Copyright

Preface

Dedications

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Type B+NYC Unit Toilet and Bathing Rooms Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, Fire Pump and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panelceiling Suspension Systems

Appendix S Supplementary Figures for Luminous Egress Path Markings

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Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof.
It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.
Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
Except as specifically provided for in this chapter, no employer or agent of such employer shall lock the doors of or otherwise prohibit exit from any workplace, when by so doing the health or safety of any employee, independent contractor or other individual working in such workplace may become endangered by fire or other hazardous condition. Refer to Article 307 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.
Every existing structure which is not provided with means of egress as required by this chapter and, in which the means of egress are, in the opinion of the commissioner, inadequate for the safety of the occupants, shall be provided with means of egress or fire protection as directed by the commissioner.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way. Such way of egress travel may include an assisted rescue path.

AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.

AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

ASSISTED RESCUE PATH. A portion of the accessible means of egress which begins at the area of rescue assistance and terminates at the public way.

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Grandstand").

COLLECTING SAFE AREA. A safe area that receives occupants from the assembly space it serves, as well as from other safe areas.

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. Corridors shall be either interior or public.

Corridor, interior. A corridor that serves only one tenant. In Group E occupancies, corridors serving only one institution shall be deemed as serving a single tenant.

Corridor, public. A corridor that serves more than one tenant.

CROSS AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component in a place of assembly usually parallel to rows of seats, connecting aisles or connecting an aisle and an exit. For the purposes of this chapter, a cross aisle is not an aisle.

DEAD END. A portion of a corridor in which the travel to an exit is in one direction only.

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing action when opening.

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system, which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits, but do not include access stairs, aisles, exit access doors opening to corridors, or corridors.

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, unenclosed exit access stair or unenclosed exit access ramp.

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. An exit that provides a path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, or a bridge or tunnel between two buildings, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include interior courts.

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including the thickness of walls, partitions, columns, furred-in spaces, fixed cabinets, equipment, and unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Bleachers").

GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions from which customers browse or shop.

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.

OPEN EXTERIOR SPACE. A street or other public space; or a yard, court, or plaza open on one or more sides and unroofed or open on all sides, which provides egress to a street or public space.

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

REFUGE AREA. A floor area to which egress is made through a horizontal exit.

SAFE AREA. An interior or exterior space that serves as a means of egress by providing a transitional area from, and that also serves as a normal means of entry to, an assembly space.

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure.

SEATING SECTION. An area of seating bounded on all sides by aisles, cross aisles, walls or partitions.

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of two or more risers.

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

Stairway, exterior. A stairway that is open on at least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway need not be open.

Stairway, interior. A stairway not meeting the definition of an exterior stairway.

Stairway, spiral. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter-supporting column.

SUITE. A group of patient treatment rooms or patient sleeping rooms within Group I-2 occupancies where staff are in attendance within the suite, for supervision of all patients within the suite and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7.

WINDER. A stair tread with nonparallel edges.
The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.
The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet, 6 inches (2286 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Ceilings that are permitted to be less than 7 feet, 6 inches (2286 mm) in accordance with Section 1208.2.

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2.

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3.

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2.

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1.3.

6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1010.5.2.

7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and pedestrian traffic areas in parking garages in accordance with Section 406.2.2.

8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accordance with Section 505.1.
Protruding objects shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.
Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 84 inches (2134 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects.

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the floor.
A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor or ground.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run.
Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface.

Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 4.5 inches (114 mm) from the wall.
Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes.
Walking surfaces of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached.
Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.

Exceptions: At locations that are not required to be accessible by Chapter 11:

1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches (178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at exterior doors.

2. A step with a single riser or a stair with two risers and a tread is permitted provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1009.4, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the step or stair.

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1028 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1028.13.

Throughout a story in a Group I-2 occupancy, any change in elevation in portions of the exit access that serve nonambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.
The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel.
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress from any other part of the building.

Exceptions:

1. Elevators used as a component of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.4.

2. Elevators permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation pursuant to Sections 403.5.2 and 403.6.2.
In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be established by the largest number computed in accordance with Section 1004.1.1 unless otherwise permitted by Section 1004.1.2, 1004.1.3 or 1004.2. Where occupants from accessory areas egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing through it from the accessory area.
The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.1. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor assigned to the functions as set forth in Table 1004.1.1.

TABLE 1004.1.1 MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT

FUNCTION OF SPACE FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT.
PER OCCUPANT
Agricultural building 300 gross
Aircraft hangars 500 gross
Assembly
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 11 gross
Exhibit gallery and museums 30 net
Assembly with fixed seats See Section 1004.7
Assembly without fixed seats
Concentrated (chairs only‒not fixed) 7 net
Dance floor 5 net
Dance floor (ballroom) 10 net
Standing space 5 net
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 15 net
Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane including 15 feet of runway, and for additional areas 7 net
Business areas 100 gross
Courtrooms ‒ other than fixed seating areas 40 net
Day Care
Age under 6 months 50 net
Age 6 months ‒ 2 years 40 net
Age 2 years ‒ 6 years 30 net
Age above 6 years 50 net
Dormitories 50 gross
Educational
Classroom area 20 net
Shops and other vocational room areas 50 net
Kindergarten, and pre-kindergarten 30 net
Exercise rooms 50 gross
Gymnasiums 15 net
H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 200 gross
Industrial areas 100 gross
Institutional areas
Inpatient treatment areas 240 gross
Outpatient areas 100 gross
Sleeping areas 120 gross
Kitchens, commercial 200 gross
Library
Reading rooms 50 net
Stack area 100 gross
Locker rooms 50 gross
Mercantile
Areas on other floors 60 gross
Basement and grade floor areas 30 gross
Storage, stock, shipping areas 300 gross
Parking garages 200 gross
Passenger terminal
Baggage claim 20 gross
Baggage handling 300 gross
Concourse 100 gross
Passenger terminal or platform 1.5 X C*
Waiting area (Standing) 15 gross
Waiting areas (Seated) 5 net
Residential 200 gross within dwelling units


(continued)

TABLE 1004.1.1‒continued MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT

FUNCTION OF SPACE FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT.
PER OCCUPANT
Skating rinks, swimming pools
Rink and pool 50 gross
Decks 15 gross
Stages and platforms 15 net for performing area and 50 net remaining area
Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room 300 gross
Warehouses 500 gross

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Where the actual number of occupants of any space will be significantly lower than listed in Table 1004.1.1, the commissioner may establish a lower basis for the determination of the number of occupants.
Where data regarding the square feet area per person for a function is not listed in Table 1004.1.1, the occupant load shall be established by a registered design professional, subject to the approval of the commissioner.
The occupant load permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the functions in Table 1004.1.1 provided that all other requirements of the code are also met based on such modified number and the occupant load shall not exceed one occupant per 5 square feet (0.47 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the commissioner, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the commissioner, such diagram shall be posted.
Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or authorized agent. Such sign shall also comply with Section 1028.1.2.
Where exits serve more than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered individually shall be used in computing the required capacity of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not decrease in the direction of egress travel.
Where means of egress from floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall not be less than the sum of the two floors.
The occupant load of a mezzanine level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established.
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheelchair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats.

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length.

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be determined by the design professional subject to the approval of the commissioner. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.

Exceptions:

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress.

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and individual dwelling units of Group R-2.
Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.
The means of egress width shall not be less than that required by this section. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by 0.3 inches (7.62 mm) per occupant for stairways and by 0.2 inches (5.08 mm) per occupant for other egress components. The width shall not be less than specified elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of egress.

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1028.
Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall not reduce the required means of egress width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width a maximum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) on each side.

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3.
Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch (178 mm) maximum projection requirement of Section 1005.2 when:

1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing the corridor width when the door is in the open position; and

2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) or more than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the finished floor.
Exits, exit discharges and public corridors shall be illuminated at all times by either daylight or electric lighting fixtures. Exit access components shall be illuminated by either daylight or electric lighting fixtures at all times that the space served by the exit access component is occupied.

Exceptions:

1. Occupancies in Group U.

2. Aisle accessways in Group A.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups I-1, R-1, R-2 and R-3.

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies.

5. Areas beyond safe dispersal area where such areas are provided, and designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exceptions 1 through 5.
The means of egress illumination level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface.

Exceptions:

1. For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances to not less than 0.5 foot-candle (5.38 lux) for aisles and cross aisles, and 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) for other portions of the space, provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premise's fire alarm system where such system is provided. Step lights shall be provided in accordance with Section 1028.11.4.

2. Safe areas in assembly occupancies shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1028.17.3.2.

3. Open exterior spaces used to receive occupants as Class 1 or 2 exits in assembly occupancies shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1028.17.4.

4. In exits in buildings that contain existing photoluminescent exit path markings tested in laboratory conditions with 2 foot-candles (22 lux) of activating illumination, the illumination level shall not be less than 2 foot-candles (22 lux).
Automatic, occupant sensor or photosensor lighting controls shall be permitted within means of egress, provided that the illumination level is not reduced to a level below the minimum requirements of Section 1006.2, and the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation ensuring that if the sensor or control fails, the lighting levels will be at the levels required by Section 1006.2.
The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premise's electrical supply.

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and spaces that require two or more means of egress.

2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways.

3. Exterior egress components at other than their levels of exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for buildings required to have two or more exits.

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 1027.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits.

5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1008.1.6 for exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.
Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6.46 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.646 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. In buildings that contain existing photoluminescent exit path markings tested in laboratory conditions with greater than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) of activating illumination, the initial illumination shall not be less than that required for activating the approved photoluminescent illumination.
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section 1015.1 or 1021.1 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means of egress.

Exceptions:

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alterations to prior code buildings where the level of alterations does not trigger full compliance of accessibility pursuant to Section 28-101.4 of the Administrative Code.

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5.

3. In assembly areas with sloped or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section 1028.8.
Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:

1. Interior accessible routes complying with Section 1104.

2. Area of rescue assistance complying with Section 1007.6.

3. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1022.1.

4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1026.

5. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4.

6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5.

7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025.

8. Ramps complying with Section 1010.

9. Exit discharges complying with Section 1027.

10. Exterior accessible routes complying with Section 1104.

11. Exterior areas for assisted rescue complying with Section 1007.7.
In high-rise buildings subject to Section 403, at least one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1007.4.

Exceptions:

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit and located at or above the level of exit discharge.

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1010.

3. In buildings of occupancy Group R-2 not subject to the requirements of emergency power in Section 403 of this code.
Where an exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be provided in accordance with Section 1007.7. An exterior area for assisted rescue shall not be required where an exit discharge is on an assisted rescue path from a stairway or an elevator.
Where an exit stairway is open to the exterior, the accessible means of egress shall include either an area of rescue assistance in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1007.7.
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an exit access stairway as permitted by Section 1016.1 or exit stairway shall have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of rescue assistance within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an area of rescue assistance complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit.

Unenclosed exit stairways as permitted by Section 1022.1 are permitted to be considered part of an accessible means of egress.

Exceptions: The following exceptions apply to the requirements of clear width and area of rescue assistance, and do not supersede the other requirements of the accessible means of egress:

1. The area of rescue assistance is not required for open exit access or exit stairways as permitted by Sections 1016.1 and 1022.1 in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails and the area of rescue assistance is not required at exit access stairways as permitted by Section 1016.1 or exit stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

3. Areas of rescue assistance are not required at exit stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required for enclosed exit stairways accessed from a horizontal exit.

5. Areas of rescue assistance are not required at exit stairways serving open parking garages.

6. Areas of rescue assistance are not required for smoke protected seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2.

7. The areas of rescue assistance are not required in Group R-2 occupancies.
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of ASME A17.1 and Section 1109.6. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 and Section 3003. The elevator shall be accessed from either an area of rescue assistance complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1025.

Exceptions:

1. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit in open parking garages.

2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 708.2 are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit.

4. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit for smoke protected seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2.
Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1109.7. Platform lifts shall be installed in accordance with ASME A18.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27 for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress.
Platform lifts on an accessible means of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed hoistway.
Every required area of rescue assistance shall be accessible from the space it serves by one or more accessible means of egress components as listed in Section 1007.2. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of rescue assistance shall not exceed the travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1016.1. Every required area of rescue assistance shall have direct access to a stairway within an exit enclosure complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1022 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where an elevator lobby is used as an area of rescue assistance, the shaft and lobby shall comply with Section 1022.9 for smokeproof enclosures except where the elevators are in an area of rescue assistance, such lobby shall be part of a horizontal exit or protected by a smoke barrier.

Exceptions:

1. A stairway serving an area of rescue assistance is not required to be enclosed where permitted in Sections 1016.1 and 1022.1.

2. Smokeproof enclosure is not required for an elevator lobby used as an area of rescue assistance where the elevator is not required to be enclosed.
Each area of rescue assistance shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of rescue assistance and areas served by the area of rescue assistance. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of rescue assistance shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space.
Each area of rescue assistance shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 710 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1025. Each area of rescue assistance shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.

Exception: Areas of rescue assistance located within an exit enclosure.
Areas of rescue assistance shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2.
The exterior area for assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls. Where walls or openings are between the area for assisted rescue and the interior of the building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower.
The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Exterior exit stairways that are part of the accessible means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails.
A two-way communication system shall be provided at the elevator landing on each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or below the story of exit discharge complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2.

Exceptions:

1. Two-way communication systems are not required at the elevator landing where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of rescue assistance in accordance with Section 1007.6.3.

2. Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with exit ramps conforming to the provisions of Section 1010.
Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the Fire Department. Where the central control point is not constantly attended, a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or 911. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.
Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system.
Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:

1. Each door providing access to an area of rescue assistance from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating: AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE.

2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE.

Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1011.2, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of rescue assistance and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1011.3 of this code.
Direction signage indicating the location of the other means of egress and which are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following:

1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means of egress.

2. At elevator landings.

3. Within areas of rescue assistance.
In areas of rescue assistance and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instructions shall include all of the following:

1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.

2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance.

3. Directions for use of the two-way communications system where provided.
Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1020.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.
The minimum width and height of each door opening shall be in accordance with this section.
The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in a Group I-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 411/2 inches (1054 mm).

Exceptions:

1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies.

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.

4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be limited.

5. Except for Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type B+NYC or Type B unit.
There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.
The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.

2. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
Egress doors shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type.

Exceptions:

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.

2. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities.

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.1.

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3 are permitted in a means of egress.

7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.4.2.

8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1.

9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.
Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving:

1. Group F or H occupancies.

2. Rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more persons.

3. Rooms or spaces requiring more than one exit door.

4. Automatic teller machines in accordance with Section 10-160 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Doors need not swing in the direction of egress travel for exterior street floor exit doors from lobbies serving only Group R-2 or R-3 occupancies.
The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door.
Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.4.1 through 1008.1.4.5.
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

1. Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing into a book fold position with parallel egress paths providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 mm).

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1008.1.4.1.

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door which complies with Section 1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.

5. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section 1007 and Chapter 11.

TABLE 1008.1.4.1 REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS

INSIDE DIAMETER
(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
MANUAL-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
6-6 11 12
7-0 10 11
7-6 9 11
8-0 9 10
8-6 8 9
9-0 8 9
9-6 7 8
10-0 7 8

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 and the following three conditions:

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity.

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.
A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.4.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) when at least one of the following conditions is satisfied:

1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system which is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building which are within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors.

4. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly defined, which reduces the holding force to below the 130-pound (578 N) force level.
Where means of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19.

Exceptions:

1. Occupancies in Group I-3.

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3.

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.
In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section 1008.1.2.1 shall comply with all of the following criteria:

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.

3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 715 of this code.

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised.

8. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device.
The exterior building entrance doors serving occupancies in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria:

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock‒independent of the access control system electronics‒and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds.

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public.
In Groups B, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main entrance where the opening of such grilles are essential to the operation of the establishments. Such grilles shall be installed in accordance with the following criteria:

1. Security grilles shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied.

2. The security grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

3. Except as to buildings or structures classified in occupancy Group S, buildings or structures that have been designated as a landmark by the landmarks preservation commission or located in a historic district designated by such commission, on or after July 1, 2011, no security grille may be installed or replaced, nor shall the owner of a structure classified as a Group B or M occupancy or the operator of the business occupying such structure allow to be installed or replaced, a security grille to secure such property where the grille abuts the sidewalk, unless the grille, when closed, permits visibility from the sidewalk of at least 70 percent of the area covered by such grille.

4. No later than July 1, 2026, all security grilles installed on buildings or structures classified in occupancy Groups B or M shall comply with the provisions of paragraph 3 of this section.

5. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles.
There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

Exceptions:

1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:

1.1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs within the dwelling unit, provided the door does not swing over the top step.

1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1020.2, which are not on an accessible route.

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Accessible units, Type B+NYC units or Type B units, the landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more than 73/4 inches (197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm).

5. Exterior spaces of Type B+NYC units and Type B units where permitted pursuant to the exception to Section 1107.4.
Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). At any stairway landing, or when a door landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 75 percent of its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

2. In Group R-2 occupancies, where 36 inches wide stairways are permitted pursuant to Section 1009.1, Exception 1.2, such stairway landing length in the direction of travel shall be permitted to be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) or the width of the stairway, whichever is greater. Doors opening onto such stairway landings shall not reduce the landing width.
Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).

Exception: The threshold height shall be limited to 7.75 inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component of the required means of egress; the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible route as required by Chapter 11 and is not part of an Accessible unit, Type B+NYC unit or Type B unit.
Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.

Exceptions:

1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Group R-3.

4. Doors within individual dwelling units in Group R-2 that are not required to comply with Section 1107.

5. Exterior doors in vestibules in R-2 occupancies shall not be required to swing either in the same direction or away from the space between doors provided that the 48-inch (1219 mm) minimum space between door swings is maintained.
Except as specifically permitted by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts in compliance with Section 3109.4.2 or 3109.5.1.7, as applicable.
Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exists:

1. Places of detention or restraint.

2. Places where extra safeguards are required such as banks, museums, and jewelry stores subject to the approval of the commissioner and provided the locks are equipped with electrical release devices for remote control in case of emergencies. However, museums shall be subject to further special review by the commissioner and Fire Commissioner.

3. Main entrances in Occupancy Groups B, M, and S as permitted by Section 1008.1.3.5.

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.

5. Doors serving Group R-2 occupancies as required by Section 1008.4.

6. Stairways leading from the top floor to a roof may be provided with locked wire mesh gates openable by key in Occupancy Group E. The use of a hook and eye closing device on the inside of all doors to roofs shall be permitted.

7. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures.
Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.

Exceptions:

1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.

3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load of less than 75 persons in a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. The inactive leaf shall contain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.

4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress width requirements and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall contain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.

5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care rooms in Group I-2 occupancies, self-latching edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided that the inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress width requirements and the inactive leaf contains no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
The unlatching of any door or leaf shall not require more than one operation.

Exception: More than one operation is permitted for unlatching doors in the following locations:

1. Places of detention or restraint.

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1008.1.9.4.

3. Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1008.1.9.3, Items 4 and 5.
In community residences or intermediate-care facilities classified as Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies pursuant to Section 308.2.2, Exception 1, 2 or 3, within such facilities, closet doors that latch in the closed position shall be openable from inside the closet, and bathroom doors that latch in the closed position shall be capable of being unlocked from the ingress side.
Subject to special review and approval by the commissioner, approved, listed, delayed egress locks may be permitted on doors serving spaces in a Group I-2 occupancy where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require such locking. Delayed egress locks may be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.

1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center, a nursing station or other approved location.

4. The procedures for the operation(s) of the unlocking system shall be described and approved as part of the emergency planning and preparedness required by Chapter 4 of the New York City Fire Code.

5. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking devices.

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

Exception: Items 1 through 3 shall not apply to doors to areas where persons, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a mental hospital.
Subject to special review and approval by the commissioner, approved, listed, delayed egress locks may be permitted on doors serving spaces where extra safeguards are required in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.

1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center.

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only. Except that where approved by the department, a delay in releasing the latch of not more than 30 seconds is permitted.

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS. Except that where a delay in releasing the latch of not more than 30 seconds is approved by the department, such sign shall read: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 30 SECONDS.

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

Exceptions:

1. Delayed egress locks shall not be permitted in buildings or spaces in Group A, E, F and H occupancies. However, in museums, delayed egress locks may be installed on exit doors subject to special review by the commissioner and Fire Commissioner.

2. Places of detention or restraints in Group I-3 are permitted to install delayed egress locks without the special review by the commissioner, provided that the installation complies with all of the other requirements of this section.
Doors in the means of egress that are not otherwise required to have panic hardware in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked if equipped with listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch and meet the requirements below:

1. The listed hardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions.

2. The listed hardware is capable of being operated with one hand.

3. Operation of the listed hardware releases to the electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door immediately.

4. Loss of power to the listed hardware automatically unlocks the door.
In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, I-2, I-3, M and S within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be permitted to be locked when equipped with egress control devices which shall unlock manually and by at least one of the following means:

1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1;

2. Activation of an approved manual alarm box; or

3. A signal from a constantly attended location.
Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exceptions:

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.5.3.

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building.

4. This section shall not apply to buildings permitted to be served by one exit in accordance with Item 4 or 5 of Section 1021.2.
Doors serving a Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware.

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in compliance with Section 1008.1.9.3, Item 2.

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices with exit or exit access doors shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel.
Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:

1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 305;

2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305;

3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend at least one-half of the door leaf width; and

4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).
If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.
Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.
Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 1027.6 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas.
Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress. Where portable turnstiles are installed for ticketing purposes, such turnstiles shall be moved from the egress path for proper exiting.

Exceptions:

1. Manually-operated turnstiles. Manually-operated turnstiles that consist of revolving devices that turn freely in the direction of exit travel may be used in any occupancy where revolving doors are permitted. Each manually-operated turnstile or similar device shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the following provisions are met:

1.1. Each device shall turn free manually in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost, and upon the manual release by an employee in the area.

1.2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.

1.3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) high.

1.4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights above 39 inches (991 mm).

1.5. Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device.

2. Automatic turnstiles. Automatic turnstiles that consist of mechanisms other than revolving devices, and are operated by power, such as turnstiles with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the turnstile upon the approach of a person, may be used in any occupancy where revolving doors are permitted. Automatic turnstiles may serve a means of egress system where all of the following provisions are met:

2.1. Each automatic turnstile shall have minimum widths sufficient for the occupant load served and shall provide at least 32 inches (813 mm) of clear width at and below a height of 80 inches (2032 mm).

2.2. The design shall be such that in the event of power failure, each automatic turnstile is capable of breaking away manually to permit means of egress travel. The force required to break away these turnstiles manually shall not exceed 13 pounds (57 N). The turnstile shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full, clear opening width of the turnstile when a force is applied to the turnstile on the side from which egress is made.

2.3. Each automatic turnstile shall be operable from the egress side without special knowledge or effort.

2.4. Each automatic turnstile shall be connected to the building fire alarm system. Activation of the building fire alarm system shall automatically release each such turnstile to its full, clear opening width, and each such turnstile shall remain in its open position until the fire alarm system has been reset.

2.5. Each automatic turnstile shall have an integrated emergency power supply.

2.6. Each automatic turnstile power supply shall be electrically supervised.

2.7. Turnstiles provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than the egress capacity required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

2.8. Where located as part of an accessible route, such turnstiles shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear width at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm).
Turnstiles more than 39 inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors.
Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, each manually-operated turnstile and automatic turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm).
The provisions of Sections 1008.4.1 through 1008.4.4 shall apply to Group R-2 occupancies.
Building entrance doors and other exterior exit doors shall be equipped with heavy duty lock sets with auxiliary latch bolts to prevent the latch from being manipulated by means other than a key. Latch sets shall have stop-work in the inside cylinder controlled by a master key only. Outside cylinders of main entrance door locks shall be operated by the tenants' key, which shall not be keyed to also open the tenants' apartment door. A light or lights shall be provided at or near the outside of the front entranceway of the building providing not less than 5-foot candles (53.82 lux) intensity measured at the floor level for the full width of the entranceway.
Doors to dwelling units shall be equipped with a heavy duty latch set and a heavy duty dead bolt operable by a key from the outside and a thumb-turn from the inside. Those doors shall also be equipped with a chain guard so as to permit partial opening of the door. Dwelling unit entrance doors shall also be equipped with a viewing device located so as to enable a person on the inside of the entrance door to view a person immediately outside.
All openable windows shall be equipped with sash locks designed to be openable from the inside only. Grilles lockable from the inside only may be placed on the inside or outside of windows that are accessible from grade but that do not serve to provide access to exits.
Buildings containing eight or more dwelling units shall be provided with an intercommunication system located at the door giving access to the main entrance lobby, consisting of a device or devices for voice communication between the occupant of each dwelling unit and a person outside the door to the main entrance lobby, and permitting such dwelling unit occupant to release the locking mechanism of said door from the dwelling unit. In buildings provided with a full-time lobby attendant, the intercommunication system may be between each dwelling unit and the attendant's station.
The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means of egress stairways.

Exceptions:

1. A width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) shall be permitted in:

1.1. A stairway that serves an occupant load of 50 or less cumulative for all stories; or

1.2. A stairway that provides egress to the exit discharge solely for the use of Group R-2 occupancies, provided the building it serves is 125 feet (38 100 mm) or less in height, and provided such a stairway serves not more than 30 occupants per floor.

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9.

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.

4. Where an inclined platform lift or a stairway chairlift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position.
Stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 84 inches (2134 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height.

Exceptions:

1. In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm).

2. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance.

3. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom a maximum of 43/4 inches (121 mm).
The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.
Stair treads and risers shall comply with Sections 1009.4.1 through 1009.4.5.
For the purpose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.
Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. Rectangular tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair.

Exceptions:

1. Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 1009.10.

2. Ship ladders in accordance with Section 1009.11.

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Section 1028.11.2.

5. In Group R-2 occupancies:

5.1. Sum of treads and risers. The sum of two risers plus one tread exclusive of nosing shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor more than 251/2 inches (648 mm).

5.2. Dimensions of treads and risers. The maximum riser height shall be 73/4 inches (197 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 91/2 inches (241 mm) plus nosing. Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A nosing not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) but not more than 11/4 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).

5.3. Tolerances. The greatest riser height, tread depth, and nosing projection, within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

6. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies not subject to accessibility provisions in Section 1107.2.5, Exception 2; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies:

6.1. Sum of treads and risers. The sum of two risers plus one tread exclusive of nosing shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor more than 251/2 inches (648 mm).

6.2. Dimensions of treads and risers. The maximum riser height shall be 81/4 inches (210 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm) plus nosing. Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A 11/4-inch (32 mm) nosing shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).

6.3. Tolerances. The greatest riser height, tread depth, and nosing projection, within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

7. In Group R-3 occupancies; and within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; winders shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge, when measured at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point. Within any flight of stairs, the greatest winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

8. In Group I-3 facilities, stairways providing access to guard towers, observation stations and control rooms, not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area, shall be permitted to have a maximum riser height of 8 inches (203 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm).
Winder treads are not permitted in means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit.

Exceptions:

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 1009.8.

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.
Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.11.2.

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1009.4.2, differing from rectangular treads in the same stairway flight.

3. Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches (51 mm).
The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be not greater than 9/16 inch (14.3 mm). Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 9/16 inch (14.3 mm). Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 11/4 inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. Perforated risers with openings not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) shall be considered solid risers.

Exceptions:

1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not serving as exits or that are not required to comply with Section 1007.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm).

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group I-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies other than areas accessible to the public. There are no restrictions on the size of the opening in the riser.

3. In Group R-3 occupancies, the following shall apply:

3.1. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 9/16 inch (14.3 mm).

3.2. Solid risers are not required provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm). However, the opening between treads is not limited on stairways with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or less.

4. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways constructed in accordance with Section 1009.9.

5. Solid risers are not required for alternating tread devices constructed in accordance with Section 1009.10.
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the stairway has a straight run. When wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1007.6.1, the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair spaces. Where doors open onto a stairway landing, such landing shall also comply with Section 1008.1.6.

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.
All stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.
The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.

Exceptions:

1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size that does not permit the passage of 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) sphere. Elongated opening shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the direction of travel.

2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 11/8 inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening.
Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent the accumulation of same.
The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair enclosure.

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the enclosed side with 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose.
A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings.

Exceptions:

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.

2. Alternating tread devices used as a means of egress shall not have a rise greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) between floor levels or landings.
Curved stairways with winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 1009.4 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the required width of the stairway.

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2.
Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means of egress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from galleries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 1015.6. A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5-inch (191 mm) minimum clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm).
Alternating tread devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and which serves not more than five occupants; in buildings of Group I-3 from a guard tower, observation station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs.
Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread devices and shall comply with Section 1012.
Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The projected tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projections of adjacent treads. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The combination of riser height and projected tread depth provided shall result in an alternating tread device angle that complies with Section 1002. The initial tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface.

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in an area which serves not more than five occupants shall have a minimum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with a minimum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 inches (203 mm).
Ship ladders are permitted to be used in Group I-3 as a component of a means of egress to and from control rooms or elevated facility observation stations not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) with not more than three occupants and for access to unoccupied roofs. Ship ladders shall have a minimum tread depth of 5 inches (127 mm). The tread shall be projected such that the total of the tread depth plus the nosing projection is no less than 81/2 inches (216 mm). The maximum riser height shall be 91/2 inches (241 mm).

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of ship ladders. The minimum clear width at and below the handrails shall be 20 inches (508 mm).
Stairways shall have handrails on each side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is used to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with Section 2407.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails for aisle stairs are not required where permitted by Section 1028.13.

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are permitted to have a handrail on one side only.

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not require handrails.

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require handrails.

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies do not require handrails.

6. One handrail shall be allowed in enclosed exit stairs less than 44 inches (1118 mm) wide that do not serve as an accessible means of egress.
In buildings four or more stories or more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above grade, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface through a stairway bulkhead complying with Section 1509.2, unless the roof has a slope steeper than 20 degrees (0.35 rad). Access to setback roof areas may be through a door or window opening to the roof. Stairs terminating at the level of a setback shall provide access to the setback roof areas, except where the setback is less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width and 10 feet (3048 mm) in length, measured from the inside of the parapet wall.
In buildings in Occupancy Groups I-1, R- 1 and R-2 two stories or more in height, with roofs having a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or less, all interior stairs, except those terminating at the level of a setback roof, shall extend to the roof surface.

Exceptions:

1. In buildings in Occupancy Groups R- 1 and R-2 two stories in height and in Occupancy Group R-2 three stories in height with not more than one dwelling unit per story, access to the roof shall be permitted to be a noncombustible roof hatch or trap door not less than 21 inches (533 mm) in width and 28 inches (711 mm) in length. Such hatches shall be located within the stair enclosure and be provided with a stationary, noncombustible access ladder or alternating tread device.

2. In buildings in Occupancy Group R-2 complying with Item 4 of Section 1021.2, roof access shall be governed by Item 4.6 of such section.
Where the roof hatch opening providing the required access is located within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such roof access or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1013.
Roofs and penthouses containing elevator equipment that must be accessed for maintenance are required to be accessed by a stairway.
The provisions of this section shall apply to ramps used as a component of a means of egress.

Exceptions:

1. Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes providing access in accordance with Sections 1108.2 through 1108.2.4 and 1108.2.6, ramped aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall conform with the provisions in Section 1028.11.

2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC A117.1.

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit access shall not be required to comply with Sections 1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessible route serving accessible parking spaces, other required accessible elements or part of an accessible means of egress.
Ramps used as part of a means of egress or part of an accessible route shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedestrian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).

Exceptions:

1. Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A shall comply with Section 1028.11.

2. In garages three stories or less in height and serving not more than one level below grade, ramps with a maximum slope of one unit vertical in seven units horizontal (14-percent slope) may serve as part of a nonaccessible means of egress.
The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 inches (762 mm) maximum.
The minimum dimensions of means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 through 1010.5.3.
The minimum width of a means of egress ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by Section 1018.2. The clear width of a ramp between handrails, if provided, or other permissible projections shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum.
The minimum headroom in all parts of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 84 inches (2134 mm).
Means of egress ramps shall not reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm).
Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 1010.6.5.
Landings shall have a slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Changes in level are not permitted.
The landing shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run adjoining the landing.
The landing length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

Exceptions:

1. In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type B+NYC units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107, landings are permitted to be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum.

2. Where the ramp is not a part of an accessible route, the length of the landing shall not be required to be more than 48 inches (1220 mm) in the direction of travel.
Where changes in direction of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 mm) minimum.

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling or sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type B+NYC units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107, landings are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum.
Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC A117.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area.
All ramps shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building; except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 1022.1 and 1022.3 through 1022.5 for vertical exit enclosures.
The surface of ramps shall be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached.
Outdoor ramps and outdoor approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, surfaces and landings which are part of exterior ramps in climates subject to snow or ice shall be designed to minimize the accumulation of same.
Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches (152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall comply with Section 1012.

Exception: Handrails for ramped aisles are not required where permitted by Section 1028.13.
Edge protection complying with Section 1010.9.1 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings not adjoining another ramp run or stairway.

Exceptions:

1. Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not required to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that comply with the ICC A117.1 curb ramp provisions.

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 0.5 inch (13 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizontally of the required landing area.

3. Edge protection is not required where the floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of handrail complying with Section 1012.
A curb, rail, wall or barrier serving as edge protection shall be provided as follows:

1. Solid barriers. Solid barriers shall extend at least 4 inches (102 mm) from the floor or ground surface.

2. Other types of barriers. Other types of barriers shall prevent the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground surface.
Guards shall be provided where required by Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1013. Such guards may be used to satisfy the requirement of edge protection of Section 1010.9.
Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.

Exceptions:

1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that require only one exit or exit access.

2. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group I-1 or R. However, in a congregate living unit where the occupancy of such unit exceeds four people, exit signs shall be provided.

3. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group I-3.

4. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are not required on the seating side of vomitories or openings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomitories. Such vomitories shall be provided with emergency egress lighting to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area.
In high-rise buildings subject to Section 403, exit signs shall be placed within exits at horizontal extensions to indicate the transition from vertical to horizontal direction and at turns along the horizontal path.
Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated.

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need not be provided with illumination.
A tactile sign stating EXIT and complying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each door to an area of rescue assistance, an exterior area for assisted rescue, and exit stairway, an exit ramp, an exit passageway, a horizontal exit and the exit discharge.
Electrically powered exit signs shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924, except that letters of exit signs shall be red. Exit signs shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Chapter 27. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. The letters of exit signs shall be red.
The height of letters shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm), except that in Group A and Group R- 1 occupancies letters shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) high. Graphics shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.
Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.3.
Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between letters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). In Group A and R- 1 occupancies letters shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) high. Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.

The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. The letters of exit signs shall be red. If a chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed.
The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 25 foot-candles (269.1 lux).
Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.
Handrails for stairways and ramps shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7. Handrails required for stairways by Section 1009.12 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.9. Handrails required for ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.8.
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). Handrail height of alternating tread devices and ship ladders, measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm).
All required handrails shall comply with Section 1012.3.1 or shall provide equivalent graspability.

Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; handrails shall be Type I in accordance with Section 1012.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 1012.3.2 or shall provide equivalent graspability.
Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 11/4 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross-section dimension of 21/4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
Handrails with a perimeter greater than 61/4 inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3/4 inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 13/4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 11/4 inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 23/4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at a turn or landing.

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel is allowed over the lowest tread.

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 11/2 inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered obstructions. For each 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 1/8 inch (3 mm).

4. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of the handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.
Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.
Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same direction of the stair flights at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not an Accessible unit, Type B+NYC unit, or Type B unit need extend only from the top riser to the bottom riser.

2. Handrails within a Type B+NYC multistory dwelling unit that complies with Section 1107.2.5, Items 1 through 3, need extend only from the top riser to the bottom riser.

3. Aisle handrails in Group A and E occupancies in accordance with Section 1028.13.

4. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are permitted to terminate at a location vertically above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are not required to be continuous between flights or to extend beyond the top or bottom risers.
Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.
On ramps, the clear width between handrails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail shall not exceed 41/2 inches (114 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height required in Section 1009.2.
Stairways shall have intermediate handrails located in such a manner that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 30 inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental stairs, handrails shall be located along the most direct path of egress travel.
Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equip-ment platforms, stairs, ramps and landings that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7.

Exception: Guards are not required for the following locations:

1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers.

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, including steps leading up to the stage and raised platforms.

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas such as runways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or presentations.

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages and platforms.

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages and platforms for access to and utilization of special lighting or equipment.

6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public.

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with Section 1028.14 are permitted and provided.
Where glass is used to provide a guard or as a portion of the guard system, the guard shall also comply with Section 2407. Where the glazing provided does not meet the strength and attachment requirements of Section 1607.7, complying guards shall also be located along glazed sides of open-sided walking surfaces.
Required guards shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the adjacent walking surfaces, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

Exceptions:

1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

3. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accordance with Section 1028.14.

4. Along alternating tread devices and ship ladders, guards whose top rail also serves as a handrail, shall have height not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm), measured vertically from the leading edge of the device tread nosing.
Required guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter from the walking surface to the required guard height.

Exceptions:

1. From a height of 36 inches (914 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm), guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 43/8 inches (111 mm) in diameter.

2. The triangular openings at the open sides of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter.

3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.

4. In areas that are not open to the public within occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, and for alternating tread devices and ship ladders, guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.

5. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches in diameter (102 mm) up to a height of 26 inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter.

6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 43/8 (111 mm) inches in diameter.
Porches and decks which are enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.
Guards shall be provided where appliances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings or other components that require service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of such appliance, equipment, fan or component.
Guards shall be provided where the roof hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.
The exit access shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 1003 through 1013. Exit access arrangement shall comply with Sections 1014 through 1019.
Egress through intervening spaces shall comply with this section.

1. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas and the area served are accessory to; one or the other, are not a Group H occupancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit.

Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy group.

2. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be locked to prevent egress.

3. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms.

4. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.

Exceptions:

1. Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all of the following are met.

2.1. The stock is of the same hazard classification as that found in the main retail area;

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit access is through the stockroom;

2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking from the egress side; and

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 44-inch-wide (1118 mm) aisle defined by full- or partial-height fixed walls or similar construction that will maintain the required width and lead directly from the retail area to the exit without obstructions.
Where more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units.

Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant space shall not be prohibited from passing through a larger adjoining tenant space where the following conditions are met:

1. Such rooms or spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the larger tenant space through which they pass;

2. The larger tenant is a Group M occupancy and the smaller tenant space is of the same or similar occupancy group;

3. A discernable path of egress travel is provided from the smaller tenant space to an exit;

4. The means of egress into the adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress side of the smaller tenant space;

5. The smaller tenant space serves the same occupants, customers, or patrons as the larger tenant space.
Habitable rooms or suites in Group I-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to a corridor.

Exception: Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level to a public way.
Patient sleeping areas in Group I-2 occupancies shall be permitted to be divided into suites with one intervening room if one of the following conditions is met:

1. The intervening room within the suite is not used as an exit access for more than eight patient beds.

2. The arrangement of the suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel.
Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m2).
Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors remotely located from each other.
The travel distance between any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Areas other than patient sleeping areas in Group I-2 occupancies shall be permitted to be divided into suites.
Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
Any room or suite of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors remotely located from each other.
For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms, suites of rooms are permitted to have one intervening room if the travel distance within the suite to the exit access door is not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms located within a suite, exit access travel from within the suite shall be permitted through two intervening rooms where the travel distance to the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Exit access from all other portions of a building not classified as a suite in a Group I-2 occupancy shall not pass through a suite.
The travel distance between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy patient sleeping room and an exit access door in that room shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Suites in Group I-2 occupancies shall be separated from other portions of the building by a smoke partition complying with Section 711.
In occupancies other than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). For common path of egress travel in Group A occupancies having fixed seating, see Section 1028.8.

Exceptions:

1. The length of a common path of egress travel in Group B, F and S occupancies shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupancies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the length of a common path of egress travel shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

3. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group I-3 occupancy shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

4. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet (38 100 mm), provided that the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

5. The length of a common path of egress travel in Group I-2 occupancies between any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door of that suite shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in accordance with Section 1014.2.3.3.
Buildings in Occupancy Group R-2 shall comply with the intervening public hall requirements in accordance with Sections 1014.4.1 and 1014.4.2.
In buildings in Occupancy Group R-2 not subject to Section 403, a door from a dwelling unit shall open into an intervening public hall. Such public hall shall be constructed as a public corridor in accordance with Section 1018.

Exceptions:

1. No intervening public hall shall be required for any of the following:

1.1. A building that is both three stories or less in height, and contains two or fewer dwelling units per story; or

1.2. A building that complies with Item 4 of Section 1021.2.

2. No intervening public hall shall be required where the doors opening to the apartments are smoke and draft controlled doors complying with UL 1784 without artificial bottom seals, in accordance with Section 715.3 and 715.3.5.3 and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1. This exception shall not apply to any building that complies with Item 5 of Section 1021.2 where there is more than one apartment per story.
In high-rise buildings in Occupancy Group R-2, all doors from a dwelling unit shall open into an intervening public hall. Such public hall shall be constructed as a public corridor in accordance with Section 1018. Such public hall shall provide access to at least two exits.

Exception: Where the only dwelling units on a story of a building are the upper stories of multistory (duplex) dwelling units;

1. Any public halls shall be permitted to provide access to only one exit; or

2. No such public hall shall be required where smoke and draft controlled doors complying with UL 1784 without artificial bottom seals, in accordance with Sections 715.4 and 715.4.6.3, are provided. This exception shall not be construed to effect, alter, or change any requirement of this code to provide two means of egress from each apartment on each story.
Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The occupant load of the space exceeds one of the values in Table 1015.1.

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds one of the limitations of Section 1014.3.

3. Where required by Section 1015.3, 1015.4, 1015.5, 1015.6 or 1015.6.1.

Exception: Group I-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7.

Where a building contains mixed occupancies, each individual occupancy shall comply with the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1.

TABLE 1015.1 SPACES WITH ONE EXIT OR EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY

OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD
A, B, Ea, M, U 74
F 49
H-1, H-2, H-3 3
H-4, H-5, I-1, I-3, I-4 10
I-2 See Sections 1014.2. 2 through
1014.2.7
R 20
S 29

a. Day care maximum occupant load is 10.
Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000.
Required exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2.
Where two exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. Stairs sharing any common wall, floors, ceilings, scissor stair assemblies, or other enclosures shall be counted as one exit stairway.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor measurements. Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion of the required exit and are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 1018, the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.

2. Remote location in sprinklered buildings. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance of the exit doors or exit access doorways shall not be less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.

3. R-2 occupancies. In Group R-2 occupancies, where stairs are enclosed in walls having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules:

3.1. The exit doors to such stairs shall be placed a distance apart equal to no less than 15 feet (4572 mm); and

3.2. Such stairs shall be permitted to share common walls, floors, ceilings or scissor stairs assemblies or other enclosures provided that the construction separating the stairs is also of at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules.

4. B occupancies. In Group B occupancies of construction Type I or II not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height, not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) on any story and not exceeding a travel distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) on any story, where stairs are enclosed in walls having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules:

4.1. The exit doors to such stairs shall be placed a distance apart equal to no less than 15 feet (4572 mm); and

4.2. Such stairs shall be permitted to share common walls, floors, ceilings or scissor stairs assemblies.
Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two exit doors or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 1015.2.1.
Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m2) and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room.
Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) with refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 refrigerant or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant, as classified in Section 1103.1 of the New York City Mechanical Code, shall have not less than two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room.

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1016.1.

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing.
Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doors.

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1016.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the New York City Mechanical Code.
Where a minimum of two means of egress are required pursuant to Section 410.5.3, one means of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage.
The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, galleries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occupancies in Group F-2.

Exceptions:

1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is permitted for lighting and access catwalks.

2. Stairways required by this subsection need not be enclosed.

3. Stairways with a minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm), ladders or spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress.

4. A second means of egress is not required from these areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof is provided.
Exits shall be so located on each story such that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point within a story along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel to an exterior exit door at the level of exit discharge, an entrance to a vertical exit enclosure, an exit passageway, a horizontal exit, an exterior exit stairway or an exterior exit ramp, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 1016.1.

Exceptions:

1. Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of open exit stairways.

2. In outdoor facilities with open exit access components and open exterior exit stairways or exit ramps, travel distance is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of an exit stairway or the closest slope of the exit ramp.

3. In all occupancies other than occupancy Groups H and I, the exit access travel distance to a maximum of 50 percent of the exits is permitted to be measured from the most remote point within a building to an exit using unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps when connecting a maximum of two stories. Each such interconnected story shall have access to the minimum number of approved independent exits as required by Section 1021.1, but in no case shall there be less than two means of egress. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories. Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

4. In all occupancies other than occupancy Groups H and I, exit access travel distance is permitted to be measured from the most remote point within a building to an exit using unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps in the first and second stories above grade plane in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The first and second stories above grade plane shall have access to the minimum number of approved independent exits as required by Section 1021.1, but in no case shall there be less than two means of egress. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories. Unenclosed exit stairways shall be remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

Where applicable, travel distance on unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps and on connecting stories shall also be included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway.

TABLE 1016.1 EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCEa

OCCUPANCY WITHOUT SPRINKLER
SYSTEM
(feet)
WITH SPRINKLER
SYSTEM
(feet)
A See Section 1028.7
E, F-1, 150 200b
M, R, S-1
B 200 300c
F-2, S-2, U 200 250b
H-1 Not Permitted 75c
H-2 Not Permitted 100c
H-3 Not Permitted 150c
H-4 Not Permitted 175c
H-5 Not Permitted 200c
I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4 Not Permitted 200c

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance requirements:
Section 402.4: For the distance limitation in malls.
Section 404.9: For the distance limitation through an atrium space.
Section 407.4: For the distance limitation in Group I-2.
Sections 408.6.1 and 408.8.1: For the distance limitations in Group I-3.
Section 411.4: For the distance limitation in special amusement buildings.
Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7: For the distance limitation in Group
I-2 hospital suites.
Section 1015.4: For the distance limitation in refrigeration machinery
rooms.
Section 1015.5: For the distance limitation in refrigerated rooms and
spaces.
Section 1021.2: For buildings with one exit.
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating.
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air seating.
Section 3103.4: For temporary structures.
Section 3104.9: For pedestrian walkways.
b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies where sprinkler systems according to Section 903.3.1.2 are permitted.
c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Travel distances specified in Section 1016.1 shall be increased up to an additional 100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony constructed in accordance with Section 1019. The length of such balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken.
Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied portions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving assembly areas shall comply with Section 1028. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1028. The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.
In Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm).

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people and not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 need not exceed 28 inches (711 mm) in width.
An aisle accessway shall be provided on at least one side of each element within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the elements and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The common path of travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any point in the merchandise pad.

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, the common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 880 mm).
Where seating is located at a table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches (483 mm) away from and parallel to the edge of the table or counter. The 19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured perpendicular to the side of the table or counter. In the case of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges, except that handrail projections are permitted.

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured from the back of the seat.
Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at tables or counters shall have sufficient clear width to conform to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear width specified in Section 1017.4.2.
Aisle accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) of width plus 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle.

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a total of not more than four persons.
The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point where a person has a choice of two or more paths of egress travel to separate exits.
Corridors shall be constructed in accordance with this section. Interior corridor walls required to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 709 for fire partitions. Public corridor walls shall comply with Section 707 for fire barriers.
Interior corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 1018.1.1.

Exceptions:

1. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used for instruction has at least one door opening directly to the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors specified in this exception are required to be at ground level.

2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an occupancy in Group R.

3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in open parking garages.

4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring only a single means of egress complying with Section 1015.1.

TABLE 1018.1.1 INTERIOR CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING

OCCUPANCY OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY INTERIOR
CORRIDOR
REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
(hours)
Without sprinkler system With sprinkler systemc
H-1, H-2, H-3 All Not Permitted 1
H-4, H-5 Greater than 30 Not Permitted 1
A, B, E, F, M, S, U Greater than 30 1 0
R Greater than 10 1d 0
I-2a, I-4 All Not Permitted 0
I-1, I-3 All Not Permitted 1b

a. For requirements for occupancies in Group I-2, see Sections 407.2 and 407.3.
b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group I-3, see Section 408.8.
c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where allowed.
d. Interior corridors within dwelling or sleeping units in Group R occupancies pursuant to Section 1018.1.1, Exception 2 shall not require fire-resistance rating.
Public corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 1018.1.2.

TABLE 1018.1.2 PUBLIC CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING

OCCUPANCY REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
(hours)
H-1, H-2, H-3 2
H-4, H-5 1
A, E, F, M, S, U 1
B 1a
R (Noncombustible) 1
R (Combustible) 2b
I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4 1

a. Public corridors need not be fire rated in high-rise buildings in Occupancy Group B equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where such building is provided with smokeproof enclosures in stairways in accordance with Section 403.5.4.
b. Public corridors in buildings not exceeding two stories in height, or that are three stories in height and occupied by not more than one family on each story, may be constructed with 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
The minimum corridor width shall be as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Twenty-four inches (610 mm)‒For access to and utilization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment.

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)‒With a required occupant capacity of 50 or less, except as otherwise required by Chapter 11.

3. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)‒Within a dwelling unit in Occupancy Groups I-1 and R-1, except as otherwise required by Section 1107.

4. Thirty inches (762 mm) ‒Within a dwelling unit in Occupancy Groups R-2 and R-3, except as otherwise required by Section 1107.

5. Sixty-six inches (1676 mm)‒In Group E serving classrooms.

6. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)‒In corridors and areas serving gurney traffic in occupancies where patients receive outpatient medical care, which causes the patient to be not capable of self-preservation.

7. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm)‒In Group I-2 in areas where required for bed movement.
The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.
Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length.

Exceptions:

1. In occupancies in Group I-3 of Occupancy Condition 2, 3 or 4 (see Section 308.4), the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. In occupancies in Groups B, E, F, I-1, M, R-1, S and U, where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the length of dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

3. Dead-end length not exceeding 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor.

4. In occupancies in Group R-2, the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm). However, where the corridors are completely enclosed in construction having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with all doors opening into the corridor being self-closing and having a fire-resistance rating of 11/2 hours, the length of dead-end corridor shall not exceed 80 feet (24 384 mm).
Use of corridors as part of direct supply, return, or exhaust air system shall be subject to the limitations of the New York City Mechanical Code.
Use of the space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a return air plenum shall be in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms.

Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Balconies used for egress purposes shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, headroom, dead ends and projections.
Exterior egress balconies shall be separated from the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as required for corridors.

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an unprotected opening to reach a stair.
The long side of an egress balcony shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Exterior egress balconies shall be designed to minimize accumulation of snow and ice that impedes the means of egress.
Exits shall comply with Sections 1020 through 1026 and the applicable requirements of Sections 1003 through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge.
Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1.
Exterior exit doors shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1008.1.
Exterior exit doors shall lead directly to the exit discharge or the public way.
All spaces within each story shall have access to the minimum number of approved independent exits as specified in Table 1021.1 based on the occupant load of such story. For the purposes of this chapter, occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories.

Exceptions:

1. As modified by Section 403.5.2.

2. As modified by Section 1021.2.

3. Exit access stairways and ramps that comply with Exception 3 or 4 of Section 1016.1 shall be permitted to provide the minimum number of approved independent exits required by Table 1021.1 on each story.

4. Unless otherwise required by other provisions of this chapter, the number of exits from rooms and spaces within a story discharging directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge shall be determined in accordance with Table 1015.1.

TABLE 1021.1 MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD

OCCUPANT LOAD
(persons per story)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS
(per story)
1-500 2
501-1,000 3
More than 1,000 4
The required number of exits from any story shall be maintained until arrival at grade or the public way.
Open or enclosed parking garages shall not have less than two exits from each parking tier. An unenclosed vehicle ramp constructed in accordance with Section 1010.2 may serve as one of the required exits when provided with pedestrian facilities along the ramp. Such ramps serving open or enclosed parking garages three stories or less in height and serving not more than one level below grade shall further comply with Section 1010.2, Exception 2.

Exception: Where vehicles are mechanically parked, only one exit is required but such exit shall not be a vehicle ramp.
Only one exit shall be required in buildings or from stories of buildings as described below:

1. Stories in buildings as described in Table 1021.2.

2. Buildings of Group R-3 occupancy.

3. Single-level buildings with the occupied space at the level of exit discharge provided that the story or space complies with Section 1015.1 as a space with one means of egress.

4. Buildings of Group R-2 occupancy where all of the following conditions are met:

4.1. The building does not exceed four stories;

4.2. The building contains not more than three dwelling units per story;

4.3. The building is of construction Type I or II;

4.4. The building does not exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m2) per story;

4.5. Each dwelling unit has at least one window facing the street, or facing a lawful yard with open, unobstructed, and direct access to the street;

4.6. The stairway extends to the roof surface through a stairway bulkhead complying with Section 1509.2 provided the roof has a slope not steeper than 20 degrees (0.35 rad). In lieu of the stairway bulkhead, the stair may be constructed against the street wall with one window facing the street at every landing and access to the roof is provided via a scuttle with a stationary, noncombustible access ladder;

4.7. The stairway is enclosed in 2-hour fire-rated walls with all exit doors leading into the stairway having at least 11/2 -hour fire rating; and

4.8. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

5. Buildings of Group R-2 occupancy of construction Type I or II not exceeding six stories and not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) per story.

TABLE 1021.2 STORIES WITH ONE EXITe, f, g

STORY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS (OR DWELLING UNITS) PER FLOOR AND TRAVEL DISTANCE
First story or basement A, Bc, Ed, Fc, M, U, Sc 49 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
H-2, H-3 3 occupants and 25 feet travel distance
H-4, H-5, I, R 10 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
Sa 29 occupants and 100 feet travel distance
Second story B, F, M, Sa 29 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
R-2 4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance
Third story R-2b 4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. For the required number of exits for open or enclosed parking garages, see Section 1021.1.2.
b. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1029.
c. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall have a maximum travel distance of 100 feet.
d. Day care occupancies shall have a maximum occupant load of 10.
e. Mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table 1021.2 for that occupancy.
f. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1.
g. Basements with a single exit shall not be located more than one story below grade plane.
Exits shall be continuous from the point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge.
Exit door arrangement shall meet the requirements of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.2.2.
Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, where exit enclosures are required to have a fire-resistance rating of 2 hours, such enclosures shall be constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent. Wall assemblies constituting masonry equivalent shall be constructed in accordance with department rules. Exit enclosures shall lead directly to the exterior of the building or shall be extended to the exterior of the building with an exit passageway conforming to the requirements of Section 1023, except as permitted in Section 1027.1. An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose other than means of egress.

Exceptions:

1. In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupancies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 and the stairway complies with either Item 1.1 or 1.2. In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open stories shall not exceed two.

1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one story above its level of exit discharge; or

1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one story below its level of exit discharge.

2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of the means of egress are essentially open to the outside need not be enclosed.

3. Stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be enclosed.

4. Stairways in open parking structures that serve only the parking structure are not required to be enclosed.

5. Stairways in Group I-3 occupancies as provided for in Section 408.3.8 are not required to be enclosed.

6. Means of egress stairways as required by Sections 410.5.3 and 1015.6.1 are not required to be enclosed.

7. Means of egress stairways from balconies, galleries or press boxes as provided for in Section 1028.5.1 are not required to be enclosed.

8. Vertical exit enclosures with doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection pursuant to the exception set forth in Section 708.7 may be used for travel between floors and this use shall not be deemed to interfere with function as a means of egress.
Exit enclosures shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way.

Exception: An exit enclosure shall be permitted to terminate at an exit passageway complying with Section 1023, provided the exit passageway terminates at an exit discharge or a public way.
Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit enclosure shall be separated from the exit passageway by a fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be at least equal to that required for the exit enclosure. A fire door assembly complying with Section 715.4 shall be installed in the fire barrier to provide a means of egress from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire barrier are prohibited.

Exception: Penetrations of the fire barrier in accordance with Section 1022.4 shall be permitted.
Exit enclosure opening protective shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715.

Openings in exit enclosures other than unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the enclosure.

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure.
Penetrations into and openings through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent ventilation or pressurization, hydronic piping and related heating equipment limited to serving the exit enclosure in which such piping and equipment is located, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for Fire Department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 713. There shall be no penetrations or communication openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures.
Equipment and ductwork for exit enclosure ventilation necessary for independent ventilation or pressurization as permitted by Section 1022.4 shall comply with one of the following items:

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts.

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts.

3. Where located within the building, such equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts. In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 for shaft enclosures. Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems.
Exterior walls of an exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls. Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairway and the walls or openings are exposed to other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, whichever is lower.
A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below its level of exit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 1011. An approved barrier shall consist of partitions, doors, or gates separating the portion of the vertical exit above grade from the portion below grade. Where doors or gates are provided as approved barriers, such doors or gates shall be self-closing and opening in the direction of exit travel from the floors below grade.

Exceptions:

1. Such barrier separating the above-grade por-tion of the vertical exit from the portion below grade shall not be required in Group E and R-3 occupancies.

2. Such barrier separating the above-grade portion of the vertical exit from the portion below grade shall not be required where the stairway design is intended to continue the path of egress through a below grade level.
Signs identifying stairways and floor levels shall comply with Sections 1022.8.1 through 1022.8.5.
A stairway identification sign indicating each stair by alphabetic letter shall be posted on both sides of each stair door.
A floor identification sign shall be provided at each floor landing within exit enclosures connecting more than three stories. Such sign shall designate:

1. The floor level;

2. The terminus of the top and bottom of the exit enclosure;

3. The identification of the stair or ramp;

4. The story of the exit discharge; and

5. The availability of roof access from the enclosure for the Fire Department.

The signs shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions.
Floor level identification signs in tactile characters complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each floor level landing adjacent to the door on the stair side.
Stairway and floor identification signs required by Sections 1022.8.1 and 1022.8.2 shall comply with all of the following requirements:

1. The signs shall be a minimum size of 18 inches (457 mm) by 12 inches (305 mm).

2. The alphabetic letters designating the identification of the stair enclosure shall be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in height.

3. The number designating the floor level shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in the center of the sign.

4. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height.

5. Characters and their background shall have a nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background, with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

6. When signs required by Section 1022.8 are installed in interior exit enclosures of buildings subject to Section 1024, the signs shall be made of the same luminous materials as required by Section 1024.4.
Where doors serving vertical exit enclosures are locked on the stair side, signage shall be posted in compliance with Sections 1030.4.1, 1030.4.2 and 1030.4.3.
In buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405, each of the exit enclosures serving a story with a floor surface located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of a level of exit discharge serving such stories shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Section 909.20.
A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to be extended by an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.2. The exit passageway shall be without openings other than the fire door assembly required by Section 1022.2 and those necessary for egress from the exit passageway. The exit passageway shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, and openings are protected as required for access from other floors.

2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pressurized stairway are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the pressurized stairway.

3. The fire barrier separating the smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway from the exit passageway is not required, provided the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway.

4. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to egress through areas on the level of discharge or vestibules as permitted by Section 1027.
Access to the stairway within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony.

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vestibule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pressurization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5.
Exit passageways serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means of egress.
The width of exit passageways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that exit passageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width.

The required width of exit passageways shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.
Exit passageway enclosures shall have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
Exit passageways shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way.
Exit passageway opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715.

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6, openings in exit passageways other than unexposed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the exit passageway.

Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit passageway shall also comply with Section 1022.2.1.

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway.
Penetrations into and openings through an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.0 10 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 713. There shall be no penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit passageways.
Approved luminous egress path markings delineating the exit path shall be provided in all high-rise buildings subject to Section 403.5 having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access in accordance with Sections 1024.1 through 1024.9.

Exceptions:

1. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required on the level of exit discharge in lobbies that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception 1.

2. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required in areas of open parking garages that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception 3.
Egress path markings shall be provided in exit enclosures, including vertical exit enclosures, horizontal exits, and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 1024.2.1 through 1024.2.9. Entrances to exit enclosures shall be provided with exit signs in compliance with Section 1024.2.6.1.
A solid and continuous stripe shall be applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 1 inch (25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 inches (51 mm). The leading edge of the stripe shall be placed at a maximum of 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the leading edge of the step and the stripe shall overlap the leading edge of the step by not more than 1/2 inch (13 mm) down the vertical face of the step. Outlining stripes on steps shall comply with Figure S101.1(2) of Appendix S.

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
The leading edge of landings shall be marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional requirements for steps. Stripes on landings shall comply with Figure S101.1(3) of Appendix S.
All handrails and handrail extensions shall be marked with a solid and continuous stripe having a minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm). The stripe shall be placed on the top surface of the handrail for the entire length of the handrail, including extensions and newel post caps. Where handrails or handrail extensions bend or turn corners, the stripe shall not have a gap of more than 4 inches (102 mm). Stripes on handrails shall comply with Figure S101.1(4) of Appendix S.

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
Stair landings and other floor areas within exit enclosures, with the exception of the sides of steps, shall be provided with solid and continuous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls or a combination of both. The stripes shall be 1 to 2 inches (25 mm to 51 mm) wide with interruptions not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.
Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the wall and shall extend to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the markings on the leading edge of landings. The demarcation lines shall continue across the floor in front of all doors. Perimeter demarcation lines shall comply with Figure S101.1(5) of Appendix S.

Exceptions:

1. Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path.

2. Demarcation lines shall be continuous but need not extend into an area such as a dead end or an obstruction that is selected not to be outlined because it is not part of the egress path.
Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall with the bottom edge of the stripe no more than 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished floor. At the top or bottom of the stairs, demarcation lines shall drop vertically to the floor within 2 inches (51 mm) of the step or landing edge. Demarcation lines on walls shall transition vertically to the floor and then extend across the floor where a line on the floor is the only practical method of outlining the path. Where the wall line is broken by a door, demarcation lines on walls shall continue across the face of the door or transition to the floor and extend across the floor in front of such door. Wall-mounted demarcation lines shall comply with Figure S101.1(8) of Appendix S.

Exceptions:

1. Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path.

2. Perimeter demarcation lines are not required on the sides of steps.

3. Perimeter demarcation lines are not required where an area such as a dead end or an obstruction is selected not to be outlined because it is not part of the egress path, the demarcation lines shall not be required in such area provided that a demarcation line is continuous across the floor.
Where a wall-mounted demarcation line transitions to a floor-mounted demarcation line, or vice versa, the wall-mounted demarcation line shall drop vertically to the floor to meet a complementary extension of the floor-mounted demarcation line, thus forming a continuous marking. Transitioning demarcation lines shall comply with Figure S101.1(7) of Appendix S.
Obstacles at or below 6 feet 6 inches (1981 mm) in height and projecting more than 4 inches (102 mm) into the egress path shall be outlined with markings no less than 1 inch (25 mm) in width comprised of a pattern of alternating equal bands, of luminescent luminous material and black, with the alternating bands no more than 2 inches (51 mm) thick and angled at 45 degrees (0.79 rad). Obstacles shall include, but are not limited to, standpipes, hose cabinets, wall projections and restricted height areas. However, such markings shall not conceal any required information or indicators including, but not limited to, instructions to occupants for the use of standpipes. Markings on obstacles shall comply with Figure S101.1(6) of Appendix S.
Doors through which occupants within an exit enclosure must pass in order to complete the exit path, and doors serving horizontal exits, shall be provided with markings complying with Sections 1024.2.6.1 through 1024.2.6.3 of this chapter and Figures S101.1(11) and S101.1(12) of Appendix S. Exit discharge doors shall further comply with Section 1024.2.6.1.2.
The doors shall be identified by a low-location luminous emergency exit symbol complying with Section 1024.6.1. The exit symbol shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height and shall be mounted on the door itself in accordance with Section 1024.2.6.1.1. Such signs shall be no higher than 18 inches (457 mm) above the finished floor.
The vertical centerline of the sign shall be centered with the door, or shall be in that half of the door, either the right or left, that contains the latch. In case of double-doors, both doors shall be marked and the signs shall be centered with the doors. Arrows may be omitted on door-mounted signs. Door-mounted signs shall comply with Figure S101.1(1) in Appendix S.
At doors serving as exit discharge, a sign in compliance with Section 1024.2.6.1.1 shall contain supplemental directional text such as "FINAL EXIT," "EXIT THROUGH LOBBY," or "EXIT TO STREET" in sans serif letters one-half as high as the word EXIT. Exit discharge door sign shall comply with Figure S101.1(13) in Appendix S.
Door hardware shall be marked with no less than 16 square inches (406 mm2) of luminous material. This marking shall be located behind, immediately adjacent to or on the door handle and/or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, such material shall be no less than 1 inch (25 mm) wide for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad. Additional hardware markings may include ANSI Z 535.1 safety green graphics such as arrows indicating door handle turning directions, or emergency egress symbols as per NFPA 170, the word "EXIT," the word "PUSH," and similar egress-related symbols, provided the minimum 16 square inches (406 mm2) of luminous materials is maintained.
The top and sides of the door frame shall be marked with a solid and continuous 1 inch to 2 inch (25 mm to 51 mm) wide stripe. Where the door molding does not provide sufficient flat surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe shall be permitted to be located on the wall surrounding the frame.
Luminous directional signs designed in compliance with Section 1024.6.1 shall be placed in the exit enclosure at every entrance thereto such that they are readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions. Such directional sign shall include an arrow indicating the direction of travel. The word "EXIT" shall not be required. The signs shall be located such that their top edge is within 18 inches (457 mm) above the finished floor. Directional signs shall comply with Figure S101.1(9) in Appendix S.
Luminous directional signs designed in compliance with Section 1024.6.1 and installed at heights indicated in Section 1024.2.7 shall be placed on the wall at transfer levels and wherever egress direction is not clear; including at turns along horizontal extensions, at transitions from vertical to horizontal direction and at a "T" intersection. These directional signs shall include arrows indicating the direction of travel. The word "EXIT" shall not be required. Directional signs at transfer levels shall comply with Figure S101.1(9) in Appendix S.
Luminous signs shall be placed on doors along the egress path that lead to dead ends (mechanical rooms, storage closets, etc.). Such signs shall contain sans serif lettering at least 1 inch (25 mm) high reading "NO EXIT," with the "NO" centered above the "EXIT." The "NO" may be a larger size than the "EXIT" for clarity. The nonluminous portion of such signs shall not be green. No-exit signs shall comply with Figure S101.1(10) in Appendix S.
Placement and dimensions of markings shall be consistent and uniform throughout the same exit enclosure.
For the purposes of this section, solid and continuous means without gaps or interruption, except as required for the control of expansion and contraction. A series of dashes, chevrons, dots, or other similar patterns is not solid and continuous. Luminous materials shall be considered solid and continuous if they occasionally contain the following safety green (ANSI Z 535.1) symbols or text:

1. The word "EXIT";

2. Egress symbol as per NFPA 170;

3. Direction arrows as per NFPA 170; or

4. Other text or symbols as approved by the commissioner.
Luminous egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any material including paint, provided that an electrical charge is not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materials shall include, but are not limited to, self-luminous materials and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply with either:

1. UL 1994; or

2. ASTM E 2072, except that the charging source shall be 1 foot-candle (11 lux) of fluorescent illumination for 60 minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 millicandelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 millicandelas per square meter after 90 minutes.
All approved materials shall be labeled and identified with the manufacturer's name, model number and the name of the approved agency in a minimum of 6 point type with at least one such identification on each piece of material installed. However, labeling is not required for pieces of material less than 1 foot in length that are placed in immediate proximity of an identical model that is labeled. Materials may include supplemental identifying information such as the trade name or "NYC."
Luminous materials shall comply with the design standards of Sections 1024.6.1 and 1024.6.2.
Unless otherwise specified, all photoluminescent door signs and directional signs:

1. May be either positive or negative image;

2. Shall be made with the non-photoluminescent portions of the signs in safety green as per ANSI Z535.1; and

3. Shall include three components:

3.1. The word "EXIT" printed in sans serif letters at least 4 inches high (102 mm) with strokes no less than 1/2 inch (13 mm);

3.2. An emergency exit symbol at least 4 inches high (102 mm), complying with NFPA 170; and

3.3. An arrow at least 23/4 inches (70 mm) high, complying with NFPA 170.

Design of door and directional sign shall comply with Figures S101.1(9), S101.1(13), S101.1(14) and S101.1(15) of Appendix S.
Additional descriptive text is permitted, provided such words are in sans serif letters and, where the word "EXIT" or the emergency symbol is required on such sign, such a descriptive text is no more than one-half as high as the word "EXIT" or the emergency exit symbol.
The figures in Appendix S are intended only for illustration, and where there is a conflict between the figures and this section, this section shall govern.
Where luminous egress path markings are not required but are voluntarily installed in the exit path, such markings shall comply with Section 1024.
Luminous exit path markings shall be subject to special inspection in accordance with Sections 1024.8.1 through 1024.8.3.
A registered design professional shall verify by visual inspection that all components have been installed in accordance with Section 1024, both with the normal lighting turned on and with the normal and emergency lighting turned off.
A registered design professional shall review the manufacturer product literature and information from the testing agency and verify that the products installed are labeled as meeting the standards in Section 1024.4. The registered design professional shall verify which particular products were installed in which parts of the building.
Where in situ painting was utilized, a registered design professional shall field-verify that the specified paint was utilized in accordance with the manufacturer -recommended methods of application.
Owners shall keep the required luminous egress path markings in good repair. At a minimum, owners shall, every 12 months, perform a visual inspection of the markings with the normal lighting turned on. Markings that are missing, damaged, loose, or that show signs of wear or missing labels shall be noted and promptly repaired. The log of such inspections, including the results and any corrective measures taken, shall be kept and maintained on the premises for inspection by the department and the Fire Department. The log shall contain the date of inspection and the printed name and signature of the person performing the inspection.
Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or total exit width shall be horizontal exits.

Exceptions:

1. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds of the required exits from any building or floor area for occupancies in Group I-2.

2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required for occupancies in Group I-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m2) of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments.
The separation between buildings or refuge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a fire wall complying with Section 706; or it shall be provided by a fire barrier complying with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly complying with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating of the separation shall be 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exits shall also comply with Section 715. Duct and air transfer openings in a fire wall or fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit shall also comply with Section 716. The horizontal exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours with no unprotected openings.

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at horizontal exits between a building area and an above-grade pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 3104, provided that the distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet (6096 mm).

Horizontal exits constructed as fire barriers shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide completely the floor served by the horizontal exit.
Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Doors, where located in a cross-corridor condition shall be automatic-closing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.
The refuge area of a horizontal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommodate the original occupant load of the refuge area plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors entering the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge area shall be computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet (0.2787 m2) for each occupant to be accommodated therein.

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies:

1. Six square feet (0.6 m2) per occupant for occupancies in Group I-3.

2. Fifteen square feet (1.4 m2) per occupant for ambulatory occupancies in Group I-2.

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m2) per occupant for nonambulatory occupancies in Group I-2.

The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this chapter, but not including the added occupant load imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from other areas. At least one refuge area exit shall lead directly to the exterior or to an exit enclosure.

Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads has stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return through the compartment from which egress originates.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means of egress shall comply with this section.

Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor stadiums complying with Section 1022.1, Exception 2.
Exterior exit stairways shall not be used as an element of a required means of egress for Group I-2 occupancies. For all occupancies other than Group I-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be per-mitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings not exceeding six stories above grade plane or having occupied floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square feet (3.3 m2) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent floor or landing level.
The open areas adjoining exterior exit ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior walls of the building.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be located in accordance with Section 1027.3.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1022.1. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.

Exceptions:

1. In all occupancies other than Group R-1 or R-2, separation from the interior of the building is not required in buildings that are no more than two stories above grade plane where a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade plane.

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior ramp or stairway is served by an exterior ramp or balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a building or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1022.1.

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for exterior ramps or stairways connected to open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 through 4.4 are met:

4.1. The building, including corridors, ramps and stairs, shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1018.

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway complying with Section 1026.

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3.3 m2) or an exterior ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Fire towers may be used as exits in lieu of interior stairs provided they comply with all of the requirements for stairways as per Section 1009, except as modified below.
The enclosing walls of fire towers shall be of noncombustible materials or assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of at least 4 hours. Such walls shall be without openings, except for doors serving as means of egress.
At each story served by a fire tower, access to the stairways of such fire tower shall be provided through outside balconies or fireproof vestibules. Such balconies or vestibules shall be at least 44 inches (1118 mm) in width and shall have unpierced floors of noncombustible materials and shall be provided with substantial guard railings at least 4 feet (1219 mm) high, without any openings greater than 5 inches (127 mm) in width.
Such balconies or vestibules of fire towers shall be level with the floors of the structure and the platforms of the stairs connected by such balconies. Such balconies or vestibules shall be separated from the structure and the stairs by self-closing swinging doors with a one and 1/2-hour fire protection rating, capable of being opened from both sides without the use of a key or other unlocking device.

Balconies or vestibules of fire towers shall open on a street or yard, or on a court open vertically to the sky for its full height, having a minimum net area of 105 square feet (9.7 m2) and a minimum dimension of 7 feet (2134 mm). The opening from the vestibule to the street, yard or court shall have a minimum area of 18 square feet (1.7 m2) and a minimum dimension of 30 inches (762 mm). It shall be unlawful to leave openings in the court walls surrounding an interior fire tower, other than the openings from the vestibules, within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the balcony, except that self-closing windows with a 3/4-hour fire protection rating may be used if such windows are at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the balcony, provided that the area of the court is at least 12 feet by 24 feet (3658 mm by 7315 mm).
Fire towers shall terminate at grade level and shall exit directly to the street independently of corridors serving other stairways, except when the fire tower terminates in the ground floor corridor outside of the inner vestibule and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building line.
Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall provide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter a building. The combined use of Exceptions 1 and 2 below shall not exceed 50 percent of the number and capacity of the required exits.

Exceptions:

1. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through protected areas on the level of discharge provided all of the following are met:

1.1. Such protected area shall provide a free and unobstructed path of travel to an exterior exit door and such exit is readily visible and identifiable within 40 feet from the point of termination of the exit enclosure.

1.2. The protected area shall be separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclosure.

1.3. The protected area shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. All portions of the level of exit discharge with access to the egress path shall either be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the egress path in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exits.

1.4. The capacity of the protected area shall not be less than required by Section 1027.2 in addition to the occupant load of all exits serving communication spaces.

2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a vestibule provided all of the following are met:

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclosure.

2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of the level of exit discharge by construction providing protection at least the equivalent of approved wired glass in steel frames.

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and exits directly to the outside.

3. Stairways in open parking garages complying with Section 1022.1, Exception 4, are permitted to egress through the open parking garage at their levels of exit discharge.

4. In buildings in occupancy Group R-2, up to 100 percent of the number and capacity of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a protected area on the level of discharge, if all of the following conditions are met:

4.1. Egress is provided in two different directions from the discharge points of all exit enclosures to the exterior of the building that are remote from each other.

4.2. The exit discharges are arranged and constructed so as to minimize the possibility that all exit discharges would be compromised by smoke, fire or other emergency condition, and

4.3. Such protected areas shall comply with all requirements of Exception 1 above.

5. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025 shall not be required to discharge directly to the exterior of the building.
The capacity of the exit discharge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of the exits being served.
Exterior balconies, stairways and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from adjacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected in accordance with Section 705 based on fire separation distance.

Exception: Noncombustible stoops and ramps not exceeding one story above grade plane located at the street wall and terminating at the street are permitted to be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of adjacent lot lines or buildings on the same lot when serving:

1. Group R-2 occupancies in buildings of noncombustible construction not exceeding four stories in height and a total of four dwelling units.

2. Group R-3 occupancies.
Exit discharge components shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases.
Egress courts serving as a portion of the exit discharge in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of Section 1027.
The width of egress courts shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. The required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed to a height of 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm).

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required width and the width of such egress court is then reduced along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a guard not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not create an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. In no case shall the width of the egress court be less than the required minimum.
Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features are permitted to project into the required width 11/2 inches (38 mm) from each side.
Where an egress court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

Exception: Protection of exterior walls shall not be required where:

1. Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 10.

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3.
The exit discharge shall provide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way.

Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be provided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the following are met:

1. The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 5 square feet (0.46 m2) for each person.

2. The area shall be located on the same lot at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) away from the building requiring egress.

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identified as a safe dispersal area.

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unobstructed path of travel from the building.

5. The area shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1006.1.
Occupancies in Group A shall comply with this section. Bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating, that are not building elements, shall comply with ICC 300. No place of assembly shall be located within 250 feet (76 200 mm) of any occupancy containing explosive contents.
A Certificate of Operation shall be required for a place of assembly in accordance with Section 303.2. It shall be unlawful to occupy any building or space as a place of assembly unless and until a Certificate of Operation therefore has been issued by the department pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.
Signs shall be posted in all assembly spaces, indicating the number of persons who may legally occupy the space. Signs shall not be required where seating is fixed in place in accordance with an approved plan and no provision is made for standee spaces. Such signs, where required, shall read as follows:

OCCUPANCY BY MORE THAN . . . . . . PERSONS IS
DANGEROUS AND UNLAWFUL
Certificate of Operation No . . . . . .
Commissioner, Dept. of Buildings, City of New York
When a space is occupied for multiple purposes involving different occupant loads the sign shall read as follows:

OCCUPANCY BY MORE THAN
(number) . . . . .PERSONS AS (type of occupancy) . . .
OR BY
(number) . . . . .PERSONS AS (type of occupancy) . . .
OR BY
(number) . . . . .PERSONS AS (type of occupancy) . . .
IS DANGEROUS AND UNLAWFUL
Certificate of Operation No . . . . . .
Commissioner, Dept. of Buildings, City of New York
Signs shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) wide and 16 inches (406 mm) high. The lettering shall be red on a white background. The letters shall be at least 1 inch (25 mm) high and the numerals at least 11/4 inches (32 mm) high. Signs shall be framed under a transparent protective cover, and permanently mounted in a location that is conspicuously visible to a person entering the space. Signs shall be lighted by artificial illumination at all times during occupancy to maintain at least 5 foot-candles (54 lux) on the surface of the sign.
In every place of assembly providing seating or other moveable furnishings, copies of approved plans and approved alternate plans shall be kept on the premises. The plans shall be readily available for inspection, and shall provide the following information:

1. For assembly spaces:

1.1. The location of each seat of each tier of seating, along with the number of occupants of each seating section.

1.2. The location and number of standees for each standee area.

1.3. The total number of occupants of each tier and of the assembly space.

1.4. The location and classification of all exits.

2. For safe areas:

2.1. The furniture and equipment arrangement and location.

2.2 The number of occupants to be accommodated.

3. For stage areas:

3.1. The maximum number of occupants, including audience seating on the stage.

3.2. Any conditions limiting the use of the stage area.

3.3. The location of all exits.

These plans shall not be smaller in size than required for 1/8-inch scale plans.
Buildings or spaces occupied by Group A that have an occupant load of greater than 300 shall be provided with a main exit. Such main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such width shall not be less than the total required width of all means of egress leading to the exit. Where the main use or dominant occupancy of the building is classified as Group A, the main exit shall front on at least one street or an unoccupied space of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in width that adjoins a street or public way. Other additional exits shall provide an egress capacity for at least one-half of the total occupant load served by that level and comply with Section 1015.2.

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of the building provided that the total width of egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width.
In Group A-1 occupancies, where persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not available, such persons shall be allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, provided such lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the required clear width of the means of egress. Such foyer, if not directly connected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to every such main entrance or exit.
For balconies, galleries or press boxes having a seating capacity of 50 or more located in Group A occupancies, at least two means of egress shall be provided, with one from each side of every balcony, gallery, or press box and at least one leading directly to an exit.
Interior stairways and other vertical openings shall be enclosed in an exit enclosure as provided in Section 1022.1, except that stairways are permitted to be open between the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of religious worship, auditoriums and sports facilities. At least one accessible means of egress is required from a balcony, gallery or press box level containing accessible seating locations in accordance with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4.
The clear width of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with Section 1028.6.1 where smoke-protected seating is not provided and with Section 1028.6.2 or 1028.6.3 where smoke-protected seating is provided. The clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges except for permitted projections.
The clear width of aisles and other means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in accordance with all of the following, as applicable:

1. At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths 11 inches (279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between tread nosing.

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair width for each occupant shall be provided for each 0.10 inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches (178 mm).

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant shall be provided on those portions of stair width having no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 inches (762 mm).

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear width for each occupant served. Level or ramped means of egress, where slopes are not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 mm) of clear width for each occupant served.
The clear width of aisles and other means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seating shall not be less than the occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by the appropriate factor in Table 1028.6.2. The total number of seats specified shall be those within the space and exposed to the same smoke-protected environment. Interpolation is permitted between the specific values shown. A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, shall be done for a facility utilizing the reduced width requirements of Table 1028.6.2 for smoke-protected assembly seating subject to the approval by the commissioner.

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the clear width shall be determined using the factors in Section 1028.6.3.

TABLE 1028.6.2 WIDTH OF AISLES AND OTHER MEANS OF EGRESS FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY

TOTAL NUMBER OF
SEATS IN THE SPACE EXPOSED
TO THE SAME SMOKE-
PROTECTED ENVIRONEMENT
INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED
Stairs and aisle steps with
handrails within 30 inches
Stairs and aisle steps
without handrails
within 30 inches
Passageways, doorways
and ramps not steeper
than 1 in 10 in slope
Ramps steeper
than 1 in 10 in slope
Equal to or less than 5,000 0.200 0.250 0.150 0.165
10,000 0.130 0.163 0.100 0.110
15,000 0.096 0.120 0.070 0.077
20,000 0.076 0.095 0.056 0.062
Equal to or greater than 0.060 0.075 0.044 0.048

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Means of egress serving a smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.
A smoke-protected assembly seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway.

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway.
Enclosed areas with walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Exceptions:

1. The floor area used for contests, performances or entertainment provided the roof construction is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the floor level and the use is restricted to low fire hazard uses.

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area.

3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the means of egress in the seating area are essentially open to the outside.
The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be not less than the total occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where egress is by ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories.

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be permitted to comply with Section 1028.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor smoke-protected assembly where Section 1028.6.2 permits less width.