Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words stated in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the New York City Building Code, New York City Fire Code, New York City Electrical Code, New York City Fuel Gas Code, New York City Mechanical Code, or the New York City Energy Conservation Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific authorities.

ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction (see "Ready access").

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning.

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which do not otherwise fit together.

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal.

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste pipe is discharging.

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of performance for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The system design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 12.

ANCHORS. See "Supports."

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the commissioner. In reference to construction documents, the determination by the department after full examination that submitted construction documents comply with this code and other applicable laws and rules. In reference to materials, the determination by the commissioner that material is acceptable for its intended use. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency, or other qualified person, regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when approved pursuant to department rules as qualified to perform or witness identified testing or inspection services. See Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or storm water from an open area.

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to an ejector.

BACKFLOW. The undesirable reversal of flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases or other substances into the distribution pipes of the potable supply of water from any source or sources or the undesirable reversal of flow from the intended direction of flow in the drainage system due to a system stoppage, system overload or a higher pressure on the drainage pipe side of the house trap.

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated water into the potable water system as a result of the pressure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats connected to the potable water distribution piping.

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system.

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply from any source except the intended source.

BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby backflow is possible.

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent backflow.

BACKWATER VALVE. A device or valve installed in the building drain, sewer or any branch line where such drain or branch is subject to backflow, and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into a lower level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition.

BALL COCK. See "Fill Valve."

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. Refer to Section G201.2 of Appendix G of the New York City Building Code.

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or excluding a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are located together in the same room.

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER. A fixture utilized for scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or boiling water.

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the sanitary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot water.

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device supplied with hot and cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or clinical sink to be utilized for cleansing bedpans.

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system that extends to fixtures on two or less consecutive floors except a riser, main or stack.

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. The term shall be construed as if followed by the phrase "structure, premises, lot or part thereof" unless otherwise indicated by the text. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside and that extends 5 feet (1524 mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.

Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.

Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only.

Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other drainage, but not sewage.

BUILDING SEWER. See "Sewer, building sewer."

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer.

BUILDING TRAP. A device or fitting, without joints within the water seal, installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air between the drainage system of the building and the building sewer.

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drainage branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or trapped fixtures connected into a battery.

CISTERN. A covered tank for storing rainwater to be utilized for purposes other than in the potable water supply.

CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system utilized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or fixture trap.

CLEAR WATER WASTE. Drips from pumps and equipment, coil condensate, steam condensate, single pass refrigeration discharge, RPZ discharge, and similar matter.

CODE. The New York City Plumbing Code, subsequent amendments thereto, or any rules of the commissioner adopted pursuant thereto.

COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laundry tray in one unit.

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, combined."

COMBINED SEWER. See "Sewer, combined sewer."

COMMISSIONER. The Commissioner of Buildings of the City of New York or his or her duly authorized representative. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for both fixtures.

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not scoured or cleansed with each fixture operation.

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Plans and specifications and other written, graphic and pictorial documents, prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building permit. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.

CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the critical level.

CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other either water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems (see "Backflow").

DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap or other closed fitting.

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. Refer to Section G201.2 of Appendix G of the New York City Building Code.

DETENTION SYSTEM. A system that slows and temporarily holds storm water runoff so that it can be released into the public sewer system at a controlled rate.

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the centerline of the pipe and fittings.

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges from plumbing fixtures or appliances.

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system.

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized in the drainage system.

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.

Gravity. A drainage system that drains by gravity into the building sewer.

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage or similar matter.

Storm. A drainage system that carries only stormwater, potable clear water waste, and groundwater.

DRYWELL. A covered pit constructed so as to permit liquid contents to seep into the ground.

DUAL FLUSH WATER CLOSET. A water closet that enables the user to select a high flush for solid waste or a reduced volume, low flush for liquid waste.

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the supply piping to the fitting.

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture overflows and leakage.

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, waste or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrigerants and hydrazine.

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regulated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been issued.

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is drawn from or held within the pipe.

FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the discharge side of the water supply control valve.

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures that discharges to another drain or to a stack.

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a junction with any other drain pipe.


Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessible from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connection to the sanitary drainage system.

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fixture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water supply pipe.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. Refer to Section G201.2 of Appendix G of the New York City Building Code.

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.

FLOOR DRAIN. A fixture set into a floor, used to drain water into a plumbing drainage system.

FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is wide open and flowing.

FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the fixture.

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal fixture traps and minimize water hammer.

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept grease-laden wastes from a wastewater discharge. Such device has the ability to intercept free-floating fats and oils.

Flow control. A device installed upstream from the interceptor, having an orifice that controls the rate of flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) downstream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow stream.

GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept grease-laden waste from wastewater discharge. Such device operates on a time- or event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-floating fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention from the user, except for maintenance.

GROUNDWATER OR GROUND WATER. Water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is produced from food processing, food preparation or other sources where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse stations, sinks or other appurtenances.

HAND SINK. A plumbing fixture especially designed and placed for the washing of hands.

HANGERS. See "Supports."

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than 110°F (43°C).

HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap."

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor.

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap and connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves one or more families, and that is not an approved public water supply.

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.


Expansion. A loop, return bend, return offset or manufactured device that provides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system.

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of the other pipe.

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint."

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special type of packing compound in which one pipe is slipped into the end of an adjacent pipe.

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more than 3.0-percent lead.

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more than 0.2-percent lead.

LEADER. A drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of disposal.

LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connections are made from the fixture side of traps and through which vapor or foul air is removed from the fixture or device utilized on bedpan washers.

LOW-PRESSURE STEAM-HEATING BOILER. A boiler furnishing steam at pressures not exceeding 15 psig (103 kPa).

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consisting of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump.

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are connected.

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance."

MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fittings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of a coupling, fitting or adapter.

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey medical gases for direct patient application from central supply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, related components and piping networks extending to station outlet valves at patient use points.

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction may be required.

NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary utilization.

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building or space is used or is designed, arranged or intended to be used.

OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.

ONCE-THROUGH COOLING. The use of potable water to cool a condenser, other building equipment or process equipment, excluding equipment used to cool steam condensate, and then discharging the water into the sewage system.

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure.

PERMEABILITY. A measure of the rate of movement of liquid through soil.

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances, plumbing appurtenances, gas piping and limited fire protection as defined in Section 28-401.3 of the Administrative Code, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; and public or private water supply systems.

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. Included are fixtures having the operation or control dependent on one or more energized components, such as motors, controls, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing elements. Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by the owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight.

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of component parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or to the drainage system.

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water therefrom; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system of the premises.

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a structure or premises.

PNEUMATIC SEWAGE EJECTOR VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors that terminates separately to the open air.

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the New York State Sanitary Code.

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are intended for utilization by a family or an individual.

PRIVATE SEWER. See "Sewer, private sewer."

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort stations, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that their utilization is similarly unrestricted.

PUBLIC SEWER. See "Sewer, public sewer."

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public utilization controlled by public authority.

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes automatically when released manually or that is controlled by a mechanical means for fast-action closing.

READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device.

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW PREVENTER (RPZ). A backflow prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of the relief means.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. Refer to Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.


Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is set.

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combination relief valve designed to function as both a temperature relief and a pressure relief valve.

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which such valve is set.

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems.

RETENTION SYSTEM. A system that captures storm water runoff on site with no release.

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.

RISER. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.

ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader or a conductor.

ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports and any fixtures that are built into the structure.

SANITARY SEWER. See "Sewer, sanitary sewer."

SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve that automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means.

SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor."

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution or chemicals in solution including but not limited to wastewater, human or animal wastes, nonpotable clear water waste, and industrial waste.

SEWAGE EJECTORS. Mechanical devices used to pump or eject sewage.


Building sewer. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal.

Combined sewer. A sewer receiving a combination of sewage, storm water, groundwater and nonpotable clear water waste.

Private sewer. A private sanitary, storm, or combined sewer that is designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the City drainage plan to serve a specific development and is located in a finally mapped street, a record street, or a sewer easement, and discharges into an approved outlet.

Public sewer. A sewer that is owned by the city of New York.

Sanitary sewer. A sewer that conveys only sewage.

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys only storm water, groundwater and potable clear water waste.

*SINGLE-OCCUPANT TOILET ROOM. A toilet room with no more than one water closet and no more than one urinal.

Exception: A toilet room with one urinal and a door to such room that is not securable from within.

*Section 202 was amended by: Local Law 79 of 2016. This law has an effective date of October 26, 2016.

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe.

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal matter to the building drain or building sewer.

STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one story with or without offsets.

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack.


Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a nonpressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are portable or are connected to the plumbing system.

Instrument. A device for the sterilization of various instruments.

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed to utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing.

Pressure instrument washer sterilizer. A pressure instrument washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture designed to both wash and sterilize instruments during the operating cycle of the fixture.

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as utilized in health care services.

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water and storing sterile water.

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly connected to the building drainage system at the lower terminal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmospheric or exhaust vent.

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm."

STORM SEWER. See "Sewer, storm sewer."

STORM WATER OR STORMWATER. The excess water running off from the surface of a drainage area during and immediately following a period of precipitation.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed, including among others: buildings, stadia, tents, reviewing stands, platforms, stagings, observation towers, radio towers, tanks, trestles, open sheds, shelters, fences, and display signs. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal.

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives clear liquid waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be emptied by mechanical means.

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump for the removal of drainage, except sewage, from a sump, pit or low point.

SUMP VENT. A vent from sewage ejectors, or similar equipment, that terminates to the sanitary vent system or separately to the open air.

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures and equipment.

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving or recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (610 mm) or more at any point.

TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range between 85°F (29°C) and 110°F (43°C).

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An approved agency operating a product or material certification system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system.

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the manufacturer indicating that the function and performance characteristics of a product or material have been determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of identification in accordance with the requirements of the third-party certification agency.

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, material or system conforms to specified requirements.

TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap.

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the top of the dip of the trap.

UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uniform bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints at the bottom of the pipe trench.

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system" and "Vent system (Methane and Radon)."

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system.

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.

VENT SYSTEM (Methane and Radon). A pipe or pipes installed to provide for the passage of methane or radon gas from underground areas into the general atmosphere in an effort to avoid the hazardous effects of the gases on human beings or to provide the recovery of these gases for commercial purposes.

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.

WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter.

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste.

WaterSense PROGRAM. A program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency providing for the third-party certification of plumbing fixtures as meeting performance and efficiency requirements established by such agency and authorizing the labeling of plumbing fixtures as meeting such requirements.

WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system.

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or community use.

WATER METER. A device that measures the flow of water supplied from a public water main to a building and that is used by the Department of Environmental Protection to bill for water supplied to the building.

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heating system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water to operate but which are not part of the plumbing system.


Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the points of utilization.

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution system of the building served.

WATER SUB-METER. A device, other than a water meter, installed on a water distribution pipe or makeup water pipe that measures the flow of water within a specified space and/or to specified equipment within a building.

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the structure or premises.


Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground with an auger and installing a casing.

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground with a drilling machine of any type and installing casing and screen.

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen.

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter shaft and installing a casing.

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consisting of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circulating piping system designed to accept, circulate and discharge bathtub water upon each use.

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stacks.
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