen cutting. It shall be unlawful to do oxygen cutting to replace the milling of surfaces.
      (6)   Oxygen cutting of undesigned holes. It shall be unlawful to do oxygen cutting of holes in a member designed without provision therefor.
      (7)   Radius & area of re-entrant oxygen cut fillets. The radii of re-entrant oxygen-cut fillets shall be as large as possible and at least 1/2 inch. To determine the net area of members so cut, 1/8 of an inch shall be deducted from the oxygen cut edges.
   (j)   Supervision and inspection.
      (1)   Any welding to be done on a structure or any part thereof shall be performed under the observation of a representative of a standard testing agency or an inspection agency responsible to the owner or registered architect or licensed professional engineer. Such agency shall qualify by written examination in order to be certified by the Commissioner of Buildings.
         (i)   The Commissioner of Buildings may, in the case of minor welding operations, including stairs and fire escapes, waive the requirements for inspection by a testing agency or inspection agency, if in his judgment such inspection may be adequately made by an inspector of welding employed regularly in the Department of Buildings.
         (ii)   Each welding inspector shall have three years experience in the field of welding and/or welding inspection in order to be certified by the Commissioner of Buildings and he shall be issued an identification card which shall be displayed upon request by the representative of the Dept. of Buildings. Welding inspectors shall have in their possession welding gauges for visual inspection.
      (2)   The agency as provided for in §25-01(j)(1) shall take adequate means to assure that the preparing, oxygen cutting, assembling and welding of the joints of the structure conform to the design and that the resulting structure is free from deficiencies and injurious defects. He shall keep and submit daily to the registered architect or licensed professional engineer responsible for the work and to the Building Commissioner adequate records of the progress of the work, of difficulties experienced, and of his decision of acceptance and rejection. His records shall allocate a definite and personal responsibility for his acceptance of every weld as to size, location, type of filler metal used and quality of workmanship, and shall evidence that no weld called for in the design has been omitted. He shall require that each welder place his identification symbol on his work, and the inspector after inspecting each weld shall do likewise.
         (i)   He shall inspect for defects and irregularities, plate cracks adjacent to or behind welds, crater cracks or cracks in the weld metal.
         (ii)   He shall gauge all welds for deficiency of throat or other critical cross-section.
         (iii)   He shall carefully observe and reject unallowable or out of tolerance undercutting, overlap or lack of fusion at edges of weld, lack of penetration, or porosity, location of craters, size and shape of bead, and order occasional chipping to determine penetration and correct all or any irregularities of workmanship contrary to the design.
         (iv)   He shall maintain a staff of inspectors numerous enough to provide one inspector for every twelve welders on each job at all times provided that the welders are within five tiers of each other.
      (3)   The contractor who is to do welding shall be approved by the Borough Superintendent. He shall submit to the Borough Superintendent a statement that the work will be done in accordance with these rules and the Administrative Code and shall include in such statement, the detailed procedure he proposes to follow, which shall include the following:  That each welder or group of welders shall be under the continual supervision of an experienced foreman.  That only welders qualified under these rules be employed. Each welder shall exhibit, when required, his Certificate of Qualification.  That each welding foreman shall be provided with proper gauges to check his work.  That the foreman shall be able to read blueprints and shall lay out and allocate the work each welder is to perform and he shall carefully observe the burn-off of the electrode; the fusion, and penetration of crater; the formation of the bead; and the sound of the arc.  That only the base metal and filler metal conforming to the job specifications and these rules be used.  That the welding equipment furnished shall have proper characteristics to allow good work. That whenever deemed necessary by the Borough Superintendent, such tests of the finished welds, shall be made as required by him.
      (4)   Daily inspection shall be made of preheating equipment to see that it is functioning properly. Preheat drying cabinets for low hydrogen electrodes shall be maintained within easy access of all welding operators. Above information to be included in daily welding inspectors reports.
      (5)   Before equipment used to supply welding current is used at the job site, it shall be tested at job site by the testing laboratory responsible for the welding to ascertain proper functioning of equipment and to establish the arc voltage and current produced by this equipment. This certification shall be filed with the welding report.
   (k)   Workmanship on welded structures & testing.
      (1)   The quality of welds permitted under this title shall conform to the requirements of Section 2, Design of Welded Connections – of AWS D1.0-66 – Code for Welding in Building Construction and addenda dated September 1967, of the American Welding Society.
      (2)   The arrangement of the joints to be welded shall be such as to enable the welder to have an unobstructed view of the surfaces to be welded at all times during the welding operation.
      (3)   Welds found deficient in dimensions, but not in quality may be enlarged by additional welding. Where a deficient weld renders the weld inaccessible, or has caused new conditions which would make reinforcement dangerous or ineffectual, the weld shall be removed and original conditions restored or in lieu thereof a revised design, correcting this condition, shall be submitted to the Borough Superintendent.  In removing defective parts of a weld, the gouging, chipping or grinding, shall not extend into the base metal any substantial amount beyond the depth of weld penetration unless cracks or other defects exist in the base metal.
      (4)   All complete-penetration butt welds, except when produced with the aid of a backing or welded from both sides in square edge material not more than 5/16 inch thick with root opening not less than one-half the thickness of the thinner part joint, shall have the root of the initial layer gouged or chipped out on the back side before welding is started from that side. Butt welds made with the use of a backing of the same material as the base metal shall have the weld metal thoroughly fused with the backing. Backing strips may be removed by pneumatic chipping or carbon arc gouging, after welding is completed, provided the weld surface is left flush or slightly convex with full throat thickness.
      (5)   To insure soundness, the ends of butt welds carrying stresses approaching the maximum allowable working stress shall be extended past the edges of the parts joined, by means of short extension bars providing a similar joint preparation and having a width not less than the thickness of the thicker part joined. If extension bars are removed upon completion of the weld, the ends of the weld shall be smooth and flush with the edges of the abutting parts. Where the metal is not more than 3/4 inch in thickness, the extension bars may be omitted if the ends of the butt weld are chipped or cut down to solid metal, and side welds are applied to fill out the ends to the same reinforcement as the faces of the weld.
      (6)   Tack welds located where the final welds will later be made shall be subject to the same quality requirements as the final welds. Where tack welds are encountered in the final welding, they shall be cleaned and fused thoroughly with the final weld. Defective, cracked or broken tack welds shall be removed before final welding.
      (7)   Surfaces to be welded shall be free from mill scale, rust, paint or other foreign matter. A thin coat of linseed oil or its equivalent over the surfaces to be welded need not be removed. These provisions shall apply to new structures and where new steel is to be welded to steel in any existing structure.  Structural steel shall not be painted on any areas where shop or field welding is to be performed except that a coat of linseed oil without pigment may be used for temporary protection. However, structural members which have been painted, may be welded, provided that the paint is completely removed from the areas to be welded. Parts which are welded in the shop, to be erected by bolts or rivets, shall receive the usual painting if any is required after the shop welding is finished. Parts to be field welded shall receive a coat of linseed oil after shop work is completed, and after erection and field welding, they shall be given two coats of acceptable metal protection of painting as required.
      (8)   Where rivets are under load there shall be no welding at the connections between structural members so riveted unless precautions are taken to prevent loss of tension of rivet in a manner approved by the Borough Superintendent.
      (9)   In assembling and during welding the component parts of a built up member shall be held by sufficient clamps or other adequate means shall be employed for temporarily fastening the members together and bracing the framework until the joints are welded. This shall consist of erection bolts or positive devices imparting sufficient strength and stiffness to resist all temporary weights and lateral forces, including wind.  For all welded structures, erection bolts, or equivalent means shall be employed for temporarily supporting the members, and existing loads, and for insuring proper alignment.  The temporary support of girders carrying columns or other heavy loads shall be made rigid by such means as shall be designed by the registered architect or licensed professional engineer in charge and approved by the Borough Superintendent.  In tier building erection, members shall not be erected more than two tiers, or more than one-column length above any column connections yet unwelded unless adequate temporary connections are provided.
      (10)   The welder shall be protected by adequate covering against high winds, rain, snow or sleet.  Where there is an accumulation of water, ice or snow in the joint to be welded, same shall be removed and the joint made dry before welding.  No welding shall be done when the temperature of the base metal is below O°F. At temperatures between 32° and O°F. the surface of all areas within three inches of the point where a weld is to be started shall be heated to a temperature specified in the Administrative Code.
      (11)   Non-destructive testing equipment.
         (i)   Non-Destructive Systems, methods and techniques for testing shop and field welds may be used on condition that all such systems, methods, techniques and apparatus shall first be approved by the Board. Such systems may use x-ray, radiography, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, dye penetrants, etc.
         (ii)   The results of actual performance tests by each system for which approval is sought shall be the criteria determining the limitations under which approvals shall be granted.
         (iii)   Each system of testing shall prove its unfailing ability to distinguish between good and faulty welds, by testing at least two samples of every class, size and type of weld, for which approval is sought. These weld samples shall be tested under conditions duplicating the conditions met in actual practice, such as:
            (A)   Shop welds or field welds or both.
            (B)   For field welds the test samples shall be temporarily installed in the most inaccessible parts of a structure where welding is to be tested.
            (C)   Flat, vertical or overhead positions.
            (D)   Maximum sizes (throats) of welds for which approval is sought.
            (E)   Types and alloys of base metals, for which approval is sought.
         (iv)   Two or more test samples for each type of weld shall be tested, of which one shall be a perfect weld, and at least one other shall include a flaw or imperfection, deliberately produced in the weld, by lack of penetration, inclusion of slag from the last pass, or such other flaws as the Board shall specify.
         (v)   After the designation and rating of each weld sample, by the apparatus under test, the samples with flaws shall be machine cut apart, through the throat of the weld, then polished and etched with acid to disclose the weld with the flaw. The samples with perfect welds shall be tested to failure by tension.
         (vi)   The Board shall determine the sizes, types and number of the samples to be tested, and shall decide which test results shall be acceptable for the approval of the method and type of apparatus under test and what limitations, if any, shall be included in any Resolution of Approval.
   (l)   Metal chimneys, tanks, stairs and fire-escapes. Metal chimneys, tanks, stairs and fire-escapes and all material entering into their construction, when welded, shall conform to these rules.  Stairs and fire-escapes shall be considered as light structural steel and where shop welded, shall have attached thereto a tag or label, affixed by the standard Testing Agency, to the effect that these rules have been complied with.
   (m)   Welding symbols. To provide for uniformity when plans are filed with the Borough Superintendent, welding shall be designated by symbols as given in Figure 9.
   (n)   The Board of Examiners for welders.
      (1)   The Board of Examiners for Welders shall be appointed by the Commissioner of Buildings from members of the staff of the department. All welders' licenses issued shall be uniform for the five boroughs and shall be issued in accordance with §25-01(o).
      (2)   Welders to be licensed. No person shall perform welding work on any structural members of a structure without having obtained a welder's license from the Board of Examiners for Welders except as provided in §25-01(n)(3).
         (i)   Before a welder's license may be issued authorizing a person to perform welding work on a structural member of a structure the person applying for such certificate shall have been qualified as provided in §27-616(b)(1).
         (ii)   The Commissioner of Buildings may revoke or suspend a license of any person if workmanship on any structural welding is such as to indicate incompetency or negligence which might endanger a structure or result in injury to human beings.
         (iii)   Renewal of a license may be made without additional requalification test if the applicant of record indicates one month of satisfactory welding experience during the previous year.
Figure 9.
      (3)   Exceptions to requirements for welders' licenses. Welders' licenses will not be required for the attachment of steel studs to structural beams by semi-automatic equipment when the method of attachment has been approved by the Board.
   (o)   Qualification tests for welders.
      (1)   Before the examiners for welders shall issue a welder's license, the applicant shall pass the applicable tests prescribed by the Department of Personnel. Where welders are to perform welding work outside of New York City on structures to be erected in the City of New York and said welders do not possess valid New York City welders' licenses, documentary evidence from a testing laboratory, acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings, and to the engineer or architect designated for controlled inspection, attesting that the applicant has passed the prescribed qualification test is acceptable for a specific structure.
      (2)   The foregoing provisions of §25-01(o)(1) are not intended to prohibit the re-testing of an applicant who has failed previous tests. Further, a welder qualified to perform welding outside of New York City by a testing laboratory may be required to re-qualify when he does not possess a valid New York City welder's license and said re-qualification is ordered by the testing laboratory and/or the engineer or architect responsible for controlled inspection of welding work.
      (3)   Classifications of licenses:
         Class I
         Shop and Field – For groove and fillet welding of unlimited thickness, and in all positions.
         Class 1 – Restricted
         Shops and Field – For groove welding materials of limited thickness (3/4 inch maximum) and for fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials, in all positions.
         Class 2
         Shop and Field – For groove welding of unlimited thickness in the flat position and for fillet welding in the flat and horizontal positions only.
         Class 2 – Restricted
         Shop Only – For groove welding of limited thickness materials (3/4 inch maximum) in the flat position and fillet welding in the flat and horizontal positions only.
         Class 3
         Shop and Field – For fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials in all positions.
         Class 3 – Restricted
         Shop Only – For fillet welding of unlimited thickness materials in the flat and horizontal positions only.
         Class 4
         Shop and Field – For arc welding in all positions of sheet steels or strip steels or both, including cold-formed members, 0.1345 inches (3.416 mm), 10 gauge or less in thickness. Such welding may involve connections of sheet steel or strip steel, or both, to thicker supporting structural members.
      (4)   Qualification requirements. The Commissioner of Buildings shall promulgate qualification requirements pursuant to §26-134 of the Administrative Code. Pending promulgation of said requirements, §25-01(f)(4) of these rules may be applicable.
      (5)   Re-test. In case a welder fails to meet the requirements of one or more test welds, a re-test may be allowed under the following conditions:
         (i)   An immediate re-test may be made which shall consist of two test welds of each of which he failed, each of which shall meet all the requirements specified for such welds.
         (ii)   A re-test may be made provided there is evidence that the welder has had further training or practice. In this case a complete re-test shall be made.
      (6)   Welders who have been certified by the Board of Examiners may be assigned to other electric arc welding processes. As a prerequisite to such an assignment, the welder shall have been trained in the process by his employer, an inspection agency, or a testing laboratory acceptable to the Commissioner, and said welder shall be given a certificate for the required test. No further certification by the Board of Examiners for Welders shall be required, except for annual renewals.  Welders who have been certified by the Board of Examiners for Class 1, or Class l-Restricted licenses are also qualified to perform Class 4, Shop and Field, electric arc welding work.  All persons performing welding shall have in their possession their welding license and any additional certifications issued pursuant to this subdivision (o). Upon request of an engineer or inspector of the department or upon request of an engineer or architect designated for controlled inspection of welding work on the structure or upon request of an authorized representative of a recognized testing laboratory designated to inspect welding work on the structure, a person performing welding, which welding is subject to these rules, shall present his license to said engineer, architect, inspector or testing laboratory representative for inspection.
      (7)   Existing licenses. All persons holding a valid welder certificate or qualification or welder's license issued prior to the promulgation of these revised rules of the Board shall be considered to have qualified under the tests prescribed herein.
   (p)   Quality control. The quality of welds permitted under the Building Code shall conform to the requirements of the Building Code (Administrative Code) and applicable reference standard adopted for use in New York City and with all other requirements of these rules and the Building Code.
   (q)   Supervision and inspection.
      (1)   All welding to be done on a structure or any part thereof and subject to these rules shall be performed under the observation of a representative of the licensed professional engineer or registered architect designated for controlled inspection, pursuant to §27-132 of the Administrative Code. The architect or engineer designated for controlled inspection may engage an inspection agency responsible to him, which agency shall be acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings. Welding inspection agencies shall have a minimum of 5 years experience as such, or have as a director of welding operations a licensed professional engineer or registered architect with such experience in the field of welding as shall be acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings. The Commissioner of Buildings shall maintain a list of acceptable inspection agencies.
         (i)   The Commissioner of Buildings may, in the case of minor welding operations, including stairs and fire escapes, waive the requirements for inspection when, in his judgment, such inspection may be adequately made by a steel inspector regularly employed by the Department of Buildings.
         (ii)   Except when a welding inspector is a registered architect or licensed professional engineer, each welding inspector shall have at least 3 years experience in the field of welding and/or welding inspection or possess a current New York City welding license in order to be authorized to inspect any welding. Each welding inspector, if other than the architect or engineer designated for controlled inspection, shall be acceptable to the engineer or architect and an affidavit to the effect that said inspector has the prerequisite experience and is acceptable is to be filed with each application for which the welding work is being performed before any welding operations are to commence. Unless directly employed by the architect or engineer responsible for controlled inspection, the inspectors shall be in the employ of an inspection agency acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings.
      (2)   Personnel performing welding inspection shall take adequate means to assure that the preparing, oxygen cutting, assembling, and welding of a structure conform to the design and that the resulting structure is free from deficiencies and injurious effects. Adequate daily records of the process of the work shall be maintained and submitted weekly to the registered architect or licensed professional engineer responsible for supervision of welding work. Such records shall be available to the Building Commissioner or his representative for a period of at least 2 years after the completion of all welding work. The records shall indicate a definite and personal responsibility for acceptance of every weld as to size, location, type of filler metal used and quality of workmanship, and show evidence that no weld called for in the design has been omitted. Each welder shall place his identification symbol on his work and the inspector, after inspecting each weld, shall do likewise.
         (i)   The inspector shall inspect for defects and irregularities, plate cracks adjacent to or behind welds, crater cracks or cracks in the weld metal.
         (ii)   The inspector shall gauge all welds for sufficiency of throat or other critical cross section dimensions.
         (iii)   The inspector shall carefully observe and reject unallowable or out of tolerance undercutting, overlap or lack of fusion at edges of weld, lack of penetration, porosity, location of craters, size and shape of bead and order occasional chipping to determine penetration and correct all or any irregularities of workmanship contrary to the design.
         (iv)   A staff of inspectors shall be available on each job site to provide either
            (A)   one (1) inspector for each six (6) welders located on any four (4) adjacent tiers or
            (B)   one (1) inspector for each twelve (12) welders when said welders are located on any two (2) immediately adjacent tiers.
      (3)   Daily inspection shall be made of preheating equipment to see that it is functioning properly. Drying cabinets for low hydrogen electrodes shall be maintained within easy access of all welding operators. Above information is to be included in daily welding inspector's reports.
      (4)   Before equipment used to supply welding current is used at the job site, it shall be tested at the job site by a welding inspector to ascertain proper functioning of the equipment and to establish the arc voltage and current produced by this equipment. This certification shall be filed with the welding report.
      (5)   The architect or engineer shall give consideration to inspection requirements of all welded joints that are critical to the integrity of the structure.
         (i)   Any nondestructive testing deemed necessary to assure the adequacy of critical welds shall be shown on the plans. This testing shall be in accordance with §25-01(r)(1) and (2).
         (ii)   In critical joints where there is high restraint to the shrinkage of large welds that apply strains in the thru-thickness direction of the material, nondestructive testing for lamellar tearing of the base metal behind the weld shall be specified. (See Commentary: on Highly Restrained Welded Connections, AISC Engineering Journal Third Quarter, 1973). These joints shall be shown on the plans and inspection procedures shall be in accordance with §25-01(r)(2).
         (iii)   To insure general weld quality, the architect or engineer shall specify a quality control program of 25% selection of other less critical groove and butt welds to be checked by nondestructive testing. The method of inspection shall be shown on the plans and be in accordance with §25-01(r)(1) and (2). For those welds over 24 inches in length which are specified for inspection only one quarter of their length need be examined. However, if in the opinion of the architect or engineer, nondestructive testing is not required, he shall so specify on the plans.
   (r)   Nondestructive testing.
      (1)   Nondestructive testing of weld metal area, as defined by AWS A3.0-69 may be specified by the architect or engineer designated for control inspection to augment other inspection requirements, or may be required by the Commissioner of Buildings should there be evidence as to the inadequacy of any welding. Nondestructive testing specified in §25-01(q)(5) shall be required.
      (2)   Nondestructive testing of welds shall conform with the requirements of Section 6.7 Nondestructive Testing of AWS D1.1-72 Structural Welding Code, 1972 and AWS D1.1-Rev. 1-73, 1973 Revisions to Structural Welding Code. Other methods of nondestructive testing acceptable to the Commissioner of Buildings consistent with good practice may be used.  Where required by these rules or by the plans, the following ultrasonic inspection procedure shall be followed:
         (i)   Equipment and personnel shall be qualified in accordance with AWS D1.1-72 and AWS D1.l-Rev. 1-73, Part III of Section 6 Inspection, hereafter referred to as AWS D.1.
         (ii)   The weld itself shall be tested in full accordance with AWS D.1.
         (iii)   The rectangular area of base metal directly behind the weld (that material subjected to thru-thickness weld shrinkage strains) shall be inspected for lamellar tearing in accordance with AWS D. 1.1 except that base metal shall be evaluated in accordance with the following:
            (A)   All discontinuities detected in the base metal behind the weld which have a decibel rating more serious than that permitted by Table 8.15.3, line 1, "Large Reflectors," AWS D1.1, shall be recorded. (Testing shall be done from Face A and/or B as defined by AWS D1.1, Legend of Table 6.20.5.2, with a 70° transducer where possible).
            (B)   All recorded discontinuities in the base metal as described above and in addition any visual indication of lamellar tearing shall be referred to the architect or engineer. The architect or engineer, after giving due consideration to the character, size, and location of any discontinuities in addition to the stress condition shall determine the corrective measures, if any, which are to be taken. When the safety of the structure is deemed questionable by the Commissioner of Buildings, such further testing as required by §27-597, shall be performed and if deemed unsatisfactory, the defects shall be corrected.  Weld thickness (in.) in Table 8.15.3 AWS D1.1 shall be taken as the thickness of the material bound by Face A and Face B.
      (3)   Nondestructive testing equipment. Nondestructive systems, methods and techniques for testing shop and field welds may be used on condition that all such systems, methods, techniques and apparatus shall be in accordance with Section 6 of AWS D1.1-72 and AWS D1.1-Rev. 1-73, unless otherwise specified herein. Equipment shall be required to be acceptable to an inspection Agency or Welding approved by the City.
   (a)   The minimum thickness of all components being welded must be:
      (1)   Three-quarter inch in the case of members or portions of members stressed in excess of 50 percent of their permissible stress.
      (2)   One-half inch in all other cases.
   (b)   Nondestructive testing and inspection.
      (1)   Ultrasonic testing shall be the primary method of testing electroslag welds with radiography being used only for evaluation of questionable discontinuities in accordance with the Board's rules for Arc and Gas Welding and Oxygen Cutting of Steel §25-01, covering the specifications for design, fabrication and inspection of arc and gas welded steel structures and the qualification of welders and supervisors, §25-01(q)(5)(i), (r)(1), (r)(2) and (r)(3).
      (2)   Welds subject to levels of shear or tensile stresses in excess of 50 percent of permissible stresses shall be subject to examination and nondestructive testing over 100 percent of such length of the joint.
      (3)   In electroslag welds stopped at any point in the length of the joint and which are not restarted before a delay of one minute, due consideration should be given toward complete weld removal and subsequent replacement of the entire weld. In the event removal is not feasible, welds may be completed with the stipulation that repairs be made with use of a procedure specified by the design engineer approved by the Building Department and with the repaired area completely examined with the use of ultrasonic methods supplemented by radiographic methods, where practical.
   (c)   The use of electroslag welding process shall not be authorized for use with:
      (1)   A514 steel.
      (2)   Any other quenched and tempered steel material.
   (d)   Except for compression welds, electroslag welding is forbidden for elements of structures that will be directly exposed to outside temperatures after completion of the building or structure unless 100 percent of the length of such welds are subject to nondestructive testing regardless of the degree of stress.
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