Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+nyc Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of wood members and their fasteners.
The design of structural elements or systems, constructed partially or wholly of wood or wood-based products, shall be in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. Allowable stress design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2306.

2. Load and resistance factor design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2307.

3. Conventional light-frame construction in accordance with Sections 2304 and 2308.

Exception: Buildings designed in accordance with the provisions of the AF&PA; WFCM shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the provisions of Section 2308.

4. The design and construction of log structures shall be in accordance with the provisions of ICC 400.
For the purposes of this chapter, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions (see Section 2304.2).
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCREDITATION BODY. An approved, third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.

BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels in a single story that meets the requirements of Section 2308.3 or 2308.12.4.

BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of wall braced in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 or 2308.12.4.

COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system and/or distributes forces within the diaphragm.

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame construction provisions.

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the lowest occupied floor level.

DIAPHRAGM, UNBLOCKED. A diaphragm that has edge nailing at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting structural members at panel edges is not included. Diaphragm panels are field nailed to supporting members.

DRAG STRUT. See "Collector."

FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 31 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/m3) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m3).

FIRECUT. A sloping cut on the ends of wood beams, joists and rafters resting on masonry or concrete walls.

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. A structural element, the section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood structural panels in combination with lumber, all parts bonded together with structural adhesives.

GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an approved lumber rules-writing agency.

HARDBOARD. A fibrous-felted, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press to a density not less than 31 pcf (497 kg/m3).

NAILING, BOUNDARY. A special nailing pattern required by design at the boundaries of diaphragms.

NAILING, EDGE. A special nailing pattern required by design at the edges of each panel within the assembly of a diaphragm or shear wall.

NAILING, FIELD. Nailing required between the sheathing panels and framing members at locations other than boundary nailing and edge nailing.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species, with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood:

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.

Termite resistant. Redwood, Alaska yellow-cedar, Eastern red cedar and both heartwood and all sapwood of Western red cedar.

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and glued-laminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with DOC PS 20 for sawn lumber and with the AF&PA; NDS for glued-laminated lumber.

PARTICLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under heat and pressure.

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. Structural member manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and wood structural panel webs bonded together with exterior exposure adhesives, which forms an "I" cross-sectional shape.

SHEAR WALL. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall.

Shear wall, perforated. A wood structural panel sheathed wall with openings, that has not been specifically designed and detailed for force transfer around openings.

Shear wall segment, perforated. A section of shear wall with full-height sheathing that meets the height-to-width ratio limits of Section 4.3.4 of AF&PA; SDPWS.

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural member manufactured using wood elements bonded together with exterior adhesives. Examples of structural composite lumber are:

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member.

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member.

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. An engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, comprised of assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood laminations in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally and the laminations are bonded with adhesives.

SUBDIAPHRAGM. A portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). A device used to resist uplift of the chords of shear walls.

TREATED WOOD. Wood and wood-based materials that use vacuum-pressure impregnation processes to enhance fire retardant or preservative properties.

Fire-retardant-treated wood. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface-burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.

Preservative-treated wood. Pressure-treated wood products that exhibit reduced susceptibility to damage by fungi, insects or marine borers.

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. A wood floor, roof or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers, wood strands or wafers or a combination of veneer and wood strands or wafers bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are:

Composite panels. A wood structural panel that is comprised of wood veneer and reconstituted wood-based material and bonded together with waterproof adhesive;

Oriented strand board (OSB). A mat-formed wood structural panel comprised of thin rectangular wood strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface layers normally arranged in the long panel direction and bonded with waterproof adhesive; or

Plywood. A wood structural panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies are bonded with waterproof adhesive that cures on application of heat and pressure.
Structural sawn lumber; end-jointed lumber prefabricated wood I-joists; structural glued-laminated timber; wood structural panels, fiberboard sheathing (when used structurally); hardboard siding (when used structurally); particleboard; preservative-treated wood; structural log members; structural composite lumber; round timber poles and piles; fire-retardant-treated wood; hardwood plywood; wood trusses; joist hangers; nails; and staples shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber used for load-supporting purposes, including end-jointed or edge-glued lumber, machine stress-rated or machine-evaluated lumber, shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by the commissioner that complies with DOC PS 20 or equivalent. Grading practices and identification shall comply with rules published by an agency approved in accordance with the procedures of DOC PS 20 or equivalent procedures. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section is permitted to be accepted for precut, remanufactured or rough-sawn lumber and for sizes larger than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal thickness. Approved end-jointed lumber is permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.
Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5055. The use of prefabricated wood I-joists structurally shall be subject to the special inspection requirements of Chapter 17.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A 190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Wood structural panels, when used structurally (including those used for siding, roof and wall sheathing, subflooring, diaphragms and built-up members), shall conform to the requirements for their type in DOC PS 1 or PS 2. Each panel or member shall be identified for grade and glue type by the trademarks of an approved testing and grading agency. Wood structural panel components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Section 2306.1 and identified by the trademarks of an approved testing and inspection agency indicating conformance with the applicable standard. In addition, wood structural panels when permanently exposed in outdoor applications shall be of exterior type, except that wood structural panel roof sheathing exposed to the outdoors on the underside is permitted to be interior type bonded with exterior glue, Exposure 1.
Fiberboard for its various uses shall conform to ASTM C 208. Fiberboard sheathing, when used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C 208.
To ensure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be manufactured with square, shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and-groove or U-shaped joints.
Where used as roof insulation in all types of construction, fiberboard shall be protected with an approved roof covering.
Where installed and fireblocked to comply with Chapter 7, fiberboards are permitted as wall insulation in all types of construction. In fire walls and fire barriers, unless treated to comply with Section 803.1 for Class A materials, the boards shall be cemented directly to the concrete, masonry or other noncombustible base and shall be protected with an approved noncombustible veneer anchored to the base without intervening airspaces.
Fiberboard wall insulation applied on the exterior of foundation walls shall be protected below ground level with a bituminous coating.
Hardboard siding used structurally shall be identified by an approved agency conforming to CPA/ANSI A135.6. Hardboard underlayment shall meet the strength requirements of 7/32-inch (5.6 mm) or 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) service class hardboard planed or sanded on one side to a uniform thickness of not less than 0.200 inch (5.1 mm). Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A 135.5. Other basic hardboard products shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A135.4. Hardboard products shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall not be utilized for applications other than indicated in this section unless the particleboard complies with the provisions of Section 2306.5.
Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU of ANSI A208.1. Type PBU underlayment shall not be less than 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) thick and shall be installed in accordance with the instructions of the Composite Panel Association.
Lumber, timber, plywood, piles and poles supporting permanent structures required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative treated shall conform to the requirements of the applicable AWPA Standard U1 and M4 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1. Lumber and plywood used in wood foundation systems shall conform to Chapter 18.
Wood required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative treated shall bear the quality mark of an inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the preservative-treated wood. Inspection agencies for preservative-treated wood shall be listed by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standards Treated Wood Program, or its equivalent. The quality mark shall be on a stamp or label affixed to the preservative-treated wood, and shall include the following information:

1. Identification of treating manufacturer.

2. Type of preservative used.

3. Minimum preservative retention (pcf).

4. End use for which the product is treated.

5. AWPA standard to which the product was treated.

6. Identity of the accredited inspection agency.
Where preservative-treated wood is used in enclosed locations where drying in service cannot readily occur, such wood shall be at a moisture content of 19 percent or less before being covered with insulation, interior wall finish, floor covering or other materials.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by an approved lumber grading or inspection agency shall be permitted.
Round timber poles and piles shall comply with ASTM D 3200 and ASTM D 25, respectively.
Fire-retardant-treated wood is any wood product which, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, a listed flame spread index of 25 or less and show no evidence of significant progressive combustion when the test is continued for an additional 20-minute period. Additionally, the flame front shall not progress more than 101/2 feet (3200 mm) beyond the centerline of the burners at any time during the test.
For wood products impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process, the process shall be performed in closed vessels under pressures not less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (345 kPa).
For wood products produced by other means during manufacture, the treatment shall be an integral part of the manufacturing process of the wood product. The treatment shall provide permanent protection to all surfaces of the wood product.
For wood products produced by other means during manufacture, other than a pressure process, all sides of the wood product shall be tested in accordance with and produce the results required in Section 2303.2. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be tested on only the front and back faces.
Fire-retardant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall contain the following items:

1. The identification mark of an approved agency in accordance with Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code;

2. Identification of the treating manufacturer;

3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment;

4. The species of wood treated;

5. Flame spread and smoke-developed index;

6. Method of drying after treatment;

7. Conformance with appropriate standards in accordance with Sections 2303.2.2 through 2303.2.5; and

8. For fire-retardant-treated wood exposed to weather, damp or wet locations, include the words "No increase in the listed classification when subjected to the Standard Rain Test" (ASTM D 2898).
Design values for untreated lumber and wood structural panels, as specified in Section 2303.1, shall be adjusted for fire-retardant-treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be based on an approved method of investigation that takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying procedures.
The effect of treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retardant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5516. The test data developed by ASTM D 5516 shall be used to develop adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or both, for untreated plywood design values in accordance with ASTM D 6305. Each manufacturer shall publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for service as floor and roof sheathing for its treatment.
For each species of wood that is treated, the effects of the treatment, the method of redrying after treatment and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the allowable design properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5664. The test data developed by ASTM D 5664 shall be used to develop modification factors for use at or near room temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity in accordance with ASTM D 6841. Each manufacturer shall publish the modification factors for service at temperatures of not less than 80°F (27°C) and for roof framing. The roof framing modification factors shall take into consideration the climatological location.
Where fire-retardant-treated wood is exposed to weather, or damp or wet locations, it shall be identified as "Exterior" to indicate there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as defined in Section 2303.2 when subjected to ASTM D 2898.
Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall have moisture content of not over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3201 procedures at 92-percent relative humidity. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with Section 2303.2.5.1 or 2303.2.5.2. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural panels before use. For wood kiln dried after treatment (KDAT), the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted for the tests described in Section 2303.2.5.1 for plywood and 2303.2.5.2 for lumber.
See Section 603.1 for limitations on the use of fire-retardant-treated wood in buildings of Type I or II construction.
Hardwood and decorative plywood shall be manufactured and identified as required in HPVA HP-1.
Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code and accepted engineering practice. Members are permitted to be joined by nails, glue, bolts, timber connectors, metal connector plates or other approved framing devices. Metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall also be subject to the special inspection requirements of Chapter 17.
Truss construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional and the written, graphic and pictorial depiction of each individual truss shall be provided to the commissioner and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall also be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

1. Slope or depth, span and spacing;

2. Location of all joints and support locations;

3. Number of plies, if greater than one;

4. Required bearing widths;

5. Design loads as applicable, including:

5.1. Top chord live load;

5.2. Top chord dead load;

5.3. Bottom chord live load;

5.4. Bottom chord dead load;

5.5. Additional loads and locations; and

5.6. Environmental design criteria and loads (wind, rain, snow, seismic, etc.).

6. Other lateral loads, including drag strut loads;

7. Adjustments to wood member and metal connector plate design value for conditions of use;

8. Maximum reaction force and direction, including maximum uplift reaction forces where applicable;

9. Metal-connector-plate type, size and thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each metal connector plate except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface;

10. Size, species and grade for each wood member;

11. Truss-to-truss connections and truss field assembly requirements;

12. Calculated span-to-deflection ratio and maximum vertical and horizontal deflection for live and total load as applicable;

13. Maximum axial tension and compression forces in the truss members;

14. Required permanent individual truss member restraint location and the method and details of restraint/bracing to be used in accordance with Section 2303.4.1.2; and

15. Required temporary individual and system truss member restraint/bracing requirements for safe handling and field assembly.
Where permanent restraint of truss members is required on the truss design drawings, it shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:

1. Permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing shall be installed using standard industry lateral restraint/bracing details in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice. Locations for lateral restraint shall be identified on the truss design drawing.

2. The trusses shall be designed so that the buckling of any individual truss member is resisted internally by the individual truss through suitable means (i.e., buckling reinforcement by T-reinforcement or L-reinforcement, proprietary reinforcement, etc.). The buckling reinforcement of individual members of the trusses shall be installed as shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemental truss member buckling reinforcement details provided by the truss designer.

3. A project-specific permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing design shall be permitted to be specified by any registered design professional.
The owner shall contract with any qualified registered design professional for the design of the temporary installation restraint/bracing and the permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing for all trusses with clear spans 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater.
The individual or organization responsible for the design of trusses.
Each individual truss design drawing shall bear the seal and signature of the truss designer.

Exceptions:

1. Where a cover sheet and truss index sheet are combined into a single sheet and attached to the set of truss design drawings, the single cover/truss index sheet is the only document required to be signed and sealed by the truss designer.

2. When a cover sheet and a truss index sheet are separately provided and attached to the set of truss design drawings, the cover sheet and the truss index sheet are the only documents required to be signed and sealed by the truss designer.
The truss manufacturer shall provide a truss placement diagram that identifies the proposed location for each individually designated truss and references the corresponding truss design drawing. The truss placement diagram shall be provided as part of the truss submittal package, and with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss placement diagrams that serve only as a guide for installation and do not deviate from the Truss Designer’s approved construction drawings shall not be required to bear the seal or signature of the truss designer.
The truss submittal package provided by the truss manufacturer shall consist of: each individual truss design drawing; the truss placement diagram; the permanent individual truss member restraint/bracing method and details and any other structural details germane to the trusses; and, as applicable, the cover/truss index sheet.
The design for the transfer of loads and anchorage of each truss to the supporting structure is the responsibility of the registered design professional.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, piping, additional roofing or insulation, etc.) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading.
In addition to Sections 2303.4.1 through 2303.4.5, the design, manufacture and quality assurance of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall be in accordance with TPI 1. Job-site inspections shall be in compliance with Section 110.4, as applicable.
Trusses not part of a manufacturing process in accordance with either Section 2303.4.6 or a standard listed in Chapter 35, which provides requirements for quality control done under the supervision of a third-party quality control agency, shall be manufactured in compliance with Sections 1704.2 and 1704.6, as applicable.
For the required test standards for joist hangers and connectors, see Section 1716.1.
Nails and staples shall conform to requirements of ASTM F 1667. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as follows: 80 kips per square inch (ksi) (551 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) but not larger than 0.254 inch (6.45 mm), 90 ksi (620 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm) but not larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) and 100 ksi (689 MPa) for shank diameters of at least 0.099 inch (2.51 mm) but not larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm).
Consideration shall be given in design to the possible effect of cross-grain dimensional changes considered vertically which may occur in lumber fabricated in a green condition.
The provisions of this section apply to design methods specified in Section 2301.2.
Computations to determine the required sizes of members shall be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes) and not nominal sizes.
The framing of exterior and interior walls shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Studs shall have full bearing on a 2-inch-thick (actual 11/2-inch, 38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Headers, double joists, trusses or other approved assemblies that are of adequate size to transfer loads to the vertical members shall be provided over window and door openings in load-bearing walls and partitions.
Wood walls and bearing partitions shall not support more than two floors and a roof unless an analysis satisfactory to the commissioner shows that shrinkage of the wood framing will not have adverse effects on the structure or any plumbing, electrical or mechanical systems, or other equipment installed therein due to excessive shrinkage or differential movements caused by shrinkage. The analysis shall also show that the roof drainage system and the foregoing systems or equipment will not be adversely affected or, as an alternate, such systems shall be designed to accommodate the differential shrinkage or movements.
The framing of wood-joisted floors and wood framed roofs shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Combustible framing shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm), but shall not be less than the distance specified in Sections 2111 and 2113 and the New York City Mechanical Code, from flues, chimneys and fireplaces, and 6 inches (152 mm) away from flue openings.
Except as provided for in Section 1405 for weatherboarding or where stucco construction that complies with Section 2510 is installed, enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one of the materials of the nominal thickness specified in Table 2304.6 or any other approved material of equivalent strength or durability.

TABLE 2304.6 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WALL SHEATHING

SHEATHING TYPE MINIMUM THICKNESS MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING
Wood boards 5/8 inch 24 inches on center
Fiberboard 1/2 inch 16 inches on center
Wood structural panel In accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3)
M-S "Exterior Glue" and M-2 "Exterior Glue" Particleboard In accordance with Section 2306.3 and Table 2308.9.3(4)
Gypsum sheathing 1/2 inch 16 inches on center
Gypsum wallboard 1/2 inch 24 inches on center
Reinforced cement mortar 1 inch 24 inches on center

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Where wood structural panel sheathing is used as the exposed finish on the exterior of outside walls, it shall have an exterior exposure durability classification. Where wood structural panel sheathing is used elsewhere, but not as the exposed finish, it shall be of a type manufactured with exterior glue (Exposure 1 or Exterior). Wood structural panel wall sheathing or siding used as structural sheathing shall be capable of resisting wind pressures in accordance with Section 1609. Maximum wind speeds for wood structural panel sheathing used to resist wind pressures shall be in accordance with Table 2304.6.1 for enclosed buildings with a mean roof height not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm), an importance factor (I) of 1.0 and a topographic factor (Kz t) of 1.0.

TABLE 2304.6.1 MAXIMUM NOMINAL DESIGN WIND SPEED, (MPH) (3-SECOND GUST) PERMITTED FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c

MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM
WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM
WALL STUD
SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL
SPACING
MAXIMUM NOMINAL
DESIGN WIND SPEED, (MPH)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches
o.c.)
Field
(inches
o.c.)
Wind exposure
category
B C D
6d common
(2.0" ×
0.113")
1.5 24/0 3/8 16 6 12 110 90 85
24/16 7/16 16 6 12 110 100 90
6 150 125 110
8d common
(2.5" ×
0.131")
1.75 24/16 7/16 16 6 12 130 110 105
6 150 125 110
24 6 12 110 90 85
6 110 90 85

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Panel strength axis shall be parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
b. The table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section 30.7 of ASCE 7. Lateral requirements shall be in accordance with Section 2305 or 2308.
c. Wood structural panels with span ratings of wall-16 or wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternative to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternative to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches o.c.
Softwood wood structural panels used for interior paneling shall conform to the provisions of Chapter 8 and shall be installed in accordance with Table 2304.9.1. Panels shall comply with DOC PS 1 or PS2. Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of CPA/ANSI A135.5. Hardwood plywood shall conform to HPVA HP-1.
TABLE 2304.7(1) ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR LUMBER FLOOR AND ROOF SHEATHINGa, b

SPAN (inches) MINIMUM NET THICKNESS (inches) OF LUMBER PLACED
Perpendicular to supports Diagonally to supports
Surfaced dryc Surfaced unseasoned Surfaced dryc Surfaced unseasoned
Floors
24 3/4 25/32 3/4 25/32
16 5/8 11/16 5/8 11/16
Roofs
24 5/8 11/16 3/4 25/32

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Installation details shall conform to Sections 2304.7.1 and 2304.7.2 for floor and roof sheathing, respectively.
b. Floor or roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.
c. Maximum 19-percent moisture content.

TABLE 2304.7(2) SHEATHING LUMBER, MINIMUM GRADE REQUIREMENTS: BOARD GRADE

SOLID FLOOR OR ROOF SHEATHING SPACED ROOF SHEATHING GRADING RULES
Utility Standard NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
4 common or utility 3 common or standard NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NSLB or NELMA
No. 3 No. 2 SPIB
Merchantable Construction common
RIS

TABLE 2304.7(3) ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING AND SINGLE-FLOOR GRADES CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS WITH STRENGTH AXIS PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORTSa, b

SHEATHING GRADES ROOFc FLOORd
Panel span rating roof/
floor span
Panel thickness
(inches)
Maximum span (inches) Loade(psf) Maximum span (inches)
With edge supportf Without edge support Total load Live load
16/0 3/8 16 16 40 30 0
20/0 3/8 20 20 40 30 0
24/0 3/8,7/16,1/2 24 20g 40 30 0
24/16 7/16, 1/2 24 24 50 40 16
32/16 15/32,1/2,5/8 32 28 40 30 16h
40/20 19/32,5/8,3/4,7/8 40 32 40 30 20h,i
48/24 23/32,3/4,7/8 48 36 45 35 24
54/32 7/8, 1 54 40 45 35 32
60/32 7/8, 11/8 60 48 45 35 32
SINGLE FLOOR GRADES ROOFc FLOORd
Panel span rating Panel thickness (inches) Maximum span (inches) Loade(psf) Maximum span (inches)
With edge supportf Without edge support Total load Live load
16 o.c. 1/2,19/32,5/8 24 24 50 40 16h
20 o.c. 19/32,5/8,3/4 32 32 40 30 20h,i
24 o.c. 23/32,3/4 48 36 35 25 24
32 o.c. 7/8, 1 48 40 50 40 32
48 o.c. 13/32, 11/8 60 48 50 40 48

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.
a. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.
b. Floor and roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.
c. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only.
d. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip. Allowable uniform load based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except the span rating of 48 inches on center is based on a total load of 65 pounds per square foot.
e. Allowable load at maximum span.
f. Tongue-and-groove edges, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports 48 inches on center), lumber blocking or other. Only lumber blocking shall satisfy blocked diaphragm requirements.
g. For 1/2-inch panel, maximum span shall be 24 inches.
h. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center where 3/4-inch wood strip flooring is installed at right angles to joist.
i. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center for floors where 11/2 inches of cellular or lightweight concrete is applied over the panels.

TABLE 2304.7(4) ALLOWABLE SPAN FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL COMBINATION SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT (SINGLE FLOOR)a, b (Panels Continuous Over Two or More Spans and Strength Axis Perpendicular to Supports)

IDENTIFICATION MAXIMUM SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
16 20 24 32 48
Species groupc Thickness (inches)
1 1/2 5/8 3/4
2, 3 5/8 3/4 7/8
4 3/4 7/8 1
Single floor span ratingd 16 o.c. 20 o.c. 24 o.c. 32 o.c. 48 o.c.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.
a. Spans limited to value shown because of possible effects of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform loads based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except allowable total uniform load for 11/8-inch wood structural panels over joists spaced 48 inches on center is 65 pounds per square foot. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip.
b. Floor panels conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.
c. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. See DOC PS 1 for plywood species groups.
d. Applicable to Underlayment grade, C-C (Plugged) plywood, and Single Floor grade wood structural panels.

TABLE 2304.7(5) ALLOWABLE LOAD (PSF) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL ROOF SHEATHING CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS AND STRENGTH AXIS PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS (Plywood Structural Panels Are Five-Ply, Five-Layer Unless Otherwise Noted)a, b

PANEL GRADE THICKNESS (inch) MAXIMUM SPAN (inches) LOAD AT MAXIMUM SPAN (psf)
Live Total
Structural I sheathing 7/16 24 20 30
15/32 24 35c 45c
1/2 24 40c 50c
19/32, 5/8 24 70 80
23/32, 3/4 24 90 100
Sheathing, other grades covered
in DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2
7/16 16 40 50
15/32 24 20 25
1/2 24 25 30
19/32 24 40c 50c
5/8 24 45c 55c
23/32, 3/4 24 60c 65c

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.
a. Roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.
b. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only. Edges shall be blocked with lumber or other approved type of edge supports.
c. For composite and four-ply plywood structural panel, load shall be reduced by 15 pounds per square foot.
Structural floor sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section. Floor sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(4) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.
Structural roof sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section. Roof sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(5) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Wood structural panel roof sheathing shall be bonded by exterior glue.
Lumber decking shall be designed and installed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and Section 2304.8. Each piece shall be square end trimmed. When random lengths are furnished, each piece shall be square end trimmed across the face so that at least 90 percent of the pieces are within 0.5 degrees (0.00873 rad) of square. The ends of the pieces shall be permitted to be beveled up to 2 degrees (0.0349 rad) from the vertical with the exposed face of the piece slightly longer than the opposite face of the piece. Tongue-and-groove decking shall be installed with the tongues up on sloped or pitched roofs with pattern faces down.
Lumber decking is permitted to be laid up following one of five standard patterns as defined in Sections 2304.8.2.1 through 2304.8.2.5. Other patterns are permitted to be used provided they are substantiated through engineering analysis.
All pieces shall be supported on their ends (i.e., by two supports).
All pieces shall be supported by three supports, and all end joints shall occur in line on alternating supports. Supporting members shall be designed to accommodate the load redistribution caused by this pattern.
Courses in end spans shall be alternating simple-span pattern and two-span continuous pattern. End joints shall be staggered in adjacent courses and shall bear on supports.
The decking shall extend across a minimum of three spans. Pieces in each starter course and every third course shall be simple span pattern. Pieces in other courses shall be cantilevered over the supports with end joints at alternating quarter or third points of the spans. Each piece shall bear on at least one support.
The decking shall extend across a minimum of three spans. End joints of pieces within 6 inches (152 mm) of the end joints of the adjacent pieces in either direction shall be separated by at least two intervening courses. In the end bays, each piece shall bear on at least one support. Where an end joint occurs in an end bay, the next piece in the same course shall continue over the first inner support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). The details of the controlled random pattern shall be as specified for each decking material in Section 2304.8.3.3, 2304.8.4.3 or 2304.8.5.3. Decking that cantilevers beyond a support for a horizontal distance greater than 18 inches (457 mm), 24 inches (610 mm) or 36 inches (914 mm) for 2-inch (51 mm), 3-inch (76 mm) and 4-inch (102 mm) nominal thickness decking, respectively, shall comply with the following:

1. The maximum cantilevered length shall be 30 percent of the length of the first adjacent interior span;

2. A structural fascia shall be fastened to each decking piece to maintain a continuous, straight line; and

3. There shall be no endjoints in the decking between the cantilevered end of the decking and the centerline of the first adjacent interior span.
Mechanically laminated decking consists of square-edged dimension lumber laminations set on edge and nailed to the adjacent pieces and to the supports.
The length of nails connecting laminations shall not be less than two and one-half times the net thickness of each lamination. Where decking supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) on center (o.c.) or less, side nails shall be installed not more than 30 inches (762 mm) o.c. alternating between top and bottom edges, and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c., side nails shall be installed not more than 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. alternating between top and bottom edges and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Two side nails shall be installed at each end of butt-jointed pieces. Laminations shall be toenailed to supports with 20d or larger common nails. Where the supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c. or less, alternate laminations shall be toenailed to alternate supports; where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c., alternate laminations shall be toenailed to every support.
There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Two-inch (51 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 15 percent. Decking shall be machined with a single tongue-and-groove pattern. Each decking piece shall be nailed to each support.
Each piece of decking shall be toenailed at each support with one 16d common nail through the tongue and face-nailed with one 16d common nail.
There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Three-inch (76 mm) and 4-inch (102 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 19 percent. Decking shall be machined with a double tongue-and-groove pattern. Decking pieces shall be interconnected and nailed to the supports.
Each piece shall be toenailed at each support with one 40d common nail and face-nailed with one 60d common nail. Courses shall be spiked to each other with 8-inch (203 mm) spikes at maximum intervals of 30 inches (762 mm) through predrilled edge holes penetrating to a depth of approximately 4 inches (102 mm). One spike shall be installed at a distance not exceeding 10 inches (254 mm) from the end of each piece.
There shall be a minimum distance of 48 inches (1219 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. Pieces not bearing on a support are permitted to be located in interior bays provided the adjacent pieces in the same course continue over the support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). This condition shall not occur more than once in every six courses in each interior bay.
Connections for wood members shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate methodology in Section 2301.2. The number and size of fasteners connecting wood members shall not be less than that set forth in Table 2304.9.1.

TABLE 2304.9.1 FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa, m LOCATION
1. Joist to sill or girder 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
2. Bridging to joist 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail each end
2 - 3" × 0.131" nails
2 - 3" 14 gage staples
3. 1" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
4. Wider than 1" × 6" subfloor to each joist 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
5. 2" subfloor to joist or girder 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") blind and face nail
6. Sole plate to joist or blocking
16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c. typical face nail
3" × 0.131" nails at 8" o.c.
3" 14 gage staples at 12" o.c.
Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panel 3 - 16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c braced wall panels
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails at 16" o.c.
4 - 3" 14 gage staples at 16" o.c.
7. Top plate to stud 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") end nail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
8. Stud to sole plate 4 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail
2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
end nail
9. Double studs 16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 24" o.c. face nail
3" × 0.131" nail at 8" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 8" o.c.
10. Double top plates 16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c. typical face nail
3" × 0.131" nail at 12" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 12" o.c.
Double top plates 8 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") lap splice
12 - 3" × 0.131" nails
12 - 3" 14 gage staples
11. Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
12. Rim joist to top plate 8d (21/2" × 0.131") at 6" o.c. toenail
3" × 0.131" nail at 6" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 6" o.c.
13. Top plates, laps and intersections 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") face nail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
14. Continuous header, two pieces 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 16" o.c. along edge
15. Ceiling joists to plate 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail
5 - 3" × 0.131" nails
5 - 3" 14 gage staples
16. Continuous header to stud 4 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail
17. Ceiling joists, laps over partitions
(see Section 2308.10.4.1, Table 2308.10.4.1)
3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") minimum, face nail
Table 2308.10.4.1
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples


(continued)

TABLE 2304.9.1‒continued FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa, m LOCATION
18. Ceiling joists to parallel rafters
(see Section 2308.10.4.1, Table 2308.10.4.1)
3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")minimum, face nail
Table 2308.10.4.1
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
19. Rafter to plate
(see Section 2308.10.1, Table 2308.10.1)
3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
20. 1" diagonal brace to each stud and plate 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
2 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
21. 1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
22. Wider than 1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
23. Built-up corner studs 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") 24" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nails 16" o.c.
3" 14 gage staples 16" o.c.
24. Built-up girder and beams 20d common (4" × 0.192") 32" o.c. face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides
3" × 0.131" nail at 24" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 24" o.c.
2 - 20d common (4" × 0.192") face nail at ends and at each splice
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
25. 2" planks 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") at each bearing
26. Collar tie to rafter 3 - 10d common (3" × 0.148") face nail
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
27. Jack rafter to hip 3 - 10d common (3" × 0.148") toenail
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") face nail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
28. Roof rafter to 2-by ridge beam 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") toenail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
2 -16d common (31/2" × 0.162") face nail
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
29. Joist to band joist 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") face nail
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
30. Ledger strip 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
31. Wood structural panels and particleboardb
Subfloor, roof and wall sheathing (to framing)
1/2" and less 6dc, 1
23/8" × 0.113" nailn
13/4"16 gageo
19/32" to 3/4" 8dd or 6de
23/8" × 0.113" nailp
2" 16 gagep
8dc
7/8" to 1" 10dd or 8de
11/8" to 11/4"
Single floor (combination subfloor-underlayment
to framing)
3/4" and less 6de
7/8" to 1" 8de
11/8" to 11/4" 10dd or 8de


(continued)

TABLE 2304.9.1‒continued FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa, m LOCATION
32. Panel siding (to framing) 1/2" or less 6df
5/8" 8df
33. Fiberboard sheathingg 1/2" No. 11 gage roofing nailh
6d common nail (2" × 0.113")
No. 16 gage staplei
25/32" No. 11 gage roofing nailh
8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131")
No. 16 gage staplei
34. Interior paneling 1/4" 4dj
3/8" 6dk

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Common or box nails are permitted to be used except where otherwise stated.
b. Nails spaced at 6 inches on center at edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports except 6 inches at supports where spans are 48 inches or more. For nailing of wood structural panel and particleboard diaphragms and shear walls, refer to Section 2305. Nails for wall sheathing are permitted to be common, box or casing.
c. Common or deformed shank (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").
d. Common (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").
e. Deformed shank (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").
f. Corrosion-resistant siding (6d - 17/8" × 0.106"; 8d - 23/8" × 0.128") or casing (6d - 2" × 0.099"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.113") nail.
g. Fasteners spaced 3 inches on center at exterior edges and 6 inches on center at intermediate supports, when used as structural sheathing. Spacing shall be 6 inches on center on the edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for nonstructural applications.
h. Corrosion-resistant roofing nails with 7/16-inch-diameter head and 11/2-inch length for 1/2-inch sheathing and 13/4-inch length for 25/32-inch sheathing.
i. Corrosion-resistant staples with nominal 7/16-inch crown or 1-inch crown and 11/4-inch length for 1/2-inch sheathing and 11/2-inch length for 25/32-inch sheathing. Panel supports at 16 inches (20 inches if strength axis in the long direction of the panel, unless otherwise marked).
j. Casing (11/2" × 0.080") or finish (11/2" × 0.072") nails spaced 6 inches on panel edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports.
k. Panel supports at 24 inches. Casing or finish nails spaced 6 inches on panel edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports.
l. For roof sheathing applications, 8d nails (21/2" × 0.113") are the minimum required for wood structural panels.
m. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch.
n. For roof sheathing applications, fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports.
o. Fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports for subfloor and wall sheathing and 3 inches on center at edges, 6 inches at intermediate supports for roof sheathing.
p. Fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports.
Sheathing nails or other approved sheathing connectors shall be driven so that their head or crown is flush with the surface of the sheathing.
Connections depending on joist hangers or framing anchors, ties and other mechanical fastenings not otherwise covered are permitted where approved. The vertical load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be determined in accordance with Section 1716.1.
Clips, staples, glues and other approved methods of fastening are permitted where approved.
Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with Sections 2304.9.5.1 through 2304.9.5.4. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A 153.
Fasteners in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails, timber rivets, wood screws and lag screws shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum. Connectors that are used in exterior applications and in contact with preservative-treated wood shall have coating types and weights in accordance with the treated wood or connector manufacturer’s recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer’s recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A 653, type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.

Exception: Plain carbon steel fasteners in SBX/DOT and zinc borate preservative-treated wood in an interior, dry environment shall be permitted.
Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA; PWF.
Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails, timber rivets, wood screws and lag screws shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.
Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer’s recommendations, Section 2304.9.5.3 shall apply.
Where wall framing members are not continuous from foundation sill to roof, the members shall be secured to ensure a continuous load path. Where required, sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvanized steel or other approved corrosion-resistant material not less than 0.040 inch (1.01 mm) nominal thickness.
Wood columns and posts shall be framed to provide full end bearing. Alternatively, column-and-post end connections shall be designed to resist the full compressive loads, neglecting end-bearing capacity. Column-and-post end connections shall be fastened to resist lateral and net induced uplift forces.
Columns shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions when supporting floor loads and at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 8 inches (203 mm) deep when supporting roof and ceiling loads only.
Beams and girders shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 10 inches (254 mm) deep.
Frames and arches that spring from grade or the floor line and support floor loads shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions. Frames or arches for roof construction that spring from grade or the floor line and do not support floor loads shall have members at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 8 inches (203 mm) deep for the lower half of the height, and at least 6 inches (152 mm) deep for the upper half. Frames or arches for roof construction that spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses, and other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall have members at least 4 inches (102 mm) wide and 6 inches (152 mm) deep. Spaced members may be composed of two or more pieces at least 3 inches (76 mm) thick when blocked solidly through their intervening spaces or when such spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate at least 2 inches (51 mm) thick secured to the underside of the members. Splice plates shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) thick. When protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) wide.
Timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions.
Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with pintles and base plates, or by timber splice plates affixed to the columns by metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by other approved methods.
Girders and beams shall be closely fitted around columns and adjoining ends shall be cross tied to each other, or inter tied by caps or ties, to transfer horizontal loads across joints. Wood bolsters shall not be placed on tops of columns unless the columns support roof loads only.
Approved wall plate boxes or hangers shall be provided where wood beams, girders or trusses rest on masonry or concrete walls. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, they shall rest on top of girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they shall be supported by an approved metal hanger into which the ends of the beams shall be closely fitted.
Every roof girder and at least every alternate roof beam shall be anchored to its supporting member; and every monitor and every sawtooth construction shall be anchored to the main roof construction. Such anchors shall consist of steel bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Floor decks and covering shall not extend closer than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. Such 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) spaces shall be covered by a molding fastened to the wall either above or below the floor and arranged such that the molding will not obstruct the expansion or contraction movements of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under floors is permitted in place of such molding.
Where supported by a wall, roof decks shall be anchored to walls to resist uplift forces determined in accordance with Chapter 16. Such anchors shall consist of steel bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
All timber shall be accurately cut and framed to a close fit in such a manner that the joints will have even bearing over the contact surfaces. Mortises shall be true to size for their full depth and tenons shall fit snugly. No shimming in joints, or open joints, shall be permitted.
Joints shall have a tight fit. Fasteners shall be installed in a manner that will not damage the wood. End compression joints shall be brought to full bearing. All framework shall be carried up true and plumb. As erection progresses, the work shall be bolted, or nailed as necessary, to resist all dead load, wind, and erection stresses. The structure shall be properly aligned before final tightening of the connections.
Where required by this section, protection from decay and termites shall be provided by the use of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood used above ground in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.2.1 through 2304.11.2.7, 2304.11.3 and 2304.11.5 shall be naturally durable wood or preservative-treated wood using water-borne preservatives, in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for above-ground use.
Where wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor without joists are closer than 18 inches (457 mm), or wood girders are closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the perimeter of the building foundation, the floor construction (including posts, girders, joists and subfloor) shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood framing members, including wood sheathing, that rest on exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood framing members and furring strips attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry or concrete walls below grade shall be of approved naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Sleepers and sills on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls shall be provided with a 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) air space on top, sides and end, unless naturally durable or preservative-treated wood is used.
Clearance between wood siding and earth on the exterior of a building shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) or less than 2 inches (51 mm) vertical from covered concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
Posts or columns supporting permanent structures and supported by a concrete or masonry slab or footing that is in direct contact with the earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

Exceptions:

1. Posts or columns that are either exposed to the weather or located in basements or cellars, supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projected at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the slab or deck and 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth, and are separated therefrom by an impervious moisture barrier.

2. Posts or columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building, supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height greater than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed ground, and are separated there from by an impervious moisture barrier.
The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not fully protected from moisture by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood used in contact with the ground (exposed earth) in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.4.1 and 2304.11.4.2 shall be naturally durable (species for both decay and termite resistance) or preservative-treated using water-borne preservatives in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for soil or fresh water use.

Exception: Untreated wood is permitted where such wood is continuously and entirely below the groundwater level or submerged in fresh water.
Posts and columns supporting permanent structures that are embedded in concrete that is in direct contact with the earth, embedded in concrete that is exposed to the weather or in direct contact with the earth shall be of preservative-treated wood.
Wood structural members that support moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
Naturally durable or preservative-treated wood shall be utilized for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances where such members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering to prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members.
In geographical areas where hazard of termite damage is known to be very heavy, wood floor framing shall be of naturally durable species (termite resistant) or preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product preservative and end use or provided with approved methods of termite protection.
Wood installed in retaining or crib walls shall be preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for soil and fresh water use.
For attic ventilation, see Section 1203.2.
For under-floor ventilation (crawl space), see Section 1203.3.
The ends of wood beams, joists and rafters resting on masonry or concrete walls shall be firecut to a bevel of 3 inches (76 mm) in depth.
All loose wood and debris and all wood forms shall be removed from spaces under the building. All stump and roots shall be grubbed to a minimum depth of 12 inches (305 mm).
Wood members supporting concrete, masonry or similar materials shall be checked for the effects of long-term loading using the provisions of the AF&PA; NDS. The total deflection, including the effects of long-term loading, shall be limited in accordance with Section 1604.3.1 for these supported materials.

Exception: Horizontal wood members supporting masonry or concrete nonstructural floor or roof surfacing not more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick need not be checked for long-term loading.
Structures using wood shear walls and diaphragms to resist wind, seismic and other lateral loads shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS and the provisions of Sections 2305, 2306 and 2307.
Openings in shear panels that materially affect their strength shall be detailed on the plans, and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all shearing stresses.
The deflection (A) of a blocked wood structural panel diaphragm uniformly fastened throughout with staples is permitted to be calculated by using the following equation. If not uniformly fastened, the constant 0.188 (For SI: 1/1627) in the third term shall be modified accordingly.



For SI: Δ =


where:

A = Area of chord cross section, in square inches (mm2).
B = Diaphragm width, in feet (mm).
E = Elastic modulus of chords, in pounds per square inch (N/mm2).
en = Staple deformation, in inches (mm). See Table 2305.2(1).
Gt = Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width of or depth. See Table 2305.2(2).
L = Diaphragm length, in feet (mm).
v = Maximum shear due to design loads in the direction under consideration, in pounds per linear foot (plf) (N/mm).
Δ = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).
Σ(ΔcX) = Sum of individual chord-splice slip values on both sides of the diaphragm, each multiplied by its distance to the nearest support.


TABLE 2305.2(1) en VALUES (inches) FOR USE IN CALCULATING DIAPHRAGM AND SHEAR WALL DEFLECTION DUE TO FASTENER SLIP (Structural I)a, c

LOAD PER FASTENERb
(pounds)
FASTENER DESIGNATIONS
14-Ga staple x 2 inches long
60 0.011
80 0.018
100 0.028
120 0.04
140 0.053
160 0.068

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
a. Increase en values 20 percent for plywood grades other than Structural I.
b. Load per fastener = maximum shear per foot divided by the number of fasteners per foot at interior panel edges.
c. Decrease en values 50 percent for seasoned lumber (moisture content < 19 percent).

TABLE 2305.2(2) VALUES OF Gt FOR USE IN CALCULATING DEFLECTION OF WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS AND DIAPHRAGMS

PANEL
TYPE
SPAN RATING VALUES OF Gt (lb/in. panel depth or width)
OTHER STRUCTURAL I
3-ply
Plywood
4-ply
Plywood
5-ply
Plywooda
OSB 3-ply
Plywood
4-ply
Plywood
5-ply
Plywooda
OSB
Sheathing 24/0 25,000 32,500 37,500 77,500 32,500 42,500 41,500 77,500
24/16 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
32/16 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
40/20 28,500 37,000 43,000 88,500 37,000 48,000 47,500 88,500
48/24 31,000 40,500 46,500 96,000 40,500 52,500 51,000 96,000
Single Floor 16 o.c. 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
20 o.c. 28,000 36,500 42,000 87,000 36,500 47,500 46,000 87,000
24 o.c. 30,000 39,000 45,000 93,000 39,000 50,500 49,500 93,000
32 o.c. 36,000 47,000 54,000 110,000 47,000 61,000 59,500 110,000
48 o.c. 50,500 65,500 76,000 155,000 65,500 85,000 83,500 155,000


OTHER STRUCTURAL I
Thickness
(in.)
A-A,
A-C
Marine All Other
Grades
A-A,
A-C
Marine All Other
Grades
Sanded Plywood 1/4 24,000 31,000 24,000 31,000 31,000 31,000
11/32 25,500 33,000 25,500 33,000 33,000 33,000
3/8 26,000 34,000 26,000 34,000 34,000 34,000
15/32 38,000 49,500 38,000 49,500 49,500 49,500
1/2 38,500 50,000 38,500 50,000 50,000 50,000
19/32 49,000 63,500 49,000 63,500 63,500 63,500
5/8 49,500 64,500 49,500 64,500 64,500 64,500
23/32 50,500 65,500 50,500 65,500 65,500 65,500
3/4 51,000 66,500 51,000 66,500 66,500 66,500
7/8 52,500 68,500 52,500 68,500 68,500 68,500
1 73,500 95,500 73,500 95,500 95,500 95,500
11/8 75,000 97,500 75,000 97,500 97,500 97,500

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound/inch = 0.1751 N/mm.
a. Applies to plywood with five or more layers; for five-ply/three-layer plywood, use values for four ply.
The deflection (A) of a blocked wood structural panel shear wall uniformly fastened throughout with staples is permitted to be calculated by the use of the following equation:


For SI: Δ =


where:

A = Area of boundary element cross section in square inches (mm2) (vertical member at shear wall boundary).
b = Wall width, in feet (mm).
da = Vertical elongation of overturning anchorage (including fastener slip, device elongation, anchor rod elongation, etc.) at the design shear load (v).
E = Elastic modulus of boundary element (vertical member at shear wall boundary), in pounds per square inch (N/mm2).
en = Staple deformation, in inches (mm) [see Table 2305.2(1)].
Gt = Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width or depth [see Table 2305.2(2)].
h = Wall height, in feet (mm).
v = Maximum shear due to design loads at the top of the wall, in pounds per linear foot (N/mm).
Δ = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).
The structural analysis and construction of wood elements in structures using allowable stress design shall be in accordance with the following applicable standards:

American Forest & Paper Association.
NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction
SDPWS Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic
American Institute of Timber Construction.
AITC 104 Typical Construction Details
AITC 110 Standard Appearance Grades for Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 113 Standard for Dimensions of Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 117 Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Softwood Species
AITC 119 Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species
ANSI/AITC A190.1 Structural Glued Laminated Timber
AITC 200 Inspection Manual
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
ASABE EP 484.2 Diaphragm Design of Metal-clad, Post-Frame Rectangular Buildings
ASABE EP 486.1 Shallow Post Foundation Design
ASABE 559 Design Requirements and Bending Properties for Mechanically Laminated Columns
APA‒The Engineered Wood Association.
Panel Design Specification
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 1 - Design & Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panel
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 2 - Design & Fabrication of Glued Plywood-lumber Beams
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 3 -Design & Fabrication of Plywood Stressed-skin Panels
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 4 - Design & Fabrication of Plywood Sandwich Panels
Plywood Design Specification Supplement 5 - Design & Fabrication of All-plywood Beams
EWS T300 Glulam Connection Details
EWS S560 Field Notching and Drilling of Glued Laminated Timber Beams
EWS S475 Glued Laminated Beam Design Tables
EWS X450 Glulam in Residential Construction
EWS X440 Product and Application Guide: Glulam
EWS R540 Builders Tips: Proper Storage and Handling of Glulam Beams
Truss Plate Institute, Inc.
TPI 1 National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction
The design of rafter spans is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
The design of plank and beam flooring is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA; Wood Construction Data No. 4.
The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need no adjustment for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments. The allowable unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated wood, including fastener values, shall be developed from an approved method of investigation that considers the effects of anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and the redrying process. Other adjustments are applicable except that the impact load duration shall not apply.
The capacity of lumber decking arranged according to the patterns described in Section 2304.8.2 shall be the lesser of the capacities determined for flexure and deflection according to the formulas in Table 2306.1.4.

TABLE 2306.1.4 ALLOWABLE LOADS FOR LUMBER DECKING

PATTERN ALLOWABLE AREA LOADa, b
Flexure Deflection
Simple span
Two-span continuous
Combination simple- and two-span continuous
Cantilevered pieces intermixed
Controlled random layup
Mechanically laminated decking
2-inch decking
3-inch and 4-inch decking

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. σb = Allowable total uniform load limited by bending.
σΔ = Allowable total uniform load limited by deflection.
b. d = Actual decking thickness.
l = Span of decking.
Fb′ = Allowable bending stress adjusted by applicable factors.
E′ = Modulus of elasticity adjusted by applicable factors.
Wood structural panel diaphragms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS. Wood structural panel diaphragms are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable shear capacities set forth in Table 2306.2.1(1) or 2306.2.1(2). The allowable shear capacities in Tables 2306.2.1(1) and 2306.2.1(2) are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design.

TABLE 2306.2.1(1) ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGh

PANEL
GRADE
COMMON NAIL
SIZE OR STAPLEf
LENGTH AND
GAGE
MINIMUM
FASTENER
PENETRATION
IN FRAMING
(inches)
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inch)
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
WIDTH OF
FRAMING
MEMBERS AT
ADJOINING
PANEL
EDGES AND
BOUNDARIESg
(inches)
BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UNBLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Fastener spacing(inches) at diaphragm boundaries (all cases)
at continuous panel edges parallel to load
(Cases 3, 4), and at all panel edges (Cases 5, 6)b
Fasteners spaced 6 max. at supported edgesb
6 4 21/2c 2c Case 1
(No unblocked edges
or continuous joints
parallel to load)
All other
configurations
Cases 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6)
Fastener spacing(inches) at other panel edges
(Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4)b
6 6 4 3
Structural I
grades
8d (21/2×0.131) 13/8 3/8 2 270 360 530 600 240 180
3 300 400 600 675 265 200
11/216 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 115
3 200 265 395 450 175 130
10dd (3×0.148') 11/2 15/32 2 320 425 640 730 285 215
3 360 480 720 820 320 240
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 120
3 200 265 395 450 175 130
Sheathing, single
floor and other
grades covered in
DOC PS 1 and
PS 2
6de(2″ ×0.113″) 11/4 3/8 2 185 250 375 420 165 125
8d (21/2×0.131″) 13/8 3 210 280 420 475 185 140
2 240 320 480 545 215 160
3 270 360 540 610 240 180
11/216 Gage 1 2 160 210 315 360 140 105
3 180 235 355 400 160 120
8d (21/2″ × 0.131″) 13/8 7/16 2 255 340 505 575 230 170
3 285 380 570 645 255 190
11/216 Gage 1 2 165 225 335 380 150 110
3 190 250 375 425 165 125
8d (21/2″ × 0.131″) 13/8 15/32 2 270 360 530 600 240 180
3 300 400 600 675 265 200
10dd(3″ ×0.148″) 11/2 2 290 385 575 655 255 190
3 325 430 650 735 290 215
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 160 210 315 360 140 105
3 180 235 355 405 160 120
10dd(3″ ×0.148″) 11/2 19/32 2 320 425 640 730 285 215
3 360 480 720 820 320 240
13/416 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 115
3 200 265 395 450 175 130


TABLE 2306.2.1(1)-continued ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGh

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails find shear value from table above for nail size for actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [1-(0.5 - SG)], where SG = Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.
b. Space fasteners maximum 12 inches o.c. along intermediate framing members (6 inches o.c. where supports are spaced 48 inches o.c.).
c. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails at all panel edges shall be staggered where panel edge nailing is specified at 21/2 inches o.c. or less.
d. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails at all panel edges shall be staggered where both of the following conditions are met: (1) 10d nails having penetration into framing of more than 11/2 inches and (2) panel edge nailing is specified at 3 inches o.c. or less.
e. 8d is recommended minimum for roofs due to negative pressures of high winds.
f. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
g. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.
h. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.


TABLE 2306.2.1(2) ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UTILIZING MULTIPLE ROWS OF FASTENERS (HIGH LOAD DIAPHRAGMS) WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb,g,h

PANEL
GRADEc
COMMON
NAIL SIZE OR
STAPLEf
GAGE
MINIMUM
FASTENER
PENETRATION
IN FRAMING
(inches)
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inch)
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
WIDTH OF
FRAMING
MEMBER AT
ADJOINING
PANEL EDGES
AND
BOUNDARIESe
LINES OF
FASTENERS
BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Cases 1 and 2d
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Boundaries
(inches)
4 21/2 2
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Other Panel Edges
(inches)
6 4 4 3 3 2
Structural I
grades
10d
common nails
11/2 15/32 3 2 605 815 875 1,150
4 2 700 915 1,005 1,290
4 3 875 1,220 1,285 1,395
19/32 3 2 670 880 965 1,255
4 2 780 990 1,110 1,440
4 3 965 1,320 1,405 1,790
23/32 3 2 730 955 1,050 1,365
4 2 855 1,070 1,210 1,565
4 3 1,050 1,430 1,525 1,800
14 gage
staples
2 15/32 3 2 600 600 860 960 1,060 1,200
4 3 860 900 1,160 1,295 1,295 1,400
19/32 3 2 600 600 875 960 1,075 1,200
4 3 875 900 1,175 1,440 1,475 1,795
Sheathing single
floor and other
grades covered in
DOC PS 1 and
PS 2
10d
common nails
11/2 15/32 3 2 525 725 765 1,010
4 2 605 815 875 1,105
4 3 765 1,085 1,130 1,195
19/32 3 2 650 860 935 1,225
4 2 755 965 1,080 1,370
4 3 935 1,290 1,365 1,485
23/32 3 2 710 935 1,020 1,335
4 2 825 1,050 1,175 1,445
4 3 1,020 1,400 1,480 1,565
14 gage
staples
2 15/32 3 2 540 540 735 865 915 1,080
4 3 735 810 1,005 1,105 1,105 1,195
19/32 3 2 600 600 865 960 1,065 1,200
4 3 865 900 1,130 1,430 1,370 1,485
23/32 4 3 865 900 1,130 1,490 1,430 1,545

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of framing lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples, find shear value from table abovefor Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails,
find shear value from table above for nail size of actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [ 1- (0.5
- SG)], where SG = Specific gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.
b. Fastening along intermediate framing members:Space fasteners a maximum of 12 inches on center, except 6 inches on center for spans greater than 32 inches.
c. Panels conforming to PS 1 or PS 2.
d. This table gives shear values for Cases 1 and 2 as shown in Table 2306.2.1(1). The values shown are applicable to Cases 3, 4, 5 and 6 as shown in Table 2306.2.1(1),
providing fasteners at all continuous panel edges are spaced in accordance with the boundary fastener spacing.
e. The minimum nominal depth of framing members shall be 3 inches nominal. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or
adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.
f. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
g. High load diaphragms shall be subject to special inspection in accordance with Section 1704.6.1.
h. For shear loads of normalor permanentload duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.


TABLE 2306.2.1(2)‒continued ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UTILIZING MULTIPLE ROWS OF FASTENERS (HIGH LOAD DIAPHRAGMS) WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINE FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS.
Double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS.
Gypsum board diaphragm ceilings shall be in accordance with Section 2508.5.
Wood structural panel shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS. Wood structural panel shear walls are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable capacities set forth in Table 2306.3 Allowable capacities in Table 2306.3 are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design.

TABLE 2306.3 ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb, h, i, j

PANEL GRADE
MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL
THICKNESS (inch)
MINIMUM FASTENER
PENETRATION IN
FRAMING (inches)
PANELS APPLIED DIRECT TO FRAMING PANELS APPLIED OVER 1/2 OR 5/8 GYPSUM SHEATHING
NAIL(common or galvanized box)
or staple sizek
Fastener spacing at panel edges (inches) NAIL(common or galvanized box)
or staple sizek
Fastener spacing at panel edges (inches)
6 4 3 2e 6 4 3 2e
Structural I
sheathing
3/8 13/8 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
230d 360d 460d 610d 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 155 235 315 400 2 16 Gage 155 235 310 400
7/16 13/8 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
255d 395d 505d 670d 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 170 260 345 440 2 16 Gage 155 235 310 400
15/32 13/8 8d (21/2″ ×0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
280 430 550 730 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3 ″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 185 280 375 475 2 16 Gage 155 235 300 400
11/2 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
340 510 665f 870
Sheathing,
plywood sidinge, g
except Group 5
Species
5/16c or 1/4c 11/4 6d (2″ × 0.113″ common,
2″ × 0.099″ galvanized box)
180 270 350 450 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
180 270 350 450
1 11/2 16 Gage 145 220 295 375 2 16 Gage 110 165 220 285
3/8 11/4 6d (2″ × 0.113″ common,
2″ × 0.099″ galvanized box)
200 300 390 510 8d (21/2″ ×0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
200 300 390 510
13/8 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
220d 320d 410d 530d 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3 ″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
1 11/2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
7/16 13/8 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
240d 350d 450d 585d 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
1 11/2 16 Gage 155 230 310 395 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
15/32 13/8 8d (21/2″ × 0.131″ common,
21/2″ × 0.113″ galvanized box)
260 380 490 640 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
11/2 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
310 460 600f 770
1 11/2 16 Gage 170 255 335 430 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
19/32 11/2 10d (3″ × 0.148″ common,
3″ × 0.128″ galvanized box)
340 510 665f 870
1 13/4 16 Gage 185 280 375 475
Nail Size (galvanized casing) Nail Size (galvanized casing)
5/16c 11/4 6d (2″ × 0.099″) 140 210 275 360 8d (21/2 ″ × 0.113″) 140 210 275 360
3/8c 13/8 8d (21/2 ″ × 0.113″) 160 240 310 410 10d (3″ × 0.128″) 160 240 310f 410


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails find shear value from table above for nail size for actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [1-(0.5 - SG)], where SG = Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.
b. Panel edges backed with 2-inch nominal or wider framing. Install panels either horizontally or vertically. Space fasteners maximum 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members for 3/8-inch and 7/16-inch panels installed on studs spaced 24 inches on center. For other conditions and panel thickness, space fasteners maximum 12 inches on center on intermediate supports.
c. 3/8-inch panel thickness or siding with a span rating of 16 inches on center is the minimum recommended where applied directly to framing as exterior siding. For grooved panel siding, the nominal panel thickness is the thickness of the panel measured at the point of nailing.
d. Allowable shear values are permitted to be increased to values shown for 15/32-inch sheathing with same nailing provided (a) studs are spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center, or (b) panels are applied with long dimension across studs.
e. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails at all panel edges shall be staggered where panel edge nailing is specified at 2 inches on center or less.
f. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails at all panel edges shall be staggered where both of the following conditions are met: (1) 10d (3″ × 0.148″) nails having penetration into framing of more than 11/2 inches and (2) panel edge nailing is specified at 3 inches on center or less.
g. Values apply to all-veneer plywood. Thickness at point of fastening on panel edges governs shear values.
h. Where panels are applied on both faces of a wall and nail spacing is less than 6 inches o.c. on either side, panel joints shall be offset to fall on different framing members. Or framing shall be 3-inch nominal or thicker at adjoining panel edges and nails at all panel edges shall be staggered.
i. In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, where shear design values exceed 350 pounds per linear foot, all framing members receiving edge nailing from abutting panels shall not be less than a single 3-inch nominal member, or two 2-inch nominal members fastened together in accordance with Section 2306.1 to transfer the design shear value between framing members. Wood structural panel joint and sill plate nailing shall be staggered at all panel edges. See Sections 4.3.6.1 and 4.3.6.4.3 of AF&PA SDPWS for sill plate size and anchorage requirements.
j. Galvanized nails shall be hot dipped or tumbled.
k. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
l. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.
Single and double diagonally sheathed lumber shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS.
Particleboard shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS. Particleboard shear walls shall be permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable shear capacities set forth in Table 2306.5. Allowable capacities in Table 2306.5 are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Particleboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D.

TABLE 2306.5 ALLOWABLE SHEAR FOR PARTICLE BOARD SHEAR WALL SHEATHINGb

PANEL GRADE MINIMUM NOMINAL
PANEL THICKNESS
(inch)
MINIMUM NAIL
PENETRATION IN
FRAMING
(inches)
PANELS APPLIED DIRECT TO FRAMING
Nail size
(common or
galvanized box)
Allowable shear (pounds per foot) nail spacing atpanel
edges (inches)a
6 4 3 2
M-S "Exterior Glue" and
M-2 "Exterior Glue"
3/8 11/2 6d 120 180 230 300
3/8 11/2 130 190 240 315
1/2 140 210 270 350
1/2 15/8 10d 185 275 360 460
5/8 200 305 395 520

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
b. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.
Fiberboard shear walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS. Fiberboard shear walls are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable shear capacities set forth in Table 2306.6. Allowable capacities in Table 2306.6 are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Fiberboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D.

TABLE 2306.6 ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (plf) FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING ON SHEAR WALLS OF FIBERBOARD SHEATHING BOARD CONSTRUCTION FOR TYPE V CONSTRUCTION ONLYa, b, c, d, e

THICKNESS AND GRADE FASTENER SIZE ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUE
(pounds per linear foot)
NAIL SPACING AT PANEL EDGES (inches)a
4 3 2
1/2″ or 25/32″ Structural No. 11 gage galvanized roofing nail 11/2″ long for
1/2″, 13/4″ long for 25/32″ with 3/8″ head
170 230 260
No. 11 gage galvanized staple, 7/16″ crownf 150 200 225
No. 11 gage galvanized staple, 1″ crownf 220 290 325

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. Fiberboard sheathing shall not be used to brace concrete or masonry walls.
b. Panel edges shall be backed with 2-inch or wider framing of Douglas fir-larch or Southern pine. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of framing lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples, multiply the shear value from the table above by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails, multiply the shear value from the table above by the following adjustment factor: specific gravity adjustment factor = [1-(0.5-SG)], where SG = Specific gravity of the framing lumber.
c. Values shown are for fiberboard sheathing on one side only with long panel dimension either parallel or perpendicular to studs.
d. Fastener shall be spaced 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members.
e. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
f. Staple length shall not be less than 11/2 inches for 25/32-inch sheathing or 11/4 inches for 1/2-inch sheathing.
Shear walls sheathed with portland cement plaster, gypsum lath, gypsum sheathing or gypsum board shall be designed and constructed in accordance with AF&PA; SDPWS. Shear walls sheathed with these materials are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable shear capacities set forth in Table 2306.7.

TABLE 2306.7 ALLOWABLE SHEAR FOR WIND OR SEISMIC FORCES FOR SHEAR WALLS OF LATH AND PLASTER OR GYPSUM BOARD WOOD FRAMED WALL ASSEMBLIES

TYPE OF MATERIAL THICKNESS
OF MATERIAL
WALL
CONSTRUCTION
FASTENER SPACINGb
MAXIMUM (inches)
SHEAR VALUEa, e
(plf)
MINIMUM
FASTENER SIZEc, d, j, k
1. Expanded metal or woven
wire lath and portland
cement plaster
7/8 Unblocked 6 180 No. 11 gage 11/2″ long, 7/16 head
No. 16 gage galv. staple, 7/8″ legs
2. Gypsum lath, plain or
perforated with vertical joints
staggered
3/8″ lath and
1/2″ plaster
Unblocked 5 180 No. 13 gage galv. 1″ long, 19/64
head, plasterboard nail
3. Gypsum lath, plain or
perforated
3/8″ lath and
1/2″ plaster
Unblocked 5 100 No. 16 gage galv. staple, 11/8
long, 0.120″ nail, min. 3/8″ head,
11/4″ long
4. Gypsum board , gypsum
veneer base or water-resistant
gypsum backing board
1/2 Unblockedf 7 75 5d cooler (15/8″ × 0.086″) or
wallboard 0.120″ nail, min. 3/8
head, 11/2″ long No. 16 gage
galv. staple, 11/2″ long
Unblockedf 4 110
Unblocked 7 100
Unblocked 4 125
Blockedg 7 125
Blockedg 4 150
Unblocked 8/12h 60 No. 6‒1¼″ screwsi
Blockedg 4/16h 160
Blockedf, g 4/12h 155
Blockedg 8/12h 70
Blockedg 6/12h 90
5/8 Unblockedf 7 115 6d cooler (17/8″ × 0.092″) or
Wallboard 0.120" nail, min. 3/8″ head, 13/4
long No. 16 gage
galv. staple, 11/2″ legs, 15/8″ long
4 145
Blockedg 7 145
4 175
Blockedg
Two-ply
Base ply: 9
Face ply: 7
250 Base ply-6d cooler (17/8″ ×
0.092″) or wallboard 13/4″ ×
0.120″ nail, min. 3/8″ head 15/8
16 gage galv. staple 15/8″ 16 gage
galv. staple Face ply-8d cooler
(23/8″ × 0.113″) or wallboard
0.120″ nail, min. 3/8
head, 23/8″ long No. 15 gage galv. staple,
21/4″ long
Unblocked 8/12h 70 No. 6‒1¼″ screwsi
Blockedg 8/12h 90

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a. These shear walls shall not be used to resist loads imposed by masonry or concrete walls (see Section 4.1.5 of AF&PA SDPWS). Values shown are for short-term loading due to wind or seismic loading. Walls resisting seismic loads shall be subject to the limitations in Section 12.2.1 of ASCE 7. Values shown shall be reduced 25 percent for normal loading.
b. Applies to fastening at studs, top and bottom plates and blocking.
c. Alternate fasteners are permitted to be used if their dimensions are not less than the specified dimensions. Drywall screws are permitted to substitute for the 5d (15/8″ × 0.086″), and 6d (17/8″ × 0.092″)(cooler) nails listed above, and No. 6 11/4 inch Type S or W screws for 6d (17/8″ × 0.092) (cooler) nails.
d. For properties of cooler nails, see ASTM C 514.
e. Except as noted, shear values are based on a maximum framing spacing of 16 inches on center.
f. Maximum framing spacing of 24 inches on center.
g. All edges are blocked, and edge fastening is provided at all supports and all panel edges.
h. First number denotes fastener spacing at the edges; second number denotes fastener spacing at intermediate framing members.
i. Screws are Type W or S.
j. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, measured outside the legs, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.
k. Staples for the attachment of gypsum lath and woven-wire lath shall have a minimum crown width of 3/4 inch, measured outside the legs.
The structural analysis and construction of wood elements and structures using load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods shall be in accordance with AF&PA; NDS and AF&PA; SDPWS.
In Seismic Design Category D, where shear design values exceed 490 pounds per foot (7154 N/m), all framing members receiving edge nailing from abutting panels shall not be less than a single 3-inch (76 mm) nominal member or two 2-inch (51 mm) nominal members fastened together in accordance with AF&PA; NDS to transfer the design shear value between framing members. Wood structural panel joint and sill plate nailing shall be staggered at all panel edges. See Sections 4.3.6.1 and 4.3.6.4.3 of AF&PA; SDPWS for sill plate size and anchorage requirements.
The requirements of this section are intended for conventional light-frame construction. Other methods are permitted to be used provided a satisfactory design is submitted showing compliance with other provisions of this code. Interior non-load-bearing partitions, ceilings and curtain walls of conventional light-frame construction are not subject to the limitations of this section. Alternatively, compliance with AF&PA; WFCM shall be permitted subject to the limitations therein and the limitations of this code.
When portions of a building of otherwise conventional construction exceed the limits of Section 2308.2, these portions and the supporting load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code. For the purposes of this section, the term "portions" shall mean parts of buildings containing volume and area, such as a room or a series of rooms.
Buildings are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 2308 for conventional light-frame construction, subject to the following limitations, and to further limitations of Sections 2308.11 and 2308.12:

1. Buildings shall be limited to a maximum of three stories above grade plane. For the purposes of this section, for buildings in Seismic Design Category D as determined in Section 1613, cripple stud walls shall be considered to be a story.

Exception: Solid blocked cripple walls not exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) in height need not be considered a story.

2. Maximum floor-to-floor height shall not exceed 11 feet, 7 inches (3531 mm). Bearing wall height shall not exceed a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm).

3. Loads as determined in Chapter 16 shall not exceed the following:

3.1. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 psf (718 N/m2) for combined roof and ceiling, exterior walls, floors and partitions.

Exceptions:

1. Subject to the limitations of Sections 2308.11.2 and 2308.12.2, stone or masonry veneer up to the lesser of 5 inches (127 mm) thick or 50 psf (2395 N/m2) and installed in accordance with Chapter 14 is permitted to a height of 30 feet (9144 mm) above a noncombustible foundation, with an additional 8 feet (2438 mm) permitted for gable ends.

2. Concrete or masonry fireplaces, heaters and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of this code.

3.2. Live loads shall not exceed 40 psf (1916 N/m2) for floors.

3.3. Ground snow loads shall not exceed 50 psf (2395 N/m2).

4. Wind speeds shall not exceed 100 miles per hour (mph)(44 m/s) (3-second gust).

Exception: Wind speeds shall not exceed 110 mph (48.4 m/s) (3-second gust) for buildings in Exposure Category A or B that are not located in a hurricane-prone region.

5. Roof trusses and rafters shall not span more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between points of vertical support.

6. The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame construction in this section shall not be permitted for Occupancy Category IV buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, or D, as determined in Section 1613.

7. Conventional light-frame construction is limited in irregular structures in Seismic Design Category D, as specified in Section 2308.12.6.
Where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph (3-second gust), the provisions of either AF&PA; WFCM or ICC 600 are permitted to be used.
Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section 1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.11. Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category D, as determined in Section 1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.12.
Buildings shall be provided with exterior and interior braced wall lines as described in Section 2308.9.3 and installed in accordance with Sections 2308.3.1 through 2308.3.4.
Spacing of braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) o.c. in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in each story.
Wind and seismic lateral forces shall be transferred from the roofs and floors to braced wall lines and from the braced wall lines in upper stories to the braced wall lines in the story below in accordance with this section. Braced wall line top plates shall be fastened to joists, rafters or full-depth blocking above in accordance with Table 2304.9.1, Items 11, 12, 15 or 19 as applicable based on the orientation of the joists or rafters to the braced wall line. Braced wall line bottom plates shall be connected to joists or blocking below in accordance with Table 2304.9.1, Item 6, or to foundations in accordance with Section 2308.3.3. At exterior gable end walls, braced wall panel sheathing in the top story shall be extended and fastened to roof framing where the spacing between parallel exterior braced wall lines is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Exception: Where roof trusses are used and are installed perpendicular to an exterior braced wall line, lateral forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm to the braced wall by blocking of the ends of the trusses or by other approved methods providing equivalent lateral force transfer. Blocking shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness and equal to the depth of the truss at the wall line and shall be fastened to the braced wall line top plate as specified in Table 2304.9.1, Item 11.
Where foundations are required by Section 2308.3.4, braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2308.6, except that such anchors shall be spaced at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. for structures over two stories above grade plane. The anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity are permitted.
Where all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.
Braced wall lines shall be supported by continuous foundations.

Exception: For structures with a maximum plan dimension not over 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations are required at exterior walls only.
Combining of engineered elements or systems and conventionally specified elements or systems is permitted subject to the following limits:
When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements exceeding the limits of Section 2308.2, these elements and the supporting load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code.
When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements or systems not described in Section 2308, these elements or systems shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of the nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions of this code and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventionally framed system.
Connections and fasteners used in conventional construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 2304.9.
Foundations and footings shall be as specified in Chapter 18. Foundation plates or sills resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall comply with Section 2304.3.1. Foundation plates or sills shall be bolted or anchored to the foundation with not less than 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) steel bolts or approved anchors spaced to provide equivalent anchorage as the steel bolts. Bolts shall be embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or masonry, and spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart. There shall be a minimum of two bolts or anchor straps per piece with one bolt or anchor strap located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than 4 inches (102 mm) from each end of each piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate.
Girders for single-story construction or girders supporting loads from a single floor shall not be less than 4 inches by 6 inches (102 mm by 152 mm) for spans 6 feet (1829 mm) or less, provided that girders are spaced not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) o.c. Spans for built-up 2-inch (51 mm) girders shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6. Other girders shall be designed to support the loads specified in this code. Girder end joints shall occur over supports. Where a girder is spliced over a support, an adequate tie shall be provided. The ends of beams or girders supported on masonry or concrete shall not have less than 3 inches (76 mm) of bearing.
Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.8(1) or 2308.8(2). For other grades and or species, refer to the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

TABLE 2308.8(1) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Sleeping Areas, Live Load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7 12-6 16-6 21-0 25-7
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8 12-0 15-7 19-0 22-0
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 11-10 15-7 19-10 23-0 11-6 14-7 17-9 20-7
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Hem-Fir SS 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2
Hem-Fir #1 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-2 18-6 21-6
Hem-Fir #2 11-0 14-6 18-6 22-6 11-0 14-4 17-6 20-4
Hem-Fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Southern Pine SS 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1 12-3 16-2 20-8 25-1
Southern Pine #1 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8 12-0 15-10 20-3 24-8
Southern Pine #2 11-10 15-7 19-10 24-2 11-10 15-7 18-7 21-9
Southern Pine #3 10-5 13-3 15-8 18-8 9-4 11-11 14-0 16-8
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7 11-7 15-3 19-5 23-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 11-3 14-11 19-0 23-0 11-3 14-7 17-9 20-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
16 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-0
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 21-4 10-8 13-6 16-5 19-1
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 10-9 14-1 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Hem-Fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-Fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 20-9 10-4 13-1 16-0 18-7
Hem-Fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 19-8 9-10 12-5 15-2 17-7
Hem-Fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
Southern Pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern Pine #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5 10-11 14-5 17-11 21-4
Southern Pine #2 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-1 10-5 13-6 16-1 18-10
Southern Pine #3 9-0 11-6 13-7 16-2 8-1 10-3 12-2 14-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-2 19-11 9-11 12-7 15-5 17-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 8-5 10-8 13-0 15-1 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6
19.2 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-10 10-8 14-1 18-0 21-0
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 10-4 13-7 16-9 19-6 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 10-1 12-10 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Hem-Fir SS 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-8 10-1 13-4 17-0 20-7
Hem-Fir #1 9-10 13-0 16-4 19-0 9-6 12-0 14-8 17-0
Hem-Fir #2 9-5 12-5 15-6 17-1 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-Fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4


(continued)

TABLE 2308.8(1)‒continued FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Sleeping Areas, Live Load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
19.2 Southern Pine SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Southern Pine #1 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1 10-4 13-7 16-4 19-6
Southern Pine #2 10-1 13-4 16-5 19-3 9-6 12-4 14-8 17-2
Southern Pine #3 8-3 10-6 12-5 14-9 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 9-10 13-0 16-7 20-2 9-10 13-0 16-7 19-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 9-8 12-9 15-8 18-3 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 7-8 9-9 11-10 13-9 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
24 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 9-11 13-1 16-8 20-3 9-11 13-1 16-2 18-9
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 9-7 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
Hem-Fir SS 9-4 12-4 15-9 19-2 9-4 12-4 15-9 18-5
Hem-Fir #1 9-2 12-0 14-8 17-0 8-6 10-9 13-1 15-2
Hem-Fir #2 8-9 11-4 13-10 16-1 8-0 10-2 12-5 14-4
Hem-Fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0
Southern Pine SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11
Southern Pine #1 9-7 12-7 16-1 19-6 9-7 12-4 14-7 17-5
Southern Pine #2 9-4 12-4 14-8 17-2 8-6 11-0 13-1 15-5
Southern Pine #3 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2 6-7 8-5 9-11 11-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-0 17-5
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 8-11 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m


TABLE 2308.8(2) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Living Areas, Live Load = 40 psf, L/Δ= 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3 11-4 15-0 19-1 23-3
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-0 10-11 14-2 17-4 20-1
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 10-9 14-2 17-9 20-7 10-6 13-3 16-3 18-10
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Hem-Fir SS 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-11
Hem-Fir #1 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 16-11 19-7
Hem-Fir #2 10-0 13-2 16-10 20-4 10-0 13-1 16-0 18-6
Hem-Fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Southern Pine SS 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10 11-2 14-8 18-9 22-10
Southern Pine #1 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5 10-11 14-5 18-5 22-5
Southern Pine #2 10-9 14-2 18-0 21-9 10-9 14-2 16-11 19-10
Southern Pine #3 9-4 11-11 14-0 16-8 8-6 10-10 12-10 15-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6 10-6 13-10 17-8 21-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 10-3 13-6 17-3 20-7 10-3 13-3 16-3 18-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
16 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-1 10-4 13-7 17-4 21-0
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 9-11 13-1 16-5 19-1 9-8 12-4 15-0 17-5
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 9-9 12-7 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Hem-Fir SS 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11 9-9 12-10 16-5 19-11
Hem-Fir #1 9-6 12-7 16-0 18-7 9-6 12-0 14-8 17-0
Hem-Fir #2 9-1 12-0 15-2 17-7 8-11 11-4 13-10 16-1
Hem-Fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
Southern Pine SS 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9 10-2 13-4 17-0 20-9
Southern Pine #1 9-11 13-1 16-9 20-4 9-11 13-1 16-4 19-6
Southern Pine #2 9-9 12-10 16-1 18-10 9-6 12-4 14-8 17-2
Southern Pine #3 8-1 10-3 12-2 14-6 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 9-4 12-3 15-5 17-10 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 7-6 9-6 11-8 13-6 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4
19.2 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-10 9-8 12-10 16-4 19-2
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 9-4 12-4 15-0 17-5 8-10 11-3 13-8 15-11
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 9-1 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
Hem-Fir SS 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9 9-2 12-1 15-5 18-9
Hem-Fir #1 9-0 11-10 14-8 17-0 8-8 10-11 13-4 15-6
Hem-Fir #2 8-7 11-3 13-10 16-1 8-2 10-4 12-8 14-8
Hem-Fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3
Southern Pine SS 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6 9-6 12-7 16-0 19-6
Southern Pine #1 9-4 12-4 15-9 19-2 9-4 12-4 14-11 17-9
Southern Pine #2 9-2 12 -1 14-8 17-2 8-8 11-3 13-5 15-8
Southern Pine #3 7-4 9-5 11-1 13-2 6-9 8-7 10-1 12-1
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 9-0 11-10 15-1 18-4 9-0 11-10 15-1 17-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 8-9 11-6 14-1 16-3 8-3 10-6 12-10 14-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 6-10 8-8 10-7 12-4 6-3 7-11 9-8 11-3


(continued)

TABLE 2308.8(2)‒continued FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Living Areas, Live Load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)

JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
24 Douglas Fir-Larch SS 9-0 11-11 15-2 18-5 9-0 11-11 14-9 17-1
Douglas Fir-Larch #1 8-8 11-0 13-5 15-7 7-11 10-0 12-3 14-3
Douglas Fir-Larch #2 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Douglas Fir-Larch #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
Hem-Fir SS 8-6 11-3 14-4 17-5 8-6 11-3 14-4 16-10a
Hem-Fir #1 8-4 10-9 13-1 15-2 7-9 9-9 11-11 13-10
Hem-Fir #2 7-11 10-2 12-5 14-4 7-4 9-3 11-4 13-1
Hem-Fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1
Southern Pine SS 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-1 8-10 11-8 14-11 18-1
Southern Pine #1 8-8 11-5 14-7 17-5 8-8 11-3 13-4 15-11
Southern Pine #2 8-6 11-0 13-1 15-5 7-9 10-0 12-0 14-0
Southern Pine #3 6-7 8-5 9-11 11-10 6-0 7-8 9-1 10-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir SS 8-4 11-0 14-0 17-0 8-4 11-0 13-8 15-11
Spruce-Pine-Fir #1 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir #2 8-1 10-3 12-7 14-7 7-5 9-5 11-6 13-4
Spruce-Pine-Fir #3 6-2 7-9 9-6 11-0 5-7 7-1 8-8 10-1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2.
a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
Except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjoining stud, the ends of each joist shall not have less than 11/2inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry.
Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid blocking shall not be less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and the full depth of the joist. Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span. Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner. Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are not permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.
Trimmer and header joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Bearing partiions parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders, doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.
Floor, attic and roof framing with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio greater than or equal to 5:1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the framing member exceeds 6:1, there shall be one line of bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25 mm by 76 mm) lumber, double nailed at each end, of equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise provided.
Structural floor sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section 2304.7.1.
For under-floor ventilation, see Section 1203.3.
The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.1 except that utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., or support more than a roof and ceiling, or exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls. Studs shall be continuous from a support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Table 2308.9.5.

TABLE 2308.9.1 SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDS

STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Supporting roof and ceiling only Supporting one floor, roof and ceiling Supporting two floors, roof and ceiling Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Spacing
(inches)
Spacing (inches)
2 × 3b 10 16
2 × 4 10 24 16 14 24
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 20 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by an analysis.
b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
Studs shall be placed with their wide dimension perpendicular to the wall. Not less than three studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.

Exception: At corners, two studs are permitted, provided wood spacers or backup cleats of 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) Type M "Exterior Glue" particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or other approved devices that will serve as an adequate backing for the attachment of facing materials are used. Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved, wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be used unless specifically approved for such use.
Bearing and exterior wall studs shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by 6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick (0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).
Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch (610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (76 mm by 102 mm) members and where the floor joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.
In nonbearing walls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions. The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and equal in size to the plate or by 1/2-inch by 11/2-inch (12.7 mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.
Studs shall have full bearing on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness having a width not less than that of the wall studs.
Braced wall lines shall consist of braced wall panels that meet the requirements for location, type and amount of bracing as shown in Figure 2308.9.3, specified in Table 2308.9.3(1), and are in line or offset from each other by not more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Braced wall panels shall start not more than 121/2 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Construction of braced wall panels shall be by one of the following methods:

1. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) continuous diagonal braces let into top and bottom plates and intervening studs, placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees (1.0 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal and attached to the framing in conformance with Table 2304.9.1.

2. Wood boards of 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) net minimum thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c.

3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for 16-inch (406 mm) or 24-inch (610 mm) stud spacing in accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3).

4. Fiberboard sheathing panels not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick applied vertically or horizontally on studs spaced not over 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. where installed with fasteners in accordance with Section 2306.6 and Table 2306.6.

5. Gypsum board [sheathing 1/2-inch-thick (12.7 mm) by 4-feet-wide (1219 mm) wallboard or veneer base] on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. and nailed at 7 inches (178 mm) o.c. with nails as required by Table 2306.7.

6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels where installed in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(4).

7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. installed in accordance with Section 2510.

8. Hardboard panel siding where installed in accordance with Section 2303.1.6 and Table 2308.9.3(5).

For cripple wall bracing, see Section 2308.9.4.1. For Methods 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, each panel must be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) apart and covering two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) apart. For Method 5, each panel must be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a panel and 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces. All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking or other framing equal in size to the studding except where waived by the installation requirements for the specific sheathing materials. Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing and top plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance with Section 2308.3.2. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced wall panels.

TABLE 2308.9.3(1) BRACED WALL PANELSa

SEISMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY
CONDITION CONSTRUCTION METHODSb, c BRACED PANEL LOCATION
AND LENGTHd
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A and B One story, top of two or
three story
X X X X X X X X Located in accordance with Section
2308.9.3 and not more than
25 feet on center.
First story of two story or
second story of three story
X X X X X X X X
First story of three story X X X Xe X X X
C One story or top of two
story
X X X X X X X Located in accordance with Section
2308.9.3 and not more than
25 feet on center.
First story of two story X X X Xe X X X Located in accordance with Section
2308.9.3 and not more than
25 feet on center, but total
length shall not be less than 25%
of building lengthf.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. This table specifies minimum requirements for braced panels that form interior or exterior braced wall lines.
b. See Section 2308.9.3 for full description.
c. See Sections 2308.9.3.1 and 2308.9.3.2 for alternative braced panel requirements.
d. Building length is the dimension parallel to the braced wall length.
e. Gypsum wallboard applied to framing supports that are spaced at 16 inches on center.
f. The required lengths shall be doubled for gypsum board applied to only one face of a braced wall panel.


TABLE 2308.9.3(2) EXPOSED PLYWOOD PANEL SIDING

MINIMUM THICKNESSa
(inch)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF PLIES STUD SPACING
(inches)
Plywood siding applied directly to studs or over sheathing
3/8 3 16b
1/2 4 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Thickness of grooved panels is measured at bottom of grooves.
b. Spans are permitted to be 24 inches if plywood siding applied with face grain perpendicular to studs or over one of the following: (1) 1-inch board sheathing, (2) 7/16 -inch wood structural panel sheathing or (3) 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing with strength axis (which is the long direction of the panel unless otherwise marked) of sheathing perpendicular to studs.


TABLE 2308.9.3(3) WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHINGb (Not Exposed to the Weather, Strength Axis Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs Except as Indicated Below)

MINIMUM
THICKNESS
(inch)
PANEL SPAN
RATING
STUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed to studs Nailable sheathing
Sheathing parallel to studs Sheathing perpendicular to
studs
3/8,15/32,1/2 16/0, 20/0, 24/0, 32/16
Wall‒24″ o.c.
24 16 24
7/16,15/32,1/2 24/0, 24/16, 32/16
Wall‒24″ o.c.
24 24a 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Plywood shall consist of four or more plies.
b. Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required except as specified in Sections 2306.3 and 2308.12.4.


TABLE 2308.9.3(4) ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING (Not Exposed to the Weather, Long Dimension of the Panel Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs)

GRADE THICKNESS
(inch)
STUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed
to studs
Sheathing under coverings specified in Section 2308.9.3
parallel or perpendicular to studs
M-S "Exterior Glue"
and M-2 "Exterior Glue"
3/8 16
1/2 16 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


TABLE 2308.9.3(5) HARDBOARD SIDING

SIDING MINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS
(inch)
2 × 4 FRAMING MAXIMUM SPACING NAIL SIZEa, b, d NAIL SPACING
General