Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+nyc Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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The provisions of this chapter control the height and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to existing structures, including separation of occupancies.
Buildings shall be provided with address numbers or letters in accordance with Section‡ 3-505 of the Administrative Code and the rules issued thereunder by the borough president of the borough in which the property is located. Except as otherwise provided by the rules of the borough president in which the property is located, characters shall be a minimum 4 inches (102 mm) high and a minimum of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) wide. They shall be installed on a contrasting background and be plainly visible from the street or road fronting the property. Where access is by means of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed from the public way, an appropriately placed monument, pole or sign or any other means authorized by the borough president of the borough in which the property is located shall be used to identify the structure.
Every building, exclusive of accessory buildings, shall have at least 8 percent of the total perimeter of the building adjoining a street or frontage space. For the purposes of this section, building perimeter shall be measured at that story having the maximum enclosed floor area; and buildings provided with a front yard or front setback no deeper than 30 feet (9144 mm) in compliance with the New York City Zoning Resolution shall be considered as adjoining the street or frontage space.
Provisions shall be made for access by the Fire Department to every building in accordance with Section 903.2.11.1 of this code and Chapter 5 of the New York City Fire Code. In addition, multiple dwellings shall comply with Section 54 of the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law, as applicable.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and firewalls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

BASEMENT. A story partly below the grade plane and having less than one-half its clear height (measured from finished floor to finished ceiling) below the grade plane (see "Story" in Section 202 and "Story above grade plane" in this section). A basement shall be considered a story above grade plane.

CELLAR. That portion of a building that is partly or wholly underground, and having one-half or more of its clear height (measured from finished floor to finished ceiling) below the grade plane. Cellars shall not be counted as stories in measuring the height of the buildings.

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS. Equipment that simultaneously produces electricity and heat from a single fuel source.

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5).

FRONTAGE SPACE. A street or an open space adjoining a building not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in any dimension. Such open space shall be accessible from a street by a driveway, lane, private road or alley at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width. Such open space including accessways shall be permanently maintained free of all obstructions that might interfere with its use by the Fire Department.

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the level of the curb as established by the city engineer in the Borough President’s office, measured at the center of the front of a building. Where a building faces on more than one street, the grade plane shall be the average of the levels of the curbs at the center of each front.

Exception: The grade plane shall not be referenced to the level of the curb, but shall be considered the average elevation of the final grade adjoining all exterior walls of a building, calculated from final grade elevations taken at intervals of 10 feet (3048 mm) around the perimeter of the building where:

1. No curb elevation has been legally established on the city map; or

2. Every part of the building is setback more than 25 feet (7620 mm) from a street line.

HEIGHT, BUILDING.The vertical distance from the grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surfaces.

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story in accordance with Section 505.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a basement shall also be considered a story above grade plane (also see definitions of "Story" in Section BC 202 and "Basement" in this section).
TABLE 503 ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREASa Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above grade plane. Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story.

GROUP TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPEIV TYPE V
A B A B A B HT A B
HEIGHT (feet)
HEIGHT(S)
UL 160e 65 55 65 55 65 50 40
A-1 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
17,500
3
10,500
6
14,700
3
5,600
6
15,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
A-2 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
17,500
3
9,500
6
14,000
3
5,600
6
15,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
A-3 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
17,500
3
9,500
6
14,000
3
5,600
6
15,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
A-4 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
17,500
3
9,500
6
14,000
3
5,600
6
15,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
A-5 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
B S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
37,500
3
10,500
6
28,500
3
5,600
6
36,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
E S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
4
26,000
3
10,500
4
23,500
3
5,600
6
25,500
3
8,400
2
5,500
F-1 S
A
UL
UL
6
UL
5
12,500
3
7,500
5
7,500
2
3,000
5
10,000
3
3,000
2
1,000
F-2 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
37,500
3
10,500
6
28,500
3
5,600
6
30,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
H-1 S
A
1
21,000
1
16,500
1
11,000
1
7,500
1
9,500
1
7,000
1
10,500
1
7,500
NP
NP
H-2d S
A
UL
21,000
3
16,500
2
11,000
1
7,500
2
9,500
1
7,000
2
10,500
1
7,500
1
3,000
H-3d S
A
UL
UL
6
60,000
4
26,500
2
14,000
4
17,500
2
13,000
4
25,000
2
10,000
1
5,000


(continued)

TABLE 503‒continued ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREASa Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above grade plane. Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story.

GROUP TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
A B A B A B HT A B
HEIGHT (feet)
HEIGHT(S)
UL 160e 65 55 65 55 65 50 40
H-4 S
A
UL
UL
7
UL
5
37,500
3
17,500
5
28,500
3
17,500
5
36,000
3
18,000
2
6,500
H-5 S
A
3
UL
3
UL
3
37,500
3
23,000
3
28,500
3
19,000
3
36,000
3
18,000
2
9,000
I-1 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
19,000
NP
NP
4
16,500
3
5,600
4
18,000
NP
NP
NP
NP
I-2 S
A
UL
UL
6
UL
4
7,000
4
3,500
5
5,000
3
1,200
5
6,500
3
2,000
NP
NP
I-3 S
A
UL
UL
4
UL
4
7,000
3
3,500
4
5,000
2
1,200
4
6,500
3
2,000
NP
NP
I-4 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
3
26,500
3
9,500
3
23,500
3
5,600
3
25,500
2
8,400
2
5,500
M S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
21,500
3
7,500
6
18,500
3
5,600
6
14,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
R-1 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
UL
NP
NP
6
24,000
NP
NP
6
20,500
NP
NP
NP
NP
R-2 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
UL
NP
NP
6
24,000
3
5,600
6
20,500
NP
NP
NP
NP
R-3 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
17,500
3
10,500
6
14,700
3
5,600
6
30,000
3
8,400
3
5,500
S-1 S
A
UL
UL
6
48,000
5
12,000
3
7,500
4
7,500
3
7,500
4
7,500
3
5,000
2
1,000
S-2b, c S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
6
15,000
3
10,000
6
10,000
4
8,500
6
10,000
3
8,400
2
5,500
Uc S UL 5 4 2 3 2 4 2 1
A UL 35,000 19,000 8,500 14,000 8,500 18,000 9,000 5,500

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 = Not permitted in Fire District
A = building area per story, S = stories above grade plane,
UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted.
= Not permitted in Fire District without sprinklers.
a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503:
Section 504.2, Allowable height increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation.
Section 506.2, Allowable area increase due to frontage.
Section 506.3, Allowable area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation.
Section 507, Unlimited area building.
b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3.
c. For private garages, see Section 406.1.
d. See Section 415.5 for limitations.
e. Except for Occupancy Groups F-1, H-1 through H-5, I-2, I-3, S-1 and U, buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be unlimited in height.
The building height and area shall not exceed the limits specified in Table 503 based on the type of construction as determined by Section 602 and the occupancies as determined by Section 302 except as modified hereafter. Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls complying with Section 706 shall be considered to be a separate building.
Buildings and structures of Type I and II construction designed to house special industrial processes that require large areas and unusual building heights to accommodate craneways or special machinery and equipment including, among others, rolling mills; structural metal fabrication shops and foundries; or the production and distribution of electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the building height and area limitations of Table 503.
Two or more buildings on the same tax lot and under the same ownership and control shall be regulated as separate buildings, or, at the option of the owner, shall be considered as portions of one building if the building height of each building and the aggregate building area of the combined buildings are‡ within the limitations of Table 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate building shall be applicable to each building.
Buildings of Type I construction permitted to be of unlimited tabular building heights and areas in accordance with Table 503 are not required to comply with the special requirements that allow unlimited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited building height in Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 or increased building heights and areas for other types of construction.
The heights permitted by Table 503 shall only be increased in accordance with this section.

Exception: The building height of one-story aircraft hangars, aircraft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half times the building height.
Where a building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum building height is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is increased by one story. These increases are permitted in addition to the building area increase in accordance with Sections 506.2 and 506.3. For Group R buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum building height is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is increased by one story, but shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) or six stories, respectively.

Exceptions:

1. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a Group I-2 occupancy of Type IIB, III, IV or V construction.

2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5 occupancy.

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with Table 601, Note d.
Rooftop structures including but not limited to roof tanks and their supports, ventilating, air conditioning, combined heat and power systems and similar building service equipment, bulkheads, penthouses, greenhouses, chimneys, and parapet walls 4 feet (1219 mm) or less in height shall not be included in the building height of the building or considered an additional story unless the aggregate area of all such structures, exclusive of any solar thermal and solar (photovoltaic) collectors and/or panels and their supporting equipment, exceeds 331/3 percent of the area of the roof of the building upon which they are erected. Rooftop structures shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1509.

Exception: Solar thermal and solar electric (photovoltaic) collectors and/or panels and their supporting equipment that exceed 331/3 percent of the area of the roof of the building upon which they are erected shall not be included in the height of a building or considered an additional story.
A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story in which it is contained. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the building area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire area defined in Section 902. The clear height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

Exception: The clear height of habitable spaces above or below mezzanines within dwelling units shall not be less than 8 feet (2438 mm).
The aggregate area of a mezzanine or mezzanines within a room or space shall not exceed one-third of the area of that room or space in which they are located. The enclosed portions of a room or space shall not be included in determining the permissible floor area of the mezzanine. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the room in which it is contained.

Exceptions:

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and structures of Type I or II construction for special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the area of the room.

2. The aggregate area of a mezzanine or mezzanines within a dwelling unit shall not exceed one-third of the net floor area of such dwelling unit, whether or not portions of such dwelling unit are enclosed. The area of the mezzanine shall not contribute to the determination of the floor area of the dwelling unit in which it is contained.
Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access to at least two independent means of egress where the common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mezzanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance traveled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 1007.

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1015.1.
A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls or railings not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts.

Exceptions:

1. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10.

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanine is located, if at least one of the means of egress provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine level.

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine area.

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides.

5. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress shall not be required to be open to the room in which the mezzanine is located in occupancies, other than Groups H and I, that comply with items 5.1 through 5.4.

5.1. Such occupancy is no more than two stories above grade plane,

5.2. Such occupancy is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1,

5.3. An approved fire alarm system is installed throughout the entire building or structure in which such occupancy is located, and

5.4. Notification appliances are installed throughout the mezzanine in accordance with NFPA 72.
Equipment platforms in buildings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The area of the equipment platform shall not be included in determining the fire area in accordance with Section 903. Equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine, and such platforms and the walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders providing access to an equipment platform shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from the building.
The aggregate area of all industrial equipment platforms within a room shall not exceed two-thirds of the area of the room in which they occur. Where an equipment platform is located in the same room as a mezzanine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Section 505.2, and the combined aggregate area of the equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed two-thirds of the room in which they are located.
Where located in a building that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system, industrial equipment platforms shall be fully protected by sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by the standards referenced in Section 903.3.
Equipment platforms shall have guards where required by Section 1013.1.
The building areas limited by Table 503 shall be permitted to be increased due to frontage (If) and automatic sprinkler system protection (Is) in accordance with the following:


where:
Aa = Allowable building area per story (square feet).
At = Tabular building area per story in accordance with Table 503 (square feet).
If = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in accordance with Section 506.2.
Is = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as calculated in accordance with Section 506.3.
Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter adjoining a public way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accordance with the following:


where:
If = Area increase factor due to frontage.
F = Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width (feet).
P = Perimeter of entire building (feet).
W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance with Section 506.2.1.
The value of "W" shall be at least 20 feet (6096 mm). Where the value of W varies along the perimeter of the building, the calculation performed in accordance with Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W is greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 mm). Where W exceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a value of 30 feet (9144 mm) shall be used in calculating the weighted average, regardless of the actual width of the open space. Where two or more buildings are on the same tax lot, W shall be measured from the exterior face of a building to the exterior face of an opposing building, as applicable.

Exception: The value of W divided by 30 shall be permitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all requirements of Section 507 except for compliance with the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public way or yard requirement, as applicable.
Such open space shall be either on the same zoning lot or dedicated for public use and shall be accessed from a street or approved fire lane.
Where a building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the building area limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an additional 200 percent (Is = 2) for buildings with more than one story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent (Is = 3) for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. These increases are permitted in addition to the height and story increases in accordance with Section 504.2.

Exceptions: The building area limitation increases shall not be permitted for the following conditions:

1. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not apply to buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1.

2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not apply to the building area of an occupancy in Group H-2 or H-3. For buildings containing such occupancies, the allowable building area shall be determined in accordance with Section 508.4.2, with the sprinkler system increase applicable only to the portions of the building not classified as Group H-2 or H-3.

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with Table 601, Note d.
The total allowable building area of a single occupancy building with more than one story above grade plane shall be determined in accordance with this section. The actual aggregate building area at all stories in the building shall not exceed the total allowable building area.

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the total allowable building area, provided such basement does not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than one story above grade plane and the finished surface of the floor above the basement does not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
The total allowable building area with more than one story above grade plane shall be determined by multiplying the allowable area per story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane as listed below.

1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, multiply by 2;

2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade plane, multiply by 3; and

3. No story shall exceed the allowable area per story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1 for the occupancies on that story.

Exceptions:

1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Section 507.

2. In Group R occupancies 6 stories or less in height, the maximum area of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be determined by multiplying the allowable area per story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane.
The total allowable building area for buildings containing mixed occupancies shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section.

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the total allowable building area, provided such basement does not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than one story above grade plane and the finished surface of the floor above the basement does not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
For buildings with no more than one story above grade plane and containing mixed occupancies, the total building area shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 508.1.
For buildings with no more than one story above grade plane and containing mixed occupancies, each story shall individually comply with the applicable requirements of Section 508.1. For buildings with more than three stories above grade plane, the total building area shall be such that the aggregate sum of the ratios of the actual area of each story divided by the allowable area of such stories based on the applicable provisions of Section 508.1 shall not exceed 3.
The area of buildings of the occupancies and configurations specified in Section 507 shall not be limited.
The area of a Group F-2 or S-2 building no more than one story in height, of other than Type V construction shall not be limited when the building is surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.
The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than one story in height or a Group A-4 building no more than one story in height of other than Type V construction shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

Exceptions:

1. ‡In Group F-2 and S-2 occupancies, one-story rack storage facilities of Type II construction that are not accessible to the public shall not be limited in height provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Sections 507.3, 903.3.1.1 of this code and the New York City Fire Code.

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such as tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities, in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that:

2.1. Exit doors directly to the outside are provided for occupants of the participant sports areas; and

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm system with manual fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Section 907.
Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies of other than Type V construction shall be permitted within mixed occupancy buildings of unlimited area complying with Section 507.3, provided all of the following are met:

1. Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies are separated from other occupancies as required for separated occupancies in Section 508.4.4 with no reduction allowed in the fire-resistance rating of the separation based upon the installation of an automatic sprinkler system;

2. Each area of the portions of the building used for Group A-1 or A-2 occupancies shall not exceed the maximum allowable area permitted for such occupancies in Section 503.1; and

3. All exit doors from Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building.
The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than two stories in height shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 throughout, and is surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.
The public ways or yards of 60 feet (18 288 mm) required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 507.4 and 507.6 shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width provided all of the following requirements are met:

1. The reduced width shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building.

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced width shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.

3. Openings in the exterior wall, facing the reduced open space, shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.
The area of a Group A-1, A-2, A-3, or A-4 building of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The area of a one-story, Group A-3 building used as a house of worship, community hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type IIB construction shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met:

1. The building shall not have a stage other than a platform.

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

3. The assembly floor shall be located at or within 21 inches (533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are provided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the street or grade level.

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.
Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 fire occupancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings containing Groups F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 507.3 and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggregate floor area of the Group H occupancies located at the perimeter of the unlimited area building shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of the building, nor the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503 as modified by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perimeter of the Group H floor area that fronts on a street or other unoccupied space. The aggregate floor area of Group H occupancies not located at the perimeter of the building as allowed by Section 415.3 shall not exceed 25 percent of the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503. Group H occupancies shall be separated from the rest of the unlimited area buildings and from each other in accordance with Table 508.4. For two-story unlimited area buildings, the Group H occupancies shall not be located more than one story above grade plane unless permitted by the allowable height in stories and feet as set forth in Table 503 based on the type of construction of the unlimited area building.
The area of a Group H-2 aircraft paint hangar no more than one story above grade plane shall not be limited where such aircraft paint hangar complies with the provisions of Section 412.6 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half times the building height.
The area of a Group E building of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The area of a one-story Group E building of Type IIB construction shall not be limited when the following criteria are met:

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit to the outside of the building complying with Section 1020.

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

4. The building is surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.
In buildings of Type II, IIIA and IV construction, the area of a motion picture theater located on the first story above grade plane shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined on all sides by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.
The area of covered mall buildings and anchor stores not exceeding three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not be limited.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 507.2 and 507.3, the area of a Group B building of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 507.2 and 507.3, the area of a Group F-2 building of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 507.2 and 507.3, the area of a Group M building of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
The area of Group R-1‡ and R-2 buildings of Type IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, as applicable.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 507.2 and 507.3, the area of a Group S-2 building of Type IB, IIA, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited where the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Each portion of a building shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Where a building contains more than one occupancy group, the building or portion thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections‡ 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, or a combination of these sections.

Exceptions:

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 510.

2. Where required by Table 415.5.2, areas of Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be located in a detched building or structure.

3. Where identified in Table 509, rooms or spaces shall be treated as incidental uses.

4. Where not identified in Table 509, mechanical and/or electrical equipment rooms shall be permitted to be classified as the occupancy within which they are located, or at the option of the applicant, classified as Group F-2 occupancy in accordance with Section 306.3.
Accessory occupancies are those occupancies that are ancillary to the main occupancy of the building or portion thereof. Accessory occupancies shall comply with the provisions of Sections 508.2.1 through 508.2.4.
Aggregate accessory occupancies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in which they are located and shall not exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without building area increases in accordance with Section 506 for such accessory occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. The following accessory occupancies are permitted to occupy more than 10 percent of the floor area of the story in which they are located:

1.1. Accessory assembly areas having a floor area less than 750 square feet (69.7 m2).

1.2. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies.

1.3. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100.

2. Rooms or spaces within Group H-2, H-3, H-4 or H-5 occupancy shall not be considered accessory occupancies and shall be treated as separated occupancies.
Accessory occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy classification of that space.
The allowable building area and height of the building shall be based on the allowable building area and height for the main occupancy in accordance with Section 503.1. The height of each accessory occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without increases in accordance with Section 504 for such accessory occupancies. The building area of the accessory occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 508.2.1.
No separation is required between accessory occupancies and the main occupancy.

Exceptions:

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall be separated from all other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.4.

2. Separated tenancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 510.10.
Buildings or portions of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered as nonseparated occupancies.
Nonseparated occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy classification of that space. In addition, the most restrictive provisions of Chapter 9 which apply to the nonseparated occupancies shall apply to the total nonseparated occupancy area. Where nonseparated occupancies occur in a high-rise building, the most restrictive requirements of Section 403 which apply to the nonseparated occupancies shall apply throughout the high-rise building.
The allowable building area and height of the building or portion thereof shall be based on the most restrictive allowances for the occupancy groups under consideration for the type of construction of the building in accordance with Section 503.1.
No separation is required between nonseparated occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5‡ occupancies shall be separated from all other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.4.

2. Separated tenancies in accordance with Section 510.10.

3. Kitchens shall be separated in accordance with Section 508.4.4.
Buildings or portions of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered as separated occupancies.

TABLE 508.4 REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS)

OCCUPANCY A, E I-1, I-3,
I-4
I-2 Ra F-2, S-2b,
U
B F-1 M S-1 H-1 H-2 H-3, H-4 H-5
S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS S NS
A, E N N 1 2 2 NP 1 2 N 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 NP NP 3 4 2 3 2 NP
I-1, I-3, I-4 -- -- N N 2 NP 1 NP 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 NP NP 3 NP 2 NP 2 NP
I-2 -- -- -- -- N N 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP NP NP 3 NP 2 NP 2 NP
Ra -- -- -- -- -- -- N N 1c 2c 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 NP NP 3 NP 2 NP 2 NP
F-2, S-2b, U -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N N 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 NP NP 3 4 2 3 2 NP
B -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N N 2 3 1 2 2 3 NP NP 2 3 1 2 1 NP
F-1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N N 2 3 2 3 NP NP 2 3 1 2 1 NP
M -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N N 2 3 NP NP 2 3 1 2 1 NP
S-1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N N NP NP 2 3 1 2 1 NP
H-1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP
H-2 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N NP 1 NP 1 NP
H-3, H-4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1d NP 1 NP
H-5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- N NP

S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
N = No separation requirement.
NP = Not permitted.
a. See Section 420.
b. The required separation from areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour.
c. See Section 406.1.4.
d. Separation is not required between occupancies of the same classification
Separated occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Each separated space shall comply with this code based on the occupancy classification of that portion of the building.
In each story, the building area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual building area of each separated occupancy divided by the allowable building area of each separated occupancy shall not exceed 1.
Each separated occupancy shall comply with the building height limitations based on the type of construction of the building in accordance with Section 503.1.

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 510 shall permit occupancies at building heights other than provided in Section 503.1.
Individual occupancies shall be separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with Table 508.4.

Exceptions:

1. Fire separations of Group H and I-2 occupancies shall not be permitted any reductions in fire-resistance ratings.

2. Nonresidential kitchens need not be separated by fire separations from adjoining dining spaces, provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:

2.1. The cooking equipment is vented directly to the outdoors; and

2.2. A draft curtain of noncombustible material, at least 24 inches (609 mm) down from the ceiling, is provided to separate the cooking facilities from dining spaces; and

2.3. Fire protection systems in accordance with the provisions of Section 903 and 904 are provided on the cooking facilities side of the curtain, or any opening between the kitchen and dining space, located within 24 inches (609 mm) of the curtain or opening, and spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center if the opening is more than 60 inches (1524 mm) wide.
Required separations shall be fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, so as to completely separate adjacent occupancies.
TABLE 509c INCIDENTAL USES

ROOM OR AREA SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION
Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 350,000 Btu per hour input 2 hour; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler systema
Furnace room where any piece of equipment is 350,000 Btu per hour input or less, except in R-3 occupancy 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler systema
Rooms with a high pressure steam or water boiler that exceeds 350,000 Btu per hour input 2 hour; or 1 hour and provide automatic fire-extinguishing systema
Rooms with a high pressure steam or water boiler that is 350,000 Btu per hour input or less 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler systema
Rooms that contain a low pressure steam or water boiler regardless of Btu per hour input 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler systema,b
Refrigerant machinery room 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Incinerator rooms 2 hours and automatic sprinkler system
Paint shops, not classified a Group H, located in occupancies other than
Group F
2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system
Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H, located in a Group E or I-2 occupancy 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Group I-3 cells equipped with padded surfaces 1 hour
Waste and linen collection rooms located in either Group I-2 occupancies or ambulatory care facilities 1 hour
Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 square feet 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium or VRLA, or more than 1,000 pounds for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptable power supplies 1 hour in group B, F, M, S and U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, E, I and R occupancies
Rooms containing fire pumps in non-high-rise buildings 2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system throughout the building
Rooms containing fire pumps in high-rise buildings 2 hours

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Boilers servicing more than one dwelling unit in multiple‡ dwellings shall also comply with Section 65 of the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law.
b. Sealed combustion direct vent boilers shall comply with Section 303 of the New York City Mechanical Code and Section 303 of the New York City Fuel Gas Code, as applicable.
c. For mechanical and/or electrical equipment rooms not identified in this Table, see Section 508.1.
Incidental uses listed in Table 509 and located within single occupancy or mixed occupancy buildings shall comply with the provisions of this section. Incidental uses are ancillary functions associated with a given occupancy that generally pose a greater level of risk to that occupancy and are limited to those uses listed in Table 509.

Exception: Incidental uses within and serving a dwelling unit are not required to comply with this section.
Incidental uses shall not be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Incidental uses shall be included in the building occupancies within which they are located.
Incidental uses shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building in which they are located.
The incidental uses listed in Table 509 shall be separated from the remainder of the building or equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, or both, in accordance with the provisions of that table.
Where Table 509 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Construction supporting 1-hour fire barriers or horizontal assemblies used for incidental use separations in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by other sections of this code.
Where Table 509 permits an automatic sprinkler system without a fire barrier, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke. The walls shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor assembly below to the underside of the ceiling that is a component of a fire-resistance-rated floor assembly or roof assembly above or to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, desk or slab above. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Doors shall not have air transfer openings and shall not be undercut in excess of the clearance permitted in accordance with NFPA 80. Walls surrounding the incidental use shall not have air transfer openings unless provided with smoke dampers in accordance with Section 710.7.
Except as specified in Table 509 for certain incidental uses, where an automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance with Table 509, only the space occupied by the incidental use need be equipped with such a system.
The provisions in this section shall permit the use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classification and type of construction, provided the special condition complies with the provisions specified in this section for such condition and other applicable requirements of this code. The provisions of Sections 510.2 through 510.8 are to be considered independent and separate from each other.
Buildings shall be considered as separate and distinct from each other for the purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction, where all of the following conditions are met:

1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal floor assembly having a minimum 3-hour fire-resistance rating.

2. The building below the horizontal assembly is no more than one story above grade plane.

3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type IA construction.

4. Shaft, stairway, ramp or escalator enclosures through the horizontal floor assembly shall have a minimum of 2-hour fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section 715.4.

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the horizontal floor assembly have a minimum of 3-hour fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section 715.4, the enclosure walls extending above the horizontal floor assembly shall be permitted to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating provided:

4.1. The building above the horizontal floor assembly is not required to be of Type I construction;

4.2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; and

4.3. The enclosure opening protectives above the horizontal floor assembly have a minimum 1-hour fire protection rating.

5. The building or buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occupancy uses, each with an occupant load of less than 300, or Group B, M, R, or S occupancies.‡

6. The building below the horizontal assembly shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and shall be permitted to be any of the following occupancies:

6.1. Group S-2 parking garage used for the parking and storage of private motor vehicles.

6.2. Uses incidental to the operation of the building (including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, storage areas and similar uses).

7. The maximum building height in feet (mm) as measured from the grade plane shall not exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building having the smaller allowable height as measured from the grade plane.
A Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with no more than one story above grade plane and located below a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be classified as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining the type of construction where all of the following conditions are met:

1. The allowable area of the building shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 1.

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance requirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage.

3. The height and the number of the tiers of the Group S-2 open parking garage shall be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5.

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall be protected as required for the floor assembly of the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be required to be protected.

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, but shall be permitted to contain an accessory office, waiting room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.
Where a maximum one-story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, enclosed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is provided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to be used in determining the minimum type of construction shall be measured from the floor above such a parking area. The horizontal floor assembly between the parking garage and the Group R above shall comply with the type of construction required for the parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rating not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in Section 508.4.
The height limitation for buildings of Type IIA construction in Group R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other building on the lot and from lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first-floor assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 11/2 hours.
Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of the building above the parking garage.
Fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 between the parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall correspond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed in Table 508.4 for the occupancies involved. The type of construction shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that structural members, including main bracing within the open parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occupancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 707, with self-closing doors complying with Section 715 or horizontal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 712, with self-closing doors complying with Section 715. Means of egress from the open parking garage shall comply with Section 406.3.
No space classified as Factory Industrial Group F shall be located above the second story of any building of Type III, IV or V construction containing a space classified as Residential Group R-1 or R-2.
Where two or more buildings are provided above the horizontal assembly separating a Group S-2 open or closed parking garage from the buildings above in accordance with the special provisions in Section‡ 510.2, 510.3 or 510.8, the buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be regarded as separate and distinct buildings from each other and shall comply with all other provisions of this code as applicable to each separate and distinct building.
Spaces or dwelling units occupied by different tenants shall be separated by fire barriers having at least 1-hour fire-resistance ratings.

Exceptions:

1. Nonresidential spaces occupied by different tenants located in buildings that are sprinklered throughout.

2. Tenant spaces in covered mall buildings complying with Section 402.
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