Subchapter 1 Administration and Enforcement

Subchapter 2 Definitions

Subchapter 3 Occupancy and Construction Classification

Subchapter 4 Building Limitations

Subchapter 5 Fire Protection Construction Requirements

Subchapter 6 Means of Egress

Subchapter 7 Special Uses and Occupancies

Subchapter 8 Places of Assembly

Subchapter 9 Loads

Subchapter 10 Structural Work

Subchapter 11 Foundations

Subchapter 12 Light, Heat, Ventilation and Noise Control

Subchapter 13 Mechanical Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems

Subchapter 14 Heating and Combustion Equipment

Subchapter 15 Chimneys and Gas Vents

Subchapter 16 Plumbing and Gas Piping

Subchapter 17 Fire Alarm, Detection and Extinguishing Equipment

Subchapter 18 Elevators and Conveyors

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The provisions of this subchapter shall control the design, construction, protection, location, arrangement and maintenance of required exit facilities to provide safe means of egress from all buildings hereafter erected, altered or changed in occupancy, except that exit requirements for special uses and occupancies, as provided in subchapters seven and eight of this chapter, shall take precedence over the provisions of this subchapter and except further that buildings in existence on December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-eight shall comply with the applicable requirements of section 27-356 of this article, section 27-371 of article five of this subchapter and articles eight and nine of this subchapter.
For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this subchapter, see subchapter two of this chapter.
Every structure existing on December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-eight which is not provided with exit facilities as prescribed in this code, and in which the exit facilities are, in the opinion of the commissioner, inadequate for the safety of the occupants, shall be provided with such means of egress or fire protection as the commissioner shall direct.
TABLE 6-1 DETERMINATION OF EXIT AND ACCESS REQUIREMENTS


N.P. \u2014 Not Permitted
N.R. \u2014 No Requirements (except as provided in section 27-375)
*See Table 8-1 for exit and access requirements applying to places of assembly

**Notes:
a For method of measurement, see subdivision (c) of section 27-360 of this article.
b Reduce listed capacity of ramps by twenty-five percent when slope exceeds one in ten.
c Except for public garages. (See article ten of subchapter seven of this chapter.)
dThere shall not be more than one classroom on each side of a corridor between an exit and the end of the corridor (dead end).
e Applies to corridors serving classrooms. Other corridors shall have a minimum width of forty-four inches.
f Applies to corridors serving patients. Other corridors shall have a minimum width of forty-four inches.
g There shall be no patient bedrooms between an exit and the end of the corridor (dead end).
h See subdivision (d) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter for permissible increase.
i See section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter.
j See section 27-370 of article five of this subchapter.
k See section 27-378 of article five of this subchapter.
m Where a door opening is divided by mullions into two or more doors openings, each such opening shall be measured separately in computing the number of units of exit width.

**There is no note l.




















TABLE 6-2 OCCUPANT LOAD REQUIREMENTS NET AREA TABLE

Occupancy
Net Floor Area per Occupant (sq. ft.)
Billiard rooms 
50
Bowling alleys 
50
Classrooms 
20
Dance floors 
10
Dining spaces (nonresidential) 
12
Exhibition spaces 
10
Garages and open parking structures 
250
Gymnasiums 
15
Habitable rooms 
140
Industrial shops 
200
In schools 
30
Institutional sleeping rooms
 
Adults
75
Children (except as listed below) 
50
Day Care
 
a. under 6 mos. 
50
b. 6 mos. 2 yrs. 
40
c. 2 yrs. 6 yrs. 
30
Institutional staff, all 
30
Kindergartens 
35
Kitchens (nonresidential) 
200
Laboratories 
50
Preparation rooms 
100
Libraries 
25
Locker rooms 
12
Offices 
100
Passenger terminals or platforms 
1.5xC
Sales areas (retail)
 
1st floor or basement 
25
All other floors 
50
Seating areas (audience) in all places of assembly
 
Fixed seats 
D
Moveable seats 
10
Skating rinks 
15
Stages (See subchapter eight)
 
Standing room (audience) in all places of assembly 
4
Storage rooms 
200

Notes:

C—capacity of all passenger vehicles that can be unloaded simultaneously.
D—designed number of seats or occupants.
*Dash not enacted but probably intended



The determination of exit requirements for a building shall be based upon the occupancy group classification of the building, the number of occupants, the floor area, the travel distance to an exit, and the capacity of the exits, as provided in table 6-1 and herein. Every floor of a building shall be provided with exit facilities for its occupant load. The occupant loads of floors shall not be cumulative for the purpose of designing vertical exits, except where one floor is used by another as a means of egress. Vertical exits provided from any floor above grade may serve simultaneously all floors above grade, and vertical exits provided from any floor below grade may serve simultaneously all floors below grade.

(a) Mixed occupancy. When a building is classified in more than one occupancy group in accordance with the provisions of section 27-239 of article two of subchapter three of this chapter, the exit requirements for the entire building shall be determined on the basis of the occupancy group having the strictest exit requirements, or the exit requirements for each building section shall be determined separately.

(b) Incidental occupancies. When a building contains incidental occupancies classified in occupancy groups other than that under which the building is classified, the exit requirements for the floor on which such occupancies occur shall be based upon those of the occupancy group under which the building is classified; but the access and exit requirements for the incidental occupancy shall be based upon the occupancy group classification of the incidental occupancy.

(c) Multiple occupancy or use. Where a building, floor, or space is used for multiple purposes involving different activities at different times, that occupancy involving the greatest number of occupants shall be used in determining the exit requirements.

(d) Building access. All buildings classified in other than occupancy groups A, mechanical and electrical equipment rooms and boiler and furnace rooms of D-2 or J-3 shall have at least one primary entrance accessible to and usable by individuals who use wheelchairs. Such entrance shall provide access to a level that makes elevators available in buildings where elevators are provided. Where ramps are used to comply with this requirement, they shall have a slope not greater than one in twelve, and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of section 27-377 and reference standard RS 4-6.

The commissioner may waive the requirements of this section in the alteration of buildings existing on the effective date of this code in accordance with section 27-292.6 of this code.

(For Table 6-1 see chapter 839 of the laws of 1986)

FOOTNOTES TO TABLE 6-1

a. For method of measurement see subdivision (c) of section 27-360 of this article.

b. Reduce listed capacity of ramps by twenty-five percent when slope exceeds 1 in 10.

c. Except for public garages. (See article ten of subchapter seven of this chapter.)

d. There shall not be more than one classroom on each side of a corridor between an exit and the end of the corridor (dead end).

e. Applies to corridors serving classrooms. Other corridors shall have a minimum width of forty-four inches.

f. Applies to corridors serving patients. Other corridors shall have a minimum width of forty-four inches.

g. There shall be no patient bedrooms between an exit and the end of the corridor (dead end).

h. See subdivision (d) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter for permissible increase.

i. See section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter.

j. See section 27-370 of article five of this subchapter.

k. See section 27-378 of article five of this subchapter.

m. Where a door opening is divided by mullions into two or more door openings, each such opening shall be measured separately in computing the number of units of exit width.
The number of occupants for whom exit facilities shall be provided shall be established either (1) by the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor, or building, as the case may be, is designed, or (2) by using the appropriate occupant-area ratios from table 6-2, whichever is larger. The occupant load of any space shall include the occupant load of all spaces that discharge through it in order to gain access to an exit.

(a) Unlisted occupancies. Where data regarding the sq. ft. per person for an occupancy is not listed in table 6-2, the occupant load shall be established by an architect or engineer, subject to the approval of the commissioner.

(b) Modifications.

(1) When the actual occupant load of any space will be significantly lower than that listed in table 6-2, the commissioner may establish a lower basis for the determination of the occupant load.

(2) When a building existing on December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-eight is altered or changed in occupancy or use so as to require enlarged exit facilities, the commissioner may authorize the alteration or change in occupancy or use without an enlargement of exit facilities, provided the occupant load is limited to that accommodated by the existing exit facilities as determined by the provisions of this code, and the building or space is posted accordingly with a sign. Such signs shall be at least twelve inches in width and sixteen inches in height. The lettering shall be red on a white background. The letters shall be not less than one inch high and the numerals not less than one and one-quarter inches high.

(c) Nonsimultaneous occupancy. The occupant load of toilets, locker rooms, meeting rooms, storage rooms, employee cafeterias, and similar rooms or spaces that are not occupied at the same time as other rooms or spaces on the same floor of a building, may be omitted from the occupant load calculation of the floor on which they are located to the extent that such spaces serve occupied rooms on the same floor.
The capacity of exits and access facilities shall be measured in units of width of twenty-two inches, and the number of persons per unit of width shall be determined by the occupancy group classification and type of exit as listed in table 6-1. Fractions of a unit of width less than twelve inches shall not be credited. Where twelve inches or more are added to one or more full units of width, one-half unit of width may be credited. Where computations of total required width give fractional results, the next larger integral number of exit units or integral number plus one-half, shall be used. A fraction less than one-half may be neglected in cases where such fraction constitutes less than ten per cent of the total required number of units. Notwithstanding any of the above computations, no exit or access facility shall be narrower than the minimum width requirements specified in table 6-1, or elsewhere in this code.
(a) General requirement. The maximum travel distance from the most remote point in any room or space to the center of a door opening directly on an open exterior space, a vertical exit, an interior stair, an exit passageway or to a horizontal exit shall not be greater than the limit specified in table 6-1 for the occupancy group classification of the room or space.

(b) Travel distance within dwelling units. In buildings classified in occupancy groups J-1 and J-2, the maximum travel distance from the centerline of a door from any habitable room within a dwelling unit either to the centerline of a door opening on a corridor or to the center of a door opening on an exit shall not be greater than forty feet, except that for buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 of construction class I-A, the distance may be increased to fifty feet. Such travel distances shall be included in the maximum travel distance established in subdivision (a) of this section.

(c) Measurement. Travel distance shall be measured along a natural and unobstructed path of travel. Where the path of travel is over an access stair, it shall be measured along an inclined straight line through the center of the outer edge of each tread.
All exits and access facilities shall be located so that they are clearly visible, or their locations clearly indicated, and they shall be kept readily accessible and unobstructed at all times.
When more than one tenant occupies a building or floor area, each tenant shall have direct access to the required number of exits without passing through premises occupied by other tenants, except as permitted for balconies in subdivision (g) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter.
(a) When more than one exit is required from a floor of a building, each such required exit shall be placed as remote from the others as is practicable. Where this results in a distance between exits exceeding the maximum travel distances required by section 27-357, additional remote vertical exits shall be provided.

(b) In addition to the requirements of subdivision (a) of this section:

(1) For exits serving spaces classified in occupancy groups G or J-2, in no event shall such exits be less than fifteen feet distant from each other.

(2) For exits serving spaces classified in other occupancies, in no event shall such distance be less than thirty feet or one-third the maximum travel distance required by section 27-357, whichever is greater.

(c) On any floor containing ten thousand square feet or more in a high rise building classified in occupancy group E (office space), each exit that is required to be remote from another exit shall not share any common walls, floors, ceilings, scissor stair assemblies, or other enclosures.
All vertical exits shall extend in a continuous enclosure to discharge directly, or by way of a yard, court, or exit passageway, to an open exterior space. When vertical exits serving floors above grade continue in the same enclosure to serve floors below grade, the portion of such vertical exits above grade shall be separated from the portion below grade by construction having at least a one hour fire-resistance rating, with three-quarter hour self-closing doors opening in the direction of exit travel from the floors below grade, except that buildings classified in residential occupancy group J-3 and educational occupancy group G shall be exempt from this requirement.
(a) There shall be at least two door openings, remote from each other and leading to exits, from every room or enclosed space in which the total occupant loads exceeds the number of persons listed in table 6-3.

TABLE 6-3 MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD— SPACES WITH ONE DOOR [Max. Occupant Load]**

Occupancy Group
Classification
Max. Occupant Load
with One Door
A 10
B 50
C 75
D 50
E 75
F 75
G 75
H 15
J 20
**[] As enacted but this heading probably intended to be omitted.

(b) Except as otherwise provided for in subdivisions (c) and (d) of this section, in buildings of combustible construction group II exceeding two stories in height there shall be at least two door openings from each J-1 or J-2 dwelling unit which shall be remote from each other. Each door opening shall lead to separate exits either directly or by separate corridors or one door opening shall lead to an exit and the other to a balcony complying with subdivision (g) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter.

(c) In buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-2 not more than three stories and forty feet in height, occupied by not more than four families on each story and of combustible construction group II there shall be at least two door openings from each J-2 dwelling unit which shall be remote from each other. One door opening shall lead to an exit and the other to a balcony complying with subdivision (g) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter.

(d) Buildings not exceeding three stories in height and occupied exclusively by not more than one family on each story without boarders, roomers or lodgers are exempt from the provisions of subdivisions (b) and (c) of this section.
1. There shall be at least two independent exits, remote from each other, from every floor of a building, except that only one exit may be provided from floors in:

(a) One and two family dwellings.

(b) Buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 of noncombustible construction group I or occupancy group E that are not more than sixty feet in height, have a gross area of two thousand square feet or less per floor, and have a maximum travel distance of fifty feet on any floor.

(c) Buildings classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 that are not more than two stories and thirty feet in height and have a maximum travel distance of eighty feet and the corridors and stair enclosure are provided with automatic sprinkler protection complying with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(d) Buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 occupied exclusively by not more than one family on each story without boarders, roomers or lodgers and not more than three stories and forty feet in height, and the stair enclosure is provided with automatic sprinkler protection complying with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter and without openings between any garage and the exit passageway.

(e) Buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 not more than three stories and forty feet in height occupied by not more than four families on each story.

2. Notwithstanding the exit requirements of this section, in buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 of construction class I-A, one level of an apartment occupying a part of not more than two floors need only be provided with a balcony that complies with subdivision (g) of section 27-369 of article five of this subchapter, provided that, in addition, the stair within such apartment shall be at least two feet six inches in width and terminates not more than twenty feet from a corridor door on the other level that shall provide the required access to at least two independent exits. The center line of such corridor door shall be not more than fifty feet from any room within such apartment.

3. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, when, within a building, any place of assembly has an occupant load between five hundred and nine hundred ninety-nine persons, there shall be provided at least three independent exits, remote from each other, from each floor; any such place of assembly with an occupant load of one thousand or more persons shall be provided with at least four independent exits, remote from each other, from each floor.
When a floor area has access to areas of refuge that comply with the requirements of section 27-372 of article five of this subchapter, the number of persons for whom vertical exits are to be provided may be reduced to fifty per cent of the occupant load of the floor area when one area of refuge is provided, and may be reduced to thirty-three and one-third per cent of the floor area when two areas of refuge are provided. This section shall not be applicable to any new or altered place of assembly, except for such places of assembly in fully sprinklered office buildings which occupy less than twenty percent of the floor area occupied by the principal use.
(a) Means of egress shall be provided for all buildings by one or more of the facilities listed below. Access and exit facilities not specifically covered in this section shall not be used to satisfy the exit requirements of this code. Fire escapes shall not be permitted on new construction, with the exception of group homes. Fire escapes may be used as exits on buildings existing on December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-eight when such buildings are altered, subject to the approval of the commissioner, or as provided in subdivision (b) hereof. Elevators or escalators shall be provided in all new buildings exceeding four stories in height except that buildings or building sections classified in occupancy group H-2 exceeding one story in height and buildings or building sections classified in occupancy group G or J-1 exceeding two stories in height shall be provided with elevators.

(b) In group homes all floors used by children shall have alternate exits remotely located from each other and readily accessible to the occupants. Fire escapes shall be permitted as the second means of egress.
Corridors shall be kept readily accessible and unobstructed at all times. Corridors shall be kept free of combustible contents except that in buildings classified in occupancy groups G, H-1 and H-2, combustible contents may be stored in noncombustible lockers and combustible bulletin boards meeting the requirements of table 5-4 shall be permitted.

(a) Capacity. The capacity and minimum width of corridors shall be as listed in table 6-1. Width shall be measured in the clear between the narrowest points produced by any projections such as radiators, lockers, drinking fountains, or room or locker door swings, except that such width may be reduced by projections up to eighteen inches wide to the extent of two inches per unit of exit width if the total area of such projections does not exceed five per cent of the area of the wall on which they occur.

(b) Height. Corridors shall have a clear height of seven feet six inches for at least seventy-five per cent of the floor area, with no point less than seven feet in height. No projection below the ceiling shall be located so as to obstruct full view of exit signs.

(c) Length. Corridors shall be subdivided by smoke barriers, as defined in subchapter two, into the following lengths:

Educational occupancy group G....................300 ft.

Institutional occupancy groups H-1 and H-2.......150 ft.

Residential occupancy groups J-1 and J-2.........150 ft.

Where smoke barriers are penetrated by doors, such doors shall be smoke stop doors in conformance with subdivision (c) of section 27-371 of this article.

(d) Dead ends. Dead ends in corridors shall not exceed the length listed in table 6-1, except that in all occupancy groups except occupancy group H, when a corridor is completely enclosed in construction having a two hour fire-resistance rating, with all corridor doors being self-closing and having a fire protection rating of one and one-half hours, the permissible length of dead ends may be increased one hundred per cent above the length listed in table 6-1. Dead end distance shall be measured from the centerline of the door opening nearest to the closed end of the corridor to the center of an exit door opening, or the center of that point in the corridor where travel to two or more exits becomes available in two directions.

(e) Changes in level. Changes in level requiring less than two risers in a corridor shall be by a ramp complying with section 27-377 of this article. Risers and treads shall comply with the requirements of subdivision (e) of section 27-375 of this article.

(f) Exterior corridors. Exterior corridors shall be roofed, and shall have solid floors drained to prevent accumulations of standing water. Such floors may serve as fire canopies when so constructed. Exterior corridors shall be protected along their outer side by guards or parapets at least three feet six inches high. Openings in guards or parapets shall be of such dimensions as to prevent the passage of a five inch dia. ball. Where the outer side of an exterior corridor is more than fifty per cent enclosed with solid material, it shall be treated as an interior corridor.

(g) Balconies. Balconies may serve as a means of egress from dwelling units in buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 under the following conditions:

(1) They shall serve at least two dwelling units.

(2) They shall be constructed as required for exterior corridors, except that parapets or guards shall not be higher than four feet on the outer side of the balcony.

(3) The dwelling units served by balconies shall be separated from each other by construction having at least a two hour fire resistance rating. Such separation shall extend at least three feet beyond the outside face of the exterior wall of the building, although such projection may be reduced to two feet six inches provided that any window opening on each such balcony served by the fire separation shall be at least two inches from such fire separation for every one inch that such separation is less than thirty-six inches. An opening at least twenty inches wide shall be provided between the end of this separation and the balcony parapet or guard, and the opening shall be maintained free and unobstructed for the full height of the balcony, except that privacy screens openable from either side may be permitted in the opening.

(4) Access from dwelling units to the balconies shall be through doors having glass panels at least two feet wide and four feet high, without muntins, screens, or other obstructions to hinder entry by breaking the glass panels. The doors shall be lockable only from the inside by devices that can be easily released from the outside after breaking the glass. A combination lock or lock required to be opened by a key or removable device or tool shall not be used.

(h) Construction.

(1) Interior corridors. Interior corridors shall be completely enclosed within fire separations to provide a minimum fire-resistance rating of one hour except as otherwise provided in subparagraphs a through c of this paragraph:

a. For buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 of combustible construction group II exceeding two stories in height, except for buildings not exceeding three stories in height and occupied exclusively by not more than one family on each story without boarders, roomers or lodgers, corridors shall be enclosed within fire separations providing a minimum fire-resistance rating of two hours.

b. Corridor partitions may be omitted or may be constructed of unrated noncombustible material in buildings in occupancy group H-2 in the following instances: nurses' stations not exceeding three hundred fifty square feet in area, waiting spaces, lounges and recreational spaces for patients and visitors which do not exceed five hundred square feet in area, spaces used solely for public telephones, and all other spaces which are completely protected by an automatic wet sprinkler system complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this code.

c. Corridor partitions may be omitted in spaces of occupancy group H-1 used for detention of persons under legal restraint.

(2) Exterior corridors and balconies. Exterior corridors and balconies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(i) Borrowed lights. No operable transoms shall be permitted in walls of corridors. In corridors required to have a one hour fire-resistance rating, fixed one-quarter inch wire glass panels may be installed in not more than twenty percent of the common wall between the corridor and any room or space, provided that no panel exceeds seven hundred twenty square inches in area; however, openings permitted in paragraph three of subdivision (h) of section 27-370 of this article may be permitted provided all of the limitations and requirements specified in that section are complied with, except that openings in corridor walls serving as fire divisions required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be limited to those specified in section 27-342 of article five of subchapter five of this chapter.

(j) Ventilation. Corridors shall be ventilated in accordance with the requirements of subchapter twelve of this chapter. Corridors shall not be used as open plenums or as ducts to exhaust air from rooms or spaces opening upon them, except as permitted in reference standard RS 13-1.

(k) Interior finish. The interior finish of corridors shall be in accordance with the requirements of table 5-4.
Exit passageways shall be maintained free of obstructions at all times. Not more than fifty percent of the total number of vertical exits provided for a building may be served by a single exit passageway, except as provided in subdivision (h) of section 27-370 of this article.

(a) Capacity. The capacity of exit passageways shall be as listed in table 6-1.

(b) Width. The width of an exit passageway serving one vertical exit shall be equal to the width of the vertical exit. The width of an exit passageway serving two or more vertical exits shall be equal to seventy-five percent of the width of all of the vertical exits that it serves. Width shall be measured in the clear between the narrowest points at any projections such as radiators, door swings, or pilasters.

(c) Height. Exit passageways shall have a clear height of seven feet six inches for at least seventy-five per cent of the floor area, with no point less than seven feet in height. No projection below the ceiling shall be located so as to obstruct full view of exit signs.

(d) Changes in level. Changes in level requiring less than two risers in an exit passageway shall be by a ramp complying with section 27-377 of this article. Risers and treads shall comply with the requirements of subdivision (e) of section 27-375 of this article.

(e) Construction. The construction of exit passageways shall be as required by table 3-4 for the applicable construction class of the building.

(f) Openings. No openings other than exit doors shall be permitted in exit passageways, except as provided in subdivision (h) of this section.

(g) Interior finish. The interior finish of exit passageways shall be in accordance with the requirements of table 5-4.

(h) Street floor lobbies. Street floor lobbies may be used as exit passageways when they comply with the requirements of subdivisions (a) through (g) of this section subject to the following modifications:

(1) VERTICAL EXITS SERVED. One hundred per cent of the total number of vertical exits provided for a building may be served by a street floor lobby, if egress is provided in two different directions from the discharge points of all vertical exits to open exterior spaces that are remote from each other.

(2) WIDTH. Street floor lobbies serving as exit passageways shall be increased in width to accommodate the occupant load of all communicating spaces on the lobby floor that exit through them. The capacity per unit of width shall be as listed in table 6-1.

(3) OPENINGS. Openings between street floor lobbies serving as exit passageways and elevators or communicating spaces shall comply with the following:

a. Doors. 1. Doors to stairways and elevators, and unsprinklered communicating spaces classified in occupancy group B-2, D-2, F-1 or F-2 shall be self-closing fire doors having a one and one-half hour fire protection rating.

2. Doors to unsprinklered communicating spaces classified in occupancy group G, H or J, or sprinklered communicating spaces classified in occupancy group B-2, D-2, F-1 or F-2 may be either:

(a) self-closing fire doors having a three-quarter hour fire protection rating, or

(b) glass or other noncombustible doors installed in conjunction with automatic fire doors having a one and one-half hour fire protection rating, with sprinkler heads installed over the doors on the room side.

3. No other door openings shall be authorized except as otherwise provided in this section.

b. Other openings. Other openings to spaces classified in occupancy group C, E, F, G, H or J shall be permitted, provided they have a maximum length of eight feet and a maximum height of eight feet, are glazed by one-quarter inch polished plate glass or equivalent and are protected by automatic fire doors having a one and one-half hour fire protection rating and by automatic sprinklers complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter over the openings on the room side.

c. Separations and limitations. Openings permitted by subparagraphs a and b of this paragraph shall not exceed in total length fifty per cent of the length of such enclosure wall except where the length of such wall is less than sixteen feet. Adjoining openings shall be separated from each other a minimum of three feet by construction having a two hour fire-resistance rating.

d. Notwithstanding the restrictions in subparagraphs a, b, and c of this paragraph, the following openings may be authorized:

1. A space classified in occupancy group C, E, F-3 or, F-4 within fire separations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of one hour, with an area not exceeding twenty-five hundred square feet, may have an unlimited length of show window under the following conditions:

(a) The maximum depth of show window shall be three feet.

(b) Automatic sprinklers complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter, shall be provided in the show window display area.

(c) The show window display area shall be protected on all sides, except for the glazed window, by construction having a two hour fire-resistance rating with access provided by means of a fireproof self-closing door having a three-quarter hour fire protection rating.

(d) The show window shall be glazed by one-quarter inch polished plate glass or equivalent.

(e) Glass or other noncombustible doors may be used for entrance to or egress from the space within fire separations when installed in combination with automatic fire doors having a one and one-half hour fire protection rating. Such automatic fire doors shall be located on the room side and shall be held open by approved door-holding devices actuated to release automatically upon the activation of smoke detecting devices, whether of the photoelectric cell or other approved type. In addition, automatic sprinkler heads, complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter, shall be provided over the door openings on the room side.

2. A space classified in occupancy group C, E, F-3, or F-4 within fire separations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of one hour, with an area not exceeding three thousand square feet, may have a maximum total length of unprotected openings upon a corridor or exit passageway not exceeding fifty percent of the space frontage along such corridor or exit passageway under the following conditions:

(a) The entire space shall be provided with automatic sprinklers complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(b) The show window shall be glazed by one-quarter inch polished plate glass or equivalent.

(c) All corridor or exit passageway doors shall be self-closing, noncombustible, and smokeproof.

3. Show windows or other openings of unlimited lengths and heights shall be permitted on any corridor or exit passageway without requirements for fire-resistance doors under the following conditions:

(a) The entire floor area, including the corridors or exit passageways, shall be provided with automatic sprinklers complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(b) The occupancy of all spaces on the floor shall be limited to occupancy groups C, E, F-3 and F-4.

(c) The widths of the corridors or passageways shall exceed the requirements of table 6-1 or subdivision (b) of this section, whichever is applicable, by at least fifty percent.

(d) All doors opening on the corridors or exit passageways shall be smokeproof, noncombustible self-closing doors.

(e) Show windows or other openings shall be glazed by one-quarter inch polished plate glass or equivalent.

(f) Each corridor or exit passageway shall be provided with a fresh air intake, a positive smoke exhaust system and smoke detectors which, when activated, shall permit circulation only of fresh air.

(4) OCCUPANCY. Street floor lobbies serving as exit passageways may be occupied by newsstands, candy and tobacco stands, information booths or similar occupancies, if such stands or booths are constructed of noncombustible materials, or of materials which comply with the requirements of section 27-348 of article five of subchapter five of this chapter for interior finish for exit passageways, provided that such stands or booths:

a. do not occupy more than one hundred square feet or five percent of the net floor area of the lobby, whichever is greater; and

b. do not reduce the required clear width of the lobby at any point; and

c. if constructed of combustible materials are protected by no less than two automatic sprinkler heads. Water for such sprinkler heads may be supplied from the domestic water supply system.
Exit doors and doors providing access to exits shall comply with the following:

(a) Exit doors. Doors for required exits shall be self-closing swinging doors with a one and one-half hour fire protection rating, except in occupancy group J-3 buildings and except that:

(1) Exterior street floor exit doors having an exterior separation of more than fifteen feet need not have a fire-protection rating.

(2) Doors into stairs and exit passageways shall have at least a three-quarter hour fire protection rating.

(b) Corridor doors. Doors that provide access to interior corridors required to have a one hour fire-resistance rating shall be self-closing swinging fire doors with a three-quarter hour fire-protection rating, except that in buildings classified in occupancy group G, in which an acceptable interior fire alarm system is installed and in which regular supervised fire drills are held, the doors to rooms or spaces devoted exclusively to nonhazardous uses in occupancy group G need not be fire-rated, provided they are swinging, self-closing one and three-quarter inch solid core wood, and have a maximum area of seven hundred twenty square inches of one-quarter inch thick wired glass vision panels. Other corridor doors except those provided for in subdivision (d) of section 27-369 of this article, shall be self-closing, swinging, noncombustible or one and three-quarter inch solid core wood doors, except that in buildings classified in occupancy group H-2 the doors need not be self-closing. Noncombustible mail slots having an area not exceeding forty square inches may be provided in corridor doors when the opening is protected by a closure activated by gravity or a spring device so as to keep it closed when not in use. Noncombustible louvers may be installed in corridor doors opening into toilets, service sink closets, and electric closets. Notwithstanding the foregoing restrictions in this subdivision, doors not prohibited by subdivision (d) of this section may open from spaces into corridors when in compliance with all of the provisions of paragraph three of subdivision (h) of section 27-370 of this article.

(c) Smoke stop doors. Smoke stop doors shall be self-closing, swinging doors of metal, metal covered, or one and three-quarter inch solid core wood with clear wire glass panels having a minimum area of six hundred square inches per door and a maximum area of twelve hundred ninety-six square inches per door, except that in buildings not over two stories high, smoke stop doors may be of one and three-eighths inch solid core wood with clear wire glass panels, unless the doors are also used as horizontal exits in which case they shall comply with the provisions of subdivision (b) of section 27-373 of this article. In addition, smoke stop doors may be constructed of tempered glazing or the equivalent and be protected by sprinkler heads constructed in accordance with subchapter seventeen of this chapter and installed a maximum of six feet (6'-0") on centers on each side of the opening. Smoke stop doors may be double-acting but shall close the opening completely with only such clearance as is reasonably necessary for proper operation. Smoke stop doors shall normally be in the closed position, except that they may be left open if they are arranged to close automatically by an approved device which is actuated by an interior fire alarm system meeting the requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter or upon smoke detection. Tempered glass smoke stop doors shall be marked where required in accordance with the rules of the board of standards and appeals.

(d) Prohibited doors. Vertically sliding doors, rolling shutters, and folding doors shall not be used as exit doors or as corridor doors, except that overhead garage doors may serve as exits from buildings classified in occupancy group J-3, and except that sliding or rolling doors or gates may be used in F-2 places of assembly provided they are kept open when the place of assembly is occupied. Revolving doors may be used only to the extent permitted by subdivision (m) of section 27-371 of this article. Automatic horizontally sliding fire doors shall be permitted only in horizontal exits in fire divisions required to have a four hour fire-resistance rating as specified in table 5-3.

(e) Door opening widths. The capacity of exit and corridor door openings shall be as listed in table 6-1. Door jambs or stops and the door thickness when open shall not reduce the required width by more than three inches for each twenty-two inches of width. The maximum width of any swinging door leaf shall be forty-eight inches. The minimum nominal width of corridor and exit door openings shall be thirty-six inches, except that where a door opening is divided by mullions into two or more door openings, the minimum nominal width of each such opening shall be thirty-two inches. The minimum nominal width of other door openings shall be as follows:

(1) Door openings to all habitable and occupiable rooms--thirty-two inches.

(2) Door swinging in pairs (no mullion), opening--forty-eight inches.

(3) Door openings to rooms used by bedridden patients and all single door openings used by patients in buildings classified occupancy group H-2--forty-four inches.

(4) Door openings to toilet rooms in buildings to which the public has free access shall be thirty-two inches.

(5) Door openings giving access to at least one toilet, lavatory and bathtub or shower in each dwelling unit, in buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2, when such dwelling unit is accessible to individuals in wheel chairs--thirty-two inches.

(6) Door openings giving access to all toilets, lavatories and bathtubs or showers serving single room occupancies which are accessible to individuals in wheelchairs--thirty-two inches.

(7) Door openings for people having physical disabilities shall additionally comply with the requirements of reference standard RS 4-6.

(f) Door heights. The minimum nominal door opening height for exit and corridor doors shall be six feet eight inches. Door jambs, stops, sills, and closers shall not reduce the clear opening to less than six feet six inches.

(g) Door swing. Exit doors, corridor doors from rooms or spaces classified in high hazard occupancy group A, or from factories as defined in the labor law, and corridor doors from rooms required to have more than one door under the provisions of section 27-365 of article four of this subchapter, shall swing in the direction of exit travel, except:

(1) Doors from rooms of instruction in buildings classified in occupancy group G, having an occupant load of less than seventy-five persons.

(2) Exterior street floor exit doors from lobbies in buildings classified in occupancy groups J-2 and J-3.

(3) Exterior street floor exit doors from spaces in occupancy group C or E not exceeding two thousand square feet in area, and occupied by less than fifty persons, where the maximum travel distance to a door does not exceed fifty feet.

(h) Floor level. The floor on both sides of all exit and corridor doors shall be essentially level and at the same elevation for a distance, perpendicular to the door opening, at least equal to the width of the door leaf, except that where doors lead out of a building the floor level inside may be seven and one-half inches higher than the level outside.

(i) Closed doors. Exit doors and corridor doors shall normally be kept in the closed position, except that corridor doors in buildings classified in occupancy group H-2 shall be exempt from this requirement.

(j) Door and window hardware. Doors and windows shall be equipped with hardware as follows:

(1) Fire protection requirements.

a. Exit doors and corridors shall be readily openable at all times from the side from which egress is to be made and shall not require a key to operate from that side, except that:

1. Locks may be used in penal and mental institutions and areas, where required for security.

2. Locks may be used in banks, museums, jewelry stores and other places where extra safeguards are required, subject to the approval of the commissioner, and provided the locks are equipped with electrical release devices for remote control in case of emergency.

3. Stairways leading from the top floor to a roof may be provided with locked wire mesh gates openable by key in buildings classified in occupancy group G. The use of a hook and eye closing device on the inside of all doors to roofs shall be permitted.

b. Doors opening into interior stair enclosures shall not be locked from either side with the following exceptions:

1. Doors may be located to prevent access to the stair at the street floor.

2. In buildings classified in occupancy group E, less than one hundred feet in height, the doors may be locked on the stair side on each floor above the street floor.

3. In buildings classified in occupancy group E, one hundred feet or more in height, and existing office buildings one hundred feet or more in height, the doors may be locked on the stair side above the street floor except that at intervals of four stories or less, doors shall be openable from the stair side without the use of a key to permit reentry at such floors. In addition, the door on every floor where a keyed switch is required by the provisions of subchapter eighteen of this chapter shall be openable from the stair side without the use of a key to permit reentry at such floors.

4. When a locked door is provided with an automatic fail safe system for opening such door in the event of the activation of any automatic fire detecting device or when any elevator in readiness as provided in section 27-989 of subchapter eighteen of this chapter is activated, such door shall be deemed as openable from the stair side. The installation of such automatic fail safe system shall comply with the requirements of reference standards RS17-3A and RS17-3B, whichever is applicable. Stair reentry signs required under section 27-394 of article nine of this subchapter shall specify that reentry is provided only during fire emergencies.

c. Latch bolts shall be provided on all exit doors and corridor doors to hold them in a closed position against the pressure of expanding gases except that this requirement shall not apply to doors in stair enclosures in buildings classified in occupancy group G.

(2) Security requirements. The following provisions shall apply to all buildings erected or altered after December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-eight that may be classified in residential occupancy group J-2. Existing buildings in such group shall comply with the requirements of article eleven of subchapter two.

a. Building entrance doors and other exterior exit doors shall be equipped with heavy duty lock sets with auxiliary latch bolts to prevent the latch from being manipulated by means other than a key. Latch sets shall have stopwork in the inside cylinder controlled by a master key only. Outside cylinders of main entrance door locks shall be operated by the tenants' key, which shall not be keyed to also open the tenant's apartment door. A light or lights shall be provided at or near the outside of the front entranceway of the building providing not less than five foot candles intensity measured at the floor level for the full width of the entranceway.

b. Doors to dwelling units shall be equipped with a heavy duty latch set and a heavy duty dead bolt operable by a key from the outside and a thumb-turn from the inside. Those doors shall also be equipped with a chain guard so as to permit partial opening of the door. Dwelling unit entrance doors shall also be equipped with a viewing device located so as to enable a person on the inside of the entrance door to view a person immediately outside.

c. All openable windows shall be equipped with sash locks designed to be openable from the inside only. Grilles lockable from the inside only may be placed on the inside or outside of windows that are accessible from grade but that do not serve to provide access to exits.

d. Buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 containing eight or more dwelling units shall be provided with an intercommunication system located at the door giving access to the main entrance hall or lobby, consisting of a device or devices for voice communication between the occupant of each dwelling unit and a person outside said door to the main entrance hall or lobby and permitting such dwelling unit occupant to release the locking mechanism of said door from the dwelling unit.

(k) Panic hardware.

(1) Exit doors shall be equipped with fire exit bolts when providing an exit from:

a. Buildings classified in occupancy group G, except exit doors opening directly outdoors at grade from rooms having an occupant load of less than seventy-five persons,

b. F-1 places of assembly,

c. F-2, F-3 and F-4 places of assembly having an occupant load exceeding three hundred persons, except places of assembly having doors that are not equipped with locks and are openable at all times.

(2) Fire exit bolts shall be of an approved type, and shall release when a pressure exceeding fifteen pounds is applied to the releasing device in the direction of exit travel. The bars or panels shall extend at least two-thirds of the width of the door and shall be placed at least thirty inches, but not more than forty-four inches above the floor.

(l) Power operated doors. Power operated doors or power assisted manually operated doors, may be used as exit or corridor doors provided they remain closed in case of power failure but shall be manually operable. No power operated door shall be credited as a required exit unless it swings in the direction of exit travel.

(m) Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall not be used as exits in buildings classified in occupancy group F-1 or F-2, G, or H; nor shall revolving doors be used in any occupancy as interior doors providing access to exits, at the foot of stairs, or at the head of basement stairs. Where revolving doors are used as exits, they shall comply with the following:

(1) They may provide not more than one unit or exit width for each revolving door and not more than fifty per cent of the required exit capacity at any location, provided that the revolving doors are located adjacent to, or within twenty feet, of swinging doors that provide the remaining required exit capacity at that location.

(2) They shall be collapsible, and designed and constructed so that: a. Each wing is independently supported by a hanger with a corrosion resistant safety release which, when pressure of between sixty to eighty pounds is exerted simultaneously on the wings on opposite sides of the door pivot, the door wings will fold back on themselves in the direction of egress.

b. Each wing is provided with at least one push bar and glazed with at least 7/32 in. plate or tempered glass.

c. The inside diameter of the enclosure is at least six feet six inches.

d. The freely operable maximum rate of revolving speed is controlled so that it is not greater than fifteen rpm.

e. The upper surface of the floor finish within the door enclosure is flush with the adjacent floor area, and permanently secured in place.

(3) The owner shall be responsible at all times for the operation and maintenance of revolving doors, and shall have the doors inspected at intervals not to exceed six months. All parts of the doors, including the safety releases and speed control mechanism, shall be maintained in good working order. Inspection reports shall be made in writing and kept on file at the premises for at least two years.

(n) Turnstiles. No turnstile or other device designed to restrict travel shall be placed so as to obstruct any required exit, except that approved turnstiles that turn freely in the direction of exit travel may be used in any occupancy where revolving doors are permitted. Turnstiles shall be not more than thirty-six inches nor less than thirty inches high and shall be of such design as to provide twenty-two inches clear width as the turnstile rotates. Each turnstile may be credited with a capacity of one unit of exit width. Not more than fifty per cent of the required exit capacity may be provided by turnstiles at any location. The balance of the required exit capacity shall be provided by swinging doors located within twenty feet of the turnstiles. Turnstiles over thirty-six inches high shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for revolving doors.
Areas of refuge shall comply with the following:

(a) Separation. Areas of refuge shall be separated from the area which they serve by construction having at least a two hour fire-resistance rating.

(b) Floor area. Areas of refuge shall provide clear public space or space occupied by the same tenant or owner, adequate in size to hold the occupant load it receives from the floor area it serves as computed by the provision of section 27-367 of article four of this subchapter, in addition to its own occupant load, allowing at least three square feet per person, except that in buildings classified in occupancy group H-2 for patient areas only, the allowance shall be at least thirty square feet per person.

(c) Required exits. Areas of refuge shall be provided with at least one vertical exit. When an area of refuge is located higher than the eleventh floor of a building, the vertical exit shall be supplemented by at least one elevator.

(d) Locking. Doors providing access to areas of refuge shall be kept unlocked at all times when any floor area served by the area of refuge is occupied.
A horizontal exit to an area of refuge may consist of doors through walls or partitions having at least a two hour fire-resistance rating; of a balcony or exterior vestibule leading around the end of a fire division to another fire area or building; or it may be a bridge or tunnel between two buildings. Horizontal exits shall comply with the following:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of horizontal exits shall be as listed in table 6-1. Only the widths of doors swinging in the direction of exit travel to the area of refuge shall be counted.

(b) Door requirements. Doors shall be swinging, self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of one and one-half hours, except that door in fire divisions having a three hour or four hour fire-resistance rating shall have opening protective as required by table 5-3. Each swinging door shall swing in the direction of exit travel, and when travel is in both directions, as when two areas of refuge serve as areas of refuge for each other, at least two door openings shall be provided, the doors of which shall swing in opposite directions. Signs shall be placed over each door on the side from which egress is made, indicating the exit door.

(c) Balconies, bridges and tunnels. When serving as horizontal exits, balconies, bridges, and tunnels shall comply with the following:

(1) Their width shall be equal to at least the width of the doors opening on them, but in no case less than three feet eight inches.

(2) They shall be enclosed at each end by doors complying with subdivision (b) of this section.

(3) The floor level at doors shall be the same as that of the building except that the floor level of open balconies or open bridges shall be approximately seven and one-half inches lower.

(4) Where there is a difference in level between the areas connected, the floors of the horizontal exit shall be ramped not more than one inch in ten inches.

(5) Exterior wall openings within thirty feet horizontally of any open bridge or balcony or below any open bridge or balcony shall be provided with opening protectives having a three-quarter hour fire protection rating.

(6) Balconies shall not face or open on yards or courts less than twelve feet wide, and shall be constructed as required for exterior corridors.

(7) Exterior bridges shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Interior bridges or tunnels shall be constructed of materials providing a two hour fire-resistance rating.
Enclosed interior stairs, ramps, or escalators may provide access to an area of refuge located on a floor nearer to the street floor, when complying with the following:

(a) Limitation. They shall be supplemental vertical exits serving no other purpose than to connect a floor area with an area of refuge.

(b) Capacity. The capacity of supplemental vertical exits shall be as listed for stairs in table 6-1.

(c) Construction. Supplemental vertical exits shall comply with all of the construction requirements for interior stairs as provided in section 27-375 of this article.

(d) Openings. There shall be no openings in supplemental vertical exit enclosures other than the exit doors and doors leading into the area of refuge.

(e) Identification. Every supplemental vertical exit shall have a sign at the entrance designating its destination reading, "EXIT TO AREA OF REFUGE ON......FLOOR."
Interior stairs shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of interior stairs shall be as listed in table 6-1.

(b) Width. The width of interior stairs shall be the clear width between walls, grilles, guards, or newel posts. Stair stringers may project into the required width not more than two inches on each side of the stair. No interior stair shall be reduced in width in the direction of exit travel. Interior stairs shall be at least forty-four inches wide except as follows:

(1) Interior stairs may be not less than thirty-six inches wide when serving not more than thirty occupants per stair on any floor in buildings classified in occupancy groups J-1 and J-2 or when serving buildings classified in occupancy group J-3 and exceeding four stories in height, or when serving not more than sixty occupants per stair on any floor in buildings classified in occupancy groups E, B, and D.

(2) Interior stairs may be not less than thirty inches wide when serving mezzanines having an occupant load not exceeding twenty-five persons or when located in buildings classified in occupancy group J-3 not more than three stories in height. Interior stairs in four story buildings classified in occupancy group J-3 shall be a minimum of thirty-three inches in width.

(c) Headroom. The clear headroom shall be at least seven feet, except that in buildings classified in occupancy groups J-2 and J-3, the minimum clear headroom may be six feet eight inches. Headroom in a flight of stairs shall be measured vertically between two parallel inclined planes, one of which contains the line of the nosing or upper front edge of each tread and extends to its intersection with a landing and the other of which is through any point directly above the first plane that limits the headroom of the stair.

(d) Landings and platforms. Landings and platforms shall be provided at the head and foot of each flight of stairs, except at the head of basement stairs in one- and two-family dwellings, and shall comply with the following:

(1) The minimum width of landings and platforms perpendicular to the direction of travel shall be equal to at least the width of the stairs except that on a straight-run stair, the distance between risers of upper and lower flights at intermediate landings or platforms need not be more than forty-four inches.

(2) The maximum vertical rise of a single flight of stairs between floors, between landings or platforms, or between a floor and a landing or platform shall not exceed eight feet in buildings classified in occupancy groups F and H, and twelve feet in all other occupancy groups. No flight of stairs shall have less than two risers.

(3) Landings and platforms shall be enclosed on sides by walls, grilles or guards at least three feet high.

(e) Risers and treads. Risers and treads shall comply with table 6-4 and with the following:

(1) The sum of two risers plus one tread exclusive of nosing shall be not less than twenty-four nor more than twenty-five and one-half inches.

(2) Riser height and tread width shall be constant in any flight of stairs from story to story.

(3) Winders shall not be permitted in required exit stairs except in one- and two-family dwellings and except as permitted in subdivision l of this section. The width of winder treads when measured eighteen inches from the narrower end shall be at least equal to the width of treads above or below the winding section.

(4) Curving or skewed stairs may be used as exits when the tread and riser relationship is in accordance with table 6-4 when measured at a point eighteen inches in from the narrow end of the tread; and no tread shall be more than three inches narrower or three inches wider at any point than the width established eighteen inches in from the narrow end.

(f) Guards and handrails. Stairs shall have walls, grilles, or guards at the sides and shall have handrails on both sides, except that stairs less than forty-four inches wide may have a handrail on one side only. Handrails shall provide a finger clearance of one and one-half inches, and shall project not more than three and one-half inches into the required stair width.

(1) Stairs more than eighty-eight inches wide shall have intermediate handrails dividing the stairway into widths that maintain the nominal multiples of twenty-two inches, but the widths shall not be greater than eighty-eight inches nor less than forty-four inches.

(2) The height of handrails above the nosing of treads shall be not more than thirty-four inches nor less than thirty inches.

(3) Handrails shall be returned to walls and posts when terminated, except in one- and two-family dwellings.

(4) Handrails shall be designed to support loads in compliance with the requirements of subchapter nine of this chapter.

(5) Handrails in all stairs shall be of materials having a flame-spread rating not exceeding one hundred fifty.

(g) Stair doors. Doors providing access to stairs shall comply with the requirements of subdivision (a) of section 27-342 of article five of subchapter five of this chapter and subdivision (e) of section 27-371 of this article. The swing of stair doors shall not block stairs or stair landings, nor shall any door at any point of its swing reduce the effective width of the landing or stair to less than seventy-five percent of the required width of the landing or stair, or to less than the width of the door opening on them. The width of doors from a stair shall not be less than the number of units of exit width required for the capacity of the stair, but in no case shall the door width be less than required by subdivision (e) of section 27-371 of this article.

(h) Stair construction. Risers, treads, stringers, landings, platforms, and guards, exclusive of handrails, shall be built of noncombustible materials except that interior stairs in buildings of construction group II may be built of combustible materials in buildings classified in occupancy group B-2, C, D or E when the buildings are two stories in height or less, and in buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 or J-3 when the buildings are not more than three stories in height, and in the case of J-2 occupancy group, when occupied by not more than three families. Interior stairs shall have solid treads. All risers shall be closed except as otherwise provided in subdivision (i) of this section. When of combustible construction, the soffit of interior stairs shall be fire protected by material having a minimum fire resistive rating of one hour or five-eighths inches gypsum wall board or equivalent, or the space beneath shall be enclosed without openings by material having a one hour fire resistance rating unless permitted to have open risers by subdivision (i) of this section. Where two separate interior stairs are contained within the same enclosure (so called "scissor stairs"), each stair shall be separated from the other by noncombustible construction having a fire resistance rating equal to that required for the stair enclosure.

Stairs, platforms, and landings shall be designed to support all loads in compliance with the requirements of subchapter nine of this chapter. Treads and landings shall be built of or surfaced with nonskid materials.

(i) Stair enclosures.

(1) Interior stairs shall be enclosed with construction complying with the requirements of table 3-4 except that:

(a) In buildings three stories or less in height excluding those classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 combustible construction group II, the enclosing construction may have a one hour fire resistant rating.

(b) Stairs in buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-3 and not more than three stories in height, need not be enclosed except as otherwise required in subdivision (a) of section 27-341 of article five of subchapter five of this chapter. Stairs may have open risers in one family dwellings and group homes.

(c) Unenclosed stairs in buildings classified in assembly occupancy group F may be permitted as provided in subchapter eight of this chapter.

(d) Stairs from floors or mezzanines may be unenclosed, with open or closed risers.

(e) In buildings classified in occupancy group J-2 occupied exclusively by not more than one family on each story without boarders, roomers or lodgers and not more than three stories in height, the enclosing construction may have a one hour fire-resistance rating which may be constructed of combustible material provided that the stair enclosure is protected with an automatic sprinkler system complying with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(f) In buildings classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 not more than two stories in height of combustible construction group II, the enclosing construction may have a one hour fire-resistance rating which may be constructed of combustible material; however, where only one vertical exit is provided the stair enclosure shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system constructed in accordance with the provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(g) Except as provided in subparagraphs (a), (e) and (f) of this paragraph, in all buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2, the enclosing construction shall be of masonry or an approved equivalent material having at least a two hour fire-resistant rating.

(2) Access stairs connecting not more than two stories which do not serve as a required exit may be constructed without an enclosure in buildings classified in other than occupancy group H-2. Such stairs shall be additional to and shall not obstruct or interfere with required exit facilities. When the first story below grade is served by an interior, unenclosed access stair, it shall be sprinklered in accordance with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(3) The interior finish of interior stair enclosures shall be in accordance with the requirements of table 5-4.

(4) Stair enclosures shall be vented in accordance with the requirements for shafts in subdivision (d) of section 27-344 of article five of subchapter five of this chapter except that stair enclosures for buildings or spaces classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 shall be vented as follows:

a. In occupancy group J-2 buildings three stories in height and with not more than one dwelling unit per story or two stories in height with not more than two dwelling units per story, shall be provided with a skylight at least nine square feet in area, glazed with plain glass with a wire screen over and under and provided with fixed or movable ventilators having a minimum open area of forty square inches.

b. In occupancy group J-1 or J-2 buildings two stories in height with more than two dwelling units per story shall be provided with a skylight of at least twenty square feet in area, glazed with plain glass, with a wire screen over and under and provided with fixed or movable ventilators having a minimum open area of forty square inches.

c. In occupancy group J-1 buildings exceeding two stories in height and in occupancy group J-2 buildings three stories in height with more than one dwelling unit per story or exceeding three stories in height shall be provided with a skylight at least twenty square feet in area, glazed with plain glass with a wire screen over and under and provided with fixed or movable ventilators having a minimum open area of one hundred forty-four square inches. In lieu of the skylight and ventilators a window of equal area may be provided with fixed louvres having a minimum open area of one hundred forty-four square inches installed in or immediately adjacent to the window.

(5) When dwelling units are located over a space classified in occupancy group C or E on the street floor, they shall be provided with a separate enclosed interior stair, or with an exterior stair.

(6) Impact resistance. Stair enclosures serving occupancy group E spaces (office spaces) in high rise buildings constructed pursuant to applications filed on or after July 1, 2006 shall comply with rules to be promulgated by the commissioner establishing minimum impact resistance standards. Such rules shall permit compliance with assemblies comprising approved reinforced construction boards affixed onto stud framing. The commissioner shall promulgate such rules on or before January 1, 2006.

(j) Openings and obstructions to stair enclosures. No piping of any kind, with the exception of piping required or permitted in subchapter seventeen of this code, shall be permitted within a stair enclosure. No openings of any kind, other than windows, fire department access panels, exit doors and openings specifically authorized in reference standard RS 5-18 shall be permitted within a stair enclosure. Pipes required or permitted by such subchapter seventeen and protected in accordance therewith which do not reduce the required clearances of the enclosure may be permitted. Ducts protected in accordance with the requirements of subchapter thirteen of this chapter, which do not reduce the required clearances of the enclosure, may be permitted. In addition, in buildings in occupancy group J-2, which are three stories or less in height and occupied by not more than two families on each story, a door from an apartment may open directly into a stair, and the door may swing into the apartment.

(k) Roof access. (1) Except as otherwise provided for in paragraphs two and three of this subdivision, in buildings or in building sections more than three stories or forty feet high with roofs having a slope of less than twenty degrees, access to the roof shall be provided by at least one interior stair, except that access to setback roof areas may be through a door or window opening to the roof. Interior stairs extending to roofs shall be enclosed in bulkheads of fire-resistant construction meeting the requirements of subchapter five of this chapter.

(2) In buildings or in building sections classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 more than two stories in height, except as otherwise provided for in paragraph three of this subdivision, with roofs having a slope of fifteen degrees or less all interior stairs, except those terminating at a level of a setback roof, shall extend to the roof and shall be enclosed in bulkheads of fire-resistive construction meeting the requirements of subchapter five of this chapter. Stairs terminating at the level of a setback shall provide access to the setback roof areas through a door except where the setback is less than four feet in width, measured from the inside of the parapet wall, and less than ten feet in length.

(3) In buildings or in building sections classified in occupancy group J-1 or J-2 two stories in height and in occupancy group J-2 three stories in height with not more than one dwelling unit per story with roofs having a slope of fifteen degrees or less, access to the roof shall be provided through a scuttle at least twenty-one inches in width and twenty-eight inches in length and shall comply with subdivision (c) of section 27-338 of article four of subchapter five of this chapter. Scuttles shall be located within each stair enclosure with a stationary iron ladder leading thereto.

(l) Spiral stairs. Spiral stairs may serve as access stairs between two floors or levels in accordance with the provisions of paragraph two of subdivision (i) of this section. Such stairs may not serve as required exits, except that unenclosed spiral stairs when built of noncombustible materials and having a tread length of at least thirty inches may serve as exits from mezzanines or balconies having an occupant load not exceeding twenty-five persons.

TABLE 6-4 MAXIMUM RISER HEIGHT AND MINIMUM TREAD WIDTH

Occupancy Group
Classification of
Building

Maximum
Riser
Height (in.)

Minimum
Tread1 Width
(in.)

Residential J-3 (with
closed risers)
8 ¼ 9 plus 1 ¼
nosing
Residential J-3 (with
open risers)
8 ¼ 9 plus ½
nosing
Residential J-2 (with
only three dwelling
units)

8 ¼ 9 plus 1¼
nosing
Assembly F 7 ½ 9 ½ plus
nosing
Institutional H-2 7 10 plus nosing
All others2 7 ¾ 9 ½ plus
nosing

Notes for Table 6-4:

1Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A nosing shall not be required when tread width is eleven inches or wider.
2The proportions and dimensions of treads and risers may be adjusted in buildings classified in occupancy group G to suit the age of occupants, subject to the approval of the commissioner.
Exterior stairs may be used as exits in lieu of interior stairs provided they comply with all of the requirements for interior stairs, except enclosure, and except as modified below:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of exterior stairs shall be as listed in table 6-1.

(b) Height limitation. No exterior stair shall exceed seventy-five feet or six stories in height.

(c) Construction. Exterior stairs shall be constructed entirely of noncombustible materials, except that in buildings classified in occupancy groups other than G, F, or H, of construction group II, located outside the fire districts, exterior stairs may be built of combustible materials when the buildings are two stories or thirty feet in height or less and have an occupant load not exceeding forty persons per floor above the street below. Exterior stairs shall be roofed, and shall be protected along their outer sides as required for exterior corridors in subdivision (f) of section 27-369 of this article. Treads, landings, and platforms shall be solid and unperforated. Risers may be partially open to permit water and snow to drain.

(d) Opening protective. In buildings four stories or fifty feet in height or more, there shall be no openings in the building walls adjoining exterior stairs other than one-quarter hour self-closing swinging fire doors, and no openings nearer than ten feet to the stair (measured horizontally) that are not provided with three-quarter hour opening protectives.

(e) Location. No exterior stair shall be located nearer than ten feet to an interior lot line.

(f) Discharge. Exterior stairs shall extend continuously to grade.
Fire towers may be used as exits in lieu of interior stairs provided they comply with all of the requirements for interior stairs, except as modified below.

(a) The enclosing walls of fire towers shall be of incombustible materials or assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of at least four hours. Such walls shall be without openings, except for doors serving as means of egress.

(b) At each story served by a fire tower, access to the stairways of such fire tower shall be provided through outside balconies or fireproof vestibules. Such balconies or vestibules shall be at least three feet eight inches in width and shall have unpierced floors of incombustible materials and shall be provided with substantial guard railings at least four feet high, without any openings greater than five inches in width.

(c) Such balconies or vestibules of fire towers shall be level with the floors of the structure and the platforms of the stairs connected by such balconies. Such balconies or vestibules shall be separated from the structure and the stairs by self-closing swinging doors with a one and one-half hour fire protection rating, capable of being opened from both sides without the use of a key or other unlocking device.

(d) Balconies or vestibules of fire towers shall open on a street or yard, or on a court open vertically to the sky for its full height, having a minimum net area of one hundred five square feet and a minimum dimension of seven feet. The opening from the vestibule to the street, yard or court shall have a minimum area of eighteen square feet and a minimum dimension of two feet six inches. It shall be unlawful to leave openings in the court walls surrounding an interior fire tower, other than the openings from the vestibules, within fifteen feet of the balcony, except that self-closing windows with a three-quarter hour fire protection rating may be used if such windows are at least ten feet from the balcony, provided that the area of the court is at least twelve feet by twenty-four feet.

(e) Fire towers shall terminate at grade level and shall exit directly to the street independently of corridors serving other stairways, except when the fire tower terminates in the ground floor corridor outside of the inner vestibule and within ten feet of the building line.

(f) Fire tower stairs shall comply in all other respects with the applicable requirements of section 27-375 of this code.
Interior or exterior ramps may be used as exits in lieu of interior or exterior stairs provided they comply with the applicable requirements for interior stairs in section 27-375 of this article or exterior stairs in section, 27-376 of this article respectively, and with the following:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of ramps shall be as listed in table 6-1.

(b) Maximum grade. Ramps shall not have a slope steeper than 1 in 8, except that in buildings classified in occupancy group H the slope shall not exceed 1 in 12, and except as provided in subchapter eight of this chapter for places of assembly.

(c) Design.

(1) CHANGES IN DIRECTION. Ramps shall be straight, with changes in direction being made at level platforms or landings, except that ramps having a slope not greater than one in twelve at any place, may be curved.

(2) LENGTH. The sloping portion of ramps shall be at least three feet but not more than thirty feet long between level platforms or landings.

(3) PLATFORMS. Level platforms or landings, at least as wide as the ramp, shall be provided at the bottom, at intermediate levels where required, and at the top of all ramps. Level platforms shall be provided on each side of door openings into or from ramps having a minimum length in the direction of exit travel of three feet, and when a door swings on the platform or landing a minimum length of five feet.

(4) DOORS. Door openings into or from ramps shall comply with the requirements for stairs in subdivision (g) of section 27-375 of this article. No door shall swing over the sloping portion of a ramp.

(5) GUARDS AND RAILINGS. Guards and railings of ramps shall comply with the applicable requirements of subdivision (f) of section 27-375 of this article except that only ramps having a slope steeper than one in twelve need comply with the requirements for handrails and intermediate handrails shall not be required.

(6) SURFACE. Interior ramps exceeding a slope of one in ten and all exterior ramps shall be provided with nonslip surfaces.

(7) Ramps for people having physical disabilities shall additionally comply with the requirements of reference standard RS 4-6.
Escalators may be used as exits in lieu of interior stairs provided they comply with all of the requirements of subchapter eighteen of this chapter and with the applicable requirements for enclosed interior stairs, except as modified below:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of escalators as listed in table 6-1 shall be based on the following:

MINIMUM WIDTH (IN.) AT:
Step Balustrade1 Enclosure 2 Units of Exit
Width
24 32 52 1 ½
40 48 68 2

Notes:
1Measured twenty-seven inches above front edge of tread.
2Clear width above handrails.


(b) Acceptable exits. Only escalators moving in the direction of exit travel may be credited as exits, except that any escalator may be credited when it is connected to an automatic fire detection system that will cause it to stop simultaneously with the detection of fire. The detection system shall comply with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter. Where an escalator provides exit facilities from only one floor of a building, the automatic detection system shall be located on that floor. Where escalators provide exit facilities from more than one floor, the detection system shall be located on all floors so served, and shall cause escalators on all floors of the section of the building that they serve to stop operating. The stopping mechanism shall operate to bring the escalator to a gradual, rather than an abrupt stop.

(c) Escalators not used as exits. Escalators that do not serve as exits, and that connect more than two stories of a building, shall be completely enclosed with noncombustible construction having a three-quarter hour fire-resistance rating, except that in buildings completely protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the construction requirements of subchapter seventeen of this chapter, such escalators may, alternatively, be protected by one of the methods specified in subchapter eighteen of this chapter.
Pedestrian walkways consisting of conveyor belts shall be considered as exit passageways if level, or as ramps if inclined, and shall be acceptable as exits if they comply with the applicable requirements for exit passageways or ramps, and with the following:

(a) Capacity. The capacity shall be as listed under exit passageways or ramps, as the case may be, in table 6-1.

(b) Acceptable exits. Only walkways moving in the direction of exit travel may be credited as exits, except that any moving walkway may be credited when it is connected to an automatic fire detection system that will cause it to stop simultaneously with the detection of fire on the floor it serves. Such detection system shall comply with the construction provisions of subchapter seventeen of this chapter.

(c) Design and construction. Walkways shall comply with the requirements of subchapter eighteen of this chapter.

(d) Enclosure. Walkways that do not serve as exits, but are inclined so as to require an opening in any floor, shall be enclosed as required for escalators in subdivision (c) of section 27-378 of this article.
Fire escapes constructed on existing buildings when altered or as a second means of egress for group homes as permitted by section 27-368 of this article shall comply with the following:

(a) Capacity. The capacity of fire escapes shall be as listed in table 6-1 for stairs.

(b) Stairs. The minimum width of fire escape stairs shall be twenty-two inches. Treads shall have a minimum width of eight inches, exclusive of a required one inch nosing. The maximum height of risers shall be eight inches. No flight of stairs shall exceed twelve feet in height between landings.

(c) Landings. Landings shall be provided at each story served by fire escapes. The minimum width of landings shall be three feet, and the minimum length shall be four feet six inches. Floor openings in landings shall be at least twenty-two inches by twenty-eight inches.

(d) Handrails and guards. Handrails having a minimum height of thirty-two inches above the tread nosing shall be provided on both sides of stairs, and guards having a minimum height of thirty-six inches shall be provided on all open sides of landings, openings in guards shall be of such dimensions as to prevent the passage of a five inch dia. ball.

(e) Construction. Fire escapes shall be constructed of noncombustible materials adequately protected against deterioration by corrosion or other effects of exposure to the weather, and shall be designed to comply with the requirements of subchapter nine of this chapter.

(f) Access. Access to fire escapes shall be by doors or windows having a minimum clear opening of twenty-four inches in width and thirty inches in height. Such doors or windows shall have a fire protection rating of three-quarters of an hour except in buildings classified in occupancy group J-2.

(g) Discharge. The top landing of fire escapes shall be provided with a stair or gooseneck ladder leading to the roof, except that this requirement shall not apply to buildings having a roof pitch of more than twenty degrees. The lowest landing of fire escapes shall be not more than sixteen feet above grade and shall be provided with a stair to grade which may be counterbalanced.
Corridors and exits shall be provided with artificial lighting facilities, except as otherwise permitted by the provisions of subchapter twelve of this chapter, in accordance with the following:

(a) Illumination of at least two foot candles measured at the floor level shall be maintained continuously, during occupancy, in exits and their access facilities for their full length, at changes in direction in and intersections of corridors, balconies, exit passageways, stairs, ramps, escalators, bridges, tunnels, landings, and platforms, and as provided in subchapter eight of this chapter for places of assembly, except that this requirement shall not apply to dwelling units.

(b) In buildings classified in occupancy groups B-1 and B-2, exit lighting need only be maintained when a section of floor is occupied.

(c) Illumination shall be so arranged that the failure of any one light shall not leave any area in darkness.

(d) Phosphorescent materials shall not be used as a method of providing illumination, nor shall battery operated electric lights or portable lamps or lanterns be used as primary sources of lighting.

(e) (1) Buildings and existing buildings containing an F-4 place of assembly with an occupant load of three hundred or more persons shall install emergency lighting in each vertical exit serving the floor on which the place of assembly is located so as to provide a continuously lighted passage to the exterior of the building. Such lighting shall be connected to an emergency power source or to storage battery equipment meeting the requirements of the commissioner.

(2) Existing buildings required to comply with this subdivision shall install the emergency lighting on or before April first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven.
(a) Where a total of more than four lights is required, exit lighting shall be connected to an emergency power source or to storage battery equipment meeting the requirements of the commissioner, provided, however, that in existing buildings, the exit lighting may be on circuits that are separate from the general lighting and power circuits, taken off ahead of the main switch.

(b) Existing high rise buildings classified in occupancy group C, D or H and existing buildings classified in occupancy group E, G or J-1 (except for "residential hotels," as such term is defined by the commissioner pursuant to rules and regulations) shall comply with the requirements of this section on or before April first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven.
(a) Exit signs. Except in occupancy groups J-2 and J-3, the location of every exit on every floor and every opening from a room classified in occupancy group J-1 and containing cubicles shall be clearly indicated by exit signs. Such signs shall be placed at an angle with the exit opening if such placement is required for the signs to serve their purpose. In long corridors, in open floor areas, and in all other situations where the location of the exit may not be readily visible or understood, directional signs shall be provided to serve as guides from all portions of the corridor or floor.

(b) Exit path markings in high rise office buildings and in occupancy group E high rise buildings. On and after July 1, 2006 all high rise office buildings and all high rise buildings classified in occupancy group E shall have exit path markings conforming to this subdivision. This provision shall be retroactive and shall apply to buildings constructed on and after such date and to buildings in existence on such date. All exit path markings required herein shall be of an approved photoluminescent material. The markings shall be washable, non-toxic, non radioactive, and if subjected to fire must be self extinguishing when the flame is removed.

(1) All doors opening to corridors, to an exit, or to an exit passageway, shall be marked with the word "exit".

(2) Within exit stairs, horizontal extensions in exit stairs, horizontal exits, supplemental vertical exits and exit passageways, except within street level lobbies, there shall be directional markings.

(3) Required markings for exit paths shall comply with the technical standards for installation and placement to be set forth in a reference standard. Such reference standard shall be designated RS 6-1 and shall be adopted on or before January 1, 2006.
In high rise office buildings and in occupancy group E high rise buildings:

(a) Illuminated exit signs complying with section 27-386 of this subchapter shall be placed in stairwells with horizontal extensions to indicate the transition from vertical to horizontal direction and at turns along the horizontal path.

(b) A supplementary sign complying with sections 27-394 and 27-395 of this subchapter, except that the lettering and numerals shall be at least one inch high, indicating the location of a recessed re-entry door, shall be securely attached on the wall of the landing that faces the evacuee on the stairs.

(c) In stairs where there is no entry or exiting from such stair for more than four floors, a sign complying with sections 27-394 and 27-395, except that the lettering and numerals shall be at least one inch high, shall be securely attached at the beginning of the descent into such portion of the stair on the wall of the landing that faces the evacuee on the stairs stating the location of the next re-entry or exiting floor. On each floor within such portion of the stair a sign complying with sections 27-392 and 27-395 shall be securely attached to the wall of the landing that faces the evacuee on the stairs approximately five feet above the floor indicating the floor number.

(d) Signs shall be readily visible from the egress direction.

(e) High rise office buildings and high rise buildings classified in occupancy group E in existence on the effective date of this section shall comply with this section on or before July 1, 2007. For the purpose of this section, a high rise building shall be deemed to be in existence on the effective date of this section if on such effective date it is complete or under construction or where an application for approval of plans was filed with the department prior to such effective date and construction commenced within two years after such effective date.
(a) Where a total of more than four exit and/or directional signs is required, the signs shall be connected to an emergency power source or to storage battery equipment meeting the requirements of the commissioner, provided, however, that in existing buildings, the signs may be on circuits that are separate from the general lighting and power circuits, taken off ahead of the main switch.

(b) Existing high rise buildings classified in occupancy group C, D or H and existing buildings classified in occupancy group E, G or J-1 (except for "residential hotels," as such term is defined by the commissioner pursuant to rules and regulations) shall comply with the requirements of this section on or before April first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven.

(c) Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the existing buildings required to comply with subdivision (b) of this section, all such existing exit and/or directional signs on circuits taken off ahead of the main switch shall be connected to an emergency power source or to storage battery equipment meeting the requirements of the commissioner on or before July 1, 2007.
Exit signs shall read only "exit" and shall be of the externally lighted, internally lighted, or electroluminescent type, except that they may be nonilluminated in buildings not provided with artificial lighting.

(a) The artificial light source on externally lighted signs shall provide a red light, either by the use of an incandescent colored bulb or other visible red light source, so as to provide at least twenty-five foot candles on the exposed face of the sign. Visibility of the sign shall not be obscured by the location of the light source.

(b) For internally lighted signs, the average initial brightness of the letters shall be at least twenty-five ft. lamberts, and where an illuminated background is used, its average initial brightness shall be at least two hundred fifty ft. lamberts. The light source shall not be modified or changed nor shall lamp life multipliers be used so as to reduce these brightness levels.

(c) The letters of exit signs shall be red. The background of externally lighted signs shall be white. The background of internally lighted signs shall be either stenciled metal with a light gray or white color, or translucent frosted, opal glass, slow-burning plastic, or the plastic edge-glow type with white plastic separators. The letters for internally lighted signs shall be translucent red.

(d) The letters shall be block lettering at least four and one-half inches high with nine-sixteenths inch strokes, except in buildings and spaces classified in occupancy group F and J-1, where they shall be at least eight inches high with the strokes at least three-quarters of an inch wide.

(e) In locations where breakage may occur, exit signs shall be of shock resistant materials, or shall otherwise be protected against breakage.

(f) Except for buildings not provided with artificial lighting and buildings which maintain one or more auxiliary systems for emergency exit lighting in the event of a public utility failure, there shall be either (1) an illuminated exit sign with the background thereon made of an approved phosphorescent material or (2) a supplemental exit sign made of an approved phosphorescent material with an opaque text and placed adjacent to or as close as possible to such illuminated sign. The phosphorescent material after exposure to normal lighting conditions shall be capable of remaining visible in total darkness for a period of at least eight hours. The signs shall be washable, non-toxic, non-radioactive and if subjected to fire must be self-extinguishing when the flame is removed.
Directional exit signs shall comply with all of the requirements for exit signs in section 27-385 of this article, and shall read "EXIT" with a horizontal arrow or arrows indicating the direction to the exit or exits. However, when the arrow is below the letters, the letters may be three and three-eighths inches high and nine-sixteenths inch strokes, except in buildings and spaces classified in occupancy group F where they shall be at least five inches high with nine-sixteenths inch strokes. The arrow or arrows shall be red.
Any door, passageway, stair, or other means of communication that is not an exit or that is not a way to an exit, but is so located as to be mistaken for an exit, shall be identified with a sign reading "NOT AN EXIT", shall be identified by a sign indicating its use or purpose or shall be provided with a directional exit sign.
Except as otherwise provided, the provisions of this subchapter are not retroactive except that the provisions of this article and article nine of subchapter six of this chapter for certain existing office buildings are retroactive. Signs required by this article must be installed no later than March sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine. Where auxiliary systems for emergency exit lighting are to be provided, the installation must commence no later than May sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine.
(a) Except for spaces classified in occupancy J-2 and J-3, the location of each required means of egress on every floor of every structure shall be clearly indicated by exit signs. Such signs shall be placed at an angle with the exit doorway if such placement shall be required for such signs to serve their purpose adequately. These signs shall be of an approved phosphorescent material, which after exposure to normal lighting conditions shall be capable of remaining visible in total darkness for a period of at least eight hours. They shall also be washable, non-toxic, non-radioactive, and if subjected to fire must be self-extinguishing when the flame is removed. Except for illuminated signs, these signs shall have a phosphorescent background and opaque text. Where means of egress were required to be indicated by an illuminated sign, there shall be either (1) an illuminated exit sign with the lettering thereon made of the approved phosphorescent material, or (2) a supplemental exit sign made of the approved phosphorescent material with an opaque text, and placed adjacent to or as close as possible to such illuminated sign.

(b) Except for spaces classified in occupancy groups J-2 and J-3, in long corridors, in open floor areas and in all other situations where the location of the means of egress may not be readily discernible or understood by the occupants, directional signs shall be provided and maintained to serve as guides from all portions of the floor or corridor. These signs shall be of an approved phosphorescent material which after exposure to normal lighting conditions shall be capable of remaining visible in total darkness for a period of at least eight hours. They shall also be washable, non-toxic, non-radioactive, and if subjected to fire must be self-extinguishing when the flame is removed. Except for illuminated signs these signs shall have a phosphorescent background and opaque text. Where a directional sign was required to be illuminated there shall be either (1) an illuminated directional sign with the lettering, indicator, symbol or other device thereon made of the aforesaid phosphorescent material, or (2) a supplemental directional sign with the same lettering, indicator, symbol or device as appears on the illuminated sign, but opaque, on a background made of the aforesaid phosphorescent material and placed adjacent to or as close as possible to such illuminated sign.

(c) Except where otherwise permitted by the provisions of any law, the lettering of exit signs shall be of letters of at least eight inches high.

(d) In those buildings not provided with artificial lighting, in those buildings which maintain one or more auxiliary systems for emergency exit lighting in the event of a public utility failure, and in those buildings for which the installation of one or more such auxiliary systems is commenced on or before August sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine, the signs need not be phosphorescent but shall otherwise conform to this section.
*This article is applicable to all buildings and existing buildings which have at least one elevator which is subject to periodic inspections pursuant to section 27-998, and any existing office building occupied or arranged to be occupied for an occupant load of more than one hundred persons above or below the street level or more than a total of five hundred persons in the entire building.

* NB Amended L.L. 96/85 § 3, language juxtaposed per Ch. 907/85 § 14
A sign shall be posted and maintained on every floor at the elevator landing. The sign shall read "IN CASE OF FIRE, USE STAIRS UNLESS OTHERWISE INSTRUCTED". The lettering shall be at least one-half inch block letters in red with white background or as otherwise approved by the commissioner. Such lettering shall be properly spaced to provide good legibility. The sign shall also contain a diagram showing the location where it is posted and the location and letter identification of the stairs on the floor. The sign shall be at least ten inches by twelve inches, located directly above a call button and securely attached to the wall or partition. The top of such sign shall not be above six feet from the floor level. The diagram on such sign may be omitted provided that signs containing such diagram are posted in conspicuous places on the respective floor. In such case, the sign at the elevator landing shall be at least two and one half inches by ten inches and the diagram signs shall be at least eight inches by twelve inches.
A sign shall be posted and maintained within each stair enclosure on every floor, indicating the number of the floor. The numerals shall be of bold type and at least three inches high. The numerals and background shall be in contrasting colors. The sign shall be securely attached to the stair side of the door.
Each stair and each bank of elevators shall be identified by an alphabetic letter. A sign indicating the letter of identification for the elevator bank shall be posted and maintained at each elevator landing directly above or as part of the sign specified in section 27-391 of this article. The stair identification sign shall be posted and maintained on the occupancy side of the stair door. The letter on the sign shall be at least three inches high, of bold type and of contrasting color from the background. Such signs shall be securely attached.
Signs shall be posted and maintained on the stair door at each floor in buildings classified in occupancy group E occupied or arranged to be occupied for an occupant load of more than one hundred persons above or below the street level or more than a total of five hundred persons in the entire building indicating whether re-entry is provided into the building and the floor where such re-entry is provided. The lettering and numerals of the signs shall be at least one-half inch high of bold type. The lettering and background shall be contrasting colors and the signs shall be securely attached approximately five feet above the floor. The signs shall read as follows and may be either independent or combined with the corresponding sign required by sections 27-392 and 27-393 of this article.

(a) Where no re-entry is provided from the stairs to any floor, the sign shall read "NO RE-ENTRY FROM THIS STAIR" and such sign shall be on the occupancy side of the stair door at each floor. No re-entry sign shall be required on the stair side of the door.

(b) Where re-entry is provided to specified floors:

(1) On the stair side of the door at floors where re-entry is provided, the sign shall read "RE-ENTRY ON THIS FLOOR".

(2) Where no re-entry is provided on that floor, the sign on the stair side of the door shall read "NO RE-ENTRY, NEAREST RE-ENTRY ON THE AND FLOORS". The floor numbers of the nearest re-entry below and the nearest re-entry floor above shall be entered in the blank spaces.
Signs required by this article shall be of metal or other durable material.
(a) Signs installed prior to the enactment of this article may be accepted by the commissioner, provided that such signs will adequately accomplish the intended purpose.

(b) In buildings existing prior to January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-three, the commissioner may modify the requirements as to location of signs where compliance would cause practical difficulty or undue hardship.

(c) All existing buildings not already subject to the requirements of this article as of January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-three shall comply with the requirements of this article on or before October first, nineteen hundred eighty-five.
This article is applicable to buildings and existing buildings classified in occupancy group J-1.
All buildings and existing buildings classified in occupancy group J-1 shall post and maintain a sign on the inside of every door opening onto a public corridor giving access to a sleeping room. The sign shall contain a diagram showing the location where it is posted and the location and letter identification of the exit stairs on the floor. The diagram shall indicate the number of doors opening onto the public corridor which must be passed to reach each exit stair. The sign shall be at least eight inches by ten inches, located on the inside of the door and securely attached thereto. The top of such sign shall not be more than six feet from the floor level. Such sign shall contain such additional information as the fire department may require.
All existing buildings required to comply with the provisions of this article shall post the requisite signs on or before April first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven. Signs installed prior to such date may be accepted by the commissioner, provided that such signs adequately accomplish the intended purpose.
Where required by this article or any other provision of this code, an emergency power system shall be provided. The emergency power system shall have a power source and fuel supply sufficient to operate the following equipment in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by the department, where such equipment is required to be provided by this code:

(a) Fire pumps and booster pumps.

(b) At least three elevators at one time, with manual transfer to other elevators.

(c) Alarm systems.

(d) Communication systems.

(e) Emergency lighting, if battery packs are not provided.

(f) Ventilating systems used for smoke venting or control.

(g) Stair pressurization.
Emergency power generation equipment shall be registered with the department of environmental protection, bureau of air resources in accordance with the requirements of section 24-109 of title twenty-four of the administrative code.
Emergency power systems meeting the requirements of this article shall be provided in the following buildings and building sections:

(a) High rise buildings and building sections classified in occupancy group C, E, G or H.

(b) Buildings and building sections classified in occupancy group E or G which do not exceed seventy-five feet in height but have a gross area of over fifteen thousand square feet per floor or a total gross area of one hundred thousand square feet or more.

(c) Spaces classified in occupancy group F-4 having an occupant load of three hundred or more persons.

(d) Buildings and building sections classified in occupancy group J-1.

(e) Buildings and building sections containing an atrium.
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