Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+nyc Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, quality control, design and construction of concrete used in structures.
Structural concrete shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and ACI 318 as amended in Section 1908 of this code. Except for the provisions of Sections 1904 and 1910, the design and construction of slabs on grade shall not be governed by this chapter unless they transmit vertical loads or lateral forces from other parts of the structure to the soil.
Sections 1902 through 1907 of this chapter are derived from the provisions for structural concrete in ACI 318. Where sections within Chapters 2 through 7 of ACI 318 are referenced in other chapters and appendices of ACI 318, the provisions of Sections 1902 through 1907 of this code shall apply.
The construction documents for structural concrete construction shall include:

1. Specified compressive strength of concrete at the stated ages or stages of construction for which each concrete element is designed.

2. Specified strength or grade of reinforcement.

3. Size and location of structural elements, reinforcement, and anchors.

4. Provision for dimensional changes resulting from creep, shrinkage and temperature.

5. Magnitude and location of prestressing forces.

6. Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and length of lap splices.

7. Type and location of mechanical and welded splices of reinforcement.

8. Details and location of contraction or isolation joints specified for plain concrete.

9. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of posttensioning.

10. Stressing sequence for posttensioning tendons.

11. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, a statement if slab on grade is designed as a structural diaphragm (see Section 2112.3.4 of ACI 318).

12. Exposure classes in accordance with Section 1904.2 of this chapter and Section 4.2 of ACI 318.

13. Areas of mass-concrete where a thermal control plan is required.
The special inspection of concrete elements of buildings and structures and concreting operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 17.
The words and terms defined in this section and ACI 318 shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code for concrete construction, have the meanings shown herein and in ACI 318, as modified by Section 1908.1.1 of this chapter.

MASS CONCRETE. Any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with generation of heat from hydration of the cement and attendant volume change to minimize cracking, reduction of compressive strength, and/or delayed ettringite formation.
Materials used to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable standards listed in ACI 318 and this section. Where required, special inspections and tests shall be in accordance with Chapter 17.
Cementitious materials used to produce concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.2.
Aggregates used in concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.3.
Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials or other substances that are deleterious to concrete or steel reinforcement and shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.4.
Reinforcement and welding of reinforcement to be placed in concrete construction shall conform to the requirements of ACI 318, Section 3.5, and this section.
Steel reinforcement used in concrete construction shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.5.
Welding of reinforcing bars shall conform to AWS D1.4 and ACI 318, Section 3.5.2. Type and location of welded splices and other required welding of reinforcing bars shall be indicated on the construction documents or in the project specifications. The ASTM reinforcing bar specifications, except for ASTM A 706, shall be supplemented to require a report of material properties necessary to conform to the requirements in AWS D1.4. A written welding procedure shall be provided to the registered design professional of record for approval prior to any welding. All welding shall be subject to special inspection by a special inspection agency.
Admixtures to be used in concrete shall be subject to prior approval by the registered design professional of record and shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.6. Admixtures shall be included in the concrete design mix submittals.
The storage of materials for use in concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 3.7, and the provisions of Sections 1903.7.1 and 1903.7.2 of this chapter.
Cementitious materials and aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion of foreign matter.
Any material that has deteriorated or has been contaminated shall not be used for concrete.
Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) and the materials used in such concrete shall be in accordance with the PCI MNL 128 standard.
Insulating concrete form material used for forming flat concrete walls shall conform to ASTM E 2634.
Concrete shall be designed and proportioned to comply with the durability, strength, exposure, and other requirements as specified in Section 4.1 of ACI 318 and Sections 1904.2 through 1904.5 of this chapter.
Concrete shall be assigned to exposure classes in accordance with ACI 318, Section 4.2, based on:

1. Exposure to freezing and thawing in a moist condition or exposure to deicing chemicals;

2. Exposure to sulfates in water or soil;

3. Exposure to water where the concrete is intended to have low permeability; and

4. Exposure to chlorides from deicing chemicals, salt, saltwater, brackish water, seawater or spray from these sources, where the concrete has steel reinforcement.
Concrete mixtures shall conform to the most restrictive maximum water-cementitious materials ratios and minimum specified concrete compressive strength requirements of ACI 318, Section 4.3, based on the exposure classes assigned in Section 1904.2 of this chapter.

Exception: For occupancies and appurtenances thereto in Group R occupancies that are in buildings less than four stories above grade plane, normal-weight aggregate concrete is permitted to comply with the requirements of Table 1904.3 of this chapter in lieu of the requirements of ACI 318, Table 4.3.1.

TABLE 1904.3 MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (f c)

TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH (
f c at 28 days, psi)
Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete surfaces, basement slabs,
interior slabs on grade except for garage floor slabs, and foundations not exposed to the weather
3,000a
Driveways, curbs, walks, patios, porches, carport slabs, steps and
other flatwork exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs
3,500b
Structural concrete exposed to weather 4,500

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa.
a. Concrete in these locations that can be subjected to freezing and thawing during construction shall be of air-entrained concrete in accordance with Section 1904.2.
b. Concrete shall be air entrained in accordance with Section 1904.4.1.
Concrete that will be exposed to freezing and thawing, in the presence of moisture, with or without deicing chemicals being present, shall comply with Sections 1904.4.1 and 1904.4.2.
Concrete exposed to freezing and thawing while moist shall be air entrained in accordance with ACI 318, Section 4.4.1.
For concrete exposed to freezing and thawing in the presence of moisture and deicing chemicals, the maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume or slag that is included in the concrete shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of cementitious materials permitted by Table 1904.4.2.

TABLE 1904.4.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE EXPOSED TO DEICING CHEMICALS

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS MAXIMUM PERCENT OF
TOTAL CEMENTITIOUS
MATERIALS BY
WEIGHTa, b
Fly ash or other pozzolans conforming to ASTM C 618 25d
Slag conforming to ASTM C 989 50
Silica fume conforming to ASTM C 1240 10
Total of fly ash or other pozzolans, slag and silica fume 50c
Total of fly ash or other pozzolans and silica fume 35c

a. The total cementitious material also includes ASTM C 150, ASTM C 595, ASTM C 845 and ASTM C 1157 cement.
b. The maximum percentages shall include:
1. Fly ash or other pozzolans present in Type IP or I (PM) blended cement, ASTM C 595, or ASTM C 1157.
2. Slag used in the manufacture of an IS or I (SM) blended cement, ASTM C 595, or ASTM C 1157.
3. Silica fume, ASTM C 1240, present in a blended cement.
c. Fly ash or other pozzolans and silica fume shall constitute no more than 25 and 10 percent, respectively, of the total weight of the cementitious materials. The amount of fly ash or other pozzolans conforming to ASTM C 618 shall be permitted to be increased in accordance with footnote d, provided the maximum percentage of supplemental cementitious materials does not exceed the maximum values stated in Table 1904.4.2 when combining multiple types of supplemental cementitious materials.
d. Amount of fly ash or other pozzolans conforming to ASTM C 618 in a given concrete mixture can be increased to 35% provided that the concrete is not placed during cold weather as defined by ACI 306 or that the concrete is membrane cured and protected from freezing until the concrete has attained 3,500 psi.
Combinations of cementitious materials for use in sulfate-resistant concrete that are alternative to those listed in ACI 318, Table 4.3.1 shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 318, Section 4.5.1.
The required strength and durability of concrete shall be governed by compliance with the proportioning, testing, mixing and placing provisions of Sections 1905.1.1 through 1905.13.
Concrete shall be proportioned to provide an average compressive strength in accordance with Section 1905.3, and shall satisfy the durability criteria of Section 1904. Concrete shall be produced to minimize the frequency of strengths below f'c in compliance with Section 1905.6.3.3. For concrete designed and constructed in accordance with this chapter, f'c shall not be less than 2,500 psi (17.22 MPa). No maximum specified compressive strength shall apply unless restricted by a specific provision of this code or ACI 318.
Requirements for f'c shall be based on tests of cylinders made and tested in accordance with Section 1905.6.3.
Unless otherwise specified, f'c shall be based on 28-day tests. If other than 28 days, test age for f'c shall be as indicated in construction documents. If at any time during the concrete operations, the concrete is not in conformance with ASTM C 94 or is otherwise compromised, it shall be rejected. If it is placed, the location of the load shall be recorded and a pair of cylinders shall be molded from the load per ASTM C 31 and included in the average f'c.
Where design criteria in ACI 318, Sections 8.6.1, 9.5.2.3, 11.2, 12.2.4, and 22.2.4, provide for use of a splitting tensile strength value of concrete (f'ct), laboratory tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM C 330 to establish the value off ct corresponding to the specified value of f'c.
Splitting tensile strength tests shall not be used as a basis for field acceptance of concrete.
Concrete propor-tions shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Sections 1905.2.1 through 1905.2.4.
Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide:

1. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under the conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding.

2. Resistance to special exposures as required by Section 1904.

3. Conformance with the strength test requirements of Section 1905.6.
Where different materials are to be used for different portions of proposed work, each combination shall be evaluated.
Concrete proportions shall be established in accordance with Section 1905.3 or Section 1905.4, and shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1904.
For areas of high-strength mass concrete, including but not limited to, 8,000 psi (55 158 kPa) or greater and the least dimension being equal to or greater than 36 inches (914 mm), as indicated on the construction documents, a thermal control plan complying with ACI 301, Section 8.1 and acceptable to the registered design professional of record shall be submitted by the contractor.
Concrete proportioning determined on the basis of field experience or trial mixtures shall be done in accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.3 and Sections 1905.3.1 through 1905.3.5 of this chapter.
If the required f'cr‡ is obtained for trial batch mixes prior to the date specified, the trial mix design may be approved by the registered design professional of record for the structural design.‡
Concrete mix designs shall be performed by an approved agency or by a concrete producer who is an approved fabricator authorized in accordance with Section 1704.2.2, and approved in accordance with the requirements of Sections 1905.3.2.1 through 1905.3.2.3
All mix designs submitted for review and approval in accordance with Section 1905.3.2.2 shall be certified by the director of the approved agency or the quality control manager of the approved fabricator that performed the tests used to substantiate the mix design. In addition all mix designs shall be signed by an owner or officer of the concrete production facility.
All mixes shall be approved by the registered design professional of record and filed with the department prior to use in construction.
Copies of the approved mix design(s) shall be maintained at the construction site by the contractor and made available to the department upon request. A copy of the approved mix design(s) shall be provided by the contractor to the licensed concrete testing laboratory performing the acceptance testing of the concrete at the construction site.
Field strength test records or trial mixtures used to determine f’cr shall not be more than 24 months old measured from the date of batching, provided the materials are the same as those proposed for use and the concrete producer provides a written statement confirming the materials are the same as those proposed for use.
The type and source of the materials used in the concrete shall be identified in the proposed concrete mix design. In order for materials in field strength test records or trial mixtures to be considered the same as those proposed for use, the materials shall, at a minimum, comply with the following:

1. Cementitious materials. Cementitious materials shall be used in the same quantities for each individual component and shall be of the same type and shall be from the same source and mill. Upon request, the concrete producer shall provide mill certificates for the cementitious materials proposed for use and cementitious materials represented by the field strength test records or trial mixtures to the registered design professional of record and the department.

2. Aggregates. Coarse and fine aggregates shall be the same nominal maximum size and shall be used in the same volume for each individual component.

3. Admixtures. Admixtures shall meet the requirements of the same admixture type in accordance with ASTM C 494 or ASTM C 260 and there shall be no change in air content or water content from the previously specified mix.

Exception: Addition or removal of retarding or accelerating admixtures as described in Section 1905.3.5 is acceptable.

4. Additional testing. Differences or changes in materials that are proposed for use, not meeting the requirements of Items 1 through 3 above, shall require new testing demonstrated by either field strength test records or trial mixtures.

Exception: Field changes to concrete proportions specified in Section 1905.3.5.
Based on test data and observations during the course of construction, the following changes described in Sections 1905.3.5.1 and 1905.3.5.2 are permitted without requiring additional trial mixtures or field strength test records, provided:

1. There are no changes to the type and source of materials described in Section 1905.3.4;

2. Documentation of these changes are maintained by the concrete producer and the concrete contractor;

3. The changes described in Section 1905.3.5 cannot be used for the submission of an initial mix design to demonstrate that a previously prepared mix design meets strength or air content requirements that differ from the required concrete properties without new field strength test records or new trial mix designs;

4. Where required in Section 1905.3.5, documentation of these changes shall be submitted for acceptance to the registered design professional of record for the structural design by the concrete producer prior to use;

5. Copies of the revised mixtures shall be maintained at the construction site and provided to the licensed concrete testing laboratory performing the acceptance testing of concrete in accordance with Item 4 of Table 1704.4 of this code; and

6. The documentation required by Items 2 and 5 above shall be made available to the commissioner upon request.
The following admixture modifications to concrete proportions can be made without requiring prior acceptance by the registered design professional of record:

1. Air-entraining admixtures. Air-entraining admixture dosages can be increased or decreased as needed to obtain the air content specified in the construction documents.

2. Water reducing admixtures. Water reducing admixture dosages can be increased or decreased to produce the specified workability, provided that the design water is not exceeded and the changes do not segregate the concrete mix.
The following modifications to concrete proportions can be made only with prior acceptance by the registered design professional of record. Any added materials and the final mix proportions shall be indicated in a revised mix design submitted to the registered design professional of record prior to use:

1. Retarding and accelerating admixtures. Retarding and accelerating admixtures may be added to concrete mixtures or the dosage may be modified as needed to maintain practical set times.

2. Pigment. Pigment dosage may be adjusted to maintain uniform concrete color.

3. Fibers. Synthetic, glass or natural fibers may be added to the mix within the manufacturer recommended range. Any loss in workability shall be compensated with a water reducer.

Exception: Steel fibers may not be added to a concrete mixture without the performance of a new mix design.

4. Corrosion inhibitor. Corrosion inhibiting admixtures may be added, provided the corresponding adjustment of mix water remains within the limits of the required water/cementitious material ratio. The added materials and the revised design mix shall be submitted for review by the registered design professional of record for the structure prior to use.

5. Cementitious content and water-cementitous material ratio (w/cm). The cementitious content may be increased by a maximum of 12 percent, or the w/cm ratio may be decreased while maintaining the same cementitious content, but the w/cm and air content shall not be increased. Aggregate quantities shall be adjusted, as required, to maintain the mix proportion and yield.
Concrete proportioning determined without field experience or trial mixtures shall be done in accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.4. This method of proportioning shall not be permitted for:

1. Load-carrying structural concrete where the total volume of concrete on a given project exceeds 50 cubic yards (38 m3); or

2. Structural or non-structural concrete mix proportions that will be exposed to exposure classes S1, P1, or C2.
As data become available during construction, it is permissible to reduce the amount by which the average compressive strength (f'c) is required to exceed the specified value of f'c in accordance with ACI 318, Section 5.5. A new mix design shall be submitted to the registered design professional of record for approval prior to use.
The criteria for evaluation and acceptance of concrete shall be as specified in Sections 1905.6.2 through 1905.6.5.5.
Concrete shall be tested in accordance with the requirements in Sections 1905.6.2 through 1905.6.5. Concrete sampling and testing for acceptance shall be deemed a special inspection performed by a licensed concrete testing laboratory as an approved agency. An approved agency shall perform tests on fresh concrete at the job site, prepare specimens required for curing under field conditions, prepare specimens required for testing in the laboratory and record the temperature of the fresh concrete when preparing specimens for strength tests. All field sampling and testing, including the testing of aggregates, concrete mixes, and strength testing of specimens, shall be subject to special inspection by an approved agency. All testing laboratories shall be approved agencies and shall employ qualified special inspectors to perform all required field and laboratory tests. Test results shall be promptly distributed by the testing laboratory to the registered design professional of record, concrete producer, owner and contractor to allow for corrective action where the concrete is found to be noncompliant‡ with the mix design or noncompliant‡ with the requirements otherwise specified in this code. Unless more prompt action is required, test results shall be reported no less than 7 business days after the date of the respective tests were performed.
The frequency of conducting strength tests of concrete shall be as specified in Sections 1905.6.2.1 through 1905.6.2.4.
For the first 250 cubic yards of each class of concrete placed each day, samples for strength tests of each such class shall be taken: (i) not less than once a day; (ii) not less than once for each 50 cubic yards (38 m3) of concrete; and (iii) not less than once for each 5,000 square feet (465 m2) of surface area for slabs or walls. After the first 250 cubic yards (191 m3), samples for strength tests of each class of concrete placed each day shall be taken once for each additional 150 cubic yards (115 m3). For structural concrete exposed to exposure class C2, additional field testing of the concrete for water content per AASHTO T318 shall be required. At the discretion of the registered design professional of record, the frequency of testing may be reduced, but not less than once for each 150 cubic yards (115 m3).
On a given project, if the total volume of concrete is such that the frequency of testing required by Section 1905.6.2.1 would provide less than five strength tests for a given class of concrete, tests shall be made from at least five randomly selected batches or from each batch if fewer than five batches are used.
When the total volume of concrete is less than 50 cubic yards (38 m3) on a given project, testing may be waived by the registered design professional of record.
A strength test shall be the average of the strengths of two 6 inch by 12 inch (152 mm by 304.8 mm) or two 4 inch by 8 inch (102 mm by 203 mm)‡ cylinders made from the same sample of concrete and tested at 28 days or at the test age designated for the determination of f'c. Consideration shall be given specifying an f'c at 56 days or later for concrete utilizing pozzolans in the mix proportions. At the discretion of the registered design professional of record or the approved agency performing the testing, additional pairs of test cylinders may be taken at the time of sampling for testing at a later date. The additional cylinders may be tested at a later date should the strength at the specified date not meet the required f'c.
Standard-cured specimens shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1905.6.3.1 through 1905.6.3.9.
The special inspector shall verify that the proportions indicated on the batch ticket for the concrete delivered to the construction site are as per the approved concrete mix design prior to concrete placement (see Table 1704.4 of this code). Concrete that does not meet the requirements of the approved concrete mix design shall be rejected.
Samples for strength tests shall be taken in accordance with ASTM C 172.
Cylinders for strength tests shall be molded and standard-cured in accordance with ASTM C 31. The contractor shall be responsible for providing the specified field storage curing facility and for monitoring the temperature as defined in ASTM C 31.
The contractor shall be responsible for providing the specified field storage curing facility and for monitoring the temperature of the cylinders as defined in ASTM C 31.
Cylinders shall be placed in final curing conditions meeting the requirements of ASTM C 511. Cylinders shall be transported to final curing conditions by the licensed concrete testing laboratory within 48 hours of casting the cylinders.
The cylinders shall be tested in accordance with ASTM C 39.
The strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if both of the following requirements are met:

1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength tests equals or exceeds f'c.

2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below f'c by more than 500 psi (3.45 MPa) when f'c is 5,000 psi (34.50 MPa) or less, or by more than 0.10 f'c when f'c is more than 5,000 psi (34.50 MPa).
If either of the requirements of Section 1905.6.3.3 is not met, steps shall be taken to increase the average of subsequent strength test results. The requirements of Section 1905.6.5 shall govern if the requirement of Section 1905.6.3.6, Item 2, is not met.
Each time concrete is sampled for strength testing, the tests set forth in Items 1 through 5 shall be performed by the approved agency:

1. Temperature in accordance with ASTM C 1064.

2. Slump in accordance with ASTM C 143.

3. Unit weight in accordance with ASTM C 138.

4. Air content in accordance with ASTM C 173 or C 231. Testing in accordance with ASTM C 173 must be used for concretes made with lightweight aggregates, and other instances where ASTM C 231 is not applicable.

5. Water content per AASHTO T 318 when required by 1905.6.2.1.
For mass concrete sections identified as requiring monitoring, install temperature devices that are capable of measuring the temperature of the concrete continuously and record temperature data in increments that do not exceed 30 minutes for a minimum period of seven days per ACI 301 Section 8.3 or as otherwise directed by the registered design professional of record.
The approved agency shall immediately report the results of field tests performed to the contractor and concrete truck driver, or other representative of the concrete producer. If at any time during the concrete operations, the concrete is not in conformance with ASTM C 94, this code, or is otherwise compromised, it shall be rejected. If it is placed, the location of the load shall be recorded and a pair of cylinders shall be molded from the load per ASTM C 31 and included in the average f'c. The approved agency shall keep a written record of all field tests at the construction site and make the records available upon request. These results need not be used in calculating the arithmetic average of consecutive test results required by Section 1905.6.3.4.
Field sampling and testing shall be deemed a special inspection, and the approved agency performing the field sampling and testing of concrete at the construction site shall be subject to the requirements of Section 1704.1.2 regarding reporting of deficiencies.
Field-cured specimens shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1905.6.4.1 through 1905.6.4.4.
Where required by the commissioner, the results of strength tests of cylinders cured under field conditions shall be provided to the department.
Field-cured cylinders shall be cured under field conditions in accordance with ASTM C 31.
Field-cured test cylinders shall be molded at the same time and from the same samples as laboratory-cured test cylinders.
Procedures for protecting and curing concrete shall be improved when the strength of field-cured cylinders at the test age designated for determination of f'c is less than 85 percent of that of companion laboratory-cured cylinders. The 85-percent limitation shall not apply if the field-cured strength exceeds f'c by more than 500 psi (3.45 MPa).
The investigation of low-strength test results shall be in accordance with the provisions of Sections 1905.6.5.1 through 1905.6.5.5.
If any strength test of laboratory-cured cylinders performed in accordance with Section 1905.6.2.4 falls below the specified value of f'c by more than the values given in Section 1905.6.3.6, Item 2, or if tests of field-cured cylinders performed in accordance with Section 1905.6.4.4 indicate deficiencies in protection and curing, steps shall be taken to assure that the load-carrying capacity of the structure is not jeopardized.
Where calculations indicate that load-carrying capacity is significantly reduced, tests of cores drilled from the area in question in accordance with ASTM C 42 shall be permitted. In such cases, three cores shall be taken for each strength test that falls below the values given in Section 1905.6.4.3, Item 2.
Cores shall be prepared for transport and storage by wiping drilling water from their surfaces and placing the cores in water-tight bags or containers immediately after drilling. Cores shall be tested not earlier than 48 hours nor later than seven days after coring unless approved by the registered design professional of record.
Concrete in an area represented by core tests shall be considered structurally adequate if the average of three cores is equal to at least 85 percent of f'c and if no single core is less than 75 percent of f'c. Additional testing of cores extracted from locations represented by erratic core strength results is permitted.
If the criteria of Section 1905.6.5.4 are not met and the structural adequacy remains in doubt, the commissioner may order a strength evaluation in accordance with ACI 318, Chapter 20, for the questionable portion of the structure, or take other appropriate action. The registered design professional of record shall present to the commissioner a complete analysis showing the final safe load-carrying capacity of the questionable portion of the structure including any proposed remedial actions necessary for review and approval.
Steel fiber-reinforced concrete used in beams shall be subject to the requirements of ACI 318, Section 5.6.6. The required testing and inspection of steel fiber-reinforced concrete shall be deemed a special inspection. Steel fibers shall not be used in place of required reinforcing bars.
Preparation before concrete placement shall include the following:

1. Equipment for mixing and transporting concrete shall be clean.

2. Debris and ice shall be removed from spaces to be occupied by concrete.

3. Forms shall be properly coated.

4. Masonry filler units that will be in contact with concrete shall be well drenched.

5. Reinforcement shall be thoroughly clean of ice or other deleterious coatings.

6. Water shall be removed from the place of deposit before concrete is placed unless a tremie is to be used or unless otherwise permitted by the commissioner.

7. Laitance and other unsound material shall be removed before additional concrete is placed against hardened concrete.
Mixing of concrete shall be performed in accordance with Sections 1905.8.1 through 1905.8.3.
Concrete shall be mixed until there is a uniform distribution of materials and shall be discharged completely before the mixer is recharged. Concrete delivered shall be proportioned in accordance with Section 1905.2.3. Modification to the approved concrete proportions shall be based upon standards acceptable to the commissioner.
Ready-mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in accordance with the requirements of ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685.
Concrete plants shall be certified by the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA), the Concrete Industry Board Concrete Producer Certification Program, or other program acceptable to the department, and shall comply with the rules of the department. Concrete producers shall have their plants inspected quarterly and have their scales and trucks certified. In fulfilling this certification requirement, the concrete producer may present certification by either a New York City government agency, or by the New York State Department of Transportation subject to the approval of the commissioner.
Concrete ready-mix truck drivers shall be certified by the NRMCA and shall comply with the rules of the department.
Batch tickets shall accompany every load of concrete delivered to a site. The batch ticket shall contain the information specified in Items 1 through 7:

1. Plant name and location.

2. Contract number and project.

3. Mix designation as to type and strength.

4. Each material in the load along with quantities of each by weight.

5. The total amount of mix proportion water approved, quantity of water added at the plant and in transit, and the remaining water that can be added on site.

6. Any deviations from the approved concrete mix design and variations permitted by Section 1905.3.5.

7. The time the water was added to the batch.
A copy of each batch ticket shall be given to the licensed concrete testing laboratory special inspector performing the acceptance testing at the delivery of each load. The licensed laboratory shall maintain copies of the batch tickets along with other inspection reports required by Section 1704.1, and make them available to the department upon request.
Job-mixed concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 5.8.3.
The method and equipment for conveying concrete to the place of deposit shall comply with Sections 1905.9.1 and 1905.9.2.
Concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to the place of final deposit by methods that will prevent separation or loss of materials that may alter the properties of the concrete delivered. Cylinders shall be made to determine the quality of concrete. Such cylinders shall be made at the truck or at the point of placement of the concrete as determined by the special inspection agency or the registered design professional of record.
The conveying equipment shall be capable of providing a supply of concrete at the site of placement without separation of ingredients and without interruptions sufficient to permit the loss of plasticity between successive increments.
The depositing of concrete shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1905.10.1 through 1905.10.8.
Concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable to its final position to avoid segregation due to rehandling or flowing.
Concreting operations shall be carried on at such a rate that the concrete is at all times plastic and flows readily into spaces between reinforcement.
Concrete that has partially hardened or been contaminated by foreign materials shall not be deposited in the structure.
Retempered concrete or concrete that has been remixed after initial set shall not be used.
After concreting has started, it shall be carried on as a continuous operation until placing of a panel or section, as defined by its boundaries or predetermined joints, is completed, except as permitted or prohibited by Section 1906.4.
The top surfaces of vertically formed lifts shall be generally level.
When construction joints are required, they shall be made in accordance with Section 1906.4.
Concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by suitable means during placement and shall be thoroughly worked around reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into corners of the forms.
The curing of concrete shall be in accordance with Sections 1905.11.1 through 1905.11.3.
Concrete (other than high early strength) shall be maintained above 50°F (10°C) and in a moist condition for at least the first seven days after placement, except when cured in accordance with Section 1905.11.3.
High-early-strength concrete shall be maintained above 50°F (10°C) and in a moist condition for at least the first three days, except when cured in accordance with Section 1905.11.3.
Accelerated curing of concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 5.11.3.
Concrete that is to be placed during freezing or near-freezing weather shall comply with the following:

1. Adequate equipment shall be provided for insulating or heating concrete materials and protecting concrete during freezing or near-freezing weather.

2. Concrete materials and reinforcement, forms, fillers and ground with which concrete is to in contact shall be free from frost. The temperature of surfaces in contact with fresh concrete, including but not limited to forms and reinforcing steel, shall be raised above freezing.

3. Frozen materials or materials containing ice shall not be used.
During hot weather, proper attention shall be given to ingredients, production methods, handling, placing, protection and curing to prevent excessive concrete temperatures or water evaporation that could impair the required strength or serviceability of the member or structure.
The design, fabrication and erection of forms shall comply with the requirements of Section 3305.3 of this code and with ACI 318, Section 6.1.
The removal of forms and shores, including slabs and beams (except where cast on the ground), and the installation of reshores shall comply with Section 3305.3 of this code and ACI 318, Section 6.2.
Conduits, pipes and sleeves of any material not harmful to concrete and within the limitations of ACI 318, Section 6.3, are permitted to be embedded in concrete with approval of the registered design professional of record.
Construction joints, including their location, shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 6.4. Construction joints including their location shall be approved by the registered design professional of record prior to installation.
Standard hooks on reinforcing bars used in concrete construction shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.1.
Minimum reinforcement bend diameters utilized in concrete construction shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.2.
The bending of reinforcement shall comply with Sections 1907.3.1 and 1907.3.2.
Reinforcement shall be bent cold, unless otherwise permitted by the registered design professional of record.
Reinforcement partially embedded in concrete shall not be field bent, except as shown on the construction documents or permitted by the registered design professional of record.
The surface conditions of reinforcement shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1907.4.1 through 1907.4.3.
At the time concrete is placed, reinforcement shall be free from mud, oil or other nonmetallic coatings that decrease bond. Zinc and epoxy-coating of steel reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318, Sections 3.5.3.8, 3.5.3.9, and 3.5.3.10 shall be permitted.
Except for prestressing steel, steel reinforcement with rust, mill scale or a combination of both, shall be permitted, provided the minimum dimensions, including height of deformations and weight of a hand-wire-brushed test specimen, comply with applicable ASTM specifications specified in Section 1903.5.
Prestressing steel shall be clean and free of oil, dirt, scale, pitting and excessive rust. A light coating of rust is permitted.
The placement of concrete reinforcement shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1907.5.1 through 1907.5.4.
Reinforcement, including tendons, and post tensioning ducts shall be accurately placed and adequately supported before concrete is placed, and shall be secured against displacement within tolerances permitted in Section 1907.5.2. Where approved by the registered design professional of record, embedded items (such as dowels or inserts) that either protrude from precast concrete members or remain exposed for inspection are permitted to be embedded while the concrete is in a plastic state, provided the following conditions are met:

1. Embedded items are maintained in the correct position while the concrete remains plastic.

2. The concrete is properly consolidated around the embedded item. Embedded items are not required to be hooked or tied to reinforcement within the concrete.
Unless otherwise specified by the registered design professional of record, reinforcement, including tendons, and post tensioning ducts shall be placed within the tolerances specified in Sections 1907.5.2.1 and 1907.5.2.2.
Tolerance for d and concrete cover in flexural members, walls and compression members shall be as shown in Table 1907.5.2.1, except that tolerance for the clear distance to formed soffits shall be minus 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) and tolerance for cover shall not exceed minus one-third the concrete cover specified in the design drawings or specifications.

TABLE 1907.5.2.1 TOLERANCES

DEPTH (d) (inches) TOLERANCE ON d (inch) TOLERANCE ON SPECIFIED CONCRETE COVER
d ≤ 8 ± 3/8 - 3/8
d > 8 ± 1/2 - 1/2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends of reinforcement shall be ± 2 inches (± 51 mm) except the tolerance shall be ± 1/2 inch (± 12.7 mm) at the discontinuous ends of brackets and corbels, and ± 1 inch (25 mm) at the discontinuous ends of other members. The tolerance for concrete cover of Section 1907.5.2.1 shall also apply at discontinuous ends of members.
Welded wire reinforcement with wire size not greater than W5 or D5 used in slabs not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm) in span is permitted to be curved from a point near the top of the slab over the support to a point near the bottom of the slab at midspan, provided such reinforcement is either continuous over, or securely anchored at support.
Welding of crossing bars shall not be permitted for assembly of reinforcement unless authorized by the registered design professional of record.
The clear distance between reinforcing bars, bundled bars, tendons and ducts shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.6.
The minimum concrete cover for reinforcement shall comply with Sections 1907.7.1 through 1907.7.8.
Minimum specified concrete cover shall be provided for reinforcement in nonprestressed, cast-in-place concrete construction in accordance with Table 1907.7.1, but shall not be less than required by Sections 1907.7.6 and 1907.7.8.

TABLE 1907.7.1 MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER

CONCRETE EXPOSURE MINIMUM
COVER
(inches)
1. Concrete cast against and permanently
exposed to earth
3
2. Concrete exposed to earth or weather
No. 6 through No. 18 bar 2
No. 5 bar, W31 or D31 wire, and smaller 11/2
3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact
with ground
Slabs, walls, joists:
No. 14 and No. 18 bars 11/2
No. 11 bar and smaller 3/4
Beams, columns:
Primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals 11/2
Shells, folded plate members:
No. 6 bar and larger 3/4
No. 5 bar, W31 or D31 wire, and smaller 1/2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
The minimum specified concrete cover for prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, ducts and end fittings in cast-in-place prestressed concrete shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.7.2.
The minimum specified concrete cover for prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, ducts and end fittings in precast concrete manufactured under plant control conditions shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.7.3.
The minimum specified concrete cover for bundled bars shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.7.4.
For headed shear stud reinforcement, the minimum specified concrete cover shall comply with ACI 318, Section 7.7.5.
In corrosive environments or other severe exposure conditions, prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement shall be provided with additional protection in accordance with ACI 318, Section 7.7.6.
Exposed reinforcement, inserts and plates intended for bonding with future extensions shall be protected from corrosion.
When this code requires a thickness of cover for fire protection greater than the minimum concrete cover in Section 1907.7, such greater thickness shall be specified on the construction documents.
Offset bent longitudinal bars in columns and load transfer in structural steel cores of composite compression members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.8.
Connections between concrete framing members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.9.
Transverse reinforcement for compression members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.10.
Transverse reinforcement for compression reinforcement in flexural members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.11.
Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses in concrete members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7.12.
The detailing of reinforcement and connections between concrete members shall comply with the provisions of ACI 318, Section 7. 13.
The text of ACI 318 shall be modified as indicated in Sections 1908.1.1 through 1908.1. 7.
Modify existing definitions and add the following definitions to ACI 318, Section 2.2.

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. Total lateral displacement expected for the design-basis earthquake, as specified by Section 12.8.6 of ASCE 7.

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 22, including 22.6.7.

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. A precast wall complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18.

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. A cast-in-place wall complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18.

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL. A wall complying with the requirements of Chapter 22, excluding 22.6.7.

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. A cast-in-place or precast wall complying with the requirements of 21.1.3 through 21.1.7, 21.9 and 21.10, as applicable, in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls or ordinary precast structural walls, as applicable. Where ASCE 7 refers to a "special reinforced concrete structural wall," it shall be deemed to mean a "special structural wall."

WALL PIER. A wall segment with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio of at least 2.5, but not exceeding six, whose clear height is at least two times its horizontal length.
Modify Sections 21.1.1.3 and 21.1.1.7 to read as follows:

21.1.1.3 – Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A shall satisfy requirements of Chapters 1 to 19 and 22; Chapter 21 does not apply. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, or D also shall satisfy 21.1.1.4 through 21.1.1.8, as applicable. Except for structural elements of plain concrete complying with Section 1908.1.8 of the New York City Building Code, structural elements of plain concrete are prohibited in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C or D.

21.1.1.7 – Structural systems designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be restricted to those permitted by ASCE 7 as modified by Chapter 16 of the New York City Building Code. Except for Seismic Design Category A, for which Chapter 21 does not apply, the following provisions shall be satisfied for each structural system designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting system, regardless of the Seismic Design Category:

(a) Ordinary moment frames shall satisfy 21.2.

(b) Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls and ordinary precast structural walls need not satisfy any provisions in Chapter 21.

(c) Intermediate moment frames shall satisfy 21.3.

(d) Intermediate precast structural walls shall satisfy 21.4.

(e) Special moment frames shall satisfy 21.5 through 21.8.

(f) Special structural walls shall satisfy 21.9.

(g) Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy 21.10.

All special moment frames and special structural walls shall also satisfy 21.1.3 through 21.1.7.
Modify ACI 318, Section 21.4, by renumbering Section 21.4.3 to become 21.4.4 and adding new Sections 21.4.3, 21.4.5, 21.4.6, and 21.4.7 to read as follows:

21.4.3 – Connections that are designed to yield shall be capable of maintaining 80 percent of their design strength at the deformation induced by the design displacement or shall use Type 2 mechanical splices.

21.4.4 – Elements of the connection that are not designed to yield shall develop at least 1.5 Sy.

21.4.5 – Wall piers in Seismic Design Category D shall comply with section 1908.1.4 of the New York City Building Code.

21.4.6 – Wall piers not designed as part of a moment frame in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall have transverse reinforcement designed to resist the shear forces determined from 21.3.3. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Transverse reinforcement shall be extended beyond the pier clear height for at least 12 inches (305 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Wall piers that satisfy 21.13.

2. Wall piers along a wall line within a story where other shear wall segments provide lateral support to the wall piers and such segments have a total stiffness of at least six times the sum of the stiffnesses of all the wall piers.

21.4.7 – Wall segments with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio less than 2.5 shall be designed as columns.
Modify ACI 318, Section 21.9.8, ‡by deleting Section 21.9.8 and replacing with the following:

21.9.8 Wall piers and wall segments.

21.9. 8.1 Wall piers not designed as a part of a special moment frame shall have transverse reinforcement designed to satisfy the requirements in Section 21.9.8. 2.

Exceptions:

1. Wall piers that satisfy Section 21.13.

2. Wall piers along a wall line within a story where other shear wall segments provide lateral support to the wall piers, and such segments have a total stiffness of at least six times the sum of the stiffnesses of all the wall piers.

21.9. 8.2 ‡ Transverse reinforcement with seismic hooks at both ends shall be designed to resist the shear forces determined from Sections 21.6.5.1. Spacing of transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Transverse reinforcement shall be extended beyond the pier clear height for at least 12 inches (305 mm).

21.9.8.3 Wall segments with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio less than 2.5 shall be designed as columns.
Modify ACI 318, Section 21.10.2, to read as follows:

21.10.2 – Special structural walls constructed using precast concrete shall satisfy all the requirements of 21.9 for cast-in-place special structural walls in addition to Sections 21.4.2 through 21.4.4.
Modify ACI 318, Section 21.12.1.1, to read as follows:

21.12.1.1 Foundations resisting earthquake-induced forces or transferring earthquake-induced forces between a structure and the ground shall comply with the requirements of Section 21.10 and other applicable provisions of ACI 318 unless modified by Chapter 18 of the New York City Building Code.
Modify ACI 318, Section 22.6 by adding new 22.6.7 to read as follows:

22.6.7 – Detailed plain concrete structural walls.

22.6.7.1 – Detailed plain concrete structural walls are walls conforming to the requirements of ordinary structural plain concrete walls and 22.6.7.2.

22.6.7.2 – Reinforcement shall be provided as follows:

(a) Vertical reinforcement of at least 0.20 square inch (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided continuously from support to support at each corner, at each side of each opening and at the ends of walls. The continuous vertical bar required beside an opening is permitted to substitute for one of the two No. 5 bars required by 22.6.6.5.

(b) Horizontal reinforcement at least 0.20 square inch (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area shall be provided:

1. Continuously at structurally connected roof and floor levels and at the top of walls;

2. At the bottom of load-bearing walls or in the top of foundations where doweled to the wall; and

3. At a maximum spacing of 120 inches (3048 mm).

Reinforcement at the top and bottom of openings, where used in determining the maximum spacing specified in Item 3 above, shall be continuous in the wall.
Delete ACI 318, Section 22.10, and replace with the following:

22.10 – Plain concrete in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C or D.

22.10.1 – Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C or D shall not have elements of structural plain concrete, except as follows:

(a) Structural plain concrete basement, foundation or other walls below the base are permitted in detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height constructed with stud-bearing walls. In dwellings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, the height of the wall shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), the thickness shall not be less than 71/2 inches (190 mm), and the wall shall retain no more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill. Walls shall have reinforcement in accordance with 22.6.6.5.

(b) Isolated footings of plain concrete supporting pedestals or columns are permitted, provided the projection of the footing beyond the face of the supported member does not exceed the footing thickness.

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height, the projection of the footing beyond the face of the supported member is permitted to exceed the footing thickness.

(c) Plain concrete footings supporting walls are permitted, provided the footings have at least two continuous longitudinal reinforcing bars. Bars shall not be smaller than No. 4 and shall have a total area of not less than 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the footing. For footings that exceed 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top and bottom of the footing. Continuity of reinforcement shall be provided at corners and intersections.

Exceptions:

1. In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, detached one- and two-family dwellings three stories or less in height and constructed with stud-bearing walls are permitted to have plain concrete footings without longitudinal reinforcement.

2. For foundation systems consisting of a plain concrete footing and a plain concrete stemwall, a minimum of one bar shall be provided at the top of the stem wall and at the bottom of the footing.

3. Where a slab on ground is cast monolithically with the footing, one No. 5 bar is permitted to be located at either the top of the slab or bottom of the footing.
Modify ACI 318, Sections D.3.3.4.2, D.3.3.4.3(d), and D.3.3.5.2 to read as follows:

D.3.3.4.2 - Where the tensile component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor tensile force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with Section‡ D.3.3.4.3. The anchor design tensile strength shall be determined in accordance with Section‡ D.3.3.4.4.

Exception: Anchors designed to resist wall out-of-plane forces with design strengths equal to or greater than the force determined in accordance with ASCE 7-10 Equation 12.11-1 or 12.14 -10 shall be deemed to satisfy Section D.3.3.4.3(d).

D.3.3.4.3(d) – The anchor or group of anchors shall be designed for the maximum tension obtained from design load combinations that include E, with E increased by Ω0. The anchor design tensile strength shall be calculated from Section‡ D.3.3.4.4.

D.3.3.5.2 – Where the shear component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to anchors exceeds 20 percent of the total factored anchor shear force associated with the same load combination, anchors and their attachments shall be designed in accordance with Section‡ D.3.3.5.3. The anchor design shear strength for resisting earthquake forces shall be determined in accordance with Section ‡ D.6.

Exceptions:

1. For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching wood sill plates of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame wood structures to foundations or foundation stem walls, the in-plane shear strength in accordance with Sections‡ D.6.2 and D.6.3 need not be computed and Section‡ D.3.3.5.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied provided all of the following are met:

1.1. The allowable in-plane shear strength of the anchor is determined in accordance with AF&PA; NDS Table 11E for lateral design values parallel to grain.

1.2. The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inches (16 mm).

1.3. Anchor bolts are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).

1.4. Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the wood sill plate.

1.5. Anchor bolts are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the wood sill plate.

1.6. The sill plate is of 2-inch or 3-inch nominal thickness.

2. For the calculation of the in-plane shear strength of anchor bolts attaching cold-formed steel track of bearing or nonbearing walls of light-frame construction to foundations or foundation stem walls, the in-plane shear strength in accordance with Sections‡ D.6.2 and D.6.3 need not be computed and Section‡ D.3.3.5.3 shall be deemed to be satisfied provided all of the following are met:

2.1. The maximum anchor nominal diameter is 5/8 inches (16 mm).

2.2. Anchors are embedded into concrete a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm).

2.3. Anchors are located a minimum of 13/4 inches (45 mm) from the edge of the concrete parallel to the length of the track.

2.4. Anchors are located a minimum of 15 anchor diameters from the edge of the concrete perpendicular to the length of the track.

2.5. The track is 33 to 68 mil designation thickness. Allowable in-plane shear strength of exempt anchors, parallel to the edge of concrete shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with AISI S100 Section E3.3.1.

3. In light-frame construction, bearing or non-bearing walls, shear strength of concrete anchors less than or equal to 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter connecting sill plate or track to foundation or foundation stem wall need not satisfy Section‡ D.3.3.5.3(a) through (c) when the design strength of the anchors is determined in accordance with Section‡ D.6.2.1(c).
Add the following to section 9.5.2.3:

"When calculating Ma, consideration shall be given to loads imposed during construction."
The text of ACI 318 shall be modified as indicated in Sections 1908.2.1 through 1908.2.4.
Modify ACI 318 by adding Section 10.12.4 to read as follows:

10.12.4 When the specified compressive strength of concrete in a column is greater than 1.4 times that specified for a floor system, the following additional requirements shall be adhered to:

1. All of the design provisions of Section 10.12 (unmodified) are adhered to.

2. The concrete construction is supervised and inspected continuously by a full-time professional engineer responsible for the concrete placement special inspection. Such professional engineer shall not delegate this responsibility to any subordinates.
The design and construction of structural plain concrete, both cast-in-place and precast, shall comply with the minimum requirements of Section 1909 and ACI 318, Chapter 22, as modified by Section 1908 of this chapter.
For special structures, such as arches, underground utility structures, gravity walls and shielding walls, the provisions of Section 1909 shall govern where applicable.
The use of structural plain concrete columns and structural plain concrete footings on piles is not permitted. In addition to the limitations set forth in Section 1908.1.8 of this chapter, the use of structural plain concrete shall otherwise be limited to:

1. Members that are continuously supported by soil, such as walls and footings, or by other structural members capable of providing continuous vertical support.

2. Members for which arch action provides compression under all conditions of loading.

3. Walls and pedestals.
Contraction or isolation joints shall be provided to divide structural plain concrete members into flexurally discontinuous elements in accordance with ACI 318, Section 22.3.
Structural plain concrete walls, footings and pedestals shall be designed for adequate strength in accordance with ACI 318, Sections 22.4 through 22.8.

Exception: For Group R-3 occupancies and buildings of other occupancies less than two stories above grade plane of light-frame construction, the required edge thickness of ACI 318 is permitted to be reduced to 6 inches (152 mm), provided that the footing does not extend more than 4 inches (102 mm) on either side of the supported wall.
The design, fabrication, transportation and erection of precast, structural plain concrete elements shall be in accordance with ACI 318, Section 22.9.
In addition to the requirements of this section, structural plain concrete walls shall comply with the applicable requirements of ACI 318, Chapter 22.
The thickness of exterior basement walls and foundation walls shall be not less than 71/2 inches (191 mm).
Except as provided in Section 1909.6.1, the thickness of bearing walls shall be not less than 1/24 the unsupported height or length, whichever is shorter, but not less than 51/2 inches (140 mm).
Not less than two No. 5 bars shall be provided around window and door openings. The bars shall be anchored to develop fy in tension at the corners of openings.
The thickness of concrete floor slabs supported directly on the ground shall not be less than 31/2 inches (89 mm). A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 0.152 mm) polyethylene vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the base course or subgrade and the concrete floor slab, or other acceptable equivalent methods or materials shall be used to retard vapor transmission through the floor slab.

Exception: A vapor retarder is not required:

1. For detached structures accessory to occupancies in Group R-3, such as garages, utility buildings or other unheated facilities.

2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports attached to occupancies in Group R-3.

3. For buildings of other occupancies where migration of moisture through the slab from below will not be detrimental to the intended occupancy of the building.

4. For drive ways, walks, patios and other flat work that will not be enclosed at a later date.

5. Where approved based on local site conditions.
The provisions of this section shall govern the allowable stress design of headed bolts and headed stud anchors cast in normal-weight concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. These provisions do not apply to anchors installed in hardened concrete or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects. The bearing area of headed anchors shall be not less than one and one-half times the shank area. Where strength design is used, or where load combinations include earthquake loads or effects, the design strength of anchors shall be determined in accordance with Section 1912. Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307 or an acceptable equivalent.
The allowable service load for headed anchors in shear or tension shall be as indicated in Table 1911.2. Where anchors are subject to combined shear and tension, the following relationship shall be satisfied:



where:

Ps = Applied tension service load, pounds (N).
Pt = Allowable tension service load from Table 1911.2, pounds (N).
Vs = Applied shear service load, pounds (N).
Vt = Allowable shear service load from Table 1911.2, pounds (N).


TABLE 1911.2 ALLOWABLE SERVICE LOAD ON EMBEDDED BOLTS (pounds)

BOLT
DIAMETER
(inches)
MINIMUM
EMBEDMENT
(inches)
EDGE
DISTANCE
(inches)
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH (psi)
c = 2,500 c = 3,000 c = 4,000
Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear
1/4 21/2 11/2 3 200 500 200 500 200 500
3/8 3 21/4 41/2 500 1,100 500 1,100 500 1,100
1/2 4 3 6 950 1,250 950 1,250 950 1,250
4 5 5 1,450 1,600 1,500 1,650 1,550 1,750
5/8 41/2 33/4 71/2 1,500 2,750 1,500 2,750 1,500 2,750
41/2 61/4 71/2 2,125 2,950 2,200 3,000 2,400 3,050
3/4 5 41/2 9 2,250 3,250 2,250 3,560 2,250 3,560
5 71/2 9 2,825 4,275 2,950 4,300 3,200 4,400
7/8 6 51/4 101/2 2,550 3,700 2,550 4,050 2,550 4,050
1 7 6 12 3,050 4,125 3,250 4,500 3,650 5,300
11/8 8 63/4 131/2 3,400 4,750 3,400 4,750 3,400 4,750
11/4 9 71/2 15 4,000 5,800 4,000 5,800 4,000 5,800

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689MPa, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
The allowable service loads in tension and shear specified in Table 1911.2 are for the edge distance and spacing specified. The edge distance and spacing are permitted to be reduced to 50 percent of the values specified with an equal reduction in allowable service load. Where edge distance and spacing are reduced less than 50 percent, the allowable service load shall be determined by linear interpolation.
Where special inspection is provided for the installation of anchors, a 100-percent increase in the allowable tension values of Table 1911.2 is permitted. No increase in shear value is permitted.
The provisions of this section shall govern the strength design of anchors installed in concrete for purposes of transmitting structural loads from one connected element to the other. Headed bolts, headed studs and hooked (J- or L-) bolts cast in concrete and expansion anchors and undercut anchors installed in hardened concrete shall be designed in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318 as modified by Sections 1908.1.9 and 1908.1.10, provided they are within the scope of Appendix D.
The strength design of anchors that are not within the scope of Appendix D of ACI 318, as modified by this code, shall be in accordance with a procedure subject to the approval of the commissioner.
Shotcrete is mortar or concrete that is pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface. Except as specified in this section, shotcrete shall conform to the requirements of this chapter for plain or reinforced concrete.
Nozzlemen shall be ACI certified.
Shotcrete proportions shall be selected that allow suitable placement procedures using the delivery equipment selected and shall result in finished in-place hardened shotcrete meeting the strength requirements of this code. Prior to using shotcrete, the mix design for shotcrete shall be performed by the contractor and shall be approved by the registered design professional of record. The approved mix design shall be filed with the department based upon preconstruction tests performed in accordance with Section 1913.5.
Coarse aggregate, if used, shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19.1 mm).
Reinforcement used in shotcrete construction shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1913.4.1 through 1913.4.4.
The maximum size of reinforcement shall be No. 5 bars unless it is demonstrated by preconstruction tests that adequate encasement of larger bars will be achieved.
When No. 5 or smaller bars are used, there shall be a minimum clearance between parallel reinforcement bars of 21/2 inches (64 mm). When bars larger than No. 5 are permitted, there shall be a minimum clearance between parallel bars equal to six diameters of the bars used. When two curtains of steel are provided, the curtain nearer the nozzle shall have a minimum spacing equal to 12 bar diameters and the remaining curtain shall have a minimum spacing of six bar diameters.

Exception: Subject to the approval of the commissioner, required clearances shall be reduced where it is demonstrated by preconstruction tests that adequate encasement of the bars used in the design will be achieved.
Lap splices of reinforcing bars shall utilize the noncontact lap splice method with a minimum clearance of 2 inches (51 mm) between bars. The use of contact lap splices necessary for support of the reinforcing is permitted when approved by the commissioner, based on satisfactory preconstruction tests that show that adequate encasement of the bars will be achieved, and provided that the splice is oriented so that a plane through the center of the spliced bars is perpendicular to the surface of the shotcrete.
Shotcrete shall not be applied to spirally tied columns.
A test panel shall be shot by each nozzleman and then cured, cored or sawn, examined and tested prior to commencement of the project. The sample panel shall be representative of the project and simulate job conditions as closely as possible. The panel thickness and reinforcing shall reproduce the thickest and most congested area specified in the structural design. It shall be shot for each proposed concrete mix, at the proposed angles. The equipment used in preconstruction testing shall be the same equipment used in the work requiring such testing, unless substitute equipment is approved by the commissioner. Cores taken from the test panel shall be used to demonstrate that the proposed mix design meets the requirements of the construction documents and this code. All sampling and testing of shotcrete shall be performed by a licensed concrete testing laboratory. Construction of the test panels shall be witnessed by the special inspection agency responsible for the shotcrete construction.
Six core samples shall be obtained from each preconstruction test panel:

1. Three specimens with no reinforcing shall be sampled and prepared in accordance with ASTM C 42; and

2. Three specimens with reinforcing steel.
The licensed concrete testing laboratory that sampled the preconstruction test panels shall test the core specimens with no reinforcing in accordance with ASTM C 39.
The shotcrete test panel strength shall be deemed acceptable if the mean compressive strength of the set of three cores shall equal or exceed f'c with no individual core less than 0.75 c.
Core samples and/or test panels shall be cut with reinforcing steel and shall be visually evaluated by the registered design professional of record for the structural design, or a registered design professional acceptable to the registered design professional of record for the structural design. The nozzleman shall not proceed with work if cores and/or sections cut show the rebar not to be encapsulated with concrete to the satisfaction of the registered design professional of record for the structural design.
Any rebound or accumulated loose aggregate shall be removed from the surfaces to be covered prior to placing the initial or any succeeding layers of shotcrete. Rebound shall not be used as aggregate.
Except where permitted herein, unfinished work shall not be allowed to stand for more than 30 minutes unless edges are sloped to a thin edge. For structural elements that will be under compression and for construction joints shown on the approved construction documents, square joints are permitted. Before placing additional material adjacent to previously applied work, sloping and square edges shall be cleaned and wetted.
In-place shotcrete that exhibits sags, sloughs, segregation, honeycombing, sand pockets or other obvious defects shall be removed and replaced. Shotcrete above sags and sloughs shall be removed and replaced while still plastic.
During the curing periods specified herein, shotcrete shall be maintained above 40°F (4°C) and in moist condition.
Shotcrete shall be kept continuously moist for 24 hours after shotcreting is complete or shall be sealed with an approved curing compound.
Final curing shall continue for seven days after shotcreting, or for three days if high-early-strength cement is used, or until the specified strength is obtained. Final curing shall consist of the initial curing process or the shotcrete shall be covered with an approved moisture-retaining cover.
Natural curing shall not be used in lieu of that specified in this section unless the relative humidity remains at or above 85 percent, and is authorized by the registered design professional of record and approved by the commissioner.
Strength tests for shotcrete shall be made by an approved agency on specimens that are representative of the work, and that are sampled and prepared in accordance with ASTM C 42.
Specimens shall be taken from the in-place work or from test panels, and shall be taken at least once each shift, but not less than three cores for each 50 cubic yards (38.2 m3) of shotcrete. With the approval of the registered design professional of record, when in-place cores are not feasible due to rebar spacing, test panels shall be shot in the same position as the work represented. One panel shall be cast for each 50 cubic yards of concrete and 3 cores shall be taken per ASTM C 42.
When the maximum-size aggregate is larger than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), the test panels shall have minimum dimensions of 18 inches by 18 inches (457 mm by 457 mm). When the maximum size aggregate is 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or smaller, the test panels shall have minimum dimensions of 12 inches by 12 inches (305 mm by 305 mm). Panels shall be shot in the same position as the work, during the course of the work and by the nozzlemen doing the work. The conditions under which the panels are cured shall be the same as the work.
The average compressive strength of three cores from the in-place work tested in accordance with ASTM C 39 shall equal or exceed 0.85 f'c with no single core less than 0.75 f'c. The average compressive strength of three cubes taken from the in-place work or a single test panel shall equal or exceed f'c with no individual cube less than 0.88 f'c. To check accuracy, locations represented by erratic core or cube strengths shall be retested.
Reinforced gypsum concrete shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C 317 and ASTM C 956.
The minimum thickness of reinforced gypsum concrete shall be 2 inches (51 mm) except the minimum required thickness shall be reduced to 11/2 inches (38 mm), provided the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The overall thickness, including the formboard, is not less than 2 inches (51 mm).

2. The clear span of the gypsum concrete between supports does not exceed 33 inches (838 mm).

3. Diaphragm action is not required.

4. The design live load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (psf) (1915 Pa).
Reinforced gypsum concrete shall not be used where exposed directly to the weather or where subject to frequent or continuous wetting. Precast units shall be protected by coverings or coatings from the weather and from contact with moisture during shipment and during storage at the work site.
Concrete-filled steel columns shall comply with Section 1915 and shall be filled with concrete so placed and manipulated as to secure maximum density and to ensure complete filling of the steel without voids.
The safe supporting capacity of concrete-filled steel columns shall be computed in accordance with ACI 318 and AISC 360 or as determined by a test approved by the commissioner.
Caps, base plates and connections shall be in accordance with ACI 318 and AISC 360 and shall be positively attached to the shell and anchored to the concrete core. Welding of brackets without mechanical anchorage shall be prohibited. Where the pipe is slotted to accommodate webs of brackets or other connections, the integrity of the shell shall be restored by welding to ensure hooping action of the composite section.
Steel reinforcement shall be in the form of rods, structural shapes or pipe embedded in the con-crete core in accordance with ACI 318 and AISC 360 with sufficient clearance to ensure the composite action of the section, but not nearer than 1 inch (25 mm) to the exterior steel shell. Structural shapes used as reinforcement shall be milled to ensure bearing on cap and base plates.
Steel columns shall be of such size or so protected as to develop the required fire-resistance ratings specified in Table 601. Where an outer steel shell is used to enclose the fire protective covering, the shell shall not be included in the calculations for strength of the column section. The minimum diameter of steel‡ columns shall be 4 inches (102 mm) except that in structures of Type V construction not exceeding three stories or 40 feet (12 192 mm) above grade plane, steel‡ columns used in basements and as secondary steel members shall have a minimum diameter of 3 inches (76 mm).
Four minimum 1/2 inch‡ (12.7 mm) diameter holes top and bottom shall be placed opposite each other, two at the top and two at the bottom of the column. The two bottom holes shall be rotated 90° relative to the two top holes.
Details of column connections and splices shall be shop fabricated in accordance with ACI 318 and AISC 360. Concrete-filled steel columns shall be inspected by an approved agency pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code.
Reinforced concrete structures shall meet all the requirements of Sections 1916.1 through 1916.3. Concrete slabs on metal deck shall be governed by the provisions of Chapter 22. Reinforcement provided for gravity, seismic and wind forces or for other purposes may be regarded as forming part of, or the whole of, these requirements. Reinforcing provided for one requirement may be counted towards the other requirements.
The structural integrity requirements of ACI 318, Section 7.13 shall apply. In addition, the following requirements shall be met.
At all floor and roof levels, slabs shall have a mat of bottom reinforcement in two perpendicular (or roughly perpendicular) directions. Reinforcement in this bottom mat shall be made continuous with lap, mechanical or welded tension splices.
In each direction, the bottom mat reinforcement shall be not less than, the steel required for temperature reinforcement. The bottom mat reinforcement shall be anchored at discontinuous edges within the column strip, reentrant corners, elevation changes and anywhere else the continuity of the reinforcing is interrupted.

Exception: Flat plate middle strip bottom mat reinforcing perpendicular to discontinuous slab edges. In addition, the main bottom mat reinforcement in one-way slabs shall be anchored at discontinuous edges.
At each floor and roof level, reinforcement forming a continuous peripheral tie shall be provided. Peripheral ties shall be located within perimeter beams or walls, where they occur, or within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the edge of slab, where perimeter beams or walls do not occur. Continuous tie reinforcement shall be equal to half of the bottom reinforcement within the edge or edge strip for two-way slabs but not less than two bars.
At each column, beam reinforcement or slab bottom reinforcement shall be provided at each level that can develop a tension force equal to the maximum of Item 1 or 2:

1. Three times the load entering the column at that level, using a load combination of 1.0 × DL (self weight of structure only).

2. One and a half times the load entering the column at that level using the load combinations of (1.2 DL + 1.6 LL) or 1.4 DL.

3. For transfer elements only, in lieu of Item 1 or 2, the horizontal reinforcement shall be anchored at all supports.
This beam or slab bottom reinforcement shall be distributed around the column perimeter and shall be extended on all sides of the column into the adjacent slab for at least one-third of the span length. Where reinforcing bars cannot be extended beyond the column (e.g., at slab edges and openings), they shall be hooked or otherwise developed within the column.
Each column and each wall carrying vertical load shall be vertically tied continuously from its lowest to highest level. The vertical ties composed of vertical column reinforcement shall be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to the maximum design dead and live load received by the column or wall from any one story within four floors below.
Precast concrete structural elements shall be reinforced to meet all of the requirements of this section. However, reinforcement provided for gravity, seismic and wind forces and for other purposes may be regarded as forming part of, or the whole of, these requirements. Reinforcing provided for one requirement may be counted towards the other requirements.
The structural integrity requirements of ACI 318, Section 16.5, shall apply. In precast and composite structures, ties within precast structural elements shall be continuous and shall be anchored to the supporting structure. In addition to Sections 1916.2.2 and 1916.2.4, the following requirements shall be met.
End connections of all precast slabs, beams and girders shall have an axial tension capacity equal to the larger of the vertical shear capacity of the connection at either end, or at least 2 percent of the maximum factored vertical dead and live load in the precast compression element, whichever is larger, but not less than 20 kips or 2,500 pounds per linear foot of slab (36.48 kN/m). Where more than one element frames in one direction, none of the elements or connections shall have an axial tension capacity of less than 1 percent of the column load but not less than 20 kips.
Side connections of all precast elements shall have an axial tension capacity not less than the steel required for temperature reinforcement of the larger element at either side.
For design of the connections, the transverse shear force and the axial tensile force need not be considered to act simultaneously.
Joints in precast structures shall not rely on friction due to gravity to transfer load.
The net bearing area shall not be less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide and 3 inches (76 mm) long in the direction of the member.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein.

ASPHALT. A dark brown to black bitumen pitch that melts readily and which appears in nature in asphalt beds or is produced as a by-product of the petroleum industry.

ASPHALTIC CONCRETE or ASPHALT PAVING. A mixture of liquid asphalt and graded aggregate used as a paving material.

I-4 MIX. A type of heavy duty asphaltic concrete mix containing 0.75 inch (19 mm) nominal maximum size aggregate with 25 to 50 percent‡ of the aggregate capable of passing through a No. 8 sieve and in which all sand contained in the mix is crushed.

RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT. Asphalt pavement that has been processed for reuse in asphaltic concrete.
On and after January 1, 2015, asphaltic concrete, other than I-4 mix or other approved heavy duty asphaltic concrete mix, shall contain not less than 30 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement, as measured by weight. I-4 mix or other approved heavy duty asphaltic concrete mix shall contain not less than 10 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement, as measured by weight. Reclaimed asphalt paving used in asphaltic concrete shall comply with ASTM D 692 or ASTM 1073.

Exceptions:

1. Asphaltic concrete used in a project where the content of asphaltic concrete is governed by a federal or state law, rule, regulation, guideline, or specification that requires a different composition.

2. Asphaltic concrete used for runways, taxiways, or other surfaces utilized by aircraft.

3. The commissioner may waive compliance with this section if the commissioner, after consulting with the commissioner of transportation and the owners or persons in charge of all asphalt plants located within the city, finds that a sufficient supply of reclaimed asphalt pavement is not available.
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