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The words and terms listed in this subchapter shall have the meanings given herein. Where terms are not defined they shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context may imply.
Definitions that appear in any building code reference standard shall apply to the provisions of that reference standard only.
Words used in the present tense include the future; words used in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; words used in the singular include the plural, and the plural the singular.
Words that are capitalized are defined in this section.

ACCESSORY BUILDING. A building, the use or occupancy of which is incidental to that of the main building.

ACCESSORY USE. A use or occupancy incidental to the principal use or occupancy of a building.

ACCESSIBLE.--A building or portion thereof and the accessory public areas thereof are accessible when they comply with subarticle two of article two of subchapter four of chapter one of title twenty-seven of this code and can be approached, entered and used by people having physical disabilities.

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE.--A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible spaces and rooms in a building that can be negotiated by all categories of people having physical disabilities. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, doorways, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts and clear floor space adjacent to fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, walks, ramps and lifts.

ACCESS STAIR. A stair between two floors, which does not serve as a required exit. (See EXTERIOR STAIR and INTERIOR STAIR).

ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNITS.--Dwelling units which are constructed on an accessible route and equipped as set forth in reference standard RS 4-6, so that they may be converted to be used, with a minimum of structural change, by all categories of people having physical disabilities.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building that increases its exterior dimensions.

ADJOINING GRADE ELEVATION. The average elevation of the final grade adjoining all exterior walls of a building, calculated from grade elevations taken at intervals of ten feet around the perimeter of the building.

AIR CONDITIONING. The process by which the temperature, humidity, movement, cleanliness, and odor of air circulated through a space are controlled simultaneously.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure consisting of skin diaphragms made of flexible material, which achieves its shape, support, and stability from internal air pressure.

ALLOWABLE SOIL PRESSURE. The maximum stress permitted in soil of a given type and under given conditions.

ALLOWABLE STRESS. The maximum stress permitted at a given point in a structural member under given conditions.

ALTERATION. Any addition, or change or modification of a building, or the service equipment thereof, that affects safety or health and that is not classified as a minor alteration or ordinary repair. The moving of a building from one location or position to another shall be deemed an alteration.

AMUSEMENT ATTRACTION. A game of chance or skill or similar activity in which the public participates as a form of amusement.

AMUSEMENT DEVICE. A mechanically operated device or structure, open to the public, used to convey persons in any direction as a form of amusement.

APARTMENT HOUSE. (See MULTIPLE DWELLING.)

APPROVED. When used in connection with plans, materials and equipment shall mean approved by the commissioner; when used in connection with materials and equipment, shall also mean previously approved by the board, unless such approval is amended or repealed by the commissioner; otherwise shall mean approved by the department or agency indicated by the text.

ARCHITECT. A person licensed to practice the profession of architecture under the education law of the state of New York.

AREA OF REFUGE. A floor area to which egress is made through a horizontal exit or supplemental vertical exit.

AREAWAY. A space below grade, adjacent to a building, open to the outer air and enclosed by walls.

ASSEMBLY SPACE. Any part of a place of assembly, exclusive of a stage, that is occupied by numbers of persons during the major period of occupancy. Every tier of seating shall be considered a separate assembly space.

ATRIUM. A vertical opening or series of openings within a building connecting three or more floors, which may be covered at the top, and which is used for purposes other than an enclosed stairway, elevator hoistway or utility shaft.

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling framing of the topmost story and the underside of the roof framing.

AUTOMATIC. As applied to an opening protective, shall mean a door, window, damper, or other device, and its assembly, which is normally open and is designed to close automatically when subjected to a predetermined temperature, rate of temperature rise, or abnormal smoke condition.

AUTOMATIC DRY STANDPIPE SYSTEM. A standpipe system in which all piping is filled with air, either compressed or at atmospheric pressure. Water enters the system through a control valve actuated either automatically by the reduction of air pressure within the system or by the manual activation of a remote control located at each hose station.

AUTOMATIC DRY PIPE SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system in which the piping up to the sprinkler heads is filled with air, either compressed or at atmospheric pressure, with the water supply controlled by a Type A or Type B dry pipe valve.

AUTOMATIC FIRE PUMP. A pump that maintains a required water pressure in a fire extinguishing system and which is actuated by a starting device adjusted to cause the pump to operate when the pressure in the system drops below a predetermined pressure, and to stop the pump when the pressure is restored.

AUTOMATIC OPERATION. As applied to an elevator, shall mean operation whereby the starting of the car is effected in response to the momentary actuation of operating devices at the landing, and/or of operating devices in the car identified with the landings, and/or in response to an automatic starting mechanism, and whereby the car is stopped automatically at the landings.

AUTOMATIC WET PIPE SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system in which all piping and sprinkler heads are at all times filled with water under pressure which is immediately discharged when a sprinkler head operates, with the water continuing to flow until the system is shut off.

AUTOMOTIVE LIFT. A vehicle-lifting device, the purpose of which is to raise an entire vehicle to provide accessibility for under-chassis service.

AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP. A building or space in which motor vehicles are repaired.

AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE STATION. A building, space, or premises used for the storage and sale of motor fuels, and which may also have facilities for lubrication, minor repairs, or washing of motor vehicles.

BACKFLOW (Water Supply). The flow of water or other substances into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply from any source other than the intended source.

BALLOON FRAME. Light timber construction in which the exterior walls consist of studs that are either continuous through floors or interrupted only by thickness of plates.

BASEMENT. A story partly underground, but having less than one-half its clear height (measured from finished floor to finished ceiling) below the curb level; except that where the curb level has not been legally established, or where every part of the building is set back more than twenty-five feet from a street line, the height shall be measured from the adjoining grade elevation. (See CELLAR.)

BEARING. As applied to a wall or partition, shall mean supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.

BELT-DRIVE MACHINE. As applied to an elevator, shall mean an indirect-drive machine having a single belt or multiple belts as the connecting means.

BOARD. The board of standards and appeals of the city of New York.

BOARDER (ROOMER, LODGER). An individual living within a household who pays a consideration for such residence and does not occupy such space as an incident of employment therein.

BREEZEWAY. A structure open to the outdoors consisting of a roof, roof supports, and floor, connecting a garage or other accessory building with a dwelling.

BUILDING. An enclosed structure including service equipment therein. The term shall be construed as if followed by the phrase "structure, premises, or part thereof" unless otherwise indicated by the text.

BUILDING HOUSE DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from the soil, waste, and other drainage pipes and conveys it to the building house sewer by gravity. The building house drain shall be considered to extend five feet outside the exterior wall of the building.

BUILDING HOUSE DRAIN (COMBINED). A building house drain that conveys storm water in combination with sewage or other drainage.

BUILDING HOUSE DRAIN (SANITARY). A building house drain that carries sewage only.

BUILDING HOUSE DRAIN (STORM). That part of the lowest piping of a storm drainage system that receives clear water drainage from leaders, surface run-off, ground water, subsurface water, condensate, cooling water, or other similar storm or clear drainage and conveys it to the building house storm sewer by gravity. The building house storm drain shall be considered to extend five feet outside the exterior wall of the building.

BUILDING HOUSE SEWER. That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system that extends from the end of the building house drain and that receives the discharge of the building house drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-disposal system, or other point of disposal.

BUILDING HOUSE SEWER (COMBINED). A building house sewer that conveys sewage in combination with storm water and other clear water wastes.

BUILDING HOUSE SEWER (SANITARY). A building house sewer that carries sewage only.

BUILDING HOUSE STORM SEWER. That part of the horizontal piping of a storm drainage system that extends from the building house storm drain to the public storm sewer, combined sewer, or other point of disposal.

BUILDING SECTION. A room, floor, group of floors, wing, or any other portion of a building contained within fire divisions.

BUILDING SUB-HOUSE DRAIN. That portion of a house drainage system that cannot drain by gravity into the building house sewer.

BULKHEAD. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building, enclosing a shaft, stairway, tank, or service equipment, or other space not designed or used for human occupancy. (See PENTHOUSE and ROOF STRUCTURE.)

CABARET. The term cabaret shall mean any room, place or space in which any musical entertainment, singing, dancing or other similar amusement is permitted in connection with an eating and drinking establishment.

CABLEWAY. A power operated system for moving loads in a generally horizontal direction in which the loads are conveyed on an overhead cable, track or carriage.

CAR DOOR OR GATE. As applied to an elevator, shall mean the sliding portion of the car that closes the opening giving access to the car.

CAR DOOR OR GATE SWITCH. As applied to an elevator, shall mean an electrical device, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the car door or gate is in the closed position.

CAR-SWITCH OPERATION. Operation of an elevator wherein the movement and direction of travel of the car are directly and solely under the control of the operator by means of a manually operated car switch or of continuous-pressure buttons in the car.

CASING-OFF. The elimination of the frictional forces between a portion of a pile and the surrounding soil by use of a sleeve between the pile and the soil.

CATCH PLATFORM. A platform or other construction projecting from the face of a building, supported therefrom, and used to intercept the fall of objects and to protect individuals and property from falling debris.

CELLAR. A story partly or wholly underground, but having one-half or more of its clear height (measured from finished floor to finished ceiling) below the curb level; except that where the curb level has not been legally established, or where every part of the building is set back more than twenty-five feet from a street line, the height shall be measured from the adjoining grade elevation. Cellars shall not be counted as stories in measuring the height of buildings. (See BASEMENT.)

CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY. (See article twenty-two of subchapter one of this chapter.)

CHAIN-DRIVE MACHINE. As applied to an elevator, shall mean an indirect-drive machine having a chain as the connecting means.

CHARGING CHUTE (INCINERATOR). An enclosed vertical passage through which refuse is fed to an incinerator.

CHARGING GATE (INCINERATOR). A gate in an incinerator used to control the flow of combustion gases into the charging chute and the entry of refuse into the combustion chamber.

CHIMNEY. A vertical enclosure containing one or more flues used to remove hot gases from burning fuel, refuse, or from industrial processes.

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe or metal breeching that connects combustion equipment to a chimney.

CITY. The city of New York.

CLOSED SHAFT. A shaft enclosed at the top.

COATINGS, FIRE-RETARDANT. A material applied to the surface of a building material to improve its flame spread rating.

COLLECTING SAFE AREA. A safe area that receives occupants from the assembly space it serves as well as from other safe areas.

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS. Equipment that simultaneously produces electricity and heat from a single fuel source.

COMMISSIONER. The commissioner of buildings of the city of New York, or his or her duly authorized representative.

COMPRESSOR (REFRIGERATION). A machine used for the purpose of compressing a refrigerant.

CONCENTRATED LOAD. A conventionalized representation of an element of dead or live load whereby the entire load is assumed to act either at a point or within a limited area.

CONCURRENT LOADS. Two or more elements of dead or live load that, for purposes of design, are considered to act simultaneously.

CONSTRUCTION. Any or all work or operations necessary or incidental to the erection, demolition, assembling, installing, or equipping of buildings, or any alterations and operations incidental thereto. The term "construction" shall include land clearing, grading, excavating, and filling. It shall also mean the finished product of any such work or operations.

CONSTRUCTION CLASS (GROUP). The category in which a building or space is classified by the provisions of subchapter three of this chapter, based on the fire-resistance ratings of its construction elements.

CONSOLE LIFT. A section of the floor area of a theater or auditorium that can be raised and lowered.

CONTRACTOR. A person undertaking construction.

CONTROLLED INSPECTION. (See Section 27-132 of subchapter one of this chapter.)

CORRIDOR. An enclosed public passage providing a means of access from rooms or spaces to an exit. (See EXIT PASSAGEWAY.)

COURT. An inner court or outer court.

CRANE. A machine for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally which utilizes wire rope and in which the hoisting mechanism is an integral part of the machine.

CROSS AISLE. An aisle in a place of assembly usually parallel to rows of seats, connecting other aisles or an aisle and an exit.

CROSS-CONNECTION (FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM). Piping between risers and siamese connections in a standpipe or sprinkler system.

CROSS-CONNECTION (POTABLE WATER SYSTEM). A physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water, and the other of which contains water of questionable safety, or steam, gases, or chemicals whereby there can be a flow from one system to another.

CURB LEVEL. The legally established level on the curb in front of a building, measured at the center of such front. When a building faces on more than one street, curb level shall mean the average of the legally established levels of the curbs at the center of each front.

CURB LINE. The line coincident with the face of the street curb adjacent to the roadway.

DATUM. (See section 27-158 of subchapter one of this chapter.)

DEAD END. A portion of a corridor in which the travel to an exit is in one direction only.

DEAD LOAD. Materials, equipment, constructions, or other elements of weight supported in, on, or by the building (including its own weight) that are intended to remain permanently in place.

DECIBEL. A unit of measurement of the loudness of sound. A division of a logarithmic scale for expressing the ratio of two amounts of power or energy. The number of decibels denoting such a ratio is ten times the logarithm of the ratio.

DELUGE SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An open head sprinkler system without water in the system piping, with the water supply controlled by an automatic valve operated by smoke or heat-responsive devices installed throughout the sprinklered area, and independent of the sprinkler heads.

DEMOLITION. The dismantling or razing of all or part of a building, including all operations incidental thereto.

DEPARTMENT. The department of buildings of the city of New York.

DERRICK. An apparatus consisting of a mast or equipment members held at the top by guys or braces, with or without a boom, for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes, for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. All the piping within public or private premises, which conveys sewage, rain water, or other liquid wastes to a legal point of disposal, but shall not include the mains of public sewer system or private or public sewage-treatment or disposal plant.

DRAFT CURTAIN. A noncombustible curtain suspended in a vertical position from a ceiling for the purpose of retarding the lateral movement of heated air, gases, and smoke along the ceiling in the event of fire.

DRAFT HOOD. A device placed in and made part of a chimney, vent connector, or combustion equipment, to (1) insure the ready escape of the products of combustion in the event of no draft, back-draft, or stoppage beyond the draft hood, (2) prevent a back-draft from entering the equipment, or (3) neutralize the effect of excessive stack action of the chimney flue upon the operation of the equipment.

DRY PIPE VALVE. A valve that automatically controls the water supply to a sprinkler system so that the system beyond the valve is normally maintained dry.

DUCT (VENTILATION). A pipe, tube, conduit, or an enclosed space within a wall or structure, used for conveying air.

DUMBWAITER. A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car that moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction, the floor area of which does not exceed nine square feet, whose total inside height whether or not provided with fixed or movable shelves does not exceed four feet, the capacity of which does not exceed five hundred pounds, and that is used exclusively for carrying materials.

DWELLING. Any building occupied in whole or in part as the temporary or permanent home or residence of one or more families.

DWELLING UNIT. One or more rooms in a dwelling or building that are arranged, designed, used or intended for use by one or more families.

ELECTRICALLY SUPERVISED. As applied to a control circuit, shall mean that in the event of interruption of the current supply or in the event of a break in the circuit, a specific signal will be given.

ELEVATOR. A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform that moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction, and that serves two or more floors of a building.

ELEVATOR VESTIBULE. A room or space enclosed with noncombustible smoke barrier partitions with smoke stop doors conforming to subdivision (c) of section 27-371. Except for such smoke stop doors, openings to elevators and to exits shall be the only other door openings permitted in the enclosing partitions.

EMERGENCY INTERLOCK RELEASE SWITCH. As applied to an elevator, shall mean a device to make inoperative, in case of emergency, door or gate electric contacts or door interlocks.

ENGINEER. A person licensed to practice the profession of engineering under the education law of the state of New York.

EQUIVALENT UNIFORM LOAD. A conventionalized representation of an element of dead or live load, used for the purposes of design in lieu of the actual dead or live load.

ESCALATOR. A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising or lowering passengers.

EXISTING BUILDING. A building, whether high rise or low rise:

(1) Which on April first, nineteen hundred eighty-four is complete or under construction, or

(2) For which an application for approval of plans has been filed with the department prior to October first, nineteen hundred eighty-four and construction commenced prior to April first, nineteen hundred eighty-six, provided that those requirements of this code applicable to existing buildings classified in the same occupancy group as the proposed building shall be complied with in accordance with the time limitations set forth in this code.

EXISTING HIGH RISE BUILDING. A building, classified as a high rise structure:

(1) Which on April first, nineteen hundred eighty-four is complete or under construction, or

(2) For which an application for approval of plans has been filed with the department prior to October first, nineteen hundred eighty-four and construction commenced prior to April first, nineteen hundred eighty-six, provided that those requirements of this code applicable to existing buildings classified in the same occupancy group as the proposed building shall be complied with in accordance with the time limitations set forth in this code.

(1) EXISTING OFFICE BUILDING, ONE HUNDRED FEET OR MORE IN HEIGHT. An office building one hundred feet or more in height or a building classified in occupancy group E, one hundred feet or more in height:

(1) which on January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-three is complete or under construction, or

(2) for which plans have been filed before January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-three and construction commenced on or before January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-four, or

(3) for which plans are filed on or before January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-four and construction commenced on or before January eighteenth, nineteen hundred seventy-five and further provided that all the requirements for such existing office buildings are fully complied with in the course of construction and before completion.

EXIT. A means of egress from the interior of a building to an open exterior space which is provided by the use of the following, either singly or in combination: exterior door openings, vertical exits, exit passageways, horizontal exits, interior stairs, exterior stairs, fire towers or fire escapes; but not including access stairs, aisles, corridor doors or corridors.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. A horizontal extension of a vertical exit, or a passage leading from a yard or court to an open exterior space.

EXTERIOR SEPARATION. The shortest distance across an unobstructed outdoor space measured from the furthest projection of the exterior wall of a building to an interior lot line or to a line halfway between the wall and that of any other building on the same lot, or to the centerline of an adjacent street or other public space.

EXTERIOR STAIR. A stair open to the outdoor air, that serves as a required exit. (See ACCESS STAIR and INTERIOR STAIR.)

FACING. As applied to a sign, shall mean the surface of the sign, upon, against or through which the message of the sign is exhibited.

FAMILY. A single individual; or two or more individuals related by blood or marriage or who are parties to a domestic partnership, and living together and maintaining a common household, with not more than four boarders, roomers or lodgers; or a group of not more than four individuals, not necessarily related by blood, marriage or because they are parties to a domestic partnership, and maintaining a common household.

FIRE ALARM. A system, automatic or manual, arranged to give a signal indicating a fire emergency.

FIRE AREA. A floor area enclosed by fire divisions and/or exterior walls.

FIRE CANOPY. A solid horizontal projection, extending beyond the exterior face of a building wall, located over a wall opening so as to retard the spread of fire through openings from one story to another.

FIRE DISTRICTS. The geographical territories established under subchapter four of this chapter for the regulation of occupancy groups and construction classes within such districts.

FIRE DIVISION. Any construction, vertical, horizontal or otherwise, having the required fire-resistance rating and structural stability under fire conditions to provide a fire barrier between adjoining buildings or between adjoining or superimposed fire areas or building sections within the same building.

FIRE DOOR. An opening protective in the form of a door and its assembly.

FIRE PROTECTION PLAN. A report containing a narrative description of the life and fire safety systems and evacuation system for a structure, in accordance with section 27-228.2 of this title.

FIRE-PROTECTION RATING. The time in hours or fractions thereof that an opening protective and its assembly will withstand fire exposure as determined by a fire test made in conformity with specified standards of subchapter five of this chapter.

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The time in hours or fractions thereof that materials or their assemblies will withstand fire exposure as determined by a fire test made in conformity with a specified standard of subchapter five of this chapter.

FIRE RETARDANT TREATED WOOD. Wood that has been pressure impregnated with chemicals so as to reduce its combustibility.

FIRE SAFETY PLAN. A description of the fire drill and evacuation procedures for a structure which is required to be submitted to the fire department in accordance with the requirements of section 27-4267 of the administrative code and the regulations of the fire commissioner.

FIRE SECTION. A sprinklered area within a building that is separated from other areas by noncombustible construction having at least a two-hour fire-resistance rating.

FIRE SEPARATION. Any construction, vertical, horizontal, or otherwise, having the required fire-resistance rating to provide a fire barrier between adjoining rooms or spaces within a building, building section, or fire area.

FIRESTOP. A solid or compact, tight closure to retard the spread of flames or hot gases within concealed spaces.

FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING SYSTEM. Any system including any and all equipment and materials in connection therewith the purpose of which is to control, to contain, to suppress or to extinguish fire.

FIRE WALL. A fire division in the form of a wall.

FIRE WINDOW. An opening protective in the form of a window and its assembly.

FLAME SPREAD RATING. The measurement of the comparative rate of propagation of flame over the surface of a material as determined by a fire test made in accordance with a specified standard in subchapter five of this chapter.

FLAMMABLE. Capable of being easily ignited when exposed to flame, and which burns intensely, or has a rapid rate of flamespread.

FLASH POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used.

FLOOR AREA. The projected horizontal area inside of walls, partitions, or other enclosing construction.

FLOOR AREA (NET). When used to determine the occupant load of a space, shall mean the horizontal occupiable area within the space, excluding the thickness of walls, and partitions, columns, furred-in spaces, fixed cabinets, equipment, and accessory spaces such as closets, machine and equipment rooms, toilets, stairs, halls, corridors, elevators and similar unoccupied spaces.

FLUE. An enclosed passageway in a chimney to carry products of combustion to the outer air.

FOLDED PLATE. An assembly consisting of one or more units, each unit of which is formed by two or more individually planar elements, termed plates, intersecting at angles.

FOOTING. A foundation element consisting of an enlargement of a foundation pier or foundation wall, wherein the soil materials along the sides of and underlying the element may be visually inspected prior to and during its construction.

FOUNDATION (BUILDING). A construction that transfers building loads to the supporting soil.

FOUNDATION PIER. A foundation element consisting of a column embedded into the soil below the lowest floor to the top of a footing or pile cap. Where a pier bears directly on the soil without intermediate footings or pile caps, the entire length of the column below the lowest floor level shall be considered as a foundation pier. Foundation piers shall be limited to piers so constructed that the entire surface of the sides of the pier and the bearing material under the lower end of the pier can be visually inspected prior to or during construction, but which will be concealed in the final work. Piers below the lowest floor or basement level that will be exposed and open to inspection in the final work shall be considered as columns. Types of construction wherein the sides cannot be visually inspected shall be considered as piling.

FOUNDATION WALL. A wall extending below grade.

FRAMEWORK. As applied to a sign, shall mean the supports, uprights and bracing of the sign.

FRESH AIR. Outdoor air.

FRONT. As applied to building location on a lot, shall mean the distance between lines drawn through the most remote points of the building perimeter, projected at right angles to a frontage space.

FRONTAGE SPACE. A street; or an open space outside of a building, not less than thirty feet in any dimension, that is accessible from a street by a driveway, lane, or alley at least twenty feet in width, and that is permanently maintained free of all obstructions that might interfere with its use by the fire department.

FRONT YARD. A yard extending along the full length of a street line.

GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPING. All piping from the house side of the gas meter piping that distributes gas supplied by a public utility to all fixtures and apparatus used for illumination or fuel in any building.

GAS METER PIPING. The piping from the gas service line valve to the outlet of the meter-regulator set or the meter if no regulator is required.

GAS PIPING SYSTEMS. The gas service piping, meter piping and distribution piping.

GAS SERVICE LINE VALVE. The valve located at or below grade on the supply side of the meter or service regulator, if a service regulator is required. If a plug type valve is used it shall be constructed so as to prevent the core from being blown out by the pressure of the gas. In addition, it shall be of a type capable of being locked in the off position by the local gas utility.

GAS SERVICE PIPING. The supply piping from the street main up to and including the gas service line valve.

GRADE. The finished surface of the ground, either paved or unpaved.

GRADE BEAM. A beam, at, near, or below grade, spanning between footings, pile caps or foundation piers, and supporting walls or other elements of a building.

GRANDSTAND. A structure used to support spectators, either standing or seated, usually outdoors.

GROUND SIGN. A sign supported by uprights or braces in or upon the surface of the ground.

GROUP HOME. A facility for the care and maintenance of not less than seven nor more than twelve children, operated pursuant to subdivision (c) of section three hundred seventy-four of the social services law, or other provisions of applicable laws, and supervised by the New York state board of social welfare.

HABITABLE ROOM. A residential room or space, having the minimum dimensions required by section 27-751 of article six of subchapter twelve of this chapter in which the ordinary functions of domestic life are carried on, and which includes bedrooms, living rooms, studies, recreation rooms, kitchens, dining rooms and other similar spaces, but does not include closets, halls, stairs, laundry rooms, or bathrooms.

HEIGHT (BUILDINGS). The vertical distance from the curb level to the highest point of the roof beams in the case of flat roofs, or to a point at the average height of the gable in the case of roofs having a pitch of more than one foot in four and one-half feet; except that where the curb level has not been legally established, or where every part of the building is set back more than twenty-five feet from a street line, the height shall be measured from the adjoining grade elevation.

HEREAFTER. On or after the effective date of this code.

HERETOFORE. Before the effective date of this code.

HIGH RISE. A structure seventy-five feet or more in height.

HOISTWAY. An enclosed or partly enclosed shaft used for the travel of an elevator, dumbwaiter, platform or bucket.

HOISTWAY DOOR. As applied to an elevator, shall mean the hinged or sliding portion of a hoistway enclosure which closes the opening giving access to a landing.

HOISTWAY DOOR INTERLOCK. A device used to prevent the operation of the driving machine of an elevator by the normal operating device unless the hoistway door is locked in the closed position, and also used to prevent the opening of the hoistway door from the landing side unless the car is within the landing zone and is either stopped or being stopped.

HOISTING MACHINE. A power operated machine used for lifting or lowering a load utilizing a drum and wire rope, excluding elevators. This shall include but not be limited to a crane, derrick and cableway.

HORIZONTAL EXIT. (See Section 27-373 of article five of subchapter six of this chapter.)

ILLUMINATED SIGN. A sign designed or arranged to give forth or reflect light from an attached artificial source.

IMPACT LOAD. A kinetic load of short duration such as that resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, etc.

INDEPENDENT POLE SCAFFOLD. A scaffold supported by multiple rows of uprights, and not depending on the building for support.

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A drain pipe used to convey liquid wastes which does not connect directly with the drainage system, but which discharges into the house drainage system through an air break into a trap, fixture, receptacle, or interceptor.

INDUSTRIAL LIFT. A hoisting and lowering mechanism of a nonportable power-operated type for raising or lowering material vertically, operating entirely within one story of a building.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE. Liquid, gaseous or solid substances, or a combination thereof, resulting from any process of industry, manufacturing, trade or business, or from the development or recovery of any natural resource.

INNER COURT. Any open area, other than a yard or portion thereof, that is unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky and that is bounded by either building walls, or building walls and one or more lot lines other than a street line or building walls, except for one opening on any open area along an interior lot line that has a width of less than thirty feet at any point.

INTERIOR LOT LINE. A lot line other than a street line.

INTERIOR STAIR. A stair within a building, that serves as a required exit. (See ACCESS STAIR and EXTERIOR STAIR.)

LAGGING (PILE). Pieces of timber or other material attached to the sides of piles to increase resistance to penetration through soil.

LAMELLA. Shell construction in which the shell is formed by a lattice of interlacing members.

LANDING DOOR. (See HOISTWAY DOOR.)

LEADER. A vertical drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains to a building house storm drain, building house drain (combined), or other means of disposal. The leader shall include the horizontal pipe to a single roof drain or gutter drain.

LESSEE. The person in possession of a building under a lease from the owner thereof.

LICENSE. A written document issued by the commissioner authorizing a person to perform specific acts in or in connection with the construction or alteration of buildings, or the installation, alteration, and use and operation of service equipment therein.

LIVE LOAD. All occupants, materials, equipment, constructions or other elements of weight supported in, on or by a building that will or are likely to be moved or relocated during the expected life of the building.

LOAD-BEARING. (See BEARING.)

LOADING RAMP. A hinged, mechanically operated lifting device used for spanning gaps and/or adjusting heights between loading surfaces, or between loading surfaces and carriers.

LODGER. (See BOARDER.)

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. A zoning lot.

LOT LINE. A line dividing one land unit from another, or from a street or other public space. A boundary line of a zoning lot.

LOW RISE. A structure less than seventy-five feet in height.

MALL. An enclosed or roofed area used as a pedestrian circulation space and connecting no more than three stories or portions of stories of a building or buildings housing single and/or multiple tenants.

MANUAL FIRE PUMP. A pump that feeds water into a fire extinguishing system that must be started by either the building personnel or members of the fire department.

MARQUEE SIGN. A sign placed flat against the front or side fascia of a marquee.

MECHANICAL VENTILATION. The process of introducing outdoor air into, or removing vitiated air from a building by mechanical means. A mechanical ventilating system may include air heating, air cooling, or air conditioning components.

MECHANIZED PARKING GARAGE EQUIPMENT. Special devices in mechanical parking garages that operate in either stationary or horizontal moving hoistways, that are exclusively for the conveying of automobiles, and in which no persons are normally stationed on any level other than the receiving level and in which each automobile during the parking process is moved by means of a power driven transfer device, on and off the elevator directly into parking spaces or cubicles.

MEZZANINE. An intermediate floor between the floor and ceiling of any space. When the total gross floor area of all mezzanines occurring in any story exceeds thirty-three and one-third percent of the gross floor area of that story such mezzanine shall be considered as a separate story.

MINOR ALTERATIONS. (See Section 27-124 of article five of subchapter one of this chapter.)

MORTAR (GROUT). A mixture of cementitious materials, fine-aggregates and water.

MOTOR VEHICLE. A conveyance propelled by an internal combustion engine and having a fuel storage tank capacity of more than two gallons.

MOVING WALK. A passenger-carrying device on which persons stand or walk, and in which the passenger-carrying surface remains parallel to its direction of motion and is uninterrupted.

MULTIPLE DWELLING. A building containing three or more dwelling units. Multiple dwelling shall not be deemed to include a hospital, school, convent, monastery, asylum or other public institution.

NONAUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system in which all pipes and sprinkler heads are maintained dry and which is supplied with water through a fire department siamese connection.

NONAUTOMATIC STANDPIPE SYSTEM. A standpipe system in which all piping is maintained dry, and which is supplied with water through a fire department siamese connection.

NONBEARING. As applied to a wall or partition, shall mean one that supports no vertical load other than its own weight.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE. A material which, in the form in which it is used in construction, will not ignite and burn when subjected to fire. However, any material which liberates flammable gas when heated to any temperature up to one thousand three hundred eighty degrees Fahrenheit for five minutes shall not be considered noncombustible. No material shall be considered noncombustible which is subject to increase in combustibility beyond the limits established above, through the effects of age, fabrication or erection techniques, moisture, or other interior or exterior atmospheric conditions.

NONCURRENT LOADS. Two or more elements of dead or live load which, for purposes of design, are considered not to act simultaneously.

NONLOADBEARING. (See NONBEARING.)

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building or space is used or is designed or intended to be used.

OCCUPANCY GROUP. The category in which a building or space is classified by the provisions of subchapter three of this chapter, based on its occupancy or use.

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of occupants of a space, floor or building for whom exit facilities shall be provided.

OCCUPIABLE ROOM. A room or space, other than a habitable room designed for human occupancy or use, in which persons may remain for a period of time for rest, amusement, treatment, education, dining, shopping, or other similar purposes, or in which occupants are engaged at work.

OCTAVE. The interval between two sounds having a basic frequency ratio of two. By extension, the octave is the intervale between any two frequencies having the ratio 2:1. The standard octave bands are:

FREQUENCY (CPS)
Mid Frequency 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
Approximate
Frequency Limits
Lower 45 90 180 355 710 1400 2800 5600
Upper 90 180 355 710 1400 2800 5600 11120


OFFICE BUILDING. A building constructed pursuant to the code in effect prior to December 6, 1968 in which the main use or dominant occupancy is offices or a building classified in occupancy group E.

OIL BUFFER. As applied to an elevator, shall mean a buffer using oil as a medium which absorbs and dissipates the kinetic energy of a descending car or counterweight.

OPEN EXTERIOR SPACE. A street or other public space; or a yard, court, or plaza open on one or more sides and unroofed or open on all sides, which provides egress to a street or public space.

OPEN PARKING LOT. A lot, or portion thereof, used for the storage or sale of more than four motor vehicles, but not used for the repair or servicing of such vehicles.

OPEN PARKING STRUCTURE. A structure open to the outdoors fifty percent or more on two or more sides of each story, used for the parking of motor vehicles.

OPEN SHAFT. A shaft open to the outdoor air at the top.

OPENING PROTECTIVE. An assembly of materials and accessories, including frames and hardware installed in an opening in a wall, partition, floor, ceiling or roof to prevent, resist, or retard the passage of flame, smoke or hot gases.

ORDINARY REPAIRS. (See section 27-125 of this chapter.)

OUTER COURT. Any open area, other than a yard or portion thereof, that is unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky and that, except for an outer court opening upon a street line, a front yard, or a rear yard, is bounded by either building walls or building walls and one or more lot lines other than a street line.

OUTRIGGER SCAFFOLD. A scaffold, the platform of which is built upon supports cantilevering beyond the walls of the building.

OUTSIDE GAS SERVICE LINE VALVE. The valve located on the gas service piping which can be either exposed or buried.

OWNER. A person having legal title to premises; a mortgagee or vendee in possession; a trustee in bankruptcy; a receiver or any other person having legal ownership or control of premises.

PARAPET. The continuation of an exterior wall, fire wall, or party wall above the roof line.

PARKING TIER. A general level of parking.

PARTITION. A vertical unit or assembly of materials that separates one space from another within any story of a building.

PARTY WALL. A fire division on an interior lot line common to two adjoining buildings.

PENTHOUSE. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building, which is designed or used for human occupancy. (See BULKHEAD and ROOF STRUCTURE.)

PERMIT. A written document issued by the commissioner authorizing the construction or alteration or demolition of a building, or the installation, alteration or use and operation of service equipment therein.

PERSON. An individual, partnership, corporation, or other legal entity.

PHYSICAL DISABILITY.--Any of the following:

(a) impairment requiring use of a wheelchair; or

(b) impairment causing difficulty or insecurity in walking or climbing stairs or requiring the use of braces, crutches or other artificial supports; or impairment caused by amputation, arthritis, spastic condition or pulmonary, cardiac or other ills rendering the individual semi-ambulatory; or

(c) total or partial impairment of hearing or sight causing insecurity or likelihood of exposure to danger in public places; or

(d) impairment due to conditions of aging and incoordination. The term "physical handicap" shall have the same meaning as the term "physical disability" and the phrase "people having physical disabilities" shall include those having one or more physical disabilities.

PILE. A structural element introduced into the ground to transmit loads to lower strata and of such construction that the material underlying the base of the unit or along the sides cannot be visually inspected.

PILE CAR. A construction encasing the heads of one or more piles which transfers loads to the pile or piles.

PLACE OF ASSEMBLY. An enclosed room or space in which seventy-five or more persons gather for religious, recreational, educational, political or social purposes, or for the consumption of food or drink, or for similar group activities or which is designed for use by seventy-five or more persons gathered for any of the above reasons, but excluding such spaces in dwelling units; or an outdoor space in which two hundred or more persons gather for any of the above reasons or which is designed for use by two hundred or more persons gathered for any of the above reasons.

PLASTIC. A material that contains as an essential ingredient an organic substance of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state and, at some stage in its manufacture or its processing into finished articles, can be shaped by flow.

PLASTIC, SLOW BURNING. A plastic having a rate of combustion within the limits of a specified standard of subchapter five of this chapter.

PLATFORM FRAME. Light timber construction in which the exterior walls and bearing walls consist of studs which are interrupted at floors by the entire thickness of the floor construction.

PLUMBING. The practice, materials, and fixtures used in the installation, maintenance, extension, and alteration of all piping, fixtures, appliances, equipment, and appurtenances in connection with any of the following: sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities, the venting system and the public or private water supply systems, within or adjacent to any building; also the practice and materials used in the installation, maintenance, extension, or alteration of storm water, liquid-waste, or sewerage, and water-supply systems of any premises and their connection with any point of public disposal or other acceptable terminal.

PLUMBING FIXTURES. Installed receptacles, devices, or appliances that are supplied with water or which receive or discharge liquids or liquid-borne wastes.

PLUMBING SYSTEM. The water-supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; building house drains and building house sewers including their respective connections, devices, and appurtenances within the property lines of the premises; and water-treating or water-using equipment.

POLE FOOTING. A type of construction in which a pole embedded in the ground and extending upward to form a column is used for both column and footing.

PONDING. The collection of rainwater.

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects. Its bacteriological and chemical quality shall conform to the requirements of the department of health and mental hygiene.

POWER-OPERATED SCAFFOLD. Any form of scaffold that is propelled vertically by the use of power machinery.

PREMISES. Land, improvements thereon, or any part thereof.

PRIMARY ENTRANCE(S).--The principal entrance(s) to a building primarily and expressly utilized for day-to-day pedestrian ingress and egress. Side, rear and other entrances solely used for freight and service shall not constitute a primary entrance.

PRIVATE GARAGE. A building or enclosed space used for the parking or storage of not more than four motor vehicles having fuel storage tanks of twenty-six gallon capacity or less, and in which no repair, body work, or painting of vehicles is conducted, and in which no gasoline, oil, or similar products are dispensed.

PRIVATE SEWER. A sewer privately owned and controlled by public authority only to the extent provided by law.

PROJECTING SIGN. A sign affixed to an exterior wall of a building and extending more than fifteen inches beyond the wall surface.

PUBLIC AREAS. Area(s) within a building usually open to or used by the general public, such as lobbies, corridors, waiting rooms, reception rooms, rest rooms, etc.

PUBLIC GARAGE. A building or space used for the parking or storage of motor vehicles, other than an automotive service station, automotive repair shop, open parking structure, or private garage. Truck loading and shipping areas shall be classified as public garages.

PUBLIC SEWER. A sewer entirely controlled by public authority.

PUBLIC SPACE. An open space outside of a building, which is dedicated or devoted to public use by lawful mapping or by any other lawful procedure.

PURE TONE. A soundwave of a single frequency, so called to distinguish it from a complex tone.

REAR LOT LINE. Any lot line, except a street line, that is parallel or within forty-five degrees of being parallel to, and does not intersect any street line bounding such lot.

REAR YARD. A yard extending for the full length of a rear lot line.

REBOUND. Recovery of displacement due to release or reduction of applied load.

REFRIGERATION. The process by which heat is absorbed from a substance by expansion or vaporization of a refrigerant.

REQUIRED. Shall mean required by the provisions of this code.

RETAINING WALL. A wall designed to prevent the lateral displacement of soil or other materials.

RIGGING LOFT. A space above a stage, designed and used for the flying and storage of scenery and scenic elements. A space used for the occasional flying of incidental props during a performance shall not be deemed to constitute a rigging loft.

ROOF. The topmost slab or deck of a building, either flat or sloping, with its supporting members, not including vertical supports.

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the exterior surface of a roof for weather resistance, fire resistance, wear, and/or appearance, but not including insulation.

ROOF SIGN. A sign erected and maintained on or above the roof of a building.

ROOF STRUCTURE. An unenclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building. (See BULKHEAD and PENTHOUSE.)

ROOMER. (See BOARDER.)

SAFE AREA. An interior or exterior space that serves as a means of egress by providing a transitional area from, and that also serves as a normal means of entry to, an assembly space.

SAFETY (CAR OR COUNTERWEIGHT). A mechanical device attached to an elevator car frame or to an auxiliary frame, or to the counterweight frame, to stop and hold the car or counterweight in case of predetermined overspeed or free fall, or if the hoisting ropes slacken.

SCENERY AND SCENIC ELEMENTS. Any or all of those devices ordinarily used on a stage in the presentation of a theatrical performance, such as back drops, side tabs, teasers, borders or scrim, rigid flats, set pieces, and all properties, but not including costumes.

SCHOOL. An elementary school, high school, or college, either public or private.

SEATING SECTION. An area of seating bounded on all sides by aisles, cross aisles, walls or partitions.

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to an opening protective shall mean a door, window, damper, or other device, and its assembly that is normally kept in a closed position and that is equipped with an approved device to insure immediate closing after having been opened for use.

SELF-RELIEVING CONSTRUCTION. Construction using a type of framing in which the connections are capable of developing a known and dependable moment capacity but which, under larger moments, are capable of rotating (without fracture) an amount sufficient to accommodate the deflection due to the excess of the applied moment over the moment capacity.

SERVICE EQUIPMENT. Equipment, including all components thereof, which provides sanitation, power, light, heat, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning, refuse disposal, fire-fighting, transportation, or similar facility for a building which by design becomes a part of the building, and which is regulated by the provisions of this code.

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.

SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for the disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank, cesspool, or mechanical treatment, all designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment, building, or development.

SEWAGE EJECTOR. A mechanical device used to pump or eject sewage.

SHAFT. A vertical, inclined, or offset passage, or hoistway, penetrating through two or more floors of a building or through a floor and roof. (See CLOSED SHAFT and OPEN SHAFT.)

SHALL. As used in this code, is always to be construed as mandatory.

SHELL. A structure consisting of a curved or folded slab whose thickness is small compared to its other dimensions, and which is characterized by its three dimensional load-carrying behavior. The term shall include those forms of construction that approximate slab surfaces, such as lamellas and lattices.

SIAMESE CONNECTION. A fitting connected to a fire extinguishing system and installed on the outside of a building, with two hose inlets for use of the fire department, to furnish or supplement the water supply to the system.

SIDE LOT LINE. Any lot line that is not a street line or a rear lot line.

SIDEWALK ELEVATOR. A freight elevator that operates between a sidewalk or other area outside of a building and floor levels inside the building below such area, which has no landing opening into the building at its upper limit of travel, and which is not used to carry automobiles.

SIDE YARD. A yard extending along a side lot line from the required front yard (or from the street line if no front yard is required) to the required rear yard (or to the rear lot line if no rear yard is required).

SIDEWALK SHED. A construction over a public sidewalk, used to protect pedestrians from falling objects.

SIGN. An outdoor structure, banner or other device, designed or used as an advertisement, or announcement for the information or attraction of the public; consisting of the framework and all letters, words, numerals, illustrations, illumination, decorations, trade marks, emblems, symbols or other figures or characters.

SINGLE POLE SCAFFOLD. A platform resting on putlogs or crossbeams, the outer ends of which are supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights, and the inner ends of which are supported by a wall.

SMOKE BARRIER. Any continuous non-combustible construction, vertical, horizontal, or otherwise, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the spread of smoke and constructed in accordance with the provisions of section 27-353.3 of this code.

SMOKE-STOP DOOR. A door or set of doors placed in a corridor to restrict the spread of smoke and to retard the spread of fire by reducing draft.

SOIL VENT. (See STACK VENT.)

SOUND POWER. The rate at which sound energy is radiated by a source.

SOUND POWER LEVEL. The ratio, expressed in decibles, of the sound power of a source to the reference power of ten-thirteen watts.

SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL. The square ratio, expressed in decibels, of a sound pressure to a reference pressure of 0.0002 dynes per square centimeter.

SPANDREL WALL. That portion of an exterior wall between the top of one opening and the bottom of another in the story directly above.

SPARK ARRESTER. A device to prevent sparks, embers, or other ignited material above a given size from being expelled to the atmosphere from the top of a chimney.

SPECIAL WASTE. Wastes that require special treatment before entry into the normal plumbing system.

SPRAY BOOTH. A compartment in which spraying with any substance is carried on, consisting of at least two sides, a back and a top.

SPRAYING SPACE OR DIPPING SPACE. Any portion of a building in which the actual work of spraying, dipping, or immersing any article with or into flammable substances takes place.

SPRINKLER ALARM. An apparatus constructed and installed so that a flow of water through the sprinkler system equal to, or greater than, that required for a single automatic sprinkler head will cause an alarm to be given.

SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A system of piping and sprinkler heads connected to one or more sources of water supply.

STACK. (See CHIMNEY.) Also, a general term applying to any vertical line of soil, waste, vent, or inside leader piping. It shall not include vertical fixture and vent branches that do not extend through the roof or that pass through not more than two stories before being reconnected to the vent stack or stack vent.

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to a plumbing stack.

STAGE. An area used in the presentation of a live performance at anytime and includes the performing area and non-audience areas that are open to the performing area. It may be level or raised with or without scenic elements, and generally is serviced by stage illumination appliances and control panels. For places of assembly classified as occupancy group F-1A or F-1B, the word stage shall be defined in accordance with the definition set forth in sections 27-546 and 27-547 of article three of subchapter eight of this code.

STAGE LIFT. A movable section of a stage floor, designed to carry scenery between staging areas and the stage, and also used to be raised to and temporarily retained at elevations above or below the stage level.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM. A system of piping, for fire-fighting purposes, consisting of connections to one or more sources of water supply, and serving one or more hose outlets.

STORM DRAIN. (See BUILDING STORM DRAIN.)

STORM SEWER. A sewer used for conveying rain water, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar clear liquid wastes which do not contain organic materials or compounds subject to decomposition.

STORY. That portion of a building that is between a floor level and the next higher floor level or roof above.

STREET. A thoroughfare dedicated or devoted to public use by legal mapping or other lawful means.

STREET FLOOR. A floor, usually the principal entrance floor, that is not more than one-half story above or below grade at the location from which egress is provided to the street.

STREET LINE. A lot line separating a street from other land.

STREET MAIN. (See WATER MAIN and GAS SERVICE PIPING.)

STRUCTURE. An assembly of materials forming a construction for occupancy or use, including among others: buildings, stadia, tents, reviewing stands, platforms, stagings, observation towers, radio towers, tanks, trestles, open sheds, coal pockets, shelters, fences, and display signs.

SUBSTRATE. A surface upon which a finish material is directly applied and which extends completely behind such finish material.

SUMP PIT. A tank or pit that receives clear liquid wastes that do not contain organic materials or compounds subject to decomposition, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be emptied by mechanical means.

SUMP PUMP. A mechanical device used to pump the liquid waste from a sump pit into the gravity drainage system.

SUPPLEMENTAL VERTICAL EXIT. An enclosed stair, ramp or escalator providing means of egress to an area of refuge at another level nearer to the street floor.

THIS CODE. The building code.

TIER OF SEATING. A general level of seating, such as an orchestra (usually the main tier), a balcony, or gallery.

TRAILER CAMP. A lot or parcel of land used for temporary or permanent occupancy by two or more mobile homes or travel trailers.

TRANSFER COLUMN. A column supported by beams, girders, trusses or similar members and reacting on two or more columns at a lower level.

UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD. A conventionalized representation of an element of dead or live load as a load of uniform intensity, distributed over an area.

USABLE DWELLING UNITS.--Dwelling units which are accessible, constructed and equipped as set forth in reference standard RS 4-6, so as to be usable by all categories of people having physical disabilities.

USE (USED). The purpose for which a building, structure, or space is occupied or utilized, unless otherwise indicated by the text. Use (used) shall be construed as if followed by the words "or is intended, arranged, or designed to be used."

VAULT (SIDEWALK). Any space below the surface of the sidewalk portion of a street, that is covered over, except those openings that are used exclusively as places for descending, by means of steps, to the cellar or basement of any building.

VENT(GAS). A flue or duct, used to convey the products of combustion from gas-fired equipment to the outdoor air by natural draft.

VENT STACK (PLUMBING). A vertical vent pipe extending through more than two stories, which is then connected to a stack vent or is otherwise extended through the roof, installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of a drainage system.

VENT SYSTEM (COMBUSTION). A gas vent or chimney, together with a vent connector that forms a continuous unobstructed passageway from gas burning equipment to the outdoor air for the purpose of removing vent gases.

VENT SYSTEM (PLUMBING). A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure.

VERTICAL EXIT. A stair, ramp, or escalator serving as an exit from one or more floors above or below the street floor.

WALL SIGN. A sign affixed to the exterior wall of a building, no part of which projects more than fifteen inches from the wall surface.

WATER-DISTRIBUTION PIPING. The pipes in a building or premises that convey water from the water service pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets.

WATER (STREET) MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public or community use controlled by public authority.

WATER-SERVICE PIPE. The pipe from the water (street) main or other source of water supply to the building served.

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the water-distribution piping, and all of the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, and appurtenances used for conveying water in a plumbing system.

WET STANDPIPE SYSTEM. A standpipe system in which all of the piping is filled with water under pressure, that is immediately discharged upon the opening of any hose valve.

WINDING-DRUM MACHINE. As applied to an elevator, shall mean a geared -drive machine in which the hoisting ropes are fastened to and wind on a drum.

WORKERS' HOIST. A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car that moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction and that is used primarily for raising and lowering workers to the working levels.

WRITING (WRITTEN). The term shall be construed to include handwriting, typewriting, printing, photo-offset, or any other form of reproduction in legible symbols or characters.

WRITTEN NOTICE. A notification in writing delivered by hand to the person or parties intended, or delivered at or sent by mail to the last business address known to the party giving such notice.

YARD. That portion of a lot extending open and unobstructed from the lowest level to the sky along the entire length of a lot line.

ZONE. A vertical division of a building fire standpipe system used to establish the water working pressures within the system and also to limit the pressure at the lowest hose outlet in the zone.

ZONING RESOLUTION. The zoning resolution of the city of New York, adopted December fifteenth, nineteen hundred sixty-one, including all amendments thereto.

bhp: brake horsepower
mph: miles per hour
Btu: british thermal unit
oz.: ounce
C: centigrade
P.C.E.: pyrometric cone
cfm: cubic feet per minute equivalent
cps: cycles per second
pcf: pounds per cubic foot
cu. ft.: cubic feet
plf: pounds per linear foot
db: decibel
psf: pounds per square foot
dia.: diameter
psi: pounds per square inch
F: fahrenheit
psia: pounds per square inch fpm: feet per minute absolute
fps: feet per second
psig: pounds per square inch fsp: fire standpipe gauge
ft.: foot
rpm: revolutions per minute
gal.: gallon
sec: second
gpm: gallons per minute
swp: steam working pressure
gps: gallons per second
sq. ft: square foot
h.p.: horsepower
sq. in.: square inch
hr.: hour
sq. yd.: square yard
in.: inch
INR: impact noise rating
Tag: tagliabue
I.P.S.: iron pipe size
wwp: water working pressure
lb.: pound

Note: For abbreviation of name of referenced national organizations, see reference standard RS 2-1.
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