(a)   Definitions.
      Automatic fire extinguishing system. The term "automatic fire extinguishing system" shall mean:
         (i)   A system of piping connected to one or more acceptable sources of water supply, which system is provided with approved distributing devices so arranged and located as to automatically discharge an effective spray over the interior of the building in the event of fire therein; or
         (ii)   A system of piping and distributing devices automatically controlled, connected to an adequate supply of chemical fire extinguishing media of an approved type suitable for the hazard involved.
      Factory building. The term "factory building" shall mean a factory building as defined by Section 10 of the New York State Labor Law.  Section 10. "Factory building" means a building, shed or structure which or any part of which, is occupied by or used for a factory, and in which at least one-tenth or more than twenty-five of all the persons employed in the building are engaged in work for a factory, but shall not include a building in a city having a population of more than one million, used exclusively by one employer and in which not more than one-tenth of all the persons employed therein are engaged in work for a factory and which, except for such factory work, would be classified as a mercantile establishment. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to any part of a building occupied or used as a factory, except as otherwise provided by this subdivision.
      Non-flammable.
         (i)   The term "non-flammable" as used in these rules when applied to solids shall mean materials which will not ignite and continue to burn when brought in contact for five seconds with an open flame or when in contact with glowing materials.
         (ii)   The term "non-flammable" as used in these rules when applied to liquids shall mean any liquid which will not generate a flammable vapor at a temperature of 300° F or less when tested in a Tagliabue open cup tester.
      Volatile flammable oils or solvents. The term "volatile flammable oils or solvents" as used in these rules shall mean any liquid mixture or compound that will generate a flammable vapor at a temperature of 110° F or less when in a Tagliabue open cup tester.
   (b)   Medium hazards.
      Bagging, manufacturing
      Bags, Cloth, Paper or Burlap, manufacturing
      Bakeries except retail bakeries and except bakeries where all products baked are consumed on the premises
      Bamboo or Rattan Products, manufacturing
      Baskets (other than metal), manufacturing
      Bookbinding  Boots or Shoes, manufacturing
      Burlap, manufacturing  Buttons, manufacturing, except non-flammable buttons
      Candles, or wax products, manufacturing
      Canvas, manufacturing
      Cardboard, manufacturing
      Cereal Mills
      Chemical Works (except where volatile flammable oils or solvents are used, stored or manufactured)
      Cloth, Backing
      Cloth, Dyeing or Printing Works
      Cloth, manufacturing
      Confectionery Products, manufacturing
      Cotton Batting or Waste, manufacturing
      Dry Cleaning and Dyeing Industrial Plants (except those using volatile flammable oils)
      Distilleries
      Envelope, manufacturing
      Excelsior or Excelsior Products, manufacturing or storage
      Feed, Flour or Grist Mills
      Felt or Felt Products, manufacturing
      Furniture, manufacturing, repairing or refinishing
      Furs or Fur Products, manufacturing or processing
      Gloves, manufacturing
      Handbags, Luggage or Trunks, manufacturing
      Hats, manufacturing
      Knitting, Weaving or Embroidering
      Laundries
      Leather Goods, manufacturing
      Lithographing
      Millinery, manufacturing (except custom)
      Paper Pulp Mills
      Paper Boxes or Cartons, manufacturing
      Pencil, manufacturing
      Picture Frame, manufacturing
      Plastic Articles (except non-flammable)
      Printing except incidental to primary use with area not exceeding 2000 feet
      Rag sorting or processing
      Rope, Cordage and Twine, manufacturing
      Rubber Products, manufacturing
      Rugs, manufacturing
      Shades, Window, manufacturing
      Silk, manufacturing
      Straw Goods, manufacturing
      Synthetic Yarns or Fabric, manufacturing, except non-flammable
      Tanneries
      Tobacco Products, manufacturing
      Umbrella, manufacturing
      Upholstering
      Woodworking
   (c)   High hazards.
      Aluminum, powdered, manufacturing
      Artificial Flowers, manufacturing
      Artificial Leather, manufacturing
      Carpet cleaning, using volatile flammable oils or solvents
      Chemical manufacturing using volatile flammable oils or solvents
      Combustible or flammable mixtures, manufacturing
      Compressed Gases, manufacturing, flammable or explosive
      Cotton Picking and Opening Operations
      Dry Cleaning Plants, using volatile flammable solvents
      Enameling (except vitrous enameling) using more than 2 qts. per day or storing more than 20 gals.
      Essential Oils or Perfumes, manufacturing
      Feathers, processing
      Fireworks
      Linoleum, manufacturing
      Linseed Oil
      Mills
      Lithographing Inks (except non-flammable), manufacturing
      Magnesium (powdered), manufacturing or processing (Chemical Extinguishing system only)
      Mattress manufacturing or repairing
      Matches, manufacturing
      Nail Polish, manufacturing
      Nitrocellulose Products, manufacturing or processing
      Painting or Lacquering using more than 2 qts. per day or storing more than 20 gals.
      Paint, Varnish, Enameling, Lacquers, Lithographing ink (except non-flammable), manufacturing
      Pharmaceutical Products, manufacturing
      Plastics, manufacturing, except non-flammable
      Raincoats, manufacturing (using rubber)
      Rubber Cement, manufacturing
      Shoddy Mills
      Silk Screen Printing
      Starch or Sugar Mills
      Surgical Sutures, manufacturing, processing or packing
      Solvent Extracting (other than non-flammable)
      Tallow, manufacturing
      Tires (rubber), re-capping, re-treading or vulcanizing
      Volatile, Flammable Oils, Solvents, or Mixtures, manufacturing
      Woodworking with painting, varnishing, lacquering or shellacking
   (a)   General requirements. The rules contained herein cover the general details of a sprinkler equipment only. Before an equipment is installed or before a present equipment is remodeled, involving 10 or more heads on any floor, complete working plans shall be submitted for approval to Fire Department, with such specification forms as may be required by the Fire Commissioner, except for the installation of the connection to the water main service pipe and meter setting, which shall be approved by the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection.
   (b)   Plans. These plans shall be drawn to an indicated scale; give correct address and points of compass; show longitudinal and cross sections of the building with story heights, and the essential features of the construction, viz., size, location and direction of joists, timbers or other structural members. They shall also indicate the location and size of water supplies, connecting pipes, feed mains and risers, gate, check, alarm and dry-pipe valves, as well as the location, spacing, number and type of sprinklers. Plans for non-automatic dry-pipe systems shall indicate the location and number of actuating devices.
   (c)   Final approval. Upon approval of preliminary plans such number of sets of clean, corrected plans on cloth as the Fire Commissioner may require, not exceeding three (3), shall be filed for final approval of the Fire Commissioner. A certified copy of the approved plans shall be forwarded to the Department of Buildings by the Bureau of Fire Prevention. If the structure is equipped with a standpipe (fire line) the plans shall include a note to that effect.  When entirely completed in accordance with the approved plans, application shall be made to the Bureau of Fire Prevention for test and acceptance of the completed installation. When the sprinkler equipment is approved the applicant will be so advised in writing by the Bureau of Fire Prevention.
   (d)   Definitions.
      Automatic extinguisher systems. "Automatic extinguisher systems" shall consist of a system of piping connected to one or more acceptable sources of water supply, provided with distributing devices so arranged and located as to discharge and diffuse automatically an effective stream or spray over the interior of the building area.
   (e)   Classification of sprinkler systems. For the purpose of these rules, sprinkler systems shall be classified as:
      (1)   Automatic Wet Pipe Systems, in which all pipes and sprinkler heads are at all times filled with water;
      (2)   Automatic Dry Pipe Systems, in which the pipes and sprinkler heads are filled with air, either compressed or at atmospheric pressure, and the water supply is controlled by a Dry Pipe Valve as defined in §10-02(11)(5) of these rules.
      (3)   Non-Automatic Systems, in which all pipes and sprinkler heads are maintained dry, equipped with a siamese fire department connection.  An automatic thermostatic or pneumatic fire alarm with direct connection to Central Office of one of the operating fire alarm companies or Fire Department Headquarters shall be provided in connection with all non-automatic sprinkler systems.
   (f)   Approved devices. Automatic sprinklers and accessory appliances shall include all devices approved as such by any recognized standard research laboratory on the endorsement of approval by resolution of the Board of Standards and Appeals.
   (g)   Water supply. Approved sources of water supply shall be classified as Automatic and Auxiliary.
      (1)   Automatic Sources shall include the Gravity Tank, the Pressure Tank, or direct connection to the Public Water System.
      (2)   Auxiliary Sources shall include the Fire Pump and the Fire Department siamese connection.
   (h)   Gravity tank. Gravity tanks shall contain an available quantity of water sufficient to supply twenty-five percent (25%) of the number of sprinkler heads in the average protected fire area for twenty (20) minutes, but not less than 5,000 gallons; and the bottom of the tank shall have an elevation of not less than twenty (20) feet above the highest line of sprinklers below the main roof. Gravity tank or tanks shall not be required to be elevated above the highest sprinklers in penthouse having an area less than 2,500 sq. ft., unless such penthouse contains a hazardous occupancy, or is used for the storage of combustible material. Where a split system is installed the bottom of the tank or tanks need not be elevated more than 3 feet above the main roof or 20 feet above the highest sprinkler fed from an intermediate tank.  Where a tank capacity in excess of 25,000 gallons is required by this subdivision (h), the amount of water in excess of 25,000 gallons shall be provided in separate tanks not grouped together except when tanks of unlimited capacities are supported on structures altogether independent of buildings.  The tank shall be filled through a fixed pipe, independent of the sprinkler piping, not less than two (2) inches in size, discharging into the top of the tank. The water supply and connections shall be capable of supplying the tank at a rate of not less than sixty-five (65) gallons per minute.  The filling pipe shall be carried up inside a frost-proof casing and may extend through tank bottom to discharge at top of tank above full water level. The portion of pipe inside tank must be of brass or copper or other noncorrosive material.  Tanks shall not be fed through sprinkler lines.  The sprinkler and standpipe tanks may be fed from a common source of supply, either a pump or a direct service main connection, provided that there are separate feed mains from the basement or lowest story and a control valve in each feed line in a pump or engine room.  The overflow pipe shall be not less than two (2) inches in diameter for tanks up to 30,000 gallons capacity and not less than three (3) inches in diameter for larger tanks. The top of the overflow pipe shall be three (3) inches below the top of the staves in wooden tanks and one (1) inch from the top in steel tanks. The pipe may extend through the bottom of tank provided the portion inside tank is of brass or copper or other non-corrosive metal and without joints or it may extend through side of tank. For tanks over roofs overflow pipes shall terminate not more than twenty-four (24) inches above roof and shall be fitted with a 90 degree elbow. At each gravity or pressure tank there shall be provided a 4 inch emergency drain, and for gravity tanks in excess of ten thousand (10,000) gallons capacity a six inch (6") emergency drain must be provided. Such drain to be equipped with an O.S. and Y. gate valve arranged to discharge on the roof of building not more than twenty-four (24") above roof and shall be fitted with a 90 degree elbow. When the tank or tanks are on a separate structure independent of buildings, drain connections to be arranged to discharge at ground level.
   (i)   Frost proofing.
      (1)   The discharge, heating or filling pipes where exposed to the weather shall be protected from freezing in the following manner:
         (i)   Pipes painted two (2) coats of red lead in linseed oil with a small percentage of litharge as a hardener.
         (ii)   One wrapping of tar paper equivalent to Asphalt Saturated Wool Felt paper weighing 12 lbs. per 100 sq. ft.
         (iii)   Three (3) layers of standard 1" high grade long cow's hair felt interposed and covered with one (1) layer of builder's paper equivalent to red rosin sized sheathing paper weighing 40 lbs. per 500 sq. ft.
         (iv)   One (1) covering of 8 oz. canvas, painted with two (2) coats of waterproofed paint.
      (2)   Application. All wrappings to be independently applied and securely fastened in place with heavy jute twine. Circumferential and longitudinal joints to have at least a 2" lap staggered with adjacent layers and opposing leakage to the hair felt.
      (3)   In groups of pipes each water pipe is to be wrapped separately with the tar paper, but subsequent layers of felt and paper may be applied collectively if space does not permit individual wrapping.
      (4)   Where a heating pipe is one of the group, the wrapping should be applied so that the hot line would serve all pipes in the enclosure. The initial wrapping of tar paper around each water pipe should be applied with laps down and the whole group wrapped with tar paper with laps up. If due to the position of the hot line sufficient air space would not insulate the hair felt, then protection to be effected by suitable separators, or a wrapping of asbestos paper instead of the tar paper around the group.
      (5)   On vertical pipes particular provision to be made to prevent slipping and tearing of insulation due to its weight.
      (6)   To prevent slipping away of insulation at point of entrance of pipes into a tank, and to shed leakage from slip joints, a 16 oz. duck to be provided, doubled and securely fastened to bottom of the tank overlapping inside and outside the insulation of the group for a distance of 18" below the tank. This duck to be well coated with paint. Loose hair felt to be packed about connections at tank bottom to safeguard against settling.
   (j)   Tank ladders and supports. Easy access to top of each tank shall be provided by means of a steel or wrought iron gooseneck ladder substantially constructed of flat iron side bars of not less than 2" × 1/2", or angle iron strings not less than 13/4" × 13/4" × 1/4", spaced not less than 14" apart, with rungs round or square not less than 5/8", spaced not more than 12" on centres, the ladder rigidly braced, and shall not tip outward from the vertical at any point, and when ladders exceed 20 feet in height an iron platform not less than 14" square, rigidly secured to strings of ladder and properly braced shall be provided near top of tank.  Tanks above roofs shall be constructed according to the requirements of the Building Code and supporting structures shall be approved by the Buildings Superintendent. Tanks not enclosed and exposed to the weather shall be covered with a double roof of acceptable construction consisting of a tight flat cover of matched boards and above this a conical roof which shall be covered with an approved roofing. Where a gravity tank is located on a structure altogether independent of buildings the bottom shall not be less than 20 feet above the highest line of sprinklers below the main roof of the highest building in a group of buildings.
   (k)   Pressure tank. Pressure tanks shall contain sufficient water to supply twelve and one-half percent (12 1/2%) of the number of sprinklers in the average protected fire area for twenty (20) minutes, but not less than 3,000 gallons of water for a wet pipe system where supplemented by an auxiliary water supply, and not less than 5,000 gallons of water for a dry-pipe system. No single tank shall have a capacity greater than 6,000 gallons of water. The tank shall be kept two-thirds (2/3) full of water under a pressure of seventy-five (75) pounds per square inch, and shall be so proportioned and located that a pressure of not less than fifteen (15) pounds per square inch will be available on the highest line of sprinklers below the main roof.  A pressure tank or tanks shall not be located below the highest line of sprinklers under the main roof supplied by such tank or tanks and shall not be required to be located above the highest line of sprinklers in a penthouse having an area less than 2,500 square feet unless such penthouse contains a hazardous occupancy or is used for the storage of combustible materials. Where a split system is installed the bottom of the intermediate tank shall be located above the highest line of sprinklers fed from such tanks.  The water shall be supplied through a fixed pipe, independent of the sprinkler piping, not less than two inches in size. The water supply and connections shall be capable of supplying the tank at a rate of not less than sixty-five (65) gallons per minute without reducing the pressure in the tank. The tank shall have a fixed metallic horizontal line on the end opposite the glass gauge, or other acceptable device, to indicate the level of the water when the tank is two-thirds full.  The air compressor shall be of sufficient capacity to increase the air pressure at the average rate of one (1) pound in two minutes in each pressure tank.
   (l)   Public water system. Direct connection to the city water supply shall be capable of furnishing water, at not less than fifteen (15) pounds per square inch static pressure at the highest line of sprinklers below the main roof.
      (1)   Where the average pressure from the city water supply does not comply with this subdivision (l) but is sufficient to give at least five pounds at the highest line of sprinklers as determined by test, an automatic, electrically driven pump installed for the purpose of boosting or increasing the city water pressure in the sprinkler system may be accepted under the following conditions:  Pump to be a single stage, centrifugal, of approved design, to be of not less than 500 gallons per minute capacity and to otherwise comply with §10-02(m).
      (2)   Pump to be automatic, arranged to maintain 25 pounds at highest line of sprinklers at rated capacity and to be under the supervision and directly connected to the office of one of the fire alarm companies which is connected to Fire Department headquarters.
      (3)   The acceptance of this form of an automatic water supply shall be limited to an individual building not exceeding 80 feet in height, requiring not more than 100 sprinklers in the largest fire area.
      (4)   Subject to the requirements of the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection, the size of each connection shall be as large as that of the main riser and not less than four (4) inches, and shall have a post indicator manually operated control valve, painted green, sealed open in an approved manner, located on the first story or at the sidewalk level near point of main entrance to building, and be provided with a sign secured to post reading: sprinkler control to city main.
      (5)   House service water supply connection may be taken from the sprinkler water supply connection to the city main on the inlet side of the fire meter, not exceeding 1 1/4 inches in diameter for a 4-inch connection, and 2 inches in diameter for a 6-inch or larger connection.
      (6)   A certificate establishing the fact that water supply conditions and pressures are as may be required shall be submitted to the Fire Department from the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection.
   (m)   Fire pump. As auxiliary sources of water supply, steam or electric standard fire pumps shall receive water supply from a suction tank, a direct connection to the city water main or other approved sources capable of supplying the pump at its rated capacity for sixty (60) minutes. The rated capacity of the pump shall be not less than five hundred (500) gallons per minute, and shall be sufficient to supply twenty-five percent (25%) of the number of sprinklers in the average protected fire area.  The pump shall be located in a room of fireproof construction, properly ventilated, lighted and drained, enclosed in eight (8) inch brick or concrete walls with approved fire doors at openings and with fireproof floor and ceiling construction. If located in the lowest story of the building, the pump shall be placed on a foundation not less than one (1) foot in height. The pump room shall be readily accessible with safe egress for the attendant.  A reliable source of energy for driving the pump shall be provided. For steam pumps, provision shall be made for sufficient steam power to operate the pumps at full rated capacity, and a steam pressure of not less than fifty (50) pounds shall be maintained at the pump at all times. Where there is more than one boiler, the pipes and valves shall be so arranged to permit the cutting out of any one boiler without interrupting the steam supply to the pump from the other boilers. The boiler room shall be cut off from the remainder of the building by fireproof floor and wall construction with approved fire doors at all openings.  Electrical energy from a public service plant shall be acceptable as a source of energy for driving electric fire pumps. When local power plants supply the energy for operating electric pumps, two motor generator units shall be provided, or one generator unit supplemented by a public service break-down switch. Local electric power plants shall be located in rooms of fireproof construction with approved fire doors at openings.
   (n)   Sprinkler discharge. For the purpose of computing the capacity of water supplies, standard one-half (1/2) inch sprinkler heads shall be assumed to have an average discharge of twenty (20) gallons per minute, and the discharge of larger heads shall be computed proportionately in the ratio of the areas of their respective orifices.
   (o)   Fire area. A fire area is any floor space enclosed on all sides by exterior walls or fire walls or a combination of both.  In a non-fireproof building with mill or non-fireproof floors and roof, such wall shall be not less than 8 in. in thickness if of brick or stone, and not less than 6 in. if of reinforced concrete, and extending continuously from the lowest story to at least 3 ft. above the roof and be coped.  In a fireproof building such wall or walls shall be of fireproof material not less than 6 in. in thickness, and shall extend from the fireproof floor to ceiling, or underside of fireproof roof.  No opening shall exceed 66 in. in width, or 60 square feet in area, the center of every opening in such walls shall be at least 40 ft. from the center of every other opening therein at the same level.  All openings shall be provided with approved automatic fire doors on each side of openings.  The number of sprinklers in the average protected fire area shall be determined by the number of sprinklered stories in such section. In determining the required capacity of water supplies, the number of sprinklers in the average protected fire area need not include those located in low positions, such as under benches, low shelves, closets and platforms and between cars in car barns.
   (p)   Fire Department connection. All automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided with at least one two-way siamese connection on each street front of the building for connection to the fire department hose. Buildings fronting on only one street shall be provided with at least two siamese connections when the street frontage of building exceeds two hundred (200) feet.  Where buildings have frontages on more than one street there shall be a fire department connection on each street front where frontage is not continuous but in all cases where more than one Fire Department connection is required they shall be located as the Fire Commissioner may direct and shall not be grouped. The siamese headers shall be of the same diameter as the largest riser or cross connection, but in no case less than 4 inches or more than 6 inches.  All siamese hose connections hereinafter installed, except those on piers or warehouses intended for fire boat use, shall be three (3) inch, female connection. Siamese on piers, warehouses, etc., intended for fireboat use, except where the source of supply is from a direct connection to city main, shall be not less than 3 1/2-inch male connections with standard fire department threads.  The siamese shall be placed at least eighteen (18) inches and not more than three (3) feet above the sidewalk, in a horizontal position accessible to the Fire Department. Each inlet shall be provided with a clapper valve machined to a true face.  Each siamese connection shall be designated by raised letters at least one (1) inch in size, cast in the fitting in a clear and prominent manner and reading for the service designated, viz.: "Base. Spkr.," etc., as the case may be. If the entire building is sprinklered, the fitting shall be marked "Auto. Spkr."  Siamese hose connections may project through a street wall not more than twelve (12) inches beyond the building line except that where there is an angle formed by the street wall and a check piece or the base of a column, pilaster or ornamental projection, they may be so located that no part extends more than fifteen (15) inches from either side of such angle in accordance with the provisions of the Building Code.  In each Fire Department connection there shall be an approved straightway check valve installed in a horizontal position, the piping shall be arranged to drain between the check valve and the outside siamese coupling by either a ball drip having a one-half (1/2) inch pipe connection and one-half (1/2) inch orifice and a bronze ball of proper size, or by a three-quarter (3/4) inch drip connection arranged to drain to a sewer.  All sprinkler siamese street risers, siamese wall collars and adjustable siamese caps shall be painted green.
   (q)   Sprinkler systems classified.
      (1)   One Source Systems, supplied with water from any one of the automatic sources or the automatic supervised fire pump specified in §10-02(l); and
      (2)   Two Source Systems, supplied with water from a combination of any two of the automatic sources; two pressure tanks with a total water capacity twice that required for a one source supply; direct connection to the city water supply on two different streets, so located that the closing of the controlling valve on one main will not eliminate the main on the other street; or a direct connection to the city water supply and one of the auxiliary sources provided the water supply connection is at least six (6) inches in size, the main is fed both ways and a two (2) inch test pipe at the top of the sprinkler riser shows a flowing pressure of fifteen (15) pounds per square inch between the hours of six a.m. to six p.m.
   (r)   Sprinkler spacing. Sprinkler heads and lines shall be spaced as herein provided:  Mill construction. Under mill ceiling (smooth solid plank and timber construction, 5 to 12 foot bays) one line of sprinklers shall be placed in the center of each bay and the distance between the heads on each line shall not exceed the following:
      (1)   For Standard one-half (1/2) inch heads –   8 feet in 12 foot bays;  9 feet in 11 foot bays;  10 feet in 10 foot bays;  11 feet in 9 foot bays;  12 feet in 5 to 8 foot bays;
      (2)   For Conran* one (1) inch heads –   20 feet in 5 to 12 foot bays.
      (3)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads –   25 feet in 5 to 12 foot bays.
      (4)   Vaults used for the storage of nitro-cellulose products and vaults used for the storage of flammable motion picture films shall have one standard one-half (1/2) inch head for each 62 1/2 cubic feet of available storage space, or one (1) inch Conran head for each 250 cubic feet of available storage space.  Measurements shall be taken from center to center of timbers.  Ceilings of modified mill construction having bays less than three (3) feet wide shall be treated as open joist construction and sprinkler heads and lines spaced accordingly.  Bay timbers spaced three (3) feet or more on centers, but less than five (5) feet on centers, will require special ruling by the administrative official having jurisdiction.
   (s)   Joisted construction. Under open finish joisted construction ceilings, floor, decks and roofs, the sprinkler lines shall be run at right angles to the joists and the heads "Staggered spaced" so that heads on one line will be opposite a point halfway between heads on adjacent lines.
      (1)   One-half inch heads. For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads the distance between lines of sprinklers shall not exceed ten (10) feet, and the distance between heads on each line shall not exceed eight (8) feet, the end heads on alternate lines being spaced not more than two (2) feet from wall or partition. Permission may be given by the administrative official having jurisdiction to install but one line of sprinklers, in each bay where girders project below the underside of joists and divide the ceiling into bays ten (10) to eleven and one-half (11 1/2) feet wide from center to center of girders, and the heads shall then be spaced on each line so that the area covered by a single head does not exceed eighty (80) square feet. In all cases where such bays are over eleven and one-half (11 1/2) feet wide, two or more lines of sprinklers shall be installed in each bay as required by the rules for spacing. Where girders and joists are flush at the bottom, heads shall be spaced according to the general rule.
      (2)   One inch heads. For Conran* one (1) inch heads the distance between adjacent lines shall not exceed twenty (20) feet and the distance between the heads on each line shall not exceed sixteen (16) feet, the end heads on alternate lines being spaced not more than four (4) feet from wall or partition. Where girders project below the underside of joists and divide the ceiling into bays not exceeding twenty (20) feet in width, measured from center to center of girders, one line shall be placed in the center of each bay. In bays exceeding twenty (20) feet in width at least two (2) lines shall be installed in each bay and in no case shall the distance between adjacent lines exceed twenty (20) feet.
      (3)   One and one-quarter inch heads. For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads the distance between adjacent lines shall not exceed twenty-five (25) feet and the distance between the head on each line shall not exceed twenty (20) feet, the end head on alternate lines being spaced not more than five (5) feet from wall or partition. Where girders project below the underside of joists and divide the ceiling into bays not exceeding twenty-five (25) feet in width, measured from center to center of girders, one line shall be placed in the center of each bay. In bays exceeding twenty-five (25) feet in width at least two (2) lines shall be installed in each bay, and in no case shall the distance between adjacent lines exceed twenty-five (25) feet.
   (t)   Smooth finish, sheathed or plastered ceilings. Under smooth finish, sheathed or plastered ceilings, in bays six (6) feet wide and over (measurements to be taken from center to center of timber, girder or other projection or support forming the bay), sprinkler heads and lines shall be spaced as follows:
      (1)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads – One line of sprinklers shall be placed in the center of each bay for bays not exceeding twelve (12) feet in width, and the distance between the heads on each line shall not exceed the following:  8 feet in 12 foot bays;  9 feet in 11 foot bays;  10 feet in 6 to 10 foot bays.  Bays in excess of twelve (12) feet in width and less than twenty-three (23) feet in width, shall contain at least two (2) lines of sprinklers; bays twenty-three (23) feet in width or over shall have the lines therein not over ten (10) feet apart. In bays in excess of twelve (12) feet in width, not more than one hundred (100) square feet of ceiling area shall be allotted to any single head.
      (2)   For Conran one (1) inch heads – One line of sprinklers shall be placed in the center of each bay for bays not exceeding twenty (20) feet in width, and the distance between the heads on each line shall not exceed twenty (20) feet. Bays in excess of twenty (20) feet in width shall contain at least two (2) lines and in no case shall the distance between adjacent lines exceed twenty (20) feet.
      (3)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads – One line of sprinklers shall be placed in the center of each bay for bays not exceeding twenty-five (25) feet in width and the distance between the heads on each line shall not exceed twenty-five (25) feet. Bays in excess of twenty-five (25) feet in width shall contain at least two (2) lines and in no case shall the distance between adjacent lines exceed twenty-five (25) feet.
   (u)   Fireproof construction. The rules of slow-burning mill construction shall apply as far as practicable. The rule may be modified, however, the intent being to arrange the spacing of heads to protect the contents rather than the ceilings; but in no case shall the distance between a head on one line and a head on an adjacent line exceed the following:
      (1)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, 12 feet.
      (2)   For Conran* one (1) inch heads, 20 feet.
      (3)   For Conran* one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads, 25 feet.
   (v)   Distance from walls. The distance from wall or partition to the first head on a sprinkler line shall not exceed one-half the allowable distance between the heads on such line. Additional heads may be required in the narrow pockets formed by bay timbers or beams and wall. Where beams, girders, columns, walls, partitions or other obstructions prevent the effective discharge of water, additional heads shall be installed to effectively sprinkle the area.
   (w)   Vertical shafts. In vertical shafts having flammable sides, heads shall be provided within the shaft in addition to the head or heads at the top of shafts, as follows:
      (1)   One standard one-half (1/2) inch head for each 200 square feet of flammable surface.
      (2)   One Conran one (1) inch head for each 400 square feet of flammable surface.
      (3)   One Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch head for each 500 square feet of flammable surface.  Such head or heads shall be installed at each floor when practicable, and always when shaft is trapped. Where practicable, heads shall be "staggered" at the alternate floor levels, particularly when only one head is installed at each floor level.
   (x)   Pitched roofs. Under a pitched roof sloping more steeply than one (1) foot in three (3) feet, heads shall be located in peak of roof, and those on either side of the peak shall be spaced according to the foregoing requirements. The distance between heads shall be measured on a line parallel with the roof. Where the roof meets the side wall or the floor line, the heads shall be placed not more than the following distance from such intersection:
      (1)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, 3 1/2 feet.
      (2)   For Conran one (1) inch heads, 7 feet.
      (3)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads, 8 1/2 feet.  Heads spaced not to exceed the following distance each way from the peak to roof, measured on a line parallel with the roof, may be used in lieu of heads located in peak of roof.
      (4)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, 2 1/2 feet.
      (5)   For Conran one (1) inch heads, 5 feet.
      (6)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads, 6 1/4 feet.  In sawtooth roof construction, the end heads on the branch line shall be spaced not to exceed the following distance from the peak of the sawtooth:
      (7)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, 2 1/2 feet.
      (8)   For Conran one (1) inch heads, 5 feet.
      (9)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads, 6 1/4 feet.
   (y)   Special locations and variations. In special locations, such as over electric generating, power and transforming apparatus, over their controlling devices and switch-boards, where water from the fire extinguishing equipment would be detrimental, the sprinkler lines and heads may be omitted at the discretion of the administrative official having jurisdiction, and when in his judgment a slight variation of this subdivision (y) of spacing is desirable to effect a more efficient distribution of water for fire extinguishing purposes, the sprinkler lines and heads shall be spaced as he may direct.
   (z)   Sprinkler position. All sprinkler heads shall be located, wherever possible, in an upright position on top of the pipes, except that sprinkler heads on automatic wet pipe systems may be pendent on concealed piping and when construction or occupancy of a room or enclosure makes it preferable.
      (1)   Where standard one-half (1/2) inch heads are installed sprinkler deflectors shall be parallel to ceilings, roofs or the incline of stairs, but when installed in the peak of a pitched roof they shall be horizontal. Distance of deflectors from ceilings of mill or other smooth construction, or bottom of joists of open joist construction, shall be not less than three (3) inches nor more than ten (10) inches.  In fireproof buildings, the distance between deflectors and panel ceilings shall not exceed fifteen (15) inches.
      (2)   Where Conran heads are installed, the top of head shall be located the same distance below joists or ceiling as specified for deflectors in paragraph (1) of this subdivision (2); except that when heads are located under pitched roofs of piers or similar structures, they shall in general be installed in the upright position (not normal to slope of roof) and three (3) feet vertically below the underside of roof. When the administrative official having jurisdiction deems a variation of this subdivision (z) advisable to obtain a more efficient distribution of water, the heads shall be located with respect to joists or ceiling, as he may direct.
   (aa)   Spray clearance. Not less than eighteen (18) inches effective clear space shall be left below the sprinkler heads, so that they may discharge an unbroken spray blanket from sprinkler to sprinkler and sides of room when in operation. Any stock piles, racks or other obstructions interfering with such action shall not be permitted. Sprinkler system piping shall not be used for the support of stock, clothing, etc.
   (bb)   Pipe sizes. The number of heads on a given size pipe in one fire area in any story shall not exceed the following:
      (1)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads.
 
Size of Pipe
Maximum No. of Heads Allowed
3/4 inch
1 head
1 inch
2 heads
11/4 inch
3 heads
11/2 inch
5 heads
2 inch
10 heads
21/2 inch
20 heads
3 inch
36 heads
31/2 inch
55 heads
4 inch
80 heads
5 inch
140 heads
6 inch
200 heads
7 inch
300 heads
8 inch
420 heads
 
      (2)   For Conran one (1) inch heads.
 
Size of Pipe
Maximum No. of Heads Allowed
1 inch
1 head
11/4 inch
2 heads
11/2 inch
3 heads
2 inch
4 heads
21/2 inch
6 heads
3 inch
9 heads
4 inch
18 heads
5 inch
34 heads
6 inch
51 heads
7 inch
75 heads
8 inch
105 heads
 
      (3)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads.
 
Size of Pipe
Maximum No. of Heads Allowed
11/4 inch
1 head
11/2 inch
2 heads
2 inch
3 heads
21/2 inch
4 heads
3 inch
6 heads
4 inch
12 heads
5 inch
31 heads
6 inch
40 heads
7 inch
60 heads
8 inch
84 heads
 
When it is desired to use pipe of larger size than eight (8) inches in diameter, special ruling will be required by the administrative official having jurisdiction as to the permissibility of its use and the number of heads that may be fed thereby.  Where practicable, it is desirable to arrange the piping so that the number of heads on a branch line will not exceed eight.  When the piping is arranged on the "gridiron" plan, the permissible number of heads may be doubled, provided the feed main is of the size indicated in the schedule for the total number of heads.  Where feed mains supply branch lines of only two heads each, the conditions approach those of long single lines. Such feed mains shall usually be centrally supplied where there are over eight (8) or ten (10) branch lines. Branch lines up to fourteen (14) in number may be fed from end, provided a two and one-half (2 1/2) inch pipe does not supply more than sixteen (16) standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, in lieu of twenty (20).  Buildings having slatted floors, or large unprotected floor openings without approved stops, shall be treated as one room with reference to the pipe sizes, and the feed main shall be of sufficient size to accommodate the number of heads called for. Larger pipe sizes than are allowed in the schedule for a given number of heads may be required wherever the construction or conditions introduce unusually long runs of feed mains or many angles. Buildings with blind attics with small, unprotected openings to floor below, may be piped from the system on the ceiling of floor below, provided pipe size schedule is not overloaded on sizes three (3) inches or under.
   (cc)   Feed mains. The size of feed mains shall not be less than the size of riser and shall be arranged to run as direct as possible from source of water supply to riser.  Feed mains for stair or other towers without approved stops between floors, when piped on independent riser, shall be of sufficient size to accommodate the total number of sprinklers in such tower.
   (dd)   Risers. There shall be one or more separate risers in each building and in each section of the building divided by fire walls. Risers shall be arranged to provide "Center Central" or "Side Central" supply to feed main. Each riser shall be of sufficient size to supply all the heads on said riser in one story, according to the schedule of pipe sizes in §10-02(r).  If the conditions warrant, special permission will be granted allowing the heads in a fire section of small area to be fed from the risers in another section, provided the total number of heads in such area does not exceed the following number per floor:
      (1)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads, 48.
      (2)   For Conran one (1) inch heads, 12.
      (3)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads, 8.  Risers shall not be located close to windows, properly protected from mechanical injury and freezing and shall be properly supported on foundations and by floor plates, clamps, couplings or approved hangers.
   (ee)   Connections prohibited. No connections, such as for sill cocks, house service or hose outlets, shall be made with a sprinkler system riser or any part thereof except as provided for in §10-02(l).
   (ff)   Air lock adjustment. Where gravity and pressure tanks feed through a common discharge pipe or "dead riser" to the foot of a riser and an air lock is likely to develop the discharge pipe of the gravity tank shall connect with the discharge pipe, or "dead riser," forty (40) feet below the bottom of the pressure tank.
   (gg)   Pipes and fittings. All pipe shall be full-weight standard wrought iron or steel threaded pipe, well reamed and screwed up tight into fittings without reducing the waterway. Fittings shall be standard cast iron fittings, and shall be long turn pattern on feed mains and risers.  Such fittings shall be designed and guaranteed for a working pressure of 150 pounds per square inch and must be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic test pressure of 750 pounds per square inch without failure.  All pipe shall be secured to the ceiling, walls and other parts of the building with standard steel, wrought or malleable iron hangers.  Extra heavy fittings shall be employed where the normal pressure in the pipe system exceeds one hundred and fifty (150) pounds per square inch, and shall be designed for a working pressure of 250 pounds per square inch and be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic test pressure of 1,250 pounds per square inch without failure.  All underground pipe shall comply with the specifications for cast iron pipe of the American Water Works Association.
   (hh)   Protection of pipes and sprinklers. When exposed to moisture, sprinkler pipes and hangers shall be protected against corrosion whenever found necessary by thoroughly cleaning the pipe of all scale and grease and painting with a coat of red lead and linseed oil paint or other acceptable moisture resistive paint. When exposed to chemical fumes, the pipe and fittings shall be coated with graphite or other approved chemical resistive paint. Care shall be taken not to paint the sprinkler heads.  Supply pipes of risers in low basements or low spaces under ground floors exposed to frost, shall be properly protected by a masonry or wood enclosure, properly heated, or filled with mineral wool, sawdust or tax mixed with granulated cork, extending below bottom of pipe and through the top flooring of ground floor, or the pipe shall be protected with three alternate layers of one-inch hair felt and building paper or by other approved method. When of wood, such enclosure shall be constructed double with a layer of tar paper between the two thicknesses of wood.  Where risers, drains, heating pipes, etc., pass through cinder concrete floors or partitions, they shall be protected with a metal sleeve or be grouted with cement mortar.  Wherever sprinklers are exposed to corrosion, the heads shall be protected with an approved hermetically sealed cover, or with an approved wax coating.
   (ii)   Drainage. All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be so installed that they can be thoroughly drained, and where practicable, all piping shall be arranged to drain at the main drips.  Drains or drip pipes shall be so arranged as not to expose any part of the sprinkler system to frost, and shall be so connected, either by check valves or other means, that they will not overflow domestic service or other connections to the same sewer or house drain, or if carried through the wall and exposed to the weather, they shall be fitted with hoods or down-turned elbows.  Drains, pitched not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch in ten (10) feet, shall be installed:  At the base of the main riser;  At each alarm valve;  At each dry-pipe valve;  At each gravity tank;  At each pressure tank;  At each fire department connection;  On each floor, if independent floor control valves are used; and  At each supply main, when the water in the same cannot be removed through any of the above drains.  Such drains shall be installed with controlling valves so that flowing tests may be made to determine if the water supplies or connections from yard mains to the inside of the building are in order without causing water damage or overflowing service connections to the same house drain. Any such drain shall be not less than two (2) inches in size except that drains at independent floor valves shall be not less than 1 inch in size where floor valves are not over 2 1/2 inches in size and 1 1/4 inches where floor valves are larger and connected to a main drain riser of not less than 1 1/2 inches in size. The drain at the main riser shall discharge into a cone or sight drain, or if carried through the wall and exposed to the weather, it shall be fitted with a hood or down-turned elbow.  At an alarm valve at the top of a riser in a down-fed system a drain shall not be required.  On automatic wet pipe systems, the horizontal branch pipes shall be pitched not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch in ten (10) feet to drain towards the sources of supply with drip valves at the low points.  On automatic dry-pipe systems, branch pipes shall be pitched at least one-half (1/2) inch in ten (10) feet.
   (jj)   Test pipe. In all wet-pipe automatic sprinkler systems a test pipe of not less than 3/4 inch in diameter shall be connected directly with each system but shall be connected to a pipe of not less than 1 1/4 inches in diameter in upper story and arranged to discharge through a 1/2-inch brass outlet, preferably to a point where it can readily be seen. With long runs or many angles, size of test pipe should be increased to one (1) inch or larger. Controlling valve should be located at a sufficient distance from where the test pipe passes through the wall of the building so as to reduce to a minimum the chance of freezing of water in test pipe.  In all dry-pipe automatic sprinkler systems a 3/4-inch inspector's test pipe shall be installed at the end of the most distant branch line and fitted with a 3/4-inch shut-off valve stopped with a brass plug.
   (kk)   Pressure gauges. A four and one-half (4 1/2) inch double-spring Bourdon pressure gauge shall be provided in all automatic sprinkler systems as follows:  Above dry-pipe valves;  Below dry-pipe valves;  At the pressure tank;  At the air compressor;  Above the alarm valve;  Below the alarm valve; and  In the connections from city water supply.  Provision may be made for taking the pressure both above and below the alarm valve and the dry-pipe valve with only one gauge at each valve.  A gauge shall not be required at an alarm valve located at the top of a riser in a down-fed system.  Gauge connections shall be taken from the supply main or riser and not from the two-inch drain or test pipe.  Gauges shall be installed in a suitable place protected from freezing and be controlled by a valve with arrangements for draining. A plugged outlet, not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch in size, shall be located between each valve and gauge for purpose of installing the inspector's gauge.
   (ll)   Valves.
      (1)   All valves two (2) inches in diameter and under shall be of brass or bronze, or other approved non-corrodible material. Valves over two (2) inches in diameter shall be of brass, or bronze or iron body, brass mounted, or of other approved non-corrodible material.  All sidewalk siamese inlet valves, caps and chains shall be of galvanized cast iron or other approved non-corrodible material.  All gate valves shall be solid or double wedge disc, stuffing box pattern with hand wheel, outside screw and yoke, or other approved indicator pattern.  All check valves shall be approved straightway regrinding pattern, so built that the clappers may be readily removed for repairs.
      (2)   Water supply gate valves. The piping connecting each source of water supply with sprinkler system shall be provided with a gate valve of the outside screw and yoke type, sealed open and tagged to designate its purpose, so located as to control each source of water supply except that from Fire Department hose connections. All such gate valves shall be located within the building where easily visible and readily accessible and as close as possible to the supply inlet.
      (3)   Water supply check valves. The piping connecting each source of water supply with the sprinkler system, including Fire Department connections, shall be provided with a check valve.  On two-source systems, check valves shall have a gate valve on each side to permit repair of check without shutting off both supplies, except that where the two sources of supply consist of tanks located above the highest line of sprinklers, a gate valve need only be provided on the downstream side of each check valve.
      (4)   Control valves. All automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided with a main control or shut-off valve arranged to be readily accessible as near the stairways or fire tower as possible and sealed in the open position; except that when the sprinkler system is fed from water supplies on the roof of the building, independent and readily accessible floor control valves, sealed in the open position, may be installed.  When not more than ten (10) standard one-half (1/2) inch sprinkler heads or three (3) Conran heads in any automatic wet pipe system are exposed to cold and subject to freezing shut-off valves may be provided to discontinue the places which cannot be properly heated, shall be controlled by an automatic dry-pipe valve.
      (5)   Dry-pipe valves. A dry-pipe valve shall be taken to mean a valve automatically controlling the water supply of the sprinkler system in such a manner that under normal conditions its piping system beyond the valve is maintained dry, but in the event of fire, the valve automatically releases the water into the sprinkler system, for fire extinguishing purposes.  Dry-pipe valves shall, for the purpose of these rules, be classified as follows:  Type A, in which the valve is actuated by the release of compressed air in the sprinkler piping system, due to the opening of a sprinkler head; and  Type B, in which the valve is actuated by an approved trip under electric control of an approved automatic thermostatic fire alarm system.  Dry-pipe valves shall be located as near as practicable to the sprinkler system in an enclosed and accessible place protected from mechanical injury and freezing.  Automatic wet-pipe sprinkler systems in which only twenty-five percent (25%) of the heads are required to be maintained dry for protection from freezing, shall have only such heads under dry-pipe valve control.
         (i)   When "Type A" valve is installed, the air pressure in sprinkler systems under such dry-pipe valve control shall not exceed forty (40) pounds per square inch, nor be permitted to fall below twenty-five (25) pounds per square inch, nor shall it be less than one-sixth (1/6) of the water pressure in any case.  The air compressor shall have a capacity of not less than eleven (11) cubic feet per minute and the air supply for the pump shall be taken, if possible, from a room containing dry air, or it shall be passed through a drying chamber containing calcium chloride, in order to avoid the introduction of moisture into the system.  The air pressure on such dry-pipe systems shall be maintained throughout the year.  Not more than the following number of heads shall be controlled by one "Type A" dry-pipe valve:
         (ii)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads     400
         (iii)   For Conran one (1) inch heads     100
         (iv)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads      64
      Where equipped with an approved quick-opening device the following number of heads may be controlled by one "Type A" dry-pipe valve:
         (v)   For Conran one (1) inch heads     150
         (vii)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads     96
         (viii)   When "Type B" valve is installed the actuating alarm system shall be designed to operate at a temperature lower than that required to open the sprinkler heads, and all connections between the alarm system and the dry-pipe valve shall be adequately protected against injury of any kind.  When required by the administrative official having jurisdiction, the dead end of every feed main in such dry-pipe system shall be provided with an air relief valve or vent, so constructed as to be normally open in order to permit the free escape of air from the system, but to close automatically against the escape of water.  Not more than the following number of heads shall be controlled by one "Type B" dry-pipe valve:
         (ix)   For standard one-half (1/2) inch heads     600
         (x)   For Conran one (1) inch heads     150
         (xi)   For Conran one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inch heads      96
      (6)   Alarm valve. All automatic wet pipe sprinkler systems shall be equipped with an alarm valve so constructed that a flow of water through a one-half (1/2) inch orifice will operate an electric or mechanical gong.  When an electrically operated alarm is installed in connection with an alarm valve or dry pipe valve, the installation shall be made in conformity with the provision of §10-02(mm).
   (mm)   High and low water. Electric Alarm on Gravity and Pressure Tanks. All gravity tanks shall be equipped with a device to indicate when the water falls below or rises above the normal level in the tank, with an indicator and alarm located in the engineers' room near the pump.  All gravity and pressure tanks shall be equipped with a high and low alarm as hereinafter specified. The high and low gravity and the high and low pressure electric alarm shall be so constructed and arranged that when the water falls below or rises above the normal level in the gravity tank, and when the pressure falls below or rises above the predetermined level in the pressure tank, an audible and visible signal will be given in either the pump room or engineer's room.  The audible signalling device for high and low water and high and low pressure electric alarm shall consist of a vibrating gong of at least 3 inches in diameter of the enclosed type and arranged for conduit installation, the same to be operated automatically from an approved device indicating the level of water in the gravity tank and from the pressure gauge of pressure tank.  The audible signalling device for the alarm and dry pipe valves shall consist of an enclosed type 6-inch vibrating gong arranged for conduit installation. A closed circuit annunciator shall be provided in connection with the alarm system. The high and low toll-tale electric connections shall be so constructed that it will not be affected by moisture and the parts shall be heavy and rugged. The float shall be of approved type.  All wiring shall be installed in iron or steel conduits and the installation shall be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9 of the Code of Ordinances. Only approved closed circuit systems shall be installed. Control panels to operate the signalling equipment must be approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals. The control cabinet shall be located in the engineer's or pump room where it will be under the supervision of the person in charge of the sprinkler system.  The following sources of energy may be employed and are given in their order of preference:
      (1)   Public utility electric light and power systems.
      (2)   Electric light or power system (public utility or isolated plant) supplemented by storage battery either controlled by an automatic throw-over device or floating on the line and protected by a reverse current circuit breaker.
      (3)   Storage batteries in duplicate.
      (4)   Primary batteries of the closed circuit type.  When the system is connected to the 110 volt lighting service a suitable cut-out is to be provided and it shall be enclosed in a locked or sealed metal cabinet. The connection to the system shall be the first connection on the house side of and as near as practicable to the meter. When batteries are used to operate the system they shall be placed in an approved cabinet provided with a lock and key.
   (nn)   Heating of tanks. The water in all sprinkler tanks subject to freezing shall be protected by internally heating the water or enclosing the tank in a frost-proof house properly heated and lighted.
   (oo)   Concealed pipe systems. All pipe in concealed pipe systems shall be of standard full-weight wrought iron or steel, painted with two coats of protective paint, one before and one after installation. Such pipe as shall be installed in ducts or be encased in cement mortar shall be inspected prior to concealment. When installed in the concealed space between floor arches and ceiling, such pipe shall be supported by hangers and all pipe, fittings and hangers be protected with two coats of paint.
   (pp)   Preparation of building. Floor or wall openings and other structural defects which prevent the banking up of heated air and retard the automatic action of sprinkler heads shall be provided with the necessary curtain boards and draft stops to permit specific control of the fire by the local sprinklers.  Curtain boards shall project at least three (3) inches below the lowest sprinkler.
   (qq)   Approval of sprinkler system. Before acceptance all automatic sprinkler systems, excluding the water supply tanks, shall be subjected after installation to a hydrostatic pressure test of at least one (1) hour's duration at not less than fifty (50) pounds per square inch in excess of that which will be normally carried and observed in the sprinkler system, such test pressure, however, to be not less than one hundred and fifty (150) pounds per square inch in any part of the system.  All pressure tanks shall be tested after erection to a test pressure of one and one-half (1 1/2) times the working pressure. To prevent the possibility of serious water damage in case of a break, the pressure shall be maintained by a small pump, the main controlling gate being meanwhile kept shut. Brine or other corrosive chemicals shall not be used for testing systems.  In automatic dry-pipe systems with "Type A" valve control, an air pressure of forty (40) pounds per square inch shall be pumped up, be held for twenty-four (24) hours, and all leaks stopped which allow a loss of pressure of over two (2) pounds per square inch for the twenty-four (24) hours.  In the case of automatic dry-pipe systems with differential "Type A" valve, the valve shall be held off its seat during the test to prevent injuring the valve.  Non-automatic systems shall be tested after installation at not less than fifty (50) pounds per square inch in excess of the pressure necessary to reach the highest line of sprinklers.  All tests of installed systems shall be made by the contractor in the presence of the Fire Commissioner, or his authorized representative.  No piping, devices nor any portion of a newly constructed sprinkler system shall be covered up or permanently concealed until tested by the Bureau of Fire Prevention and approved of in writing, except piping passing through floors, walls, partitions or beams for distances equal to the thickness of such floors, walls, partitions or beams.
   (rr)   Types of buildings.
      (1)   Non-fireproof business buildings.  Automatic sprinklers required in non-fireproof business buildings under the provisions of Chapter 5, Article 4, Section 72, Subdivision L, Code of Ordinances, shall consist of at least a One Automatic Source System, except buildings used as freight depots, car barns, stables, garages, factories and grain elevators which sprinkler systems shall be supplied by any two of the automatic sources or one of the automatic sources and a fire pump as described in §10-02(l) and (m).
      (2)   Department stores. Wet sprinkler systems shall be required in all department stores and where the floor area on any story or cellar exceeds 20,000 square feet, the system shall be supplied by two of the automatic sources as provided for in §10-02(q).
      (3)   Factories and other buildings. Where the Labor Law or the Code of Ordinances require automatic sprinkler systems, or where any of the requirements of the Labor Law or Code of Ordinances are waived because of the installation of an automatic sprinkler system, such sprinkler systems, unless specifically otherwise required by the Fire Commissioner, Code of Ordinances, Labor Law, or these rules, shall have at least the following sources of supply installed in accordance with these rules:
         (i)   A gravity tank and siamese, or
         (ii)   A pressure tank and siamese, or
         (iii)   A direct 6 inch connection to the City water supply fed two ways, capable of furnishing water at not less than 15 pounds per square inch static – pressure at the highest line of sprinklers below the main roof, and the required siamese.
      (4)   Theatre buildings. Automatic sprinklers required in theatre buildings under the provisions of Chapter 5, Article 25, Section 524, Code of Ordinances, shall consist of at least a One Automatic Source Automatic System.
      (5)   Firework storage. Automatic sprinklers required in buildings in which fireworks are stored or sold under the provisions of Chapter 10, Article 6, Section 92, Code of Ordinances, shall consist of either of the two automatic sources as provided in §10-02(q).
      (6)   Nitro-cellulose products. Automatic sprinklers as required in buildings in which nitro-cellulose products are stored under the provisions of Chapter 10, Article 19, Section 232, Code of Ordinances, shall consist of a system supplied from both approved gravity tank supply and an approved pressure tank supply, except that no change shall be required in supplies to automatic sprinkler equipments previously approved by the Fire Commissioner as two source systems, in conformity with the provisions of this paragraph (6) as in force up to December 1, 1921.  In buildings wherein are stored or handled only limited quantities of nitro-cellulose products, not exceeding 500 pounds, the automatic sprinklers may consist of either of the two automatic sources as provided for in §10-02(q).
      (7)   Flammable motion-picture films. Automatic sprinklers, required in buildings in which flammable motion-picture films are stored under the provisions of Chapter 10, Article 20, Section 241, Code of Ordinances, shall consist of a system supplied from both an approved gravity tank supply and an approved pressure tank supply except that no change shall be required in supplies to automatic sprinkler equipments previously approved by the Fire Commissioner as two source systems in conformity with the provisions of this paragraph (7) as in force up to December 1, 1921.
      (8)   Sprinkler protection for special hazards in non-sprinklered buildings not provided for by laws or ordinances or in these rules.  Sprinkler heads and piping may be provided on ceiling of enclosed rooms, closets, shafts, or other spaces which are used as carpenter shops, upholstering rooms, paint shops, waste paper rooms, old record storerooms, trunk and general storage rooms in hotels, offices or other buildings, and in stores and showrooms or where nitro-cellulose products or flammable photographic or X-ray film is stored or used, or in ice boxes of cold storage plants.  The number and type of sprinkler heads, spacing and size of pipe, location and number of valves, method of draining lines, water flow or other alarms, shall be as required by the Fire Commissioner to properly protect the special hazard.  The source of water supply where required may be taken from the house supply tank or other sources of water supply, except that no connection shall be taken from the standpipe system or from the feed line to boilers. In all cases there shall be sufficient water to provide 20 gallons of water per head for 30 minutes and, further, that the pressure on any sprinkler line shall, where practicable, be not less than 15 pounds static pressure.
   (ss)   Existing installations and approvals. Automatic sprinkler systems and devices heretofore installed shall not be required to conform to these rules where the fire hazard due to construction and occupancy of the building is not increased or where substantial additions or extensions in height or area is made to the building when these rules shall apply if deemed advisable or necessary by the Fire Commissioner.
   (tt)   Communicating openings. When a building fully equipped with sprinklers communicates with another not so equipped the openings must be protected by approved fire doors on both sides of the wall, one of which must be automatic.
   (uu)   Maintenance inspection. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a month by the person in charge of the building, or by other competent person employed by the owner, to see that all parts of the system are in perfect working order, and the Fire Department connection or connections, if any, ready for immediate use by the Fire Department. A detailed record of each inspection shall be kept for examination by a representative of the Fire Department.  There shall be kept available at all times in the premises a supply of extra sprinklers, never less than six (6), to replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers. And there shall be one or more employees instructed in the maintenance of sprinkler system.
   (a)   Plans. A preliminary set of paper plans and cross section drawn clearly and distinctly to a scale of 1/4-inch or by permission of the Fire Commissioner 1/8-inch to the foot, for each proposed standpipe (fireline) installation or alteration, shall be submitted to and approved by the Fire Commissioner before the work in connection with the installation is started. Such plans shall show the size and location of the standpipe (fireline) risers, size and location of siamese and cross-connections, valves, tanks and connections, pumps, hose stations, lengths of hose, etc., and the location of stairways and enclosing partitions in relation to the standpipe risers and hose stations. Upon approval of preliminary plans such number of sets of clean, corrected plans on cloth as the Fire Commissioner may require, not exceeding three (3) shall be filed for final approval by the Fire Commissioner. A certified copy of approved plans shall be forwarded to the Department of Buildings by the Bureau of Fire Prevention. Such application and specification forms as may be prescribed by the Fire Commissioner shall accompany preliminary plans. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided throughout the building or in any portion of the building, the plans shall include a note to this effect.
   (b)   Approval. Before acceptance all standpipe (firelines) shall be tested for at least one-half hour in the presence of a representative of the Bureau of Fire Prevention to a pressure of at least 300 pounds per square inch at the street level, or such additional pressures as may be required to give 100 pounds at the highest hose outlet, except that when a change is made in a source of supply, or minor changes are made in an existing equipment previously approved, the system be tested to a pressure sufficient to give 50 lbs. per sq. in. at the highest story hose outlet.  No valves, risers, or other material portions of any standpipe (fireline) equipment shall be covered in or permanently concealed until tested and approved, in writing, by the Bureau of Fire Prevention.  Modified standpipe equipment installed as per General Resolution, Cal. 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals shall not be required to stand a pressure test in excess of 100 pounds per square inch.  When entirely completed in accordance with the approved plans, and as per test herein provided for, application shall be made to the Bureau of Fire Prevention for inspection of the completed installation. When the standpipe equipment is approved, the applicant will be so advised in writing by the Bureau of Fire Prevention.  When deemed necessary by the Fire Commissioner, diagrams of the standpipe fireline equipment in buildings of large area or height, not more than three in number and printed on cloth in size 8 1/2 in. × 11 in., shall be filed by the applicant for the use of the fire companies in the district in which the premises are located.
   (c)   Monthly inspection. All valves, hose, tools and other auxiliary fire appliances shall be kept in perfect working order, and at least once a month the person in charge of the building shall make a thorough inspection of the same to see that all the fire appliances are in perfect working order and ready for immediate use by the Fire Department.  He shall also instruct all employees under his charge in the use and practice of all auxiliary fire appliances. A detailed record of each inspection shall be kept on the premises for examination by a representative of the Fire Department.
   (d)   Approved devices. All devices approved for use in standpipe fireline equipment shall bear the manufacturer's name and the date of and the number of the approval. Certified copies of the approval, working drawings and photographs of the device approved, shall be submitted to the administrative authority having jurisdiction for preservation as records and reference data.
   (e)   Elevator in readiness. In every building exceeding 150 feet in height at least one passenger elevator shall be kept in readiness for immediate use by the Fire Department during all hours of the night and day, including holidays and Sundays, and a competent man to operate the elevator shall be present at all times.
   (f)   Area of building. For the application of Chapter 5 of § 581 of the Code of Ordinances, and of Cal. 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals, the area of the building shall be taken as the area within the exterior walls or the area between fire walls constructed as, and with areas protected as, per § 371 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, provided that fire walls extend throughout the entire height of the building, and provided further that the combined areas of the floor areas on either side of the wall do not exceed 15,000 sq. ft. and that no area on either side of fire wall exceeds 10,000 sq. ft.
   (g)   Height. The term "height" as applied to a building or structure, means the vertical distance measured in a straight line from the curb level, to the highest point of the roof beams in the case of flat roofs, and to the average height of gable in case of roofs having a pitch of more than 20 degrees with a horizontal plane.
   (h)   Standpipe equipment. Standpipe equipment shall consist of a system of piping connected to one or more approved sources of water supply and provided with sufficient number of hose outlets and hose located as hereinafter set forth, to make possible the covering of every portion of each floor area with a standpipe hose stream, except that where the 1st story or basement or both are occupied as stores without connection or communication with the entrance hall or stair enclosure to upper stories the Fire Commissioner may permit the omission of standpipe protection in such stores and, if so omitted, may prescribe such portable protection as he may deem necessary. Cellars, sub-cellars, basements, etc., shall be protected in the same manner as the stories above grade.  Every standpipe (fireline) equipment shall be a Standard Wet System, except as hereinafter provided for:
      (1)   In any building not exceeding 40 feet in height and 20,000 sq. ft. in area, a four-inch street supply system having one four (4) inch direct connection to a street main fed two ways or having one 4-in. direct connection to each of the two street mains on two street fronts, each main so fed that the shutting off of one main will not interfere with the supply of the other main, may be installed, provided there is sufficient pressure in the street main or mains to maintain a minimum of twenty-five (25) pounds per square inch static pressure at the highest hose outlet.  Evidence establishing the fact that water main conditions and pressures are as required shall be submitted to the Fire Department.
      (2)   In buildings as specified in General Resolution, Cal. 179-20-S, of the Board of Standards and Appeals, in which modified systems shall be accepted.
      (3)   The installation of a pressure tank system, instead of a Standard Wet System, may be permitted by the Fire Commissioner when, in his opinion, the efficiency of the system will be not less than that of a Standard Wet System.
         (i)   Classification of standpipe fireline equipment. For the purpose of these rules standpipe equipment shall be classified as:
      (1)   Standard Wet System in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, and in which the system is at all times filled with water from at least one standard source of supply.
      (2)   Four-inch street connection system, in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances and the system is at all times filled with water from one or more 4-in. diameter direct connections to public water mains in the street.
      (3)   Automatic dry systems, in which the pipes are of sizes as specified in § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, and are normally dry, the system being connected to a source of water supply controlled by an automatic dry pipe valve as defined elsewhere in these rules.
      (4)   Modified systems, in which the piping is 2 1/2 inches in diameter and supplied from a street main through a tap of at least 2 in. in diameter, as per General Resolution 179-20-S of the Board of Standards and Appeals.
      (5)   Pressure tank system, which will be similar to a standard wet system except that primary supply of water shall be obtained from a pressure tank as defined elsewhere in these rules.
   (j)   Tanks above roof. Construction shall be as per § 581 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances and tank structure and supports shall be approved by the Buildings Superintendent. The covers of all unenclosed standpipe tanks shall be conical in shape and protected with a type of roofing approved by the Buildings Superintendent.
   (k)   Reserve for standpipe. Gravity tanks, intermediate tanks and pressure tanks shall contain not less than 3,500 gallons of water at all times, reserved solely for standpipe firelines purposes.  When a gravity tank is to be used for both standpipe and house supply, the connection for the latter shall be made through the side of the tank above the level of the required standpipe reserve.  Standpipe and sprinkler supplies may not be taken from one tank.  Mercantile or Industrial Buildings in Group under the same ownership and operation:  One gravity tank of sufficient water capacity to supply the largest unit of a group of separate and distinct buildings operating under one ownership, and located at such elevation that the bottom of the tank will be at least 20 feet above the roof of the highest building of the group, will be accepted as an adequate tank supply for the entire standpipe equipment, provided a dead riser is carried down from the bottom of the tank to an underground header system having a Post Indicator control valve for each building unit, the P.I. Valves to be located as the Fire Commissioner may direct.  All underground piping shall be extra heavy cast iron.  When in his opinion, the area covered is excessive or the occupancy is such that an unusual fire hazard is introduced, the Fire Commissioner may require additional protection in the nature of additional tank or tanks located remote from any other standpipe tank, or additional water supply in the main gravity tank, or a fire pump and suction tank of size and capacity to be determined by the Fire Commissioner or the Board of Standards and Appeals, or a combination of any of the foregoing supplies.
   (l)   Standard source of supply. Gravity tank located so that the bottom of same will be not less than 20 feet above the roof level and of a capacity as stated elsewhere in these rules and direct connected to the standpipe equipment by pipes of the same diameter as that of the largest riser.  Tanks may not be fed through the standpipe fireline, but shall be fed through a separate line at least 2 inches in diameter, discharging into the top of the tank above the overflow level through the side or through the bottom, that portion of the pipe within the tank to be of brass or bronze. An electric or steam pump of sufficient capacity to deliver 65 gallons of water per minute at the tank shall be provided, or if the pressure in the service line is sufficient and the plumbing is such that a minimum of 65 gallons of water per minute may be delivered to the tank, connection to the house water service main in the basement, cellar or lowest story may be used instead of pump.  The sprinkler and standpipe tanks may be fed from a common source of supply, either a pump or a direct service main connection, when a ball (float) valve is provided for each tank. Floats shall be of copper.
      Overflow. An overflow of diameter at least as large as that of the fill line shall be provided for each standpipe tank. It may be run through the bottom of the tank, provided it is of brass or bronze and has no joint inside of the tank, otherwise it must be brought through the side of the tank, 3 inches below the top (of sides). Overflows shall terminate in a 90 degree elbow not more than 24 inches above the roof.
      Emergency drain. There shall be provided for each tank an emergency drain not less than 4 inches in diameter connected directly to the bottom of the tank or to the standpipe supply line above the roof, and terminating not less than 30 inches nor more than 4 feet above the roof in a horizontal run. Emergency drain shall be provided with a 4-inch quick opening gate valve located in a readily accessible position not more than 4 feet above the roof.
      Elevation of tank. The bottom of each gravity tank used for standpipe fireline supply shall be at least 20 feet above the level of the roof. When the area of a penthouse exceeds 50% of the roof area or when it exceeds an area of 2500 sq. ft., the bottom of the tank shall be required to be not less than 20 ft. above the level of the penthouse roof. In existing standpipe equipment the bottom of the gravity standpipe tank shall not be required to be more than 20 feet above the outlet in the highest story.
      Access to tank. Access to the top of each standpipe tank shall be provided by means of an iron gooseneck ladder of substantial construction and rigid bracing.
   (m)   High and low alarm and flow tell tale. Every tank used for standpipe fireline purposes shall be provided with either an electric high and low water alarm as defined elsewhere in these rules or with a flow tell tale constructed as provided for elsewhere in these rules, in order that it may be determined at any time whether or not the required standpipe reserve is in the tank, except that where the house water supply is taken from the same tank as the standpipe supply and not from any other tank, neither a high and low alarm or a flow tell tale need be provided when an automatic tank filling pump is installed.
   (n)   Check valve. There shall be provided in a horizontal run of pipe below the main roof in the line connecting the standpipe tank with the standpipe riser an approved type swing check valve opening toward riser, except that where a siamese steamer connection has been omitted under these rules, no check valve shall be required. An O. S. & Y. gate valve shall be provided on each side of the check valve and shall be sealed open in an approved manner.
   (o)   Heating of tanks. All tanks used for standpipe supply purposes shall be heated by means of steam supplied through a brass coil with brass fittings and of a type and radiating surface as prescribed by the Board of Standards and Appeals. The heater shall be fed through a 1 1/4-inch steam line with a 1-inch return, separately trapped. The water in the tank shall be maintained at a temperature above 40 F., which condition, if obtained by a variation of the arrangement of coil as may be specified by the Board of Standards and Appeals, will be acceptable.  Tanks supplying both standpipe and house service lines in hotels, hospitals and institutes using the tank supply seven days a week shall not require heating. If in an adequately heated enclosure, interior heating of tanks shall not be required.
   (p)   Suction tanks. Suction tanks shall be of at least 5000 gallons effective water capacity reserved for fire pump use exclusively and shall be constructed of steel or reinforced concrete, located in the cellar, or in the basement or lowest story if there is no cellar under the building. The Fire Commissioner may permit suction tanks to be located in a separate enclosure or building provided they are accessible and in his judgment such location will be more practicable. Suction tanks shall be fed by a connection at least 3 inches in diameter taken direct from the public street main. The supply shall enter the suction tank above the top or through the side near the top of the tank and shall be controlled by a bronze ball cock and copper float.
   (q)   Pressure tanks. Pressure tanks shall contain the quantities of water as specified for gravity tanks, but in no case may a tank have a capacity in excess of 9,000 gallons. Pressure tanks shall be located in the top story or penthouse and shall be properly protected against freezing. The tank shall be kept two-thirds full of water under a pressure of 30 lbs. per square inch and shall be so located and proportioned that a pressure of not less than 15 lbs. per square inch will be available at the hose outlet in the highest story. The air compressor shall be of sufficient capacity to increase the air pressure at an average of one pound in two minutes in each pressure tank.  The connection to riser or risers, the emergency drain and the means of access to tank shall be as required for gravity tank in §10-03(l). Pressure and water level gauges shall be required. The means of supplying water shall be as required for gravity tanks except that filling must be done without reducing the pressure in the tank.
   (r)   Support for tanks. Tanks of more than 500 gallons capacity hereafter placed in or on any building shall be supported on masonry, reinforced concrete or steel construction of sufficient strength and carried to a proper foundation as provided for in § 428 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances.
   (s)   Intermediate tanks. The location of intermediate tanks shall be as directed by the Fire Commissioner and as prescribed elsewhere in these rules and each such tank shall have at least 3,500 gallons of water reserved exclusively for fire line purposes. The bottom of each tank shall be at least 20 feet above the floor level of the story next above the highest outlet supplied therefrom. The method of water supply to tanks, the overflow, the high and low water alarm, the emergency drain, etc., shall be as prescribed for tanks above the roof except that the overflow and emergency drain shall be direct connected to the drainage system of the building.  The connection of the tank to the system shall be as hereinafter set forth:  Piping of the same diameter as the riser shall connect the tank with the riser of the portion of equipment supplied from that tank and in this connecting line in a horizontal run there shall be placed an approved swing check valve opening downward, and two O. S. & Y. gate valves one at each side of the check valve. Each tank section shall be direct connected to the tank section above by means of piping of the same diameter as that of the largest riser and in this connecting line shall be provided an approved swing check valve opening upward, in order that water pumped into the siamese connection may enter the entire equipment of the building, and that each tank will supply only its portion of the system.
   (t)   Valves. All valves controlling standpipe water supply except valves at hose outlets shall be iron body brass mounted. Outside Stem & Yoke gate type.
   (u)   Piping. Materials of Construction: All new piping for standpipe firelines shall be of genuine full weight wrought iron or steel and properly tested by the manufacturer to 500 lbs. per square inch hydrostatic pressure. All pipes shall be lap welded. Where working pressures are in excess of 150 lbs. to the square inch extra heavy cast iron valves and fittings shall be used. The standard weight fittings and valves may be used where the pressure is not more than 150 lbs. per sq. inch. Fittings in horizontal runs shall have long turns. All underground piping shall be of extra heavy cast iron.
   (v)   Construction. Each standpipe fireline riser shall be supported at the bottom and in every other (alternate) story, and shall be properly braced. Horizontal lines shall be supported by heavy wrought iron hangers attached by straps or bars extending around and over floor beams at intervals of not more than 10 ft., and at more frequent intervals if deemed necessary by the Fire Commissioner and shall be securely braced to withstand vibration. Hangers may be supported by straps or bars extending over and around bars of at least 1 in. in diameter and 12 in. in length embedded in concrete floors parallel to and at least 2 in. from the undersurface or by approved malleable iron concrete inserts. The arrangement of lines must be straight and as direct as practicable. Offsets will be permitted only when unavoidable or where necessary to install horizontal check valves. Where standpipe lines are adjacent to or in close proximity to other pipes of 4 in. or larger diameter, the standpipe firelines shall be coated with red paint. Except where flange fittings and pipes are permitted elsewhere in this rule, all joints shall be screwed joints made up thoroughly water tight with red lead, litharge and glycerin, or compressed graphite lead and boiled linseed oil, or any joint compound that may be approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals.  In horizontal runs of piping of standpipe fireline systems, if larger than 4 in. in diameter, fittings and valves may be of the flange type, provided flange races are machined true and smooth and do not show rings, and sand holes or other imperfections. All joints must be either ground or provided with corrugated copper gaskets.  All standpipe (fireline) equipments must be installed in a workmanlike manner.
   (w)   Protection of risers. Standpipe risers when not located within stair enclosure shall be protected against interior fire damage by means of at least one inch asbestos covering, or a covering of expanded metal lath and three-quarters inch Portland cement plaster or by a 2 in. terra cotta block encasement.  Standpipe lines shall be properly protected from freezing.
   (x)   Number of risers. Where standpipe fireline equipment is required there shall be at least one riser for each 10,000 sq. ft. of floor area in any story, basement or cellar. Each building fronting on more than one street shall have at least one riser for each street front. For the application of this subdivision (x) a corner building shall not be considered as facing on more than one street when it is on but one corner. In all cases regardless of area or location there shall be a sufficient number of risers, so that any portion of each floor area may be covered by the stream from a standpipe hose not exceeding 100 ft. in length, except in the case of hotels where portions of floor area most remote from the stairway are more than 100 ft. distant therefrom, when hose shall not be more than 125 ft. in length.  Each standpipe riser must be located within a stair enclosure and one riser must be located in main stairway.  Where impracticable to locate a riser within the stair enclosure, the Fire Commissioner may permit it located immediately adjacent to a stair enclosure.  Not more than 10 feet will be allowed for the throw of hose stream, except where the static pressure at the hose outlet is 15 lbs. or more, when 20 ft. will be allowed.  When there are two or more risers in a standpipe (fire line) equipment, all risers shall be cross-connected by piping of a diameter at least equal to the diameter of the largest riser, but in no case shall the cross-connection be less than five inches.
   (y)   Fire pumps. Where required: In every building exceeding 280 ft. in height, an electric or steam pump shall be kept in readiness for immediate use by the Fire Department during all hours of the night and day, including Sundays and holidays.
   (z)   Arrangement, location and supply of fire pumps. Fire pumps where required due to building height in excess of 280 ft., shall be connected to the standpipe systems and have a capacity of 750 gallons of water per minute at a pressure of 50 lbs. to the sq. inch at the hose outlet in the highest story. Fire pumps shall draw from steel or reinforced concrete suction tanks of at least 5,000 gallons water capacity. For the purpose of testing fire pumps a 4 in. diameter branch shall be taken from the discharge line at the pump side of the check valve and run to the suction tank over the side or through the side above the overflow level. From this branch there shall be taken a 4 in. line with an approved type pressure relief valve, extending to the tank in a manner similar to that of the 4 in. test line. In the 4 in. test line between the 4 in. relief branch and the tank there shall be placed an O. S. & Y. gate valve, which shall be kept closed except during a test of the fire pump. In the line from the fire pump to the standpipe risers and beyond the test branch there shall be placed an approved type check valve in a horizontal position and also an O. S. & Y. gate valve, the latter to be open except when the fire pump is undergoing test. A pressure gauge shall be provided and connected to the discharge line of the pump. In all standpipe equipment where the height of the building and the layout of the standpipe installation are such as to require a pressure exceeding 275 lbs. to the square inch to obtain at the highest story outlet a pressure of 50 lbs. per sq. inch, the Fire Commissioner shall prescribe such pump or additional pumps, and the location, supply, etc., of same, as he may deem necessary.  The piping connecting discharge from the fire pumps shall be 4 in. in diameter in the case of systems with 4 in. risers and 6 in. in diameter where risers exceed 4 in. in diameter, and shall enter the standpipe system in the basement, or cellar, or if there is no basement or cellar, in the lowest story.  All bearings of electric controls must be of rustless materials and springs must be of phosphor bronze or must be completely encased in filled oil cups.
   (aa)   Siamese connections for fire department use. Each standpipe system shall be provided with one or more approved type 3 inch × 3 inch inlet siamese connections for use by the Fire Department as hereinafter set forth. When a building faces on but one street and has a frontage of less than 250 ft. and requires but one four (4) inch diameter standpipe riser one siamese connection shall be provided; where the street frontage exceeds 200 ft. in length and requires but two four (4) inch diameter standpipe risers one siamese connection shall be provided for each 200 ft. of street frontage or fraction thereof. Buildings exceeding 250 ft. in height shall have not less than two siamese steam connections for each riser and buildings not more than 250 ft. in height shall have at least one siamese connection for each 6 inch riser. Buildings having frontages on more than one street shall have a siamese connection on each street front when the frontage is not continuous but in all cases where more than one siamese connection is required they shall be properly distributed as the Fire Commissioner may direct and not grouped.  Any building, other than theatre with stage, not over 45 feet in height shall not be required to have a siamese connection except when such building is on a water front or when it is one of a group of buildings and has a cross-connection to the standpipe equipment in one or more of the other buildings. Each siamese connection placed on the street front of a building shall be located not less than 18 ins. and not more than 24 ins. above the sidewalk level and shall be set in a horizontal position and shall be readily accessible for Fire Department use.  Each siamese shall have cast in the body on top in letters at least 1 in. in length and not less than 1/8 in. in depth, the word "standpipe."  The piping connecting the siamese with the standpipe equipment proper shall be not less than 5 in. in diameter where there are two or more 4 in. risers and not less than 6 in. in diameter for risers of 6 and 8 in. diameter. When there is but one 4 in. riser, connection from siamese may be 4 in.  In each line between the siamese connection and the standpipe system there shall be placed an approved type swing check valve and between the siamese and its check valve there shall be placed either a 1/2-in. open drip without valve or cock, extended to a sink or sump, insuring visible flow, or there shall be provided a 3/4-in. automatic ball drip of an approved type which will close under a pressure of not more than 7 lbs. per sq. inch.
   (bb)   Siamese connections for fire boat use. Siamese connection on piers or warehouses, etc., intended for fire boat use exclusively shall be 3 1/2 in. × 3 1/2 in. at inlets with Fire Department female thread. Between siamese and the system proper there shall be an approved type swing check valve, and between the check valve and the siamese either a 1/2-in. open drip without valve or cock, or a 3/4-in. automatic ball drip of approved type closing under a pressure of not more than 7 lbs. per sq. inch. Where systems have both fire boat and steamer siamese the steamer (land) siamese shall have male connections and shall be without clappers, but shall have on each inlet a 3 in. gate valve with Fire Department male thread for hose connection. Check valve shall not be provided for the land end siamese.
   (cc)   Hose outlets. When practicable all hose outlets shall be placed within a stair enclosure. They shall be 2 1/2 in. in diameter, set not less than 5 ft. nor more than 6 ft. above the floor or landing as the case may be. Outlets and racks shall be located above the floor or landing and shall not be over a run of stairs or in a stair well. When impracticable to place hose outlets within the stair enclosure, the Fire Commissioner may permit them to be located immediately adjacent to a stair enclosure, in a conspicuous place, in which case there shall be painted upon the stair side of the wall of the stair enclosure a conspicuous sign in letters not less than 8 in. in height and 5 in. in width indicating the location of the outlet. Where there is but one riser its termination above roof shall be a 2 1/2 in. outlet hose valve and where there is more than one riser the termination of every second riser shall be a 2 1/2 in. outlet hose valve. Roof outlets shall be located not less than 18 ins. nor more than 24 ins. above the roof and each valve shall be provided with a regulation 2 1/2 in. Fire Department cap. Where roof outlets cannot be located within a heated stair enclosure, the control valve shall be located below the roof and shall have a long stem extending above the roof with a wheel handle at the upper end. Between the long stem valve and the roof outlet there shall be a 1/2 in. open drip extending to a sink or a 3/4 in. automatic ball drip of approved type. The outlet above the roof shall have standard 2 1/2 in. Fire Department thread and a regulation cap.  No branch line may be less than 4 in. in diameter, except that any branch from a riser or cross-connection to but one hose outlet may be 2 1/2 in. if not over four (4) feet in length, and may be 3 in. in diameter if not more than twenty-five (25) feet in length.  In buildings not exceeding 40 ft. in height hose outlets above roof shall not be required.  Each outlet other than roof outlet shall have attached thereto 2 1/2 in. unlined linen hose of lengths as stated elsewhere in these rules, except that in buildings or premises that do not contain occupancies storing, handling or using flammable motion picture films or nitro cellulose products, and which are not classified as hazardous, the Fire Commissioner may permit the installation of 1 1/2 in. unlined linen hose attached to each outlet by means of an approved type 2 1/2 in. × 1 1/2 in. coupling.  A spanner wrench shall be provided at each hose outlet valve.
   (dd)   Nozzles. All 2 1/2 in. fire hose shall be provided with approved smooth bore nozzles 15 in. in length, the outlet at the tip to be not less than 1 in. nor more than 1 1/8 in. in diameter.  All 1 1/2 in. fire hose shall be provided with approved smooth bore nozzles 12 ins. in length, the outlet at the tip to be not less than 1/2 in. nor more than 5/8 in. in diameter.
   (ee)   Hose. Hose shall be unlined linen. There may not be more than 100 ft. of hose at any outlet except in hotels, where 125 ft. of hose may be permitted at the discretion of the Fire Commissioner. No single section of hose may be more than 50 ft. in length except by special permission of the Fire Commissioner. The minimum length of hose that may be provided at any outlet shall be 25 ft.  All hose used in connection with the standpipe fireline system shall be at least equal in material and construction to the type of hose bearing the approval label of the National Board of Fire Underwriters.
   (ff)   Couplings. Hose couplings for standpipe shall be equal to hose couplings of the regular Fire Department pattern and thread.
   (gg)   Racks. All standpipe hose shall be suspended from racks of stamped steel, malleable iron or other metal equal thereto, of approved swing type, so designed and constructed that they will permit of ready and easy release of hose for use. The racks shall be supported securely and substantially from standpipe risers or wall, except that where a cast nipple of non-corrosive material is screwed into the hose outlet valve the rack may be suspended from said nipple. The minimum thickness of nipple to be 5/16 in. In no case will automatic racks be permitted.  Racks shall be not more than 6 feet above the floor.
   (hh)   Hose cabinets. Hose racks may be installed in cabinets, provided the cabinets are conspicuously located within a stair enclosure, and are of a size sufficient to accommodate the entire equipment and permit of easy handling of hose and operation of valve.  In theatres cabinets may be permitted outside of stair enclosures, provided they are conspicuous, and that during performances the cabinets are illuminated by means of an electric lamp placed inside. Each cabinet shall have a clear glass door (one panel only) without lock and shall have the words "Fire Hose" painted on the glass in letters not less than 2 1/2 inches in height.
   (ii)   Regulation and reduction of pressures. The maximum pressure which will be permitted at any outlet is 80 lbs. per sq. inch. In buildings exceeding 300 ft. in height, one intermediate standpipe supply tank shall be provided for each 300 ft. of height or fraction thereof except that where the fraction does not exceed 50 ft. an additional intermediate tank need not be provided. Where pressure regulating or pressure reducing valves or outlet reducers are required, they shall be of a type approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals. Pressure regulating valves shall be set to deliver at 50 lbs. to the sq. inch at the outlet side and shall be placed in a by-pass around the check valve in the standpipe riser, so located that the pressure at any outlet will not exceed 80 lbs. per sq. inch. The setting of pressure reducing valve shall be 60 lbs. to the sq. inch at the outlet side and it shall be located in a manner similar to that of the pressure regulating valve. Outlet pressure reducers shall be set as prescribed by the Fire Commissioner on 2 1/2-inch approved type hose outlet valves. Where pressure regulating or pressure reducing valves are placed in a by-pass of the riser there shall be provided in the standpipe riser within the limits of the by-pass, an approved type swing check valve opening upward.
   (jj)   Buildings in course of erection. In buildings in course of erection standpipe firelines shall be carried up with each story after the structure reaches the 7th story or a height of 85 ft. and there shall be provided an outside siamese steamer connection in a proper and accessible place, and regulation hose outlets on each story above the 2nd shall be provided as the work progresses. The top of each riser shall be securely capped at all times during the progress of the work except when work on the standpipe fireline is in progress at that point.
   (kk)   Places covering large areas. Yards or plants shall have one yard hydrant and hose for each 20,000 sq. ft. of area, but in no case shall there be more than 250 ft. distance between hydrants. Plants exceeding 40,000 sq. ft. in area shall be provided with a fire pump of not less than 1,000 gallons per minute capacity, suctioning from a tank or sump of at least 30,000 gallons capacity. The Fire Commissioner may permit suction from a river or well if in his opinion the required quantity of reasonably clean water may be obtained thereby, except that where river suction is proposed and standpipe primary water supply is taken from street main, approval of the proposition shall be obtained also from the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection. In addition to yard hydrants, the Fire Commissioner may require one Monitor nozzle with remote control for each 40,000 sq. ft. of area or fraction thereof when in his opinion an unusual hazard exists or will exist. Monitor nozzles shall be located as ordered by the Fire Commissioner.  Provision for steamer connections, fireboat connections, pressure reliefs and general layout of plant standpipe systems shall be made by the Fire Commissioner as his judgment may dictate for each individual case.  Fire extinguishing equipment in addition to the foregoing shall be prescribed by the Fire Commissioner for all oil storage plants, oil refineries, fire work plants and other plants when deemed by the Fire Commissioner as presenting unusual fire hazards.
   (ll)   Theatres, etc. In every theatre or opera house or other building used for theatrical or operatic purpose or amusement purposes as per § 520 of Chapter 5 of the Code of Ordinances, the standpipe fireline equipments in addition to the tank shall also be supplied by approved electric pump or pumps having a capacity of at least 250 gals. per minute at 100 lbs. per square inch in buildings without occupancy above the roof and at 125 lbs. per square inch pressure in buildings having any occupancy above the auditorium roof. Power for pumps shall be supplied by 25 H. P. electric motors. Pumps shall be by-passed to suction tanks as provided for elsewhere in these rules under fire pumps. Pumps shall suction from steel or reinforced concrete tanks of not less than 5,000 gallons water capacity. Pumps shall deliver initial supply of water and shall be connected to an approved electric device which upon a reduction of pressure below the allowable minimum will automatically start the pump and upon a restoration of the required pressure will automatically shut off the pump. The automatic starting device shall be set to cut in at 60 lbs. pressure and to cut out at 80 lbs. pressure. In addition to the automatic starting device there shall be provided a hand starter for emergency use and there shall also be provided on the panel board a pressure gauge.
   (mm)   Street main connections. Subject to the requirements of Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection, the size of each standpipe connection to a street main shall be not less than 4 in. in diameter and shall have a conveniently accessible control valve in the line at or near the curb or when practicable in a more remote location. The control valve shall be fitted with a frost and waterproof box not less than 4 ft. nor more than 6 ft. below the curb with a fixed stem extending to a compartment at the level of the sidewalk. The cover shall be bolted to the casing, and shall be so marked as to be quickly located and to indicate the purpose of the valve. The valve shall be of an indicating pattern, operating by a special socket wrench approved by the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection. The water meters used in standpipe fireline supplies shall be of a type allowing free flow of water and bearing the approval of the Board of Standards and Appeals and the Bureau of Water Supply and Wastewater Collection, or a type of fire line meter which has been previously specifically approved by the Fire Commissioner for use in connection with fire extinguishing equipment. Supply through the meter shall be checked against the Fire Department Siamese Supply and against tank supply. Where 2 1/2 in. standpipe equipment are permitted, the piping from the 2 in. tap to the meter shall be not less than 2 in. in diameter and a meter not less than 2 in. in size shall be provided. All piping beyond the meter and all fittings, valves, check valves, etc., shall be not less than 2 1/2 in. in diameter.  Where, due to the presence of a vault under the sidewalk and extending to within 18 in. of the curb, it is impracticable to install a control valve box at the curb, there shall be placed in the feed line from the main a control valve located not more than two feet from the point of entry.
   (nn)   High and low water to electric alarm. The high and low water electric alarm shall be so constructed and arranged that a lowering of or decrease in the quantity of water in the standpipe tank below the required fire line reserve shall cause an alarm to be given in either the pump room or engineers room. An annunciator shall be provided in connection with the alarm system. The high and low tell-tale electric connection shall be so constructed that it will not be affected by moisture and the parts shall be heavy and rugged. The float shall be of copper.  The audible signaling device for high and low water electric alarm shall consist of a vibrating gong of at least 6 in. diameter of the enclosed type and arranged for conduit installation, the same to be operated automatically by the gravity tank float switch. The control cabinet shall be arranged for conduit installation and shall be located in the engineer's room or pump room where it will be under the supervision of the person in charge of the standpipe supply.  All wiring shall be installed in rigid conduits and the installation shall be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9 of the Code of Ordinances. Only approved closed circuit systems shall be installed. Control panels must be approved by the Board of Standards and Appeals.  The following sources of energy may be employed and are given in their order of preference:
      (1)   Public utility electric light and power systems.
      (2)   Electric light or power system (public utility or isolated plant), supplemented by storage battery either controlled by an automatic throw-over device or floating on the line and protected by a reverse current circuit breaker.
      (3)   Storage batteries in duplicate.
      (4)   Primary batteries of closed circuit type.  When the system is connected to the 110 volt lighting service a suitable cut-out is to be provided and it shall be enclosed in a locked or sealed metal cabinet. The connection to system shall be the first connection on the house side of and as near as practicable to the meter. When batteries are used to operate the system they shall be placed in an approved cabinet provided with a lock and key.
   (oo)   Dry pipe valve. A dry pipe valve shall be taken to mean a valve automatically controlling the water supply of the standpipe system in such a manner that under normal conditions its piping system will be maintained dry, but in the event of a hose valve being opened, the dry pipe valve automatically releases the water into the standpipe system.  In refrigerating plants or in unheated buildings, piers or warehouses where wet lines might be impracticable, the Fire Commissioner may permit the installation of dry pipe valves.  Type A, in which the valve is actuated by the release of compressed air in the standpipe system due to the opening of a hose valve; and Type B, in which the valve is actuated by an approved trip under electrical control of an approved non-coded or coded closed circuit system operated from the control station at each hose outlet. Dry pipe valve shall be located as near as practicable to the standpipe system, in an enclosed place, protected from mechanical injury and freezing.  When Type A valve is installed the air pressure in the standpipe system under such dry pipe valve control shall not exceed 40 lbs. per sq. in. nor be permitted to fall below 25 lbs. per sq. in. nor shall it be less than one-sixth of the water pressure in any case. Not more than 16 hose outlets shall be supplied through one dry pipe valve. The air compressor shall have a capacity of not less than 11 cu. ft. per minute, and the air supply for the pump shall be taken, if possible from a room containing dry air, or it shall pass through a drying chamber containing calcium chloride in order to avoid the introduction of moisture into the system.  An alarm shall be provided in connection with each dry pipe valve installation; the electrical layout shall be approved by the Fire Commissioner.
   (pp)   Flow tell-tale. A flow tell-tale may be accepted in lieu of an electrical high and low water alarm for tanks in cases where the house supply is taken from the same tank as the standpipe fire line supply.  A flow tell-tale shall consist of a 3/4 in. pipe brought through the side of the standpipe supply tank at a level above the 3500 gallon fire line reserve, and said pipe shall be extended to either the pump room or engineer's room and shall terminate in a brass or bronze valve directly above a sink or sump. The control valve shall bear a conspicuous sign reading: "Standpipe Tank Tell-Tale."
   (qq)   Monitor nozzle. Monitor nozzles shall be so constructed and designed that they may be moved in both vertical and horizontal arcs, and shall be so located that streams may be brought to bear on all portions of the plant or building within the effective radius of stream play and such other exposing properties as may be within this radius. They shall be supplied from connections to the standpipe system not less than 4 in. in diameter.
   (rr)   Existing standpipes. Standpipe fire line equipment which were approved by the Fire Commissioner as conforming to the rules and regulations then being enforced, shall not be required to be altered to conform to the provisions of these rules, except where substantial additions or extension in height or area is made to the building, when these rules shall apply if deemed advisable or necessary by the Fire Commissioner.
   (ss)   Hose outlet valve. Hose outlet valve shall be 2 1/2 in. designed and constructed in accordance with specifications printed elsewhere in these rules.
   (tt)   Outlet valves.
      (1)   Valves shall have a clear waterway of at least 5 sq. in. in area.
      (2)   They shall show not more than 10 lbs. fiction loss for a flow of 300 gallons per minute.
      (3)   They shall close tightly against 300 lbs. pressure under normal working conditions.
      (4)   They shall stand a pressure test of 500 lbs. per sq. in. for 30 minutes and not distort.
      (5)   They shall stand the operation of full opening and closing 500 times under 150 lbs. pressure without leaking at stuffing box or seat.
      (6)   They shall not be of cast or malleable iron.
      (7)   Each valve shall bear the maker's name, and the date or number of the approval of valve.
      (8)   Straight run globe valves shall not be permitted.
   (uu)   Siamese connections. Fire Department siamese connection shall be as hereinafter stated in this subdivision.
      (1)   The body of the siamese may be of cast iron, cast steel, brass or any other suitable metals of sufficient strength to comply with §10-03(uu)(8). All movable parts, clappers, swivels and all bolts, washers, nuts, screws and pin bearings and all swivel bearings shall be of a non-corrodable metal.
      (2)   Clapper valve seats shall be made of non-corrodable metal and shall be machined to insure a tight seat for clapper valves.
      (3)   Each inlet to siamese shall be provided with a clapper valve machined to a true face. Single clapper siamese connections shall not be permitted.
      (4)   The inside diameter of valve seats shall not be less than the inside diameter of the hose couplings. The area of the waterway beyond the valve seats shall not be less than the combined areas of the waterways through the two valve seats. The area of the waterway of each inlet shall not be reduced by the clapper when in a position of maximum opening.
      (5)   Clappers must be so hung that when siamese connection is placed in a horizontal position the clappers will be seated.
      (6)   Swivels, attached to the body of the siamese by means of a collar expanded cold or screwed into the body of the siamese, or with other bearing surface extending entirely around the opening and exerting uniform shear, will be approved if giving a strength sufficient to meet paragraph (8) below.
      (7)   Clapper valves must be of such design and area that a pressure of 100 lbs. per sq. in. on the standpipe side will not prevent their opening when the pressure on the steamer side is 150 lbs. They must be so hung that with a discontinuance of flow into the siamese through that inlet the valve will close, and that it will not close where there is an inward flow and the pressure on the inlet is 5 lbs. or more greater than the standpipe pressure.
      (8)   Siamese connections must stand a pressure test of 500 lbs. for 30 minutes and not distort.
      (9)   Clapper valves shall be reasonably tight for any pressure on standpipe side up to 300 lbs.
      (10)   Approved caps or plugs must be provided to protect the threads of the inlets.
      (11)   The inlet swivels to siamese connection shall be provided with threads to fit the Fire Department hose.
      (12)   The work "standpipe" shall be cast into the top of the body of the siamese in 1 in. letters not less than 1/8 of an in. in depth.
      (13)   Where there is a fire boat siamese connection in the same system with a land end siamese connection, clapper valves shall be omitted from the land end siamese.
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