Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+nyc Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.
The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they fully comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
A mall in compliance with the provisions of this section shall be classified as occupancy group M.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term "covered mall building" shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4, anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.
A fire protection plan shall be provided to the department and the Fire Department pursuant to Article 109 of Title 28.
The covered mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, the requirements of this section shall apply.
The calculated occupant load used to determine the required number of means of egress shall be in accordance with this section.
The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered mall building shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 10. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the total occupant load in the mall shall include the occupant load attributed to the mall as determined by Section 402.4.1.2.1, plus the occupant load of the food court as determined by Section 402.4.1.2.3, if any.
To determine the occupant load attributed to the mall, the gross leasable area (square feet), excluding any food court and anchor buildings, shall be divided by the occupant load factor (OLF) value determined by Equation 4-1.


where:
OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).


Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the covered mall building.
The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.
The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004 and shall be added to the occupant load of the mall.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the covered mall building.
The required number of means of egress shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space exceeds an occupant load of 50, no fewer than two means of egress shall be provided.
The number of means of egress from the mall shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 10 and shall be based upon an occupant load calculated in accordance with Section 402.4.1.2.
Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance with this section.
Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.
Where more than one means of egress is required from an individual tenant space as determined by Chapter 10, not more than 50 percent of the occupant load shall discharge into the mall.
Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so located in the covered mall building such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building.
The maximum permitted travel distance to exits in covered mall buildings shall be in accordance with this section.
The maximum travel distance from any point within an individual tenant space to its entrance to the mall or to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The maximum distance of travel from any point within a mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. However, in dead ends not exceeding a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead end portion of the mall, one direction of travel shall be permitted. The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).
Where exit passageway enclosures provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doors to the exit passageway enclosures shall be minimum 1-hour fire doors with panic hardware. Such doors shall be self-closing and be so maintained or shall be automatic closing by smoke detection.
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways provided that the exit passageway is separated from such rooms by fire barriers providing the same fire-resistance rating as required for the exit passageway. Door swings from these rooms shall not project into the minimum width of such exit passageways.
For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.
The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear width to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.
The minimum floor and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) in open malls.
Covered mall buildings, including anchor buildings, shall be only of Type I, II, and IV construction. Their areas shall not be limited provided that the covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not exceed three stories in height. The height of covered mall buildings, including anchor buildings, of Type IIB construction shall be limited to one story. The allowable height and area of anchor buildings greater than three stories in height shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.
The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall building and anchor buildings.

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire protection rating of 3 hours.

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not within the covered mall building or anchor stores.
Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.
An attached parking garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered mall building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed parking garage is separated from the covered mall building or anchor building by a distance greater than 10 feet (3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.
Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.
An anchor building shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade that have an occupancy classification of the same uses permitted as tenants of the covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire resistive fire barriers complying with Section 707. Openings between such buildings and the mall need not be protected.
Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall and exits shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.
The covered mall building and buildings connected shall be provided throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, that shall comply with the following:

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternate protection.

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed in accordance with Section 406.2.
The covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.
A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 909 for malls greater than one story in height.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in an open mall.
Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet the following requirements:

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within the mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975.

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression and detection devices.

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).
Structures intended as children’s playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 402.12.1 through 402.12.4.
Children’s playground structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft-contained play equipment structures) having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975.

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use.

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 1/4 inch (6 mm).‡

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.

9. The floor covering placed under the children’s playground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.
Children’s playground structures located within the mall shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for kiosks and similar structures.
Children’s playground structures shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).
Children’s playground structures shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area.
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or doors.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby power systems that are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the Fire Department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.
Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.
Plastic signs shall not exceed a height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).
Plastic signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.
Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.
Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.
Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3.
The minimum density of foam plastics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).
The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the Fire Department.
High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.8.

Exception: The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

1. Air traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.

2. Buildings occupied entirely by Group R-3 classification.

3. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

4. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.

5. Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

6. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.
The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections‡ 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.
The following modifications to the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be as follows:

1. High rise buildings 420 feet (128 000 mm)‡ or greater in building height shall be constructed of Type IA construction.

2. For high rise buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm)‡ in building height, and constructed to meet the fire-resistance rating requirements of Type IB or IIA construction, the required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall be constructed to meet Type IA construction.
For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.
For all high-rise buildings, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.
The wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
The face of the wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the exit enclosure or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.
Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall be permitted.
The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4 MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
Up to 420 feet 430 psf
Greater than 420 feet 1,000 psf

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. A secondary water supply shall be provided where required by Section 903.3.5.2.
Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 300 feet (9144 m) in building height shall be supplied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.
Each sprinkler riser shall be placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.
Required fire pumps shall be provided with water supplies in accordance with Section‡ 905.2 and NFPA 14 as modified by Appendix Q.
The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.
Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and Section 907.2.13.2 of this code.
A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the Fire Department.
A post-fire smoke purge system shall be installed in accordance with Section 916.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power loads specified in Sections‡ 403.4.7.2 and 403.4.7.3.
If the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier assemblies. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.
In buildings of any occupancy group other than Group R-2, the following are classified as standby power loads:

1. Power and lighting for fire command center required by Section 403.4.5;

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures;

3. Elevators, in accordance with Section 3003; and

4. Stair pressurization systems when provided.
Group R-2 occupancies in buildings greater than 125 feet (38 100 mm) in height shall be required to provide a standby power system to support the following loads:

1. Power and lighting for fire command center required by Section 403.4.5;

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures;

3. At least one elevator serving all floors, or one elevator per bank where different banks serve different portions of the building; and

4. Stair pressurization systems when provided.
An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Sections 403.4.8.1 and 403.4.8.2. Fuel sources for generators shall be in accordance with Section 2702.1.1.
In buildings of any occupancy group other than Group R-2, the following are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10;

2. Elevator car lighting;

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems, including Fire Department in-building Auxiliary Radio Communication systems (ARCs);

4. Automatic fire detection systems;

5. Fire alarm systems; and

6. Electrically powered fire pumps, including manual fire pumps, automatic fire pumps, and sprinkler booster pumps.
Group R-2 occupancies in buildings greater than 125 feet (38 100 mm) in height shall be required to provide an emergency power system to support the following loads:

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10;

2. ‡Emergency voice communications systems; and

3. ‡Electrically powered fire pumps, unless electrical power to the motor is taken ahead of the main from the street side of the house service switch.
The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.
The required exit stairway enclosures shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (91 440‡ mm) or one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. In buildings with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with this section. Stairs sharing any common wall, floors, ceilings, scissor stair assemblies, or other enclosures shall be counted as one exit stairway.

Exception: Group R-2 occupancies.
For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Stairs sharing any common wall, floors, ceilings, scissor stair assemblies, or other enclosures shall not be considered the additional exit stairway required by this section.

Exceptions: An additional exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in any of the following instances:

1. In buildings where all passenger elevators for general public use and all other elevators used for occupant self-evacuation comply with Sections 3008.1 through 3008.11;

2. In buildings where all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. The commissioner has approved a timed egress analysis establishing the egress time it would take for a full building evacuation, utilizing the stairs required by Section 1021.1 and the additional stair that would have been required pursuant to Section 403.5.2;

2.2. The commissioner has approved a timed egress analysis establishing the egress time it would take for a full building evacuation, utilizing the combination of the stairs required by Section 1021.1 and elevators used for occupant self-evacuation as follows:

2.2.1.Such analysis need only utilize a number of designated elevators designed for occupant self-evacuation necessary to demonstrate an evacuation time that is less than the time established in Exception 2.1; and

2.2.2.Every bank of passenger elevators for general public use shall be served by at least one such designated elevator;

2.3. All elevators in the building that either are passenger elevators for general public use or are used for occupant self-evacuation shall comply with Sections 3008.1 through 3008.11. However, the standby power generating equipment required by Section 3008.9 need only be sized to satisfy the loads required to simultaneously operate those elevators identified in the timed egress analysis described in Exception 2.2.

The minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1 are all at least 25 percent wider than the exit width required by Chapter 10. The increase in the stair width shall not be utilized in the timed egress analyses required by Exceptions 2.1 and 2.2; or

3. Where the application for construction document approval is submitted within 18 months after the date of enactment of the local law that added this section.
Doors opening into interior stair enclosures shall not be locked from either side. However, a door locked from the stair side may be permitted provided that such door is equipped with an automatic fail safe system for opening in the event of the activation of any automatic fire detection system, or when any elevator recall is activated, or when any signal is received from the fire command center. Such door shall be deemed as openable from the stair side. Stair reentry signs shall be posted throughout the stairway indicating that reentry is provided only during fire emergencies. Such signs shall be in accordance with Section 1030.4.2.
A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked in accordance with Section 403.5.3.
Every required exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9.

Exception for R-2 occupancies: Smokeproof enclosures are not required in occupancy Group R-2 unless provided pursuant to Exception 2 of Section 916.1.
Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1024 and Appendix S.

Exception: Egress paths serving Group R-2.
Emergency escape and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not required.
Elevator operation and installation shall be in accordance with Chapter 30.
In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007.
Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.
Elevator lobbies shall be provided in accordance with Sections 708.14.1 and 708.14.2.
For high-rise buildings, outdoor air intakes serving spaces above the second story and serving spaces greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) of floor area shall be located in accordance with Section 401.5 of the New York City Mechanical Code.

Exception: Group R-2 occupancy.
The use of open web steel joists shall be prohibited in high-rise buildings until the commissioner promulgates rules establishing minimum acceptable fireproofing methods.
In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined herein as atriums.
The following word and term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

ATRIUM. An opening connecting three or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or any other vertical openings that are not required to be enclosed by other provisions of this code, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses, and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the New York City Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 or both.

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.
A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.
Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

1. A glass or glass-block wall forming a smoke partition where automatic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and so designed that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

2. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Section 909.11.
The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.
In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016.
The provisions of this section apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.

3. Fixed guideway transit systems.

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.
The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.
Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.
The separation between the two compartments shall be of minimum 2-hour fire barrier wall construction that shall extend from floor slab to floor deck above. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.
Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a 2-hour fire barrier. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill, and be automatic-closing by smoke detection installed in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.
A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.
A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.
Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.
Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.
Each floor level shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.
Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1022.9.
A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1.
The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

1. Smoke control system;

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures;

3. Fire pumps;

4. Elevators in accordance with Section 3003; and

5. Stair pressurization systems when provided.
An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 405.9.1.
The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems, including Fire Department in-building Auxiliary Radio Communication systems (ARCs) provided where required or installed voluntarily in accordance with Section 917;

2. Fire alarm systems;

3. Automatic fire detection systems;

4. Elevator car lighting; and

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
The underground building shall be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.
Private garages and carports, as defined by this section, shall be classified as Group U occupancy.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CARPORT. A structure or portion of a structure, accessory to a Group R-2 or R-3 occupancy, open on at least two sides and unenclosed for at least 50 percent of perimeter, used for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles. Such facility shall not exceed 650 square feet (60.45 m2) in area and one story in height.

PRIVATE GARAGE. An enclosed structure or portion of a structure, accessory to a Group R-2 or R-3 occupancy, used for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles. Such facility shall not exceed 650 square feet (60 m2) in area and one story in height.
Private garage and carport floors shall be of concrete or equivalent noncombustible material that will not absorb flammable liquids. The area of floor used for parking of vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain. The sills of all door openings connecting a dwelling unit to a private garage shall be raised at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the floor level of the garage.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
Ramps shall have a gradient not exceeding one in seven, with nonslip surfaces, and shall be located entirely within the property line. However, upon application to the commissioner, steeper gradients may be accepted, but in no event greater than one in three.
Separations shall comply with the following:

1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 1-hour fire-rated construction. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than 1-hour fire-rated construction. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

2. No air used for heating, cooling or ventilation shall be circulated through private garages to dwelling areas.

3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 occupancy and a carport, provided the carport does not have any enclosed areas above.

4. For free standing private garages where the fire separation distance from the nearest exterior wall is less than 5 feet (1524 mm)‡, such exterior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than one hour.
Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
Parking garages shall be either open, as per Section 406.3, or enclosed, as per Section 406.4. Parking garages shall also comply with the special provisions of Section 510.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking required by Section 1106.5 shall conform to ICC A117.1.
Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier systems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013.
Vehicle barrier systems not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier systems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.7.3.

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
Ramps shall have a gradient not exceeding one in seven, with nonslip surfaces. A level landing having a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be provided at the discharge point of all ramps at the street level, within the property line. Ramps used for the movement of motor vehicles need not be enclosed when serving tiers above grade. Vehicle ramps may serve as part of a means of egress provided that such ramp complies with the requirements of Sections 1018.1.1 and 1018.1.2.
Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. The area of floor used for parking of vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain.

Exceptions:

1. Asphalt parking surfaces are permitted at ground level.

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 510.
Openings from a parking garage to any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation. Such vestibule and doorway shall be minimum 1-hour rated construction.

Exception: A single door, in compliance with Table 715.4, shall be permitted, provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
In any parking garage or lot, one or more aisles, at least 24 inches (610 mm) in width, shall be provided to permit access by fire-fighting personnel to all parts of the garage or lot. There shall not be more than three rows of parked motor vehicles between aisles.
Parking garages shall be capable of supporting electrical vehicle charging stations in accordance with this section. Electrical raceway to the electrical supply panel serving the garage shall be capable of providing a minimum of 3.1 kW of electrical capacity to at least 20 percent of the parking spaces of the garage. The electrical room supplying the garage must have the physical space for an electrical supply panel sufficient to provide 3.1kW of electrical capacity to at least 20 percent of the parking spaces of the garage. Such raceway and all components and work appurtenant thereto shall be in accordance with the New York City Electrical Code.

Exceptions:

1. The provisions of this section shall not apply to parking garages for buildings of Occupancy‡ Group‡ M (Mercantile).

2. The commissioner may waive compliance with this section if the commissioner determines that the parking garage is a temporary facility that will be in service no longer than 3 years.

3. The provisions of this section shall not apply to parking garages for buildings in which not less than fifty percent of the residential units are for households earning up to sixty percent of the area median income as determined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Except where specific provisions are made in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of this code shall apply.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.
Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4, and 510.7.
Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies.

TABLE 406.3.5 OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER
(square feet)
HEIGHT (in tiers)
Ramp access Mechanical access
Automatic sprinkler system
No Yes
IA Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
IB Unlimited 12 tiers 12 tiers 18 tiers
IIA 50,000 10 tiers 10 tiers 15 tiers
IIB 50,000 8 tiers 8 tiers 12 tiers
IV 50,000 4 tiers 4 tiers 4 tiers

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
When the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.3.5.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage. In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the commissioner.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier.

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.
Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance from an adjacent property line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.
Open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. However, where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, required exit stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide.
Standpipes shall be installed where required by the provisions of Section 905.
Automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 903. An automatic dry sprinkler system may be installed in unheated garages.
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings.
Openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1 shall satisfy natural ventilation requirements. Additional mechanical ventilation shall not be required.
The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

1. Vehicle repair work.

2. Parking of commercial vehicles, buses, trucks and similar vehicles.

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.

4. Dispensing of fuel.
Parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of "Open parking garages" shall be classified as an enclosed parking garage and shall meet the requirements of this section.
Enclosed parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sections 504, 506, and 507. Permitted roof parking shall not be considered as a separate story.
A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3 of this code.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 14 feet (4267 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials. However, panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same property and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
Where flammable compressed gases are permitted by the New York City Fire Code to be located on the roof of a canopy that is used to shelter dispensing operations, such canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
Motor fuel storage tanks shall be installed below ground, except as authorized by the rules of the Fire Department. The installation and venting of storage tanks shall be in accordance with the rules of the Fire Department and the requirements of the New York City Fire Code. Storage tanks installed below ground shall comply with the following:

1. The top of the storage tanks shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) below finished grade and at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the level of any cellar or basement floor within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the tanks.

2. Storage tanks shall be located so that the forces from any building foundation and support loads are not transmitted to the tanks. The distance from any part of a storage tank to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or cellar, or from any property line that may be built upon, shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm).

3. Storage tanks shall be covered with a structurally supported reinforced concrete slab at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick, extending at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the horizontal outlines of the storage tanks, and placed over a cover of suitable clean backfill material. Such slab shall be designed and reinforced in accordance with ACI 318. All concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 4,000 pounds per square inch (27 580 kPa) at 28 days.

4. Storage tanks shall be placed on a 12-inch (305 mm) thick concrete base slab or installed in such other manner, secured against flotation, and approved by the department.
Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.
Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.
Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.
Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by CNG, LNG, or hydrogen, shall be provided with an approved flammable gas-detection system.
The flammable gas-detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation and exhaust system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.
Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter-locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.
The provisions of this section shall govern the construction of open parking lots and to all such existing premises hereafter enlarged or changed in location.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

OPEN PARKING LOT. An exterior space with surfacing at grade used for the storage or sale of more than four motor vehicles, including but not limited to parking lots, motor vehicles sales lots, and accessory open parking spaces.
Any premise intended to be occupied for the storage or sale of motor vehicles on an open parking lot shall require an application to be filed with the department in order to obtain a Certificate of Occupancy. Such Certificate of Occupancy shall indicate the maximum number of vehicles to be accommodated and the type of vehicle, whether private passenger or commercial, to be stored. An application for or including an open parking lot shall be accompanied by a plan exhibiting the following:

1. Dimensions of the lot and its location in relation to adjoining streets; and

2. Any structure(s) existing or to be erected on the plot; and

3. The relative elevations of the parking area, curbs and adjoining yards or courts; and

4. Structures, retaining walls, and open spaces on adjoining premises; and

5. Retaining walls to be built; and

6. Location and dimensions of curb cuts, driveways, and enclosures; and

7. Drainage diagram; and

8. Specification of surfacing material; and

9. Parking stall layout with dimensions; and

10. Analysis exhibiting compliance with the New York City Zoning Resolution; and

11. Other information as may be requested by the commissioner.

A copy of the plan or diagram approved by the department shall be kept on the premises. Certified, reduced size, legible copies may be used for this purpose. When an attendant’s shelter is provided on the parking lot, the Certificate of Occupancy issued shall be posted and maintained under glass in the shelter.
All vehicular activities associated with the operation of open parking lots shall be entirely within the property lines of the premises. Vehicles shall not be permitted to encroach upon the sidewalks. No motor vehicle may be stored or parked in any location where it would obstruct a required window or required exit of any adjacent building.
All driveways, parking stalls, and open spaces used for the parking or storage of motor vehicles shall be surfaced with concrete asphalt, or equivalent durable, dustless material.
Open parking lots shall be graded and maintained such that no drainage will flow onto abutting sidewalks and adjoining properties.
Where the surface paving of an open parking lot is nonporous, such lot shall be drained as required by the New York City Plumbing Code.
Resurfacing of existing open parking lots shall comply with this section.
For the purpose of this section, a curb cut shall include all splays when determining the total length of cut curb. Unless otherwise required by the New York City Zoning Resolution, all curb cuts shall comply with the following requirements:

1. The aggregate length of curb cuts shall not exceed 60 percent of any street frontage 100 feet (30480 mm) or less in length. No single curb cut shall exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in length, and there shall not be more than two curb cuts on any street frontage 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less in length. The minimum distance between two curb cuts shall be 5 feet (1524 mm).

2. For each 50 feet (15 240 mm) of street frontage length over 100 feet (30 480 mm), an additional curb cut no greater than 30 feet (9144 mm) in length may be permitted.

3. No curb cut shall commence within 8 feet (2438 mm) of a side lot line, except that on corner lots and lots with street frontage length of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less, the curb cut may commence 30 inches (762 mm) from the side lot line.

4. No curb cut, including splays, shall be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length.
Driveways serving passenger vehicles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in width and shall not exceed the length of the curb cut, not including the lengths of the splays. For all other motor vehicles, the minimum width of driveways shall be 10 feet (3048 mm). Portions of the driveway located between the curb line and the lot line shall be paved in accordance with the requirements of the Department of Transportation for the construction of sidewalks.
Open parking lots shall be completely separated from adjoining premises and public sidewalks by curbs or bumpers of concrete, masonry, steel, heavy timber, or other similar and equally substantial materials, and shall be securely anchored so as to stop motor vehicles. Curbs and bumpers shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) high and 8 inches (203 mm) wide.
Openings in required perimeter curbs and bumpers shall be permitted only for drainage, for motor vehicle entrances and exits, and for pedestrian entrances and exits. The width of an opening for motor vehicle access shall not exceed the length of the curb cut, not including the lengths of the splays. When an opening for pedestrian access is adjacent to a motor vehicle access opening, the two openings shall be separated by a permanent and substantial post. In no case shall any pedestrian entrance or exit exceed 5 feet (1524 mm) in width.
Parking lot offices, attendant shelters, storage facilities, and similar structures used in conjunction with open parking lots may be provided as an accessory use and shall comply with the applicable code provisions. Such accessory structures may be constructed of combustible materials subject to the limitations of Section D105.1 of Appendix D.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities, accessory to open parking lots, shall comply with the requirements of Section 406.5 of this code and the New York City Fire Code and Section 406.5 of this code. Motor fuel pumps shall be located at least 30 feet (9144 mm) from any parking space or interior lot line.
Open parking lots storing 10 or more motor vehicles shall also be subject to the special provisions of this section.
Bumpers shall be situated not less than 1 foot (305 mm) from the perimeter edge of the open parking lot where vehicles are parked parallel to such perimeter edge, and not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the perimeter edge where vehicles are parked perpendicular to such perimeter edge. Openings shall be limited as provided for in Section 406.7.8.1.

Exception: A steel guardrail or other substantial barrier designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1607.7.3, that will prevent any part of a vehicle from extending across a property line, may be accepted in lieu of bumpers.
Open parking lots shall provide a perimeter screen enclosure as per this section unless otherwise required by the New York City Zoning Resolution. Such screen enclosure may be constructed as a masonry wall, woven wire fence, iron picket fence, or uniformly painted fence of fire-resistant material at least 4 feet (1219 mm) high, but not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above finished grade, subject to the limitations of Section 3111. Such enclosures shall completely separate the lot from adjoining premises and public sidewalks. Openings shall be limited as provided for in Section 406.7.8.1.

Exception: Screening shall not be required for any portion of the lot adjacent to an existing wall located at the lot line.
Open parking lots operating between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. shall be adequately illuminated to a minimum of 1 foot-candle (10.8 lux) measured at grade level, distributed over the entire area. Illumination provided with reflectors or floodlights shall be arranged such that the illumination is directed downward and away from adjacent premises.
In any open parking lot, one or more aisles, at least 24 inches (610 mm) in width, shall be provided to permit access by fire fighting personnel to all parts of the garage or lot. There shall not be more than three rows of parked motor vehicles between aisles.
Open parking lots shall be capable of supporting electric vehicle charging stations in accordance with this section. A minimum of 20 percent of the parking spaces in an open parking lot shall be equipped with electrical raceway capable of providing a minimum supply of 11.5 kVA to electrical vehicle supply equipment‡ (EVSE) from an electrical supply panel. The raceways shall be no smaller than 1 inch (25 mm)‡. The electrical supply panel serving such parking spaces must have at least 3.1 kW of available capacity for each stall connected to it with raceway. Such raceway and all components and work appurtenant thereto shall be in accordance with the New York City Electrical Code.

Exceptions:

1. The provisions of this section shall not apply to open parking lots for buildings of Occupancy‡ Group‡ M (Mercantile).

2. The commissioner may waive compliance with this section if the commissioner determines that the open parking lot is a temporary facility that will be in service no longer than 3 years.

3. The provisions of this section shall not apply to open parking lots for buildings in which not less than fifty percent of the residential units are for households earning up to sixty percent of the area median income as determined by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and other applicable provisions of this code.
Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4.
Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
Spaces for doctors’ and nurses’ charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.
Areas wherein mental health patients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.
Gift shops and associated storage that are less than 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors‡.
Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 711.
Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 715.4.
Locking devices that restrict access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for patient rooms in mental health facilities.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 710.
At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.
Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply with Section 712.9.
Smoke compartments containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.
Corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate-care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory patients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.
Hyperbaric facilities in Group I-2 occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 20 of NFPA 99.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.4).
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CELL. A room within a housing unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners.

CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one another within a housing unit.

HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a common dayroom in Group I-3.

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.
Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 408.1.2.1 through 408.1.2.5.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits and exit is not under an occupant’s control.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping unit(s) and/or group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled door release, leading by means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments and egress to the outside is impeded by locked exit and remote door release.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provisions shall be made for the release of occupants at all times. Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.
Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).
A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.
Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.
Ship ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11.
Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 15 square feet (1.4 m2) per person.
A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.
One of the required exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided that the following conditions are met:

1. The vertical exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor levels.

2. Exit doors shall not be less than 3/4-hour fire doors complying with Section 715.4.

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.
Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.
Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.
Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.
Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708, or shall be in accordance with Sections 408.5.1 and 408.5.2.
Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.
Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically stacked individual cells contained within the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

1. A public way.

2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.
The maximum number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.
A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.
In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met. Such glazing shall be subject to the requirements in Chapter 24.

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the travel distance from the sleeping area through the common space to the exit access corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke-tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.
The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 mm2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.
Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.
For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.
The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. The projection, use or storage of film having a nitrocellulose base (commonly known as nitrate film) shall not be permitted except under conditions specified in special permits when issued by the Fire Department. Safety film meeting the specification and test standards of NFPA 40 may be projected, used or stored.
Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.
Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected. The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.
Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.
Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.
Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at least one other convenient point in the building.
Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.
The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.10 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled.

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects.

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened.

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater- in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or assembly seating area.

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound.
Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.
Stage floors shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located. Where areas below the stage are used for other occupancies, such stage floor shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for separated occupancies as per Chapter 5.

Exceptions:

1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.

2. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks. The room or space below the stage into which the traps or lifts open shall be completely enclosed by construction having at least the fire-resistance rating required for the stage floor, and such room or space shall not be used as a workshop or storage area. Storage shall not be deemed to include the location in this area of scenery or scenic elements used during a performance. However, no combustible material that has a flame spread rating greater than 25 or that has not been rendered flameproof in accordance with the rules of the Fire Commissioner may be stored in this location at any time.
Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of noncombustible material. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.
Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.
Where the stage height is greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.
Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with one of the following:

1. A fire curtain complying with NFPA 80; or

2. An approved stage water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1, and the following:

2.1. A deluge valve actuated by a "rate of rise system" and "fixed temperature system" shall control the water curtain system;

2.2. The heat actuating devices shall be located on not more than 10-foot (3048 mm) centers around the perimeter of the sprinklered area stage or as otherwise required for the type of device used to assure operation of the system;

2.3. In addition to the automatic controls, manual-operating devices shall be located at the voice/alarm communication system required by Section 410.8, and adjacent to at least one exit from the stage. Such exit shall be remote from the voice/alarm communication system; and

2.4. The operation of the deluge valve shall activate the emergency ventilating equipment required in Section 410.3.7 and the deluge valve shall be provided with central station supervision in addition to a local alarm.
All scenery or scenic elements shall be of noncombustible materials, or of materials having a flame-spread rating not exceeding 25, or of materials that have been rendered flameproof in compliance with the rules of the Fire Commissioner. Scenery and scenic elements not complying with the above requirements may be used only when expressly permitted by the Fire Department.
Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.
Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.
Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.
Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the following:

1. The area below the platform shall be enclosed on all sides with solid construction.

2. Platforms constructed of untreated wood shall not exceed an area of 400 square feet (37 m2). Platforms constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood shall not exceed an area of 1,200 square feet (111 m2). Platforms constructed of noncombustible materials shall not be limited in area.

3. Where wood is used, the floor of the platform shall be at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Such floor shall be laid on a solid, noncombustible backing, or shall have all spaces between supporting members fireblocked with noncombustible material.

Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any other purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor construction shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resistant construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.
Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by the code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.
Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 410.5.4.
The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm‡) or less.
Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
At least one approved means of egress shall be provided from each side of the stage; and from each side of the space under the stage. At least one means of escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof.
Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron, and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops‡ and storerooms accessory to such stages:

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be placed above all rigging lofts; and above all stage areas, other than those portions of stage areas specifically designated on approved plans as performing areas that do not have rigging lofts above and that are not at any time used for storage purposes. Sprinklers above rigging lofts shall be located so that no gridiron or other obstruction intervenes between the sprinkler heads and the scenery or scenic elements.

2. When openings are provided in the stage floor for stage lifts, trap doors or stairs, sprinklers spaced 5 feet (1524 mm) on centers shall be provided around the opening at the ceiling below the stage, and baffles at least 12 inches (305 mm) in depth shall be installed around the perimeter of the opening.

3. All valves controlling sprinkler supplies shall be provided with tamper switches wired to an annunciator panel located at the voice/alarm communication system required by Section 410.8.

4. The operation of any section of the sprinkler system and the deluge system shall activate the emergency ventilating equipment required in Section 410.3.7 and shall be provided with central station supervision in addition to the required local alarm.

5. The water flow alarm, tamper switches and deluge system equipment shall be provided with central station supervision in addition to the required local alarm.

Exceptions:

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board.

2. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.
Stages shall be provided with a voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.1.1.
Scenery or scenic elements may be placed in seating sections if such elements:

1. Are noncombustible, or of materials that have been rendered flameproof in accordance with the rules of the fire commissioner, or have a flame spread rating of 25 or less.

2. Are adequately braced or secured.

3. Do not obstruct the required visibility of, or paths of travel to, exit openings.
Platforms or runways for performances, to accommodate the operation of cameras, electronic equipment, or motion picture projection machines not using carbon-arc or other light source that emits a gaseous discharge may be constructed in seating sections, provided such platforms or runways comply with the requirements of Section 410.4, except Item 1 and Section 410.8.
Stage lights shall be placed such that they will not develop temperatures on the surface of any material that will cause that material to ignite, or smoke, or cause its flameproofing to deteriorate.
Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 75 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 75 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke. All decorative material shall be noncombustible or composed of flame-retardant fabric.
The following word and term shall, for the purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system, in accordance with Section 907.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic fire sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.3 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved directional exit markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1011.4 and directional path markings shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.
Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the New York City Fire Code.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.

HELISTOP. The same as "heliport," except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and at the transient location for not more than 90 days.
The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m2) per floor occupied only for the following uses:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.
Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area limitations of Table 412.3.2.

TABLE 412.3.2 HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS

TYPE OF
CONSTRUCTION
Heighta
(feet)
MAXIMUM AREA
(square feet)
IA Unlimited 1,500
IB 240 1,500
IIA 100 1,500
IIB 85 1,500
IIIA 65 1,500

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.
A minimum of one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.13. The provisions of Section 403 do not apply.

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 1022.9 are not required where required stairways are pressurized.
Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
A standby power system that conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:

1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.

2. Elevator operating equipment.

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.
Airport traffic control towers need not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11.
Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.
Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.
Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.
Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.
Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
The process of "doping," involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.
Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

TABLE 412.4.6 HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

MAXIMUM SINGLE
FIRE AREA,
(square feet)‡
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
IA IB IIA IIB IIIA IIIB IV VAd VBd
> 40,001 Grop I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I
40,000 Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
30,000 Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
20,000 Group III Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
15,000 Group III Group III Group III Group II Group III Group II Group III Group II Group II
12,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II Group II
8,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II
5,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II Group II

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.
b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.
c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.
d. Construction Types VA and VB are not permitted in Fire Districts. See BC Table 503.
Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

1. Doping.

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.

3. Fuel transfer.

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.

5. Spray finishing operations.

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.
Residential aircraft hangars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.2.
A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.
Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.
Residential aircraft hangars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.
Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the New York City Fire Code for such occupancy.
The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.
Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.
Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.
Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the New York City Mechanical Code.
Heliports and helistops may be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 through 412.7.4.
The touchdown or landing area for helicopters of less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1605.4.
The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing platforms or roof areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device, or ladder leading to the floor below.
Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418 and the New York City Fire Code.
Storage of combustible materials in attics, under-floor spaces, concealed spaces, and below-grade storage rooms shall comply with this section.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistant construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exceptions:

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.
High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the New York City Fire Code.
The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.
Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of the New York City Fire Code and Section 415 of this code, including, but not limited to, location, installation and mechanical provisions.
The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in the New York City Mechanical Code, the New York City Fire Code,‡ and Sections 307 and 415 of this code.
Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
A report shall be submitted to the department identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the commissioner and shall be provided without charge to the department.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.
Control areas shall comply with the New York City Fire Code and Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 of this code.
Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Sections 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

TABLE 414.2.2 DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOORb
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade Higher than 9 5 1 2
7-9 5 2 2
6 12.5 2 2
5 12.5 2 2
4 12.5 2 2
3 50 2 1
2 75 3 1
1 100 4 1
Below grade 1 75 3 1
2 50 2 1
Lower than 2 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area, and the construction supporting the floor of the control area, shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating and shall comply with the requirements of the New York City Fire Code.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

2. The building is three or fewer stories above grade plane.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1) of this code.

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2) of this code, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.

TABLE 414.2.5‡(1) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f

CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Materiala Class Solids
pounds