Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+nyc Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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This chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of masonry.
Masonry shall comply with the provisions of one of the following design methods in this chapter as well as the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2104. Masonry designed by the allowable stress design provisions of Section 2101.2.1, the strength design provisions of Section 2101.2.2 or the prestressed masonry provisions of Section 2101.2.3 shall comply with Section 2105 for quality assurance.
Masonry designed by the allowable stress design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2107.
Masonry designed by the strength design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2108, except that autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2106 of this code, and Chapter 1 and Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
Prestressed masonry shall be designed in accordance with Chapters 1 and 4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 and Section 2106 of this code. Special inspection during construction shall be provided as set forth in Section 1704.5.
Masonry designed by the empirical design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2109 of this code or Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
Glass masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2110 of this code or with the requirements of Chapter 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
Masonry veneer shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 14 of this code or Chapter 6 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
The construction documents shall show all of the items required by this code including the following:

1. Specified size, grade, type and location of reinforcement, anchors and wall ties.

2. Reinforcing bars to be welded and welding procedure.

3. Size and location of structural elements.

4. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature and moisture.

5. Specified compressive strength of masonry at stated ages or stages of construction for which masonry is designed, except where specifically exempted by this code.

6. Details of anchorage of masonry to structural members, including the type, size and location of connectors.

7. The minimum level of testing and inspection as defined in Chapter 17, or an itemized testing and inspection program that meets or exceeds the requirements of Chapter 17.
The construction documents shall describe in sufficient detail the location, size and construction of masonry fireplaces. The thickness and characteristics of materials and the clearances from walls, partitions and ceilings shall be clearly indicated. The masonry fireplace shall comply with the provisions of Section 2111.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal reinforcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mortar.

ANCHOR. Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to its structural support.

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamental hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.

AREA.

Bedded. The area of the surface of a masonry unit that is in contact with mortar in the plane of the joint.

Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under consideration.

Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on out-to-out specified dimensions.

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). Low-density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386.

BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

BOND REINFORCING. The adhesion between steel reinforcement and mortar or grout.

BRICK.

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A masonry unit made of sand and lime.

Clay or shale. A masonry unit made of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism while in the plastic state and burned or fired in a kiln.

Concrete. A masonry unit having the approximate shape of a rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in a hardened cementitious matrix.

BUTTRESS. A projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith to provide lateral stability.

CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from portland cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on or in buildings or structures.

CELL. A void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11/2 square inches (967 mm2).

CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more flues used to remove hot gases from burning fuel, refuse, or from industrial processes to the outside atmosphere.

CHIMNEY TYPES.

High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.3).

Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet.

Masonry type. A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units or stones.

Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases between 1,000ºF (538ºC) and 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.2).

CLEANOUT. An opening to the bottom of a grout space of sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris.

COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry or between masonry and backup construction that is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. Maximum compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional area of masonry, determined by the testing of masonry prisms or a function of individual masonry units, mortar and grout.

CONNECTOR. A mechanical device for securing two or more pieces, parts or members together, including anchors, wall ties and fasteners.

COVER. Distance between surface of reinforcing bar and edge of member.

DECORATIVE SHROUD. A listed partial noncombustible‡ enclosure for aesthetic purposes that is installed at the termination of a venting system that surrounds or conceals the chimney or vent cap.

DIMENSIONS.

Actual. The measured dimension of a masonry unit or element.

Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.

Specified. The dimensions specified for the manufacture or construction of masonry, masonry units, joints or any other component of a structure.

FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.

FLUE. A passageway within a chimney or vent through which gaseous combustion products pass.

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passage(s) within an appliance through which combustion products pass from the combustion chamber of the appliance to the draft hood inlet opening on an appliance equipped with a draft hood or to the outlet of the appliance on an appliance not equipped with a draft hood.

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in appliance flues or heat exchangers.

FLUE LINER (LINING). A system or material used to form the inside surface of a flue in a chimney or vent, for the purpose of protecting the surrounding structure from the effects of combustion products and for conveying combustion products without leakage into the atmosphere.

FOUNDATION PIER. An isolated vertical foundation member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its thickness.

GROUT. A plastic mixture of cementitious materials, aggregates, and water, with or without admixtures, initially produced to pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents during placement, or the equivalent of such mixtures, conforming to ASTM C 476.

GROUTED MASONRY.

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which certain designated cells of hollow units are continuously filled with grout.

Grouted multi-wythe masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which the space between the wythes is solidly or periodically filled with grout.

HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry units are laid.

HEIGHT, WALLS. The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other immediate support of such wall to the top of the wall.

MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted method of joining.

Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various sized rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar.

Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone of equal height for each course, although different courses shall be permitted to be of varying height.

Glass unit masonry. Masonry‡ composed of glass units bonded by mortar.

Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.

Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone set without continuous joints and laid up without drawn patterns. When composed of material cut into modular heights, discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are discernible.

Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to resist forces.

Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of masonry is taken into consideration and the resistance of the reinforcing steel, if present, is neglected.

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103.

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, shale, fired‡ clay or mixtures thereof.

s Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

MORTAR. A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other structural units.

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass fiber reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or organic modifiers and water.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads.

PRISM. An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.

RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones.

Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded.

Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones laid without regularity of coursing but well–bonded and fitted together to form well-divided joints.

Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well-bonded.

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

SHEAR WALL.

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.1.

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

SHELL. The outer portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents.

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY, c. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry used in construction by the construction documents, and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the quantity c is under the radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per square inch (psi) (Mpa).

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running bond.

STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried or cast stone units bonded by mortar.

Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces and bonded by mortar.

Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of irregular- shaped units bonded by mortar.

STRENGTH.

Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor.

Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with these provisions before application of any strength-reduction factors.

Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads.

THIN-BED MORTAR. Mortar for use in construction of AAC unit masonry with joints 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) or less.

TIE, LATERAL. Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement.

TIE, WALL. A connector that connects wythes of masonry walls together.

TILE. A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay or other ceramic materials, called the body of the tile, having either a "glazed" or "unglazed" face and fired above red heat in the course of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high enough to produce specific physical properties and characteristics.

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, and having parallel cells.

WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space.

Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.

Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units bonded together, one forming the backup and the other forming the facing elements.

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall.‡ A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the facing and backing of the wall are bonded together with masonry units.

Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof line.

WEB. An interior solid portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.

NOTATIONS.

db = Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
Fs = Allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement, psi (MPa).
fr = Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).
AAC = Specified compressive strength of AAC masonry, the minimum compressive strength for a class of AAC masonry as specified in ASTM C 1386, psi (MPa).
m = Specified compressive strength of masonry at age of 28 days, psi (MPa).
mi = Specified compressive strength of masonry at the time of prestress transfer, psi (MPa).
K = The lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing between adjacent reinforcement, or five times db, inches (mm).
Ls = Distance between supports, inches (mm).
ld = Required development length or lap length of reinforcement, inches (mm).
P = The applied load at failure, pounds (N).
St = Thickness of the test specimen measured parallel to the direction of load, inches (mm).
Sw = Width of the test specimen measured parallel to the loading cylinder, inches (mm).
Concrete masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 55 for concrete brick; ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick; ASTM C 90 for load-bearing concrete masonry units; ASTM C 129 for nonload-bearing concrete masonry units or ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units.
Clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 34 for structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 56 for structural clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 62 for building brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 1088 for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C 126 for ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and solid masonry units; ASTM C 212 for structural clay facing tile; ASTM C 216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 652 for hollow brick (hollow masonry units made from clay or shale) and ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick or ASTM C 1405 for glazed brick (single-fired solid brick units).

Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not be required to meet the compressive strength specifications. The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and shall comply with the requirements of Table 602.
AAC masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 1386 for the strength class specified.
Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 503 for marble building stone (exterior): ASTM C 568 for limestone building stone; ASTM C 615 for granite building stone; ASTM C 616 for sandstone building stone or ASTM C 629 for slate building stone.
Ceramic tile shall be as defined in, and shall conform to the requirements of, ANSI A137.1.
Hollow glass units shall be partially evacuated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/16 inch (4.8 mm). Solid glass-block units shall be provided when required. The surfaces of units intended to be in contact with mortar shall be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. Reclaimed units shall not be used.
Second-hand masonry units shall not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before reuse.

Exception: Second-hand masonry units need not conform to the requirements for new units when their reuse is to comply with historic restoration standards or requirements of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission or the New York State Historic Preservation Office.
Mortar for use in masonry construction shall conform to ASTM C 270 and Articles 2.1 and 2.6A of TMS 602/ACI 530/ASCE 6, except for mortars listed in Sections 2103.9, 2103.10, and 2103.11 of this code. Type S or N mortar conforming to ASTM C 270 shall be used for glass unit masonry.
Surface-bonding mortar shall comply with ASTM C 887. Surface bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.
Portland cement mortars for installing ceramic wall and floor tile shall comply with ANSI A108.1A and ANSI A108.1B and be of the compositions indicated in Table 2103.10.

TABLE 2103.10 CERAMIC TILE MORTAR COMPOSITIONS

LOCATION MORTAR COMPOSITION
Walls Scratchcoat 1 cement; 1/5 hydrated lime;
4 dry or 5 damp sand
Setting bed and
leveling coat
1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
5 damp sand to 1 cement
1 hydrated lime, 7 damp sand
Floors Setting bed 1 cement; 1/10 hydrated lime;
5 dry or 6 damp sand; or
1 cement; 5 dry or 6 damp sand
Ceilings Scratchcoat and
sand bed
1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
21/2 dry sand or 3 damp sand
Premixed prepared Portland cement mortars, which require only the addition of water and are used in the installation of ceramic tile, shall comply with ANSI A118.1. The shear bond strength for tile set in such mortar shall be as required in accordance with ANSI A118.1. Tile set in dry-set Portland cement mortar shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.5.
Latex-modified Portland cement thin-set mortars in which latex is added to dry-set mortar as a replacement for all or part of the gauging water that are used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.4. Tile set in latex-modified Portland cement shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.5.
Ceramic tile set and grouted with chemical-resistant epoxy shall comply with ANSI A118.3. Tile set and grouted with epoxy shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.6.
Chemical-resistant furan mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.5. Tile set and grouted with furan shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.8.
Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.8. Tile set and grouted with modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.9.
Water-resistant organic adhesives used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A136.1. The shear bond strength after water immersion shall not be less than 40 psi (275 kPa) for Type I adhesive, and not less than 20 psi (138 kPa) for Type II adhesive, when tested in accordance with ANSI A136.1. Tile set in organic adhesives shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.4.
Portland cement grouts used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.6. Portland cement grouts for tile work shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.10.
Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1C.1 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6. Mortar used for the leveling courses of AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1C.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Grout shall comply with Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Article 2.4 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6. Where unidentified reinforcement is approved for use, not less than three tension and three bending tests shall be made on representative specimens of the reinforcement from each shipment and grade of reinforcing steel proposed for use in the work.
Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2104.1.1 through 2104.5 and with TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Masonry, except masonry veneer, shall be constructed within the tolerances specified in TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Placement of mortar, grout and of clay, concrete, glass, and AAC masonry units shall comply with TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Installation of wall ties shall comply with TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Chases and recesses shall be constructed as masonry units are laid. Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on lintels.
The design of lintels shall be in accordance with the masonry design provisions of either Section 2107 or 2108. Minimum length of end support shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
Masonry shall not be sup-ported on wood girders or other forms of wood construction except as permitted in Section 2304.12.
Corbeled masonry shall comply with the requirements of Section 1.12 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
Unless structural support and anchorage are provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle one-third of the supporting wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a structural frame of approved noncombustible material anchored in a manner approved by the commissioner.
The cold weather construction provisions of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6 Article 1.8C shall be implemented when either the ambient temperature falls below 40°F (4°C) or the temperature of masonry units is below 40°F (4°C).
No salt or other chemicals for the purpose of lowering the freezing temperature of water shall be permitted in the mortar mix.
The hot weather construction provisions of TMS 602/ACI 530. 1/ASCE 6 Article 1.8D shall be implemented when the temperature exceeds 100°F (37.8°C), or 90°F (32.2°C) with a wind-velocity greater than 8 mph (12.9 km/hr).
Brick (clay or shale) at the time of laying shall require wetting if the unit’s initial rate of water absorption exceeds 21.42 grams per 30 square inches (19 355 mm2) per minute or 0.025 ounce psi (1 g/645 mm2), as determined by ASTM C 67.
In accordance with TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6 Section 3.3E, the contractor shall design, provide, and install bracing that will assure stability of all masonry during construction. The contractor shall keep a bracing plan on site during all masonry construction. Bracing plans shall consider wind loads, initial and intermediate masonry strengths, and the contractor’s ability to evacuate the site. Construction bracing for walls within a distance less than their height from adjoining properties or other unprotected and uncontrolled areas shall be designed for code prescribed wind loads and the bracing plan shall be signed and sealed by a licensed professional engineer. Construction bracing for walls may be designed using reduced loading in accordance with Section 1618. Such reduced loading shall only be permitted when an action plan meeting the requirements of Section 1618.3 is provided and maintained at the site.
Conduits, pipes and sleeves of any material not harmful to masonry are permitted to be installed in the masonry with approval of the registered design professional of record.
At a minimum, parapet walls shall meet the following requirements:
All cells in the hollow masonry units and all joints in solid, cavity, or masonry-bonded hollow wall construction shall be filled solid. All corners of masonry parapet walls shall be reinforced with joint reinforcement or its equivalent at vertical intervals not greater than 12 inches (305 mm). Such reinforcement shall extend around the corner for at least 4 feet (1219 mm) in both directions, and splices shall be lapped at least 6 inches (152 mm).
Parapets of buildings taller than 35 feet (10 668 mm) shall be reinforced vertically and shall be anchored to the roof and floors that provide lateral support for the wall in accordance with Section 1604.8.2.
Concentrated loads shall be supported upon construction of solid masonry, concrete, or masonry of hollow units with cells filled with mortar, grout, or concrete. In addition, construction supporting concentrated loads shall be of sufficient height to distribute safely the loads to the wall or column, or other adequate provisions shall be made to distribute the loads.
Solid construction for support under joists shall be at least 21/4 inches (57 mm) in height, and joists supported on such construction shall extend into the masonry at least 3 inches (76 mm).
Solid construction for support under beams, girders, or other concentrated loads shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) in height, and the bearing of beams shall extend into the masonry at least 4 inches (102 mm).
Isolated masonry piers shall be bonded as required for solid walls of the same thickness and shall be provided with adequate means for distributing the load at the top of the pier.
An existing masonry wall may be used in the alteration or extension of a building provided that it meets the requirements of this code.
Existing walls of masonry units that are structurally sound, but that are of insufficient thickness when increased in height, may be strengthened by an addition of similar masonry units laid in Type M or S mortar. The foundations and lateral support shall be equivalent to those required for newly constructed walls under similar conditions. All such linings shall be thoroughly bonded into existing masonry by toothings to assure combined action of wall and lining. Toothings shall be distributed uniformly throughout the wall, and shall aggregate in vertical cross-sectional area at least 15 percent of the total surface area of the lining. Stresses in the masonry under the new conditions shall not exceed the allowable stresses.
All nonparticipating‡ masonry walls and veneers shall be constructed with adequate depth and width of isolation joints to prevent masonry distress induced by deflections, drifts, shortening, expansion, or other similar movements in the plane of the wall.
Mortar shall not be substituted for grout where grout is specified on the construction documents.
A quality assurance program shall be used to ensure that the constructed masonry is in compliance with the construction documents. The quality assurance program shall comply with the inspection and testing requirements of Chapter 17.
Compressive strength of masonry shall be considered satisfactory if the compressive strength of each masonry wythe and grouted collar joint equals or exceeds the value of m for clay and concrete masonry and AAC for AAC masonry. For partially grouted clay and concrete masonry, the compressive strength of both the grouted and ungrouted masonry shall equal or exceed the applicable M. At the time of prestress, the compressive strength of the masonry shall equal or exceed mi, which shall be less than or equal to m.‡
The compressive strength for each wythe shall be determined by the unit strength method or by the prism test method as specified herein.
The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the units and the type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2.2.1.1, provided:

1. Units are sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM C 67 to verify compliance with ASTM C 62, ASTM C 216 or ASTM C 652.

2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).

3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds m but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2.2.1.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY MASONRY

NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
CLAY MASONRY UNITS (psi)
NET AREA
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF
MASONRY (psi)
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
1,700 2,100 1,000
3,350 4,150 1,500
4,950 6,200 2,000
6,600 8,250 2,500
8,250 10,300 3,000
9,900 3,500
13,200 4,000

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa
The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the unit and type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2.2.1.2, provided:

1. Units conform to ASTM C 55 or ASTM C 90 and are sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM C 140.

2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).

3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals m but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2.2.1.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY

NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (psi)
NET AREA
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF
MASONRY (psi)a
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
1,250 1,300 1,000
1,900 2,150 1,500
2,800 3,050 2,000
3,750 4,050 2,500
4,800 5,250 3,000

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 mPa.
a. For units less than 4 inches in height, 85 percent of the values listed.
The compressive strength of AAC masonry shall be based on the strength of the AAC masonry unit only and the following shall be met:

1. Units conform to ASTM C 1386.

2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).

3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530. 1/ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f'’AAC but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.
The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined by the prism test method:

1. Where specified in the construction documents.

2. Where masonry does not meet the requirements for application of the unit strength method in Section 2105.2.2.1.
A prism test shall consist of three prisms constructed and tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
When approved by the commissioner acceptance of masonry that does not meet the requirements of Section 2105.2.2.1 or 2105.2.2.2 shall be permitted to be based on tests of prisms cut from the masonry construction in accordance with Sections 2105.3.1, 2105.3.2 and 2105.3.3.
A set of three masonry prisms that are at least 28 days old shall be saw cut from the masonry for each 5,000 square feet (465 m2) of the wall area that is in question but not less than one set of three masonry prisms for the project. The length, width and height dimensions of the prisms shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C 1314. Transporting, preparation and testing of prisms shall be in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
The compressive strength of prisms shall be the value calculated in accordance ASTM C 1314, except that the net cross-sectional area of the prism shall be based on the net mortar bedded area.
Compliance with the requirement for the specified compressive strength of masonry, m, shall be considered satisfied provided the modified compressive strength equals or exceeds the specified m. Additional testing of specimens cut from locations in question shall be permitted.
Submittals required by TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6 Section 1.5 shall be sent to the applicant of record for review prior to use of the materials or methods of construction. In addition the contractor shall submit a Material Storage and Protection Plan.
Masonry structures and components shall comply with the requirements in Section 1.17‡ of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 depending on the structure’s seismic design category as determined in Section 1613 of this code. All masonry walls, unless isolated on three edges from in-plane motion of the basic structural systems, shall be considered to be part of the seismic-force-resisting system.
Masonry walls that are not part of the lateral-force-resisting‡ system shall be isolated from the structure so that the vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors between these elements and the structure shall be designed to accommodate the design story drift.
The design of masonry structures using allowable stress design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 2, except Section 2.1.2.1 and 2.1.3.3 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The text of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 shall be modified by Sections 2107.2 through 2107.5 of this code.
Delete Section 2.1.2.1.
Modify Section 2.1.9.7.1.1 as follows:

2.1.7.1.1 The minimum length of lap splices for reinforcing bars in tension or compression, ld, shall be



but not less than 12 inches (305 mm). In no case shall the length of the lapped splice be less than 40 bar diameters.

where:

db = Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
fs = Computed stress in reinforcement due to design loads, psi (MPa).


In regions of moment where the design tensile stresses in the reinforcement are greater than 80 percent of the allowable steel tension stress, Fs, the lap length of splices shall be increased not less than 50 percent of the minimum required length. Other equivalent means of stress transfer to accomplish the same 50 percent increase shall be permitted. Where epoxy coated bars are used, lap length shall be increased by 50 percent.
Modify Section 2.1.9.7 as follows:

2.1.9.7 Splices of reinforcement. Lap splices, welded splices or mechanical splices are permitted in accordance with the provisions of this section. All welding shall conform to AWS D1.4. Welded splices shall be of ASTM A 706 steel reinforcement. Reinforcement larger than No. 9 (M #29) shall be spliced using mechanical connections in accordance with Section 2.1.9.7.3.
Add the following to Chapter 2:

2.3.6 Maximum bar size. The bar diameter shall not exceed one-eighth of the nominal wall thickness and shall not exceed one-quarter of the least dimension of the cell, course or collar joint in which it is placed.
The design of masonry structures using strength design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 3 of TMS 402/ ACI 530/ASCE 5, except as modified by Sections 2108.2 through 2108.3 of this code.

Exception: AAC masonry shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 1 and Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
Modify the second paragraph of Section 3.3.3.3 as follows:
The required development length of reinforcement shall be determined by Equation (3-16), but shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) and need not be greater than 72 db.
Modify items (b) and (c) of Section 3.3.3.4 as follows:

3.3.3.4 (b). A welded splice shall have the bars butted and welded to develop at least 125 percent of the yield strength, fy, of the bar in tension or compression, as required. Welded splices shall be of ASTM A 706 steel reinforcement. Welded splices shall not be permitted in plastic hinge zones of intermediate or special reinforced walls or special moment frames of masonry.

3.3.3.4 (c). Mechanical splices shall be classified as Type 1 or 2 according to Section 21.2.6.1 of ACI 318. Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be used within a plastic hinge zone or within a beam-column joint of intermediate or special reinforced masonry shear walls or special moment frames. Type 2 mechanical splices are permitted in any location within a member.
Empirically designed masonry shall conform to this chapter or Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.
The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as noted in Section 5.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The use of dry-stacked, surface- bonded masonry shall be prohibited in Occupancy Category IV structures. In buildings that exceed one or more of the limitations of Section 5.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, masonry shall be designed in accordance with the engineered design provisions of Section 2101.2.1, 2101.2.2 or 2101.2.3 of this code.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall be of adequate strength and proportions to support all superimposed loads without exceeding the allowable stresses listed in Table 2109.2.1. Allowable stresses not specified in Table 2109.2.1 shall comply with the requirements of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

TABLE 2109.2.1‡ ALLOWABLE STRESS GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE-BONDED CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS

DESCRIPTION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
STRESS (psi)
Compression standard block 45
Flexural tension
Horizontal span 30
Vertical span 18
Shear 10

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 mPa.
Construction of dry-stacked, surface-bonded masonry walls, including stacking and leveling of units, mixing and application of mortar and curing and protection shall comply with ASTM C 946.
Minimum thickness requirements shall be based on nominal dimensions of masonry.
The thickness of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Section 2109.5.
The minimum thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm) where the height floor to floor does not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm), the floor live load does not exceed 60 pounds per square feet (psf) (0.156 kg/m2), and the roof is designed so that the dead load imparts no lateral thrust to the wall. Bearing walls of one-story buildings shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick. However, the overall thickness of cavity or masonry-bonded hollow walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), including cavity.
Masonry walls above roof level, 12 feet (3658 mm) or less in height, enclosing stairways, machinery rooms, shafts, or penthouses, may be up to 8 inches (203 mm) thick and shall be considered as neither increasing the height, nor requiring any increase in the thickness of the wall below.
The minimum thickness for partitions shall be as follows:

TABLE 2109.5.3 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF MASONRY PARTITIONS

HEIGHT OF WALLS THICKNESS
(inches)‡
8 ft. and under 2
Over 8 ft. to 12 ft 3
Over 12 ft. to 16 ft 4
Over 16 ft. to 20 ft 6
Over 20 ft. to 24 ft. 8

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
All concrete framed buildings to be constructed over 35 feet (10 668 mm) in height (as measured from adjoining grade to the main roof level), whose exterior wythe are of cavity wall construction with steel lintels, shall have horizontal joints in the exterior wythe to prevent masonry distress induced by vertical shortening of the structural frame.
Unless substantiated as indicated by Section 2109.7.2, horizontal joints shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) minimum thickness, with neoprene, polyethylene, or urethane gasket or equivalent joint filler filling the entire joint, except for a recess from the toe of the lintel angle to the exterior of the facing brick, to provide space for caulking. These joints shall be placed at each floor.
The applicant of record shall submit an engineering analysis establishing that proposed building horizontal joints spaced further apart than in Section 2109.7.1 are sufficient to provide for the effects of vertical shortening of the structural frame.
Glass unit masonry construction shall comply with Chapter 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 and this section.
Solid or hollow approved glass block shall not be used in firewalls, party walls, fire barriers or fire partitions, or for load-bearing construction. Such blocks shall be erected with mortar and reinforcement in metal channel-type frames, structural frames, masonry or concrete recesses, embedded panel anchors as provided for both exterior and interior walls or other approved joint materials. Wood strip framing shall not be used in walls required to have a fire-resistance rating by other provisions of this code.

Exception:

1. Glass block assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be permitted as opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 in fire barriers, fire partitions and smoke barriers that have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour and do not enclose exit stairways or exit passageways.

2. Glass block assemblies as permitted in Section 404.6, Exception 2.
A masonry fireplace is a fireplace constructed of concrete or masonry. Masonry fireplaces shall be constructed in accordance with this section, Table 2111.1 andFigure 2111.1.All masonry fireplaces shall be installed, altered and maintained in buildings in conformity with the applicable provisions of the New York City Air Pollution Control Code and no new masonry fireplaces shall be permitted except those that burn the types of fuel allowed by section 24-149.2 of such code.

*Section 2111.1 was amended by Local Law 38 of 2015. This law has an effective date of May 6, 2016.

TABLE 2111.1 SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYSa

ITEM LETTER REQUIREMENTS SECTION
Hearth and hearth extension thickness A 4-inch minimum thickness for hearth, 2-inch minimum thickness for hearth extension. 2111.9
Hearth extension (each side of opening) B 8 inches for fireplace opening less than 6 square feet. 12 inches for fireplace opening greater than or equal to 6 square feet. 2111.10
Hearth extension (front of opening) C 16 inches for fireplace opening less than 6 square feet. 20 inches for
fireplace opening greater than or equal to 6 square feet.
2111.10
Firebox dimensions 20-inch minimum firebox depth. 12-inch minimum firebox depth for Rumford fireplaces. 2111.6
Hearth and hearth extension reinforcing D Reinforced to carry its own weight and all imposed loads. 2111.9
Thickness of wall of firebox E 10 inches solid masonry or 8 inches where firebrick lining is used. 2111.5
Distance from top of opening to throat F 8 inches minimum. 2111.7
2111.7.1
Smoke chamber wall thickness dimensions G 6 inches lined; 8 inches unlined. Not taller than opening width; walls not
inclined more than 45 degrees from vertical for prefabricated smoke
chamber linings or 30 degrees from vertical for corbeled masonry.
2111.8
Chimney vertical reinforcing H Four No. 4 full-length bars for chimney up to 40 inches wide. Add two No. 4 bars for each additional 40 inches or fraction of width, or for each additional flue. 2111.3.1,
2113.3.1
Chimney horizontal reinforcing J 1/4-inch ties at each 18 inches, and two ties at each bend in vertical steel. 2111.3.2,
2113.3.2
Fireplace lintel L Noncombustible material with 4-inch bearing length of each side of
opening.
2111.7
Chimney walls with flue lining M 4-inch-thick solid masonry with 5/8-inch fireclay liner or equivalent.
1/2-inch grout or airspace between fireclay liner and wall.
2113.11.1
Effective flue area (based on area of fireplace opening and chimney) P See Section 2113.16. 2113.16
Clearances R
From chimney 2 inches interior, 1 inch exterior or 12 inches from lining. 2113.19
From fireplace 2 inches back or sides or 12 inches from lining. 2111.11
From combustible trim or materials 6 inches from opening 2111.12
Above roof 3 feet above roof penetration, 2 feet above part of structure within 10 feet. 2113.9
Anchorage strap S 3/16 inch by 1 inch
Number required Two 2111.4
Embedment into chimney 12 inches hooked around outer bar with 6-inch extension.
Fasten to 4 joists
Number of bolts Two 1/2-inch diameter. 2113.4.1
Footing T
Thickness 12-inch minimum. 2111.2
Width 6 inches each side of fireplace wall.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 degree = 0.017 rad.
a. This table provides a summary of major requirements for the construction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces. Letter references are to Figure 2111.1, which shows examples of typical construction. This table does not cover all requirements, nor does it cover all aspects of the indicated requirements. For the actual mandatory requirements of the code, see the indicated section of text.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.


FIGURE 2111.1 FIREPLACE AND CHIMMEY DETAILS

Footings for masonry fireplaces and their chimneys shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the fireplace or foundation wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.
Clean-out openings, located within foundation walls below fireboxes, when provided, shall be equipped with ferrous metal or masonry doors and frames constructed to remain tightly closed, except when in use. Clean outs shall be accessible and located so that ash removal will not create a hazard to combustible materials.
Fireplaces not supported on foundations shall be supported on noncombustible‡ construction having a minimum fire-resistance‡ rating of 3 hours for the elements in contact with the fireplace. Structural elements not directly in contact with the fireplace shall only be required to meet the fire-resistance‡ rating specified elsewhere in this code.
Masonry or concrete fireplaces shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category C or D, masonry and concrete fireplaces shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2111.3.1, 2111.3.2, 2111.4 and 2111.4.1 for chimneys serving fireplaces. In Seismic Design Category B, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required.
For fireplaces with chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars, anchored in the foundation, shall be placed in the concrete, between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.12. For fireplaces with chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.
Vertical reinforcement shall be placed enclosed within 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) ties or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) on center in concrete; or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
Masonry and concrete chimneys in Seismic Design Category C or D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
Two 3/16-inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two 1/ 2-inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
Masonry fireboxes shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness or other approved lining is provided, the minimum thickness of back and side-walls shall each be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. The approved lining shall be able to withstand a temperature of 2000°F (1093°C) without cracking. The width of joints between firebricks shall not be greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). When no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of back and side-walls shall be 12 inches (305 mm) of solid masonry. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199.
Steel fireplace units are permitted to be installed with solid masonry to form a masonry fireplace provided they are installed according to either the requirements of their listing or the requirements of this section. Steel fireplace units incorporating a steel firebox lining shall be constructed with steel not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness, and an air-circulating chamber which is ducted to the interior of the building. The firebox lining shall be encased with solid masonry to provide a total thickness at the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 mm), of which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid masonry or concrete. Circulating air ducts employed with steel fireplace units shall be constructed of metal or masonry.
The firebox of a concrete or masonry fireplace shall have a minimum depth of 20 inches (508 mm). The throat shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. The cross-sectional area of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat, damper and smoke chamber, shall not be less than the cross-sectional area of the flue.

Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided that the depth of the fireplace is at least 12 inches (305 mm) and at least one-third of the width of the fireplace opening, and the throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel, and at least 1/20 the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.
Masonry over a fireplace opening shall be supported by a lintel of noncombustible material. The minimum required bearing length on each end of the fireplace opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The fireplace throat or damper shall be located a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening.
Masonry fireplaces shall be equipped with a ferrous metal damper located at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening. Dampers shall be installed in the fireplace or at the top of the flue venting the fireplace, and shall be operable from the room containing the fireplace. Damper controls shall be permitted to be located in the fireplace. The damper shall be able to withstand distortion from binding, cracking or corrosion when exposed to the fireplace operating temperature.
Smoke chamber walls shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. Corbeling of masonry units shall not leave unit cores exposed to the inside of the smoke chamber. The inside surface of corbeled masonry shall be parged smooth. Where no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and side walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) thick, or a lining of vitrified clay at least 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) thick, is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and side walls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199. Verified clay linings shall conform to ASTM‡ C 315.
The inside height of the smoke chamber from the fireplace throat to the beginning of the flue shall not be greater than the inside width of the fireplace opening. The inside surface of the smoke chamber shall not be inclined more than 45 degrees (0.76 rad) from vertical when prefabricated smoke chamber linings are used or when the smoke chamber walls are rolled or sloped rather than corbeled. When the inside surface of the smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the walls shall not be corbeled more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from vertical.
Masonry fireplace hearths and hearth extensions shall be constructed of concrete, ceramic tile, masonry or equivalent, supported by noncombustible materials, and reinforced to carry their own weight and all imposed loads. No combustible material shall remain against the underside of hearths or hearth extensions after construction.
The minimum thickness of fireplace hearths shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
The minimum thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm).

Exception: When the bottom of the firebox opening is raised at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less than 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile or other approved noncombustible material is permitted.
Hearth extensions shall extend at least 16 inches (406 mm) in front of, and at least 8 inches (203 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening. Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 mm) in front of, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.
Where a fireplace is elevated or overhangs a floor, the hearth extension shall also extend over the area under the fireplace.
Any portion of a masonry fireplace located in the interior of a building or within the exterior wall of a building shall have a clearance to combustibles of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the front faces and sides of masonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the back faces of masonry fireplaces. The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2111.13.

Exceptions:

1. Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.

2. When masonry fireplaces are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete walls less than 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.

3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, flooring and drywall, are permitted to abut the masonry fireplace sidewalls and hearth extension, in accordance with Figure 2111.11, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.

4. Exposed combustible mantels or trim is permitted to be placed directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding the fireplace opening provided such combustible materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (153 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (306 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such opening.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm


FIGURE 2111.11 ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO FIREPLACE CLEARANCE PROVISION
Woodwork or other combustible materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of a fire-place opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (305 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such opening.
All spaces between fireplaces and floors and ceilings through which fireplaces pass shall be fireblocked with approved noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.
Factory-built or masonry fireplaces covered in this section shall be equipped with an exterior air supply to ensure proper fuel combustion unless the room is mechanically ventilated and controlled so that the indoor pressure is neutral or positive.
Exterior combustion air ducts for factory-built fireplaces shall be listed components of the fireplace, and installed according to the fireplace manufacturer’s instructions.
Listed combustion air ducts for masonry fireplaces shall be installed according to the terms of their listing and manufacturer’s instructions.
The exterior air intake shall be capable of providing all combustion air from the exterior of the dwelling. The exterior air intake shall not be located within the garage, attic, basement or crawl space of the dwelling nor shall the air intake be located at an elevation higher than the firebox. The exterior air intake shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) mesh.
Unlisted combustion air ducts shall be installed with a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) clearance to combustibles for all parts of the duct within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the duct outlet.
The combustion air passageway shall be a minimum of 6 square inches (3870 mm2) and not more than 55 square inches (0.035 m2), except that combustion air systems for listed fireplaces or for fireplaces tested for emissions shall be constructed according to the fireplace manufacturer’s instructions.
The exterior air outlet is permitted to be located in the back or sides of the firebox chamber or within 24 inches (610 mm) of the firebox opening on or near the floor. The outlet shall be closable and designed to prevent burning material from dropping into concealed combustible spaces.
A masonry heater is a heating appliance constructed of concrete or solid masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry," which is designed to absorb and store heat from a solid fuel fire built in the firebox by routing the exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox may include flow in a horizontal or downward direction before entering the chimney and which delivers heat by radiation from the masonry surface of the heater.
Masonry heaters may be installed only when their use is permitted by the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. When such use is permitted, such appliances shall be operated in compliance with the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. Masonry heaters shall also be installed in accordance with this section and comply with one of the following:

1. Masonry heaters shall comply with the requirements of ASTM E 1602; or

2. Masonry heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
The firebox floor of a masonry heater shall be a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of noncombustible material and be supported on a noncombustible footing and foundation in accordance with Section 2113.2.
In Seismic Design Category D, masonry heaters shall be anchored to the masonry foundation in accordance with Section 2113.3. Seismic reinforcing shall not be required within the body of a masonry heater with a height that is equal to or less than 3.5 times its body width and where the masonry chimney serving the heater is not supported by the body of the heater. Where the masonry chimney shares a common wall with the facing of the masonry heater, the chimney portion of the structure shall be reinforced in accordance with Section 2113.
Combustible materials shall not be placed within 36 inches (765 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater in accordance with NFPA 211, Section 8-7 (clearances for solid fuel-burning appliances), and the required space between the heater and combustible material shall be fully vented to permit the free flow of air around all heater surfaces.

Exceptions:

1. ‡When the masonry heater wall thickness is at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick of solid masonry and the wall thickness of the heat exchange channels is at least 5 inches (127 mm) thick of solid masonry, combustible materials shall not be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater. A clearance of at least 8 inches (203 mm) shall be provided between the gas-tight capping slab of the heater and a combustible ceiling.

2. ‡Masonry heaters listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
A masonry chimney is a chimney constructed of concrete or masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry." Masonry chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter.

Chimneys shall be designed and constructed so as to provide the necessary draft and capacity for each appliance connected to them to completely exhaust the products of combustion to the outside air. The temperature on adjacent combustible surfaces shall not be raised above 160°F (71°C). Chimney and vents shall be designed to resist the effects of condensation that would cause deterioration of the chimney or vent.

In any case, the outlet shall be arranged so that the flue gases are not directed so that they jeopardize people, overheat combustible structures, or enter building openings in the vicinity of the outlet. Gas-fired appliances shall be vented in accordance with this code, the New York City Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 54.

Chimneys shall not be supported by the equipment they serve unless such equipment has been specifically designed for such loads.
Chimneys shall be of adequate structural strength and resistant to the temperatures to which they may be subjected and to the corrosive action of gases.
Termination caps shall not be permitted and a 3-inch (76 mm) minimum drain shall be installed to receive collected water. A positive means shall be provided to prevent water from entering the appliance.

Exception: Termination caps shall be permitted on listed factory-built chimneys.
Decorative shrouds shall not be installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the manufacturers’ installation instructions.
The lining in chimneys shall not be considered as taking either compression or tension stresses.
Expansion and contraction in chimney walls due to temperature variations shall be accommodated solely by the use of steel reinforcing rings.
Reinforcing rings shall be provided at all changes in wall thickness, at the top of the chimney, and above and below all flue openings.
Adjoining chimneys and vents shall be in accordance with Sections 2113.1.6.1 through 2113.1.6.8.
Whenever a building is erected, enlarged, or increased in height so that any portion of such building, except chimneys or vents, extends higher than the top of any previously constructed chimneys or vents within 100 feet (30 480 mm), the owner of such new or altered building shall have the responsibility of altering such chimneys or vents to make them conform with the requirements of this chapter. A chimney or vent that is no longer connected with a fireplace or combustion or other equipment for which a chimney or vent was required, shall be exempt from this requirement. Such alterations shall be accomplished by one of the following means or a combination thereof:

1. Carry up the previously constructed chimneys or vents to the height required in this chapter.

2. Offset such chimneys or vents to a distance beyond that required in this chapter from the new or altered building provided that the new location of the outlet of the offset chimney or vent shall otherwise comply with the requirements of this chapter.

3. Such requirements shall not dispense with or modify any additional requirements that may be applicable pursuant to rules of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection.
After the alteration of a chimney or vent as required by this section, it shall be the responsibility of the owner of the new or altered building to provide any mechanical equipment or devices necessary to maintain the proper draft in the equipment.
The owner of the new or altered building shall notify the owner of the building affected in writing at least 45 days before starting the work required and request written consent to do such work. Such notice shall be accompanied by plans indicating the manner in which the proposed alterations are to be made.
The plans and method of alteration shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner.
If consent is not granted by the owner of the previously constructed building to do the alteration work required by this section, such owner shall signify his or her refusal in writing to the owner of the new or altered building and to the commissioner; and the owner of the new or altered building having submitted plans that conform to the requirements of this section, shall thereupon be released from any responsibility for the proper operation of the equipment due to loss of draft and for any health hazard or nuisance that may occur as a result of the new or altered building. Such responsibilities shall then be assumed by the owner of the previously constructed building. Similarly, should such owner fail to grant consent within 45 days from the date of written request or fail to signify his or her refusal, he or she shall then assume all responsibilities as prescribed above.
It shall be the obligation of the owner of the new or altered building to:

1. Schedule this work so as to create a minimum of disturbance to the occupants of the affected building; and

2. Provide such essential services as are normally supplied by the equipment while it is out of service; and

3. Where necessary, support such extended chimneys, vents and equipment from this building or to carry up such chimneys or vents within his or her building; and

4. Provide for the maintenance, repair, and/or replacement of such extensions and added equipment; and

5. Make such alterations of the same material as the original chimney or vent so as to maintain the same quality and appearance, except where the affected owner of the chimney or vent shall give his or her consent to do otherwise. All work shall be done in such fashion as to maintain the architectural aesthetics of the existing building. Where there is practical difficulty in complying strictly with the provisions of this item, the commissioner may permit an equally safe alternative.
Any existing violations on the previously constructed equipment shall be corrected by the owner of the equipment before any equipment is added or alterations made at the expense of the owner of the new or altered building.
The commissioner may grant a variance in accordance with the provisions of this code.
Foundations for masonry chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the foundation or support wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.
Masonry or concrete chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category C or D, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2113.3.1, 2113.3.2, and 2113.4. In Seismic Design Category B, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required.
For chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars anchored in the foundation shall be placed in the concrete, between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.10. Grout shall be prevented from bonding with the flue liner so that the flue liner is free to move with thermal expansion. For chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.
Vertical reinforcement shall be placed enclosed within 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) ties, or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. in concrete, or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry, at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
Masonry and concrete chimneys and foundations in Seismic Design Category C or D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
Two 3/16-inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
Masonry chimneys shall not be corbeled more than half of the chimney’s wall thickness from a wall or foundation, nor shall a chimney be corbeled from a wall or foundation that is less than 12 inches (305 mm) in thickness unless it projects equally on each side of the wall, except that on the second story of a two-story dwelling, corbeling of chimneys on the exterior of the enclosing walls is permitted to equal the wall thickness. The projection of a single course shall not exceed one-half the unit height or one-third of the unit bed depth, whichever is less. No masonry shall be corbeled from hollow or cavity wall masonry units.
The chimney wall or chimney flue lining shall not change in size or shape within 6 inches (152 mm) above or below where the chimney passes through floor components, ceiling components or roof components.
Where a masonry chimney is constructed with a fireclay flue liner surrounded by one wythe of masonry, the maximum offset shall be such that the centerline of the flue above the offset does not extend beyond the center of the chimney wall below the offset. Where the chimney offset is supported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Each individual corbeled masonry course of the offset shall not exceed the projection limitations specified in Section 2113.5.
Chimneys shall not support loads other than their own weight unless they are designed and constructed to support the additional load. Masonry chimneys are permitted to be constructed as part of the masonry walls or concrete walls of the building.
Chimneys serving appliances that operate at less than 600°F (316°C) shall extend at least 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, parapet wall, or penthouse, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. However, such constructions do not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 10 feet (3048 mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance determined from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.

Chimneys serving appliances that operate at between 600°F (316°C) and 1,000°F (538°C) shall extend at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, or parapet wall or penthouse within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. However, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents or open structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 20 feet (6096 mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance determined from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.



where:

D = Distance, in feet, measured from the center of the chimney outlet to the nearest edge of the construction.
F = Value determined from Table 2113.9.
A = Free area, in square inches, of chimney flue space.


TABLE 2113.9 "F" FACTOR FOR DETERMINING CHIMNEY DISTANCES

TYPE OF FUEL "F" FACTOR
600°F (316°C) and less 600°F (316°C) to 1000°F (538°C) Greater than 1000°F (538°C)
Gas 2 2 3
No. 2 fuel oil 2.5 2.5 3
No. 4, No. 6 fuel oils, solid
fuels and incinerators
3 3 3
Where a spark arrestor is installed on a masonry chimney, the spark arrestor shall meet all of the following requirements:

1. The net free area of the arrestor shall not be less than four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney flue it serves.

2. The arrestor screen shall have heat and corrosion resistance equivalent to 19-gage galvanized steel or 24-gage stainless steel.

3. Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) nor block the passage of spheres having a diameter less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

4. The spark arrestor shall be accessible for cleaning and the screen or chimney cap shall be removable to allow for cleaning of the chimney flue.
Masonry chimney walls shall be constructed of concrete, solid masonry units or hollow masonry units grouted solid with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal thickness, or 8 inches (203 mm) nominal thickness for chimney walls extending more than 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest lateral support point.
Masonry chimneys shall be lined. The lining material shall be appropriate for the type of appliance connected, according to the terms of the appliance listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Flue lining systems shall comply with one of the following:

1. Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of ASTM C 315.

2. Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL 1777.

3. Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for installation within masonry chimneys.

4. Other approved materials that will resist corrosion, erosion, softening or cracking from flue gases and condensate at temperatures up to 1,800ºF (982ºC).
Flue linings other than those covered in Section 2113.11.1 intended for use with specific appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.11.1.2 through 2113.11.1.4 and Sections 2113.11.2 and 2113.11.3.
Flue lining systems for gas appliances shall be in accordance with the New York City Fuel Gas Code and ULC-S635.
Pellet fuel-burning appliances may be installed only when their use is permitted by the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. Any such appliances shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the listing. If permitted, such appliances shall be operated in compliance with the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with pellet fuel-burning appliances shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and pellet vents listed for installation within masonry chimneys (see Section 2113.11.1.5 for marking).
Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with oil-fired appliances approved for use with Type L vent shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and listed chimney liners complying with UL 641 (see Section 2113.11.1.5 for marking).
When a flue is relined with a material not complying with Section 2113.11.1, the chimney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a label attached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous location adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The label shall include the following message or equivalent language: "This chimney is for use only with (type or category of appliance) that burns (type of fuel). Do not connect other types of appliances."
Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.
Chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall be constructed of solid masonry units or of concrete with walls a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick, or with stone masonry a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm). Chimneys for medium-heat appliances constructed with radial brick may be permitted to have different requirements. Design of all such chimneys shall be submitted to the commissioner for approval.
Concrete and masonry chimneys shall be lined with an approved medium-duty refractory brick a minimum of 41/2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 41/2-inch bed (114 mm) in an approved medium-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the lowest chimney connector entrance. Chimneys terminating 25 feet (7620 mm) or less above a chimney connector entrance shall be lined to the top.
Concrete and masonry chimneys containing more than one passageway shall have the liners separated by a minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) concrete or solid masonry wall.
Chimneys serving appliances that operate at greater than 1,000°F (538°C) shall extend at least 20 feet (6096 mm) above the highest construction, such as roof ridge, parapet wall, penthouse, or other obstruction within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or in another building. However, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 50 feet (15 240 mm) from such construction but not more than the distance determined from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.
A minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) shall be provided between the exterior surfaces of a concrete or masonry chimney for medium-heat appliances and combustible material.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.
Chimneys for high-heat appliances shall be constructed with double walls of solid masonry units or of concrete, each wall to be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick with a minimum airspace of 2 inches (51 mm) between the walls. Alternate chimney designs for high-heat appliances constructed with radial brick shall be permitted subject to the approval of the commissioner.
The inside of the interior wall shall be lined with an approved high-duty refractory brick, a minimum of 41/2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 41/2-inch bed (114 mm) in an approved high-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start at the base of the chimney and extend continuously to the top.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall extend at least 20 feet (6069 mm) above the highest construction, such as roof ridge, parapet wall, penthouse, or other obstruction within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. However, such constructions do not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 50 feet (15 240 mm) from such construction but not more than the distance determined from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall have approved clearance from buildings and structures to prevent overheating combustible materials, permit inspection and maintenance operations on the chimney and prevent danger of burns to persons.
Flue liners shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C 1283 and extend from a point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or, in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber, to a point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up vertically, with a maximum slope no greater than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. Clay flue liners shall be laid in medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199, with tight mortar joints left smooth on the inside and installed to maintain an airspace or insulation not to exceed the thickness of the flue liner separating the flue liners from the interior face of the chimney masonry walls. Flue lining shall be supported on all sides. Only enough mortar shall be placed to make the joint and hold the liners in position.
Listed materials used as flue linings shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer’s instructions.
The space surrounding a chimney lining system or vent installed within a masonry chimney shall not be used to vent any other appliance.

Exception: This shall not prevent the installation of a separate flue lining in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
When two or more flues are located in the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chimney.

Exception: When venting only one appliance, two flues are permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them. The joints of the adjacent flue linings shall be staggered at least 4 inches (102 mm).
Chimney flues shall not be smaller in area than the area of the connector from the appliance. Chimney flues connected to more than one appliance shall not be less than the area of the largest connector plus 50 percent of the areas of additional chimney connectors.

Exceptions:

1. Chimney flues serving oil-fired appliances sized in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code and NFPA 31.

2. Chimney flues serving gas-fired appliances sized in accordance with the New York City Fuel Gas Code.
Flue sizing for chimneys serving fireplaces shall be in accordance with Section 2113.16.1 or 2113.16.2.

TABLE 2113.16(1) NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZESa

FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIAMETER
(inches)
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
(square inches)
6 28
7 38
8 50
10 78
103/4 90
12 113
15 176
18 254

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.

TABLE 2113.16(2) NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZESa

FLUE SIZE, OUTSIDE NOMINAL
DIMENSIONS (inches)
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
(square inches)
4.5 × 8.5 23
4.5 × 13 34
8 × 8 42
8.5 × 8.5 49
8 × 12 67
8.5 × 13 76
12 × 12 102
8.5 × 18 101
13 × 13 127
12 × 16 131
13 × 18 173
16 × 16 181
16 × 20 222
18 × 18 233
20 × 20 298
20 × 24 335
24 × 24 431

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.‡


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.


FIGURE 2113.16 FLUE SIZES FOR MASONRY CHIMMEYS
Round chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/12 of the fireplace opening. Square chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than 2 to 1 shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio of 2 to 1 or more shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/8 of the fireplace opening.
The minimum net cross-sectional area of the flue shall be determined in accordance with Figure 2113.16. A flue size providing at least the equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used. Cross-sectional areas of clay flue linings are as provided in Tables 2113.16(1) and 2113.16(2) or as provided by the manufacturer or as measured in the field. The height of the chimney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top of the chimney flue.
Inlets to masonry chimneys shall enter from the side. Inlets shall have a thimble of fireclay, rigid refractory material or metal that will prevent the connector from pulling out of the inlet or from extending beyond the wall of the liner.
Cleanout openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper edge of the cleanout shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the opening shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall be provided with a noncombustible cover.

Exception: Chimney flues serving masonry fireplaces, where cleaning is possible through the fireplace opening.
Any portion of a masonry chimney located in the interior of the building or within the exterior wall of the building shall have a minimum airspace clearance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a minimum airspace clearance of 1 inch (25 mm). The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2113.20.

Exceptions:

1. Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777 and ULC-S635, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.

2. Where masonry chimneys are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete wall less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.

3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, are permitted to abut the masonry chimney sidewalls, in accordance with Figure 2113.19, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining. Combustible material and trim shall not overlap the corners of the chimney by more than 1 inch (25 mm).


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm


FIGURE 2113.19 ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO CHIMNEY CLEARANCE PROVISION
1. Trimmers shall be not less than 5 inches (127 mm) from the inside face of the concrete or masonry chimney wall. Finished flooring shall have at least 1/2 inch (13 mm) clearance from chimney walls.

2. A clearance of at least 2 inches (51 mm) shall be provided between the exterior surfaces of interior masonry or concrete chimneys for all wood-burning appliances.

3. No combustible lathing, furring, or plaster grounds shall be placed against a chimney at any point more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) from the corner of the chimney; but this shall not prevent plastering directly on masonry or on metal lath and metal furring nor shall it prevent placing chimneys for low-temperature equipment entirely on the exterior of a building against the sheathing.
All spaces between chimneys and floors and ceilings through which chimneys pass shall be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.
All new chimneys shall be test run by the registered design professional responsible for the testing under standard conditions to demonstrate fire safety and the complete exhausting of smoke and the products of combustion to the outer air. The results of such test run shall be certified as correct by the design professional engineer responsible for the test and shall be submitted in writing to the department.
A smoke test shall be made as outlined below. Any faults or leaks found shall be corrected. Such smoke test shall be witnessed by a representative of the commissioner. In lieu thereof, the commissioner may accept the test report of the design professional engineer responsible for the test, which shall be submitted in writing to the department.
To determine the tightness of chimney construction, a smoke test shall be made in accordance with the following conditions and requirements:

1. The equipment, materials, power and labor necessary for such test shall be furnished by, and at the expense of, the owner or holder of the work permit.

2. If the test shows any evidence of leakage or other defects, such defects shall be corrected in accordance with the requirement of this chapter and the test shall be repeated until the results are satisfactory.

3. Method of test. The chimney shall be filled with a thick penetrating smoke produced by one or more smoke machines, or smoke bombs, or other equivalent method. As the smoke appears at the stack opening on the roof, such opening shall be tightly closed, and a pressure equivalent to 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) column of water measured at the base of the stack shall be applied. The test shall be conducted for a length of time sufficient to permit the inspection of the chimney.
Load-bearing masonry structures shall be reinforced to meet all of the requirements of this section. However, reinforcement provided for gravity, seismic or wind forces or for other purposes may be regarded as satisfying part of, or the whole of, these requirements. Reinforcement provided for one requirement may be counted towards the other requirements.
Load-bearing masonry structures shall be reinforced to obtain a continuous system of vertical and horizontal ties. Continuity of all ties shall be ensured by providing lap, welded or mechanical tension splices. The following requirements shall be met for walls, columns and piers:
At each floor and roof level, continuous horizontal ties shall be provided in all load-bearing masonry walls, and around the perimeter of the building. Minimum horizontal tie reinforcement shall be not less than the equivalent of two No. 4 bars.
Ties shall be located within the thickness of walls or beams, where they occur, or within 1 foot (305 mm) of the edge of slab, where walls or beams do not occur.
All horizontal ties shall be terminated in a perpendicular horizontal tie. Where no perpendicular horizontal tie exists within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the end of a wall, the horizontal tie shall be anchored at the end of the wall. The vertical reinforcement at the end of such walls shall not be less than two No. 4 bars placed within 16 inches (406 mm) of the end of the wall. This vertical reinforcement shall be continuous from the lowest to highest level of the wall, and anchored at each end in a horizontal tie or the foundation element.
Where slab or beam elements are supported on a masonry wall, column or pier, the connection shall be designed to sustain an axial tension capacity equal to the greater of the vertical shear capacity of the connected element at either end or 2 percent of the maximum factored vertical dead and live load in the compression masonry element. The design of the end connections shall ensure the transfer of such loads to horizontal or vertical ties.

Where more than one element frames in one direction, none of the elements or connections shall have an axial tension capacity of less than 1 percent of the vertical load.

For the design of the connections, the transverse shear force and the axial tensile force need not be considered to act simultaneously.

The reinforcement of the end connections shall be equivalent to at least one No. 4 bar, at a maximum spacing of 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Where end connections occur at a masonry pier or column, reinforcement equivalent to a minimum of four fully developed No. 4 bars shall be provided. The reinforcement shall be distributed around the perimeter of the column or pier. The minimum anchorage into both the slab and the masonry compression element shall be equivalent to the capacity of the fully developed No. 4 bar.

Where the floor extends on both sides of a bearing wall, the portion of the tie within the slab shall alternate between both sides.
Each column, pier and wall shall be vertically tied continuously from its lowest to highest level. The vertical reinforcement shall be terminated in a horizontal tie or foundation or their equivalent. Where openings in bearing walls greater than 24 inches (610 mm) in height occur, ties shall be provided at each side of the opening that extend and are anchored in the masonry above and below the opening. Vertical ties shall be placed on both sides of control joints in bearing walls.
Vertical tie reinforcing shall not be less than the equivalent of one No. 4 bar, at a maximum spacing of 48 inches (1219 mm) on center. A minimum of four continuous No.4 bars shall be provided per masonry column or pier.
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