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Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings set forth in this chapter.
Words stated in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the construction codes or Electrical Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. Any reference to any of the construction codes shall be deemed to include any related or other applicable provisions of any of the construction codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have the ordinarily accepted meanings as the context implies.
AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from a container by a propellant, classified as follows:

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can, or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol.

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. A Group H or S occupancy used exclusively for the nonretail storage and transhipment of aerosol products.

AIR OVERPRESSURE. Blast-induced air pressure greater than the surrounding atmospheric pressure; measured and reported in pounds per square inch (psi).

AIRCRAFT LANDING SITE. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the landing or takeoff of aircraft, other than helicopters, and any appurtenant areas, but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of such aircraft.

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA. Any area used or intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or other aviation-related operations.

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure whose structural elements are inflated and maintained by elevated air pressure and are not occupiable spaces.

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is designed or used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and any appurtenant areas that are designed or used for aviation facilities and operations.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure, the shape of which is attained and maintained by elevated air pressure, and the occupancy of which is within the area of elevated pressure.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component, such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, text display or vibration device that issues an audible, tactile, and/or visual alert.

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcohol-containing preparation designed for application to the hands for anti microbacterial or other medicinal purpose that contains ethanol or isopropanol.

ALCOHOL-BLENDED MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline blended with ethanol or other alcohol with an alcohol concentration greater than 15 percent by volume.

ALCOHOL PROCESSING. See Distillery Operations.

ALCOHOL PROCESS TANK. See Distillery Equipment.

ALCOHOL STORAGE AREA. Any area outside of the distilled spirits processing area in which raw alcohol, distilled spirits and/or alcohol that is a Class II or Class III combustible liquid is stored.

ALCOHOL STORAGE EQUIPMENT. See Distillery Equipment.

ALTERATION. Any addition to, or modification of, an existing installation or facility, other than any repair made in the ordinary course of maintenance.

AMMONIUM NITRATE. A chemical compound represented by the formula NH4NO3.

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

APPLICATION. An application submitted to the commissioner for a permit, certificate or other approval or determination issued or made by the commissioner pursuant to this code or other law, rule or regulation, including documents and oral representations submitted in connection with such application.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the commissioner.

APPROVED TESTING LABORATORY. A nationally recognized testing laboratory or other approved agency or organization that conducts scientific testing of any material, operation or facility regulated by this code (including any article, equipment or device) to assess its performance based on a national, industry or other approved standard, including an approved testing agency designated by the Department of Buildings.

ARRAY. Each separate high-piled storage configuration, taking into consideration the type of packaging, flue spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage..

ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch (152-mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air movement through the stored commodity.

ASPHALT MELTER. An approved device designed to heat asphalt, typically for waterproofing operations, that, utilizing a flammable gas or a combustible liquid, generates an enclosed flame that indirectly heats a vessel containing the asphalt.

ASSEMBLY AREA. A designated area outside of a building to which building occupants are directed to report upon implementation of a partial or full evacuation in accordance with a comprehensive fire safety and emergency action plan or a fire and emergency preparedness plan.

AUTOMATED CONTAINER EXCHANGE SYSTEM. A self-service storage rack system designed to individually house and vent LPG containers, or, when approved by the department, other compressed gas containers, with each container in a separate compartment. Automated container exchange systems are typically associated with a vending system that accepts payment and allows a customer to remove a full container with the option to insert an empty container in its place.

AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. A method of stocking racks and retrieving stored products or pallets of products from racks, whereby the movement of products and pallets of products is controlled by computer or other automated means.

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, any device, equipment or system that initiates emergency system function as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise, or combustion products, without the necessity for human intervention.

AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING FACILITY. Any premises used for the dismantling and/or wrecking of motor vehicles in connection with the sale of auto parts or scrap metal.

AVIATION FACILITY. Any premises upon which an aircraft landing site, airport, heliport, helistop, seaplane base or other aviation-related operation is located or conducted.

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry-accepted materials, typically consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, secured with wire or bands. The term baled cotton includes lint removed from the cottonseed (linters) and residual materials from the ginning process (motes).

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Baled cotton with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3). A bale of densely-packed baled cotton typically measures 55 inches (1397 mm) in length, 21 inches (533 mm) in width, and 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm) in height.

BARREL. See Distillery Equipment.

BARRICADE. A structure or other artificial or natural barrier constructed in connection with the storage, handling and use of explosives that is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and provides a shield from the impact of the explosion. A straight line from the top of any sidewall of a building containing explosives to the eave line of any magazine or other building or to a point 12 feet (3658 mm) above the center of a railway or highway shall pass through such barrier.

Artificial Barricade. An artificial mound or revetment, including a barrier constructed of sandbags, with a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).

Natural barricade. Terrain or other natural features of the ground.

BARRICADED. Protected by a barricade.

BEVERAGE ALCOHOL. For purposes of FC Chapter 40, ethanol produced for human consumption, regardless of the raw material or process used in its production, including any alcohol-water mixture.

Distilled Spirits. A beverage for human consumption that is produced by distillation of alcohol in a still and that is a Class I flammable liquid (typically, at least 16 percent alcohol). For purposes of FC Chapter 40, distilled spirits include all alcohol in a distillery that has been distilled, including process alcohol and finished goods, regardless of whether such distilling is undertaken for the purpose of rectifying, purifying, refining and/or other purpose.

Finished Goods. Distilled spirits bottled or otherwise packaged for retail or wholesale use. Finished goods do not include distilled spirits stored in a barrel for aging.

Process Alcohol. Any beverage alcohol that is a Class I flammable liquid (typically, an alcohol-water mixture with an alcohol content of at least 16 percent), that has been distilled but not yet packaged as finished goods. Process alcohol is typically stored at a distillery in alcohol process tanks and other alcohol processing equipment.

Raw Alcohol. Any beverage alcohol that is a Class I flammable liquid and that is stored, handled or used prior to distilling it at a distillery. Raw alcohol is typically transported in intermediate bulk containers.

BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes.

BINARY EXPLOSIVE. A pre-packaged product consisting of two separate components, that, when combined, constitute an explosive subject to the regulatory requirements of the United States Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555.

BIODIESEL. A diesel motor fuel blend containing motor fuel produced from organic materials, such as vegetable oil and animal fats, that are converted to motor fuel through the process of transesterification.

BLAST AREA. The blast site and surrounding area within the influence of flying rock, missiles and concussion.

BLAST MONITORING CERTIFICATE. A written statement issued by the department to a company authorizing such company to conduct blast monitoring associated with blasting operations.

BLAST MONITORING SPECIALIST. A person holding a certificate of fitness for blast monitoring, who is responsible for monitoring the impacts of blast vibrations and air overpressure generated by blasting operations.

BLAST SITE. The area in which explosives are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) in all directions from the perimeter of such area.

BLASTER. A person holding a certificate of fitness for blasting operations, who is in charge of and responsible for a blasting operation.

BLASTER, APPRENTICE.A person holding a certificate of fitness for blasting apprentice who is qualified to supervise explosives storage and handling and blasting operations, sometimes referred to as a powder carrier, and who assists the blaster in performing such duties.

BLASTING AGENT. A mixture consisting of fuel and an oxidizer that is used for blasting and classified by United States Department of Transportation regulations as Division 1.5, provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined.

BLASTING CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. A written statement issued by the department to a company authorizing such company to conduct blasting operations, and to be responsible for all storage, handling, use and transportation of explosives in connection therewith.

BLASTING CREW. Members of a work force trained and knowledgeable in the safe storage, handling and use of explosives, including apprentice blasters, loaders and the magazine keepers.

BLASTING OPERATION. The use of explosives in conjunction with construction or demolition projects or other lawful purposes approved by the commissioner.

BLASTING SEISMOGRAPH. An instrument that measures and records the intensity, frequency, and duration of blast-induced ground vibration and air overpressure.

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where a boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

BOTTLING. See Distillery Operations.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F (0.5565°C).

BUILDING. An enclosed structure designed or occupied to house any use or occupancy.

BUILDING CODE. The New York City Building Code in effect on and after July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

BUILDING OCCUPANTS. All persons in the building, including employees, building staff and visitors.

BULK NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM. A system comprised of stationary or portable nitrous oxide storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, interconnecting piping and/or other devices or equipment, up to the point where nitrous oxide at service pressure first enters the supply line, that has a storage capacity of more than 28,000 SCF (793 m3) of nitrous oxide in liquid or gaseous state, including unconnected reserves in or at the same building, structure or premises.

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. A system comprised of stationary or portable oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, interconnecting piping and/or other devices or equipment, up to the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line, that has a storage capacity of more than 20,000 SCF (566 m3) of oxygen in liquid or gaseous state, including unconnected reserves in or at the same building, structure or premises.

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. Any premises upon which flammable or combustible liquids are received from marine vessel, watercraft, pipeline, tank car or cargo tank and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by marine vessel, watercraft, pipeline, tank car, cargo tank or container.

BULK TRANSFER. The loading or unloading of flammable or combustible liquids from or between marine vessels, watercraft, pipelines, tank cars, cargo tanks or storage tanks.

BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (fps) (824 mps) when fired from a 30-caliber rifle at a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm), measured perpendicular to the target.

CARGO TANK. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car, marine vessel, or watercraft with a tank mounted thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids, LPG or other hazardous materials, including self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and semi-trailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load.

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.

CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an airborne contaminant to which one may be exposed shall be as established by the regulations of the United States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, or if not listed therein, the ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit Value — Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved standard.

CENTRAL STATION. A facility that receives alarm signals from a protected premises and retransmits or otherwise reports such alarm signals to the department.

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL. A written statement issued by the commissioner, certifying that an article, device or equipment, or type, class or kind thereof, has been examined, tested and approved for a specific purpose or use in conformity with the requirements of the construction codes, this code or the rules.

CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS. A written statement issued by the commissioner certifying that the person to whom it is issued has passed an examination as to his or her qualifications or is otherwise deemed qualified to perform one or more of the following duties, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules: supervise a facility; conduct or supervise an operation; supervise the storage, handling and/or use of a material; or conduct or supervise emergency planning and preparedness activities.

CERTIFICATE OF LICENSE. A written statement issued by the commissioner authorizing the operation of a business to install, alter, test or repair liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment and systems or flammable or combustible liquid storage systems, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules.

CERTIFICATE OF OPERATION. A written statement issued by the commissioner approving the operation of a central station, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules, or the construction codes.

CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION. A written statement issued by the commissioner certifying that the person to whom it is issued has passed an examination as to his or her qualifications to direct, control and supervise the operation of a refrigerating system, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules.

CERTIFIED ATTENDANT. A person holding a certificate of fitness for the supervision of a full-service motor fuel-dispensing facility or self-service motor fuel-dispensing facility.

CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both.

CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name that will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation.

CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING. A detached prefabricated structure designed and installed and listed for indoor storage of hazardous materials, that is constructed with a fire resistance rating of not less than one hour, which vents to the outdoors, and which is equipped with applicable fire protection systems and spill containment.

CITYWIDE STANDARD KEY. A key of special or controlled design, also known as a "2642" key, approved by the commissioner which serves to operate elevator emergency recall and emergency in-service operation service switches and other devices or locks as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, this code or the rules.

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.

CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid or other device capable of preventing the escape of liquid, vapor or dusts in the ordinary course of storage, handling or use.

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of any compressed gas, and the use of a solid or liquid hazardous material in equipment or a vessel or system that remains closed during normal operation, such that vapors emitted during the operation of such equipment, vessel, or system are not liberated outside of the equipment, vessel or system and the gas or hazardous material is not exposed to the atmosphere during such operation. Examples of closed systems include hazardous materials conveyed through a piping system into closed equipment or a closed vessel or system.

CNG. Compressed natural gas.

COKE. A solid carbonaceous material manufactured from the distillation of bituminous coal, petroleum or coal tar, with a thermal heating value of not more than 13,200 British thermal units per hour (3869 W), a volatile composition of not more than 0.5 percent, an NFPA Standard 704 fire hazard rating of not more than 1, and an NFPA Standard 704 reactivity rating of 0.

COKE-FUELED SALAMANDER. A metal vessel, typically cylindrical in shape, used to burn coke in the open air for the purpose of maintaining an open fire for construction-related curing and drying. A coke-fueled salamander does not utilize a combustible liquid or flammable gas and does not generate a flame in a sustained or controlled manner and therefore is not an open flame device or portable space heater as those terms are used in this code.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter, will pass through a U.S. standard No. 40 sieve and, when dispersed in air in sufficient concentrations, can be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, or other natural or synthetic fibers that possess similar qualities, but excluding densely packed baled cotton.

COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTOR. A device designed to sample the atmosphere and detect the presence of ignitable flammable or explosive vapors or gases, expressed as a volume percent in air.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. For purposes of transportation, a combustible liquid, as defined in the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Section 173.120. For all other purposes, a liquid, other than a compressed gas or cryogenic fluid, having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C), classified as follows:

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

Class IIIB. Liquids having closed cup flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).

COMBUSTIBLE WASTE. Any substance, item or other organic or inorganic matter that presents a fire hazard and is a byproduct or residue of the construction, use or occupancy of any premises, or any activity conducted thereon, that has no economic value in connection with such use or occupancy. A combustible waste that has economic value in connection with the use and occupancy of such premises shall be deemed to be a combustible material.

COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances shall include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; steam-jacketed kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers (charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a commercial food service establishment shall include any building or structure used for the preparation and serving of food, other than commercial cooking appliances in carts or other mobile stands operated by street vendors.

COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST SYSTEM SERVICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking equipment exhaust systems, which authorizes such person to inspect and clean commercial cooking equipment exhaust systems, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules.

COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM. A commercial cooking system consists of one or more commercial cooking appliances; one or more Type I hoods and/or downdraft hoods that exhaust the heat, smoke and grease-laden vapors generated by the appliances; and the fire extinguishing system that protects the appliances. Commercial cooking systems include grease removal devices and exhaust ducts (except for ductless hoods) and, when required, emission control devices.

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN. A commercial food service establishment, as defined by Section 81.03(s) of the New York City Health Code, in which one or more commercial cooking appliances has been installed for which the Mechanical Code requires a Type I hood and a fire extinguishing system.

COMMISSIONER. Fire Commissioner of the City of New York or his or her duly authorized representative.

COMMODITY. Items in high-piled combustible storage, including products and product packaging.

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) of pressure; and has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) that is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution at that temperature and pressure, except that gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). Compressed gases shall be classified as follows:

Compressed gases in solution. Nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.

Compressed gas mixtures. A mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a single packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.

Liquefied compressed gases. Gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).

Nonliquefied compressed gases. Gases, other than those in solution, that are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure container designed to hold compressed gases at pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68°F (20°C).

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of components, such as containers, reactors, pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing, designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases.

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS. A simulation and analysis of air flow, including temperature gradients, and for a fire, the products of combustion, over time and distance.

CONIFER. Any tree, plant or shrub containing pitch, including hemlock, balsam, pine and fir.

CONSTRUCTION CODES. The New York City construction codes, consisting of the New York City Building, Fuel Gas, Mechanical and Plumbing Codes, and General Administrative Provisions, in effect on and after July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

CONSTRUCTION SITE. Any location at which a building, structure, premises or facility is undergoing construction, alteration or demolition.

CONTAINER. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in capacity used for storage or transportation. For compressed gases, a cylinder, pressure vessel or tank designed for pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68°F (20°C). Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks associated with solid or liquid hazardous materials or compressed gases, shall not be deemed to be containers if in active use.

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. A gas-tight recovery system comprised of devices or equipment which, when placed over or around the portion of the compressed gas container that is leaking, stops or controls the escape of gas from the container.

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. A gas-tight vessel which, when installed or placed over or around a leaking compressed gas container, confines the container and the gas leaking therefrom.

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building wherein quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, handled or used, including any dispensing.

COOKING OIL. Any plant, animal or synthetic fat used in cooking. Cooking oil is typically liquid at room temperature, although some cooking oils that contain saturated fat are solid. For purposes of this code, cooking oil will be deemed to be a Class IIIB combustible liquid unless otherwise demonstrated by approved documentation.

CORROSIVE MATERIAL. A material that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time when tested by methods set forth in DOTn regulations 49 CFR Sections 173.136 and 173.137, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum based on the criteria set forth in DOTn regulation 49 CFR Section 173.137(c)(2).

COVERED MALL. A Group M building housing separate mercantile tenant spaces and/or other similar occupancies and a common pedestrian area (which may include atrium spaces) that provides access to the main public entrances to such tenant spaces and/or occupancies. A covered mall does not include an exterior perimeter building or tenant space (commonly referred to as an anchor store or anchor building) with direct pedestrian access to the covered mall, provided that such building or tenant space has a lawful means of egress independent of the covered mall.

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. A pressure container, low-pressure container or atmospheric container of any size designed or used for the transportation, handling or storage of a cryogenic fluid, and which utilizes venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combination thereof to maintain the pressure within design parameters for such container and to keep the contents in a liquid state.

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A fluid having a boiling point lower than -130°F (-89.9°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa).

DECORATION. Any item that is used for acoustical, aesthetic or artistic enhancement of an interior space, including artwork, banners, curtains, draperies, decorative greens, fabrics, hangings, and streamers, but not including acoustical materials regulated by the Building Code as an interior finish.

DEDICATED USE BUILDING. A building housing a stationary energy storage system that allows human entry (walk-in) but is not designed or used for human occupancy.

DEFLAGRABLE WOOD DUST. Wood particulate that will propagate a flame front when suspended in air, thus presenting a fire or explosion hazard, or the process-specific oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape; wood particulate with a mass median particle size of 500 micros or smaller (i.e., material that will pass through a U.S. No. 35 Standard Sieve), having a moisture content of less than 25 percent (wet basis).

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

DEPARTMENT. The Fire Department of the City of New York.

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS. New York City Department of Buildings.

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. New York City Department of Environmental Protection.

DESIGN AND INSTALLATION DOCUMENTS. Plans and specifications, or other written, graphic and pictorial documents or submissions, setting forth the location, design, arrangement and physical characteristics of the device, equipment, system, operation or facility for which approval by the commissioner is sought.

DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use.

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage, handling or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from other buildings or structures.

DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field.

DETONATING CORD. A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive designed to initiate other explosives when activated.

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction with explosive effect that utilizes shock compression as the principal heating mechanism and generates a shock wave in the material that establishes and maintains a reaction that progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound.

DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive used for initiating detonation that contains no more than 154.32 grains (10 grams) of total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay charges. The term includes electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires.

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or other container of flammable or combustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes.

DISCHARGE AREA. For purposes of aviation operations, any portion of a premises or other location to which an external load is to be delivered by helicopter.

DISCHARGE SITE. The immediate area surrounding the mortars or other devices discharging fireworks for purposes of an outdoor fireworks display.

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring by other means of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, which would release dusts, fumes, mists, vapors or gases to the atmosphere, unless such release is prevented by a device, equipment or system designed for that purpose.

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device mounted above a dispensing area, typically within a canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.

DISPLAY SITE. The area in which an outdoor fireworks display is conducted, including the discharge site, the fallout area, and the required separation distance from the discharge site to spectator viewing areas, but excluding spectator viewing areas.

DISTILLED SPIRITS. See Beverage Alcohol.

DISTILLED SPIRITS PROCESSING AREA. Any area of a distillery in which distilling, alcohol processing and bottling operations are being conducted.

DISTILLERY. Any building or premises designed or used for the manufacturing of distilled spirits, and related storage, handling and use of alcohol. A distillery is characterized by the installation of a still to produce distilled spirits and the conduct of other distillery operations on its premises. A warehouse or liquid storage warehouse used solely for the storage of distilled spirits is not a distillery, provided that such warehouse operation is not conducted in a building containing a distillery, but in a separate building with no openings into the distillery.

Small Distillery. A small distillery is a distillery with one or more stills with an aggregate capacity of not more than 250 gallons (946 L) and an individual still capacity of not more than 125 gallons (473 L), and a total quantity of raw alcohol and distilled spirits stored on the premises of not more than 1,500 gallons (5678 L). Department approval shall be required for any storage, handling and use of grain on the premises for alcohol production, including the quantity of grain and any milling thereof.

Medium Distillery. A medium distillery is a distillery with one or more stills with an aggregate capacity of not more than 1,500 gallons (5678 L) and an individual still capacity of not more than 750 gallons (2839 L), and a total quantity of raw alcohol and distilled spirits stored on the premises of not more than 6,000 gallons (22 710 L).

Large Distillery. A large distillery is a distillery with one or more stills with an aggregate capacity of not more than 8,000 gallons (30 280 L) and an individual still capacity of not more than 2,000 gallons (7570 L), and a total quantity of raw alcohol and distilled spirits stored on the premises of not more than 20,000 gallons (75 700 L).

DISTILLERY EQUIPMENT. All devices, equipment and systems designed for the manufacturing, storage and handling of raw alcohol or distilled spirits. It does not include such building systems, commercial cooking systems and other kitchen equipment, and other devices, equipment and systems when they are installed or used outside of the distilled spirits processing or storage area.

Alcohol Process Tank. A flammable liquid storage tank designed or used in a distillery for beverage alcohol processing.

Closed Alcohol Process Tank. An alcohol process tank that is designed to receive and transfer its contents through piping or other means in a manner that does not allow the escape of liquid or vapor under normal operating conditions.

Open Alcohol Process Tank. An alcohol process tank that is designed or used to receive and/or transfer its contents in a manner that exposes the alcohol to the atmosphere and/or allows vapors to be released during alcohol processing under normal operating conditions.

Alcohol Storage Equipment. Any tank or portable container used for the storage of raw alcohol or process alcohol, including intermediate bulk containers and barrels, and storage of finished goods.

Alcohol Storage Tank. Except as otherwise provided with respect to intermediate bulk containers, any vessel having a liquid capacity exceeding 60 gallons (227 L) and designed for stationary installation.

Barrel. A portable wood container, also commonly referred to as a cask, that is typically constructed of wooden staves and heads held together by metal hoops. In a distillery, barrels are used to store process alcohol for a period of months or longer. The barrel typically allows alcohol vapors to escape. For purposes of FC Chapter 40, barrel does not include wax-lined and other barrels designed and used for packaging of finished goods rather than for aging of distilled spirits.

Intermediate Bulk Container. A Department of Transportation-approved portable container, constructed of metal and/or plastic, designed for the shipment of alcohol (excluding finished goods), with a maximum capacity of 660 gallons (2498 L). Intermediate bulk containers stored, handled or used in a distillery shall be deemed to be a portable container even if their capacity exceeds 60 gallons (227 L), provided, however, that an intermediate bulk container of any capacity that is part of a stationary installation in a distillery or otherwise fixed in place shall be deemed to be a storage tank.

Still. Any apparatus designed to produce distilled spirits by separating and condensing alcohol vapors from an alcohol-water mixture to produce a higher proof alcohol. Stills typically consist of a distillation pot, one or more columns, and a condenser, but some stills, such as column stills, are designed to operate without a distillation pot. Where reference is made in this code to the capacity of a still (reflecting the size of the distillation pot), such reference shall be deemed to include the equivalent production capacity, as determined by the department, of a column still or other still without a distillation pot.

DISTILLERY OPERATIONS. Distillery operations include any and all operations conducted in a distillery that involve the manufacturing, storage, handling or use of distilled spirits. Distillery operations typically include storage and handling of raw alcohol; distilling; storage and handling of process alcohol; bottling; and storage, handling and (in a distillery serving area) use of finished goods. In distilleries that produce alcohol from grains or other raw materials, distillery operations may also include storage, handling and use of such raw materials and combustible liquids and combustible waste with an alcohol content of less than 16 percent.

Alcohol Processing. The processing of distilled spirits following distillation up to the point of bottling, including blending, gauging, agitating, filtering, flavoring, traditional and alternative aging (including barrel storage), and barrel filling and emptying.

Bottling. Filling and packaging of bottles and other containers with distilled spirits for retail or wholesale use.

Distilling. The production of distilled spirits or other processing of alcohol in a still.

DISTILLERY SERVING AREA. Any area on the premises of a distillery designed or used to accommodate the public, including any tasting area for the on-premises consumption of distilled spirits or other area for serving of food and/or drink and/or conduct of classes, tours and other events.

DISTILLERY WASTE PRODUCTS. Any flammable or combustible liquid, solid or other material that is a by-product or residue of, or otherwise generated in connection with the distillation process or other alcohol processing that will not be used in the finished goods.

DISTILLING. See Distillery Operations.

DOMESTIC COOKING HOOD. A hood serving a domestic cooking appliance as part of a domestic cooking system.

DOMESTIC COOKING SYSTEM. A system typically installed in residential and institutional occupancies that consists of one or more domestic cooking appliances designed and installed in accordance with the construction codes, including related exhaust and fire extinguishing systems.

DOTn. United States Department of Transportation.

DOTy. United States Department of Treasury.

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof.

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt and stains or otherwise cleaning apparel, textiles, rugs and other items with nonaqueous liquid solvents.

DRY CLEANING FACILITY. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms.

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for dry cleaning, the installation, storage and/or use of dry cleaning equipment and/or the storage of dry cleaning solvents.

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Equipment used to perform dry cleaning, including immersion or agitation in solvent of the items to be cleaned, and the extraction of solvent from such items.

DUCTLESS HOOD. A Type I hood that collects the heat, smoke and grease-laden vapors generated by commercial cooking appliances without an exhaust duct system. Also known as a ventless hood or recirculating hood system.

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast-response performance.

ELECTRIC BARBECUE. Any device designed for heating or cooking food on an open grate cooking surface above exposed heating elements. An electric grill that has its heating elements embedded within a solid cooking surface is not an electric barbecue.

ELECTRICAL CODE. The New York City Electrical Code in effect on July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which is electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of an emergency condition involving a release of hazardous materials or other hazardous material incident.

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises of a semiconductor fabrication facility staffed by trained personnel that monitor the operation of equipment and systems including alert and alarm signals.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

EMERGENCY SHELTER. The temporary use and occupancy of a premises, or part thereof, including but not limited to armories, auditoriums, community centers, gymnasiums, houses of worship and schools, that are not designed to be occupied for emergency housing, but are authorized by the Department of Buildings to be operated and/or occupied for such purposes for more than fifteen persons for more than 30 consecutive days.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail-safe self-closing valve designed to shut off the flow of liquids or gases upon activation of the valve's control system by automatic means.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the flow of liquids or gases.

ENCAPSULATION. A method of packaging, for purpose of high-piled combustible storage, as that term is defined in NFPA 13.

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM, STATIONARY. A rechargeable system for the storage of electrochemical energy, designed as a stationary installation (including mobile systems) and consisting of one or more interconnected storage batteries, capacitors, inverters and other electrical equipment. A stationary energy storage system is typically used to provide electrical power and includes associated fire protection, explosion mitigation, ventilation and/or exhaust systems. Stationary energy storage systems include the following types of systems:


ETHANOL. A volatile, flammable (Class I) liquid with the chemical formula C2H5OH or equivalent, also commonly referred to as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol.

EVACUATION. The emptying of a building or part thereof of building occupants in response to a fire or non-fire emergency.

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other approved device, equipment or system designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in a pressurized piping system.

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. A valve inserted into a compressed gas container that is designed to shut off the flow of gas in the event that its predetermined flow is exceeded.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. A device, typically consisting of a hood equipped with a fan that serves to capture and exhaust fumes, mist, vapors and gases generated at a workstation or other local environment. An exhausted enclosure does not include a room provided with general ventilation.

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include vertical exits, exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits, but do not include access stairways, aisles, exit access doors opening to corridors or corridors. This term shall include the locations on a premises at which egress may be had from an enclosed outdoor space.

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building, structure or premises to an exit.

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, whether or not accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, of enclosing materials, including the effects of the following sources of explosion:
  1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).
  2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.
  3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).
EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord and igniters. The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be within the scope of Chapter 40 of Title 18 of the United States Codes, and any material classified as an explosive by the hazardous materials regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Section 173.52, except fireworks. Explosives are classified in accordance with the following United States Department of Transportation classification and other terms in common usage:

United States Department of Transportation Class 1 explosives.

Division 1.1. Explosives that present a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.2. Explosives that present a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.3. Explosives that present a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard, or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.4. Explosives that present a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. Such explosives are not subject to mass explosion when exposed to fire.

Division 1.5. Explosives that present a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

Division 1.6. Explosives consisting of extremely insensitive articles that do not present a mass explosion hazard, and present a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

High Explosive. Explosives, including dynamite, that, when detonated, are characterized by a high rate of reaction, high pressure development, and the presence of a detonation wave, and that can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap, when unconfined.

Low Explosive. Explosives that will burn or deflagrate when ignited, and which are characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound, and low pressure development. Examples of low explosives include black powder, igniter cords, igniters, safety fuses, small arms ammunition and primers, and propellants, 1.3C.

Mass-Detonating Explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives that, whether individually or in combination, or loaded into ammunition or containers, explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent, or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without, with severe explosive effect, including the potential for structural damage to adjacent objects, and explosive propagation to other explosives stored in proximity, such that two or more quantities in proximity must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

EXTERNAL LOAD. Cargo transported by, but not within, the helicopter.

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height.

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility in which processes using hazardous production materials are conducted.

FACILITY. Any premises subject to a design or installation requirement of this code, or at, in or upon which a material regulated by this code is manufactured, stored, handled, used or transported, or an operation regulated by this code is conducted.

FAIL-SAFE. A feature of the design of a device, equipment or system that automatically counteracts the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure, or prevents or mitigates a hazardous condition by automatically compensating for a failure or malfunction of the device, equipment or system.

FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells or other aerial fireworks are fired and intended to combust, deflagrate or detonate, including the area into which debris and unexploded aerial fireworks are expected to fall given the direction and strength of the wind, and he angle or placement of the mortars or other devices discharging fireworks.

FEP. Fire and emergency preparedness.

FEP STAFF. The individuals identified in a fire and emergency preparedness plan as responsible for the implementation of such plan, including but not limited to FEP coordinators.

FINISHED GOODS. See Beverage Alcohol.

FINISHED PYROXYLIN PLASTIC PRODUCTS. Any product to which a pyroxylin plastic has been applied that does not require further manufacturing with respect to the application of such pyroxylin plastic or any further application of pyroxylin plastic.

FIRE. A rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases heat and light, especially the burning of a combustible substance in the presence of oxygen. For purposes of this code, a flame used in any lawful, properly operating device, equipment or system or other controlled setting shall not be considered a fire.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. Any system, including any interconnected fire alarm sub-system, of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices.

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that serves to provide access for fire apparatus from a public street to the frontage space of one or more buildings not directly fronting on a public street. A fire apparatus access road includes any road that serves such purpose whether denominated as a driveway, parking lot lane or private road.

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls and/or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled.

FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD KEY. A key of special or controlled design, also known as a "1620" key, for the use of department personnel and others specifically authorized by the commissioner, which serves to operate all switches, locks and other devices required to be operable by a citywide standard key.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware, and other components that together, as an opening protective, provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.

FIRE DRILL. A training exercise by which building occupants are familiarized with and/or practice the procedures for the safe, orderly and expeditious sheltering in place, in-building relocation, partial or full evacuation, or any combination thereof, in the event of a fire, in accordance with the emergency preparedness plan for the premises.

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment that discharges an approved fire extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. The term includes (water-based) sprinkler systems and (water and non-water-based) alternative fire extinguishing systems, as those terms are used in the Building Code. An automatic fire extinguishing system incorporates a device that detects a fire and activates the system. A manual fire extinguishing system does not detect a fire and requires manual activation to discharge the fire extinguishing agent.

FIRE GUARD. A person holding a certificate of fitness for such purpose, who is trained in and responsible for maintaining a fire watch.

FIRE LANE. A public or private road, roadway lane, parking lot lane or other surface designed to allow vehicular access, that has been specifically designated by means of signs or roadway markings as a priority thoroughfare for fire apparatus.

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire.

FIRE POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof, including fire extinguishing systems, fire alarm systems and standpipe systems.

FIRE PUMP. A pump used exclusively for fire protection, also commonly referred to as automatic standpipe pump, foam pump, limited service pump, special service pump, sprinkler booster pump or water mist system pump. A pump used solely for filling a tank is not a fire pump.

FIRE-RETARDANT COATING. An approved coating that, when applied to the surface of scenery in an approved manner, imparts flame resistance and reduces flame spread.

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, including detecting early signs of fire, raising an alarm of fire, notifying the department, and performing such other fire safety duties as may be prescribed by the commissioner.

FIREWORKS. An article or device that does not present a mass explosion hazard, that is manufactured or used to produce a visible or an audible effect for entertainment or other display purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation, and that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein.

Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices classified as UN0335 by the United States Department of Transportation regulations, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation, including firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic material, and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks.

Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices, classified as UN 0336 by United States Department of Transportation regulations, containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic materials designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion.

FIREWORKS CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. A written statement issued by the commissioner to a company authorizing such company to conduct a fireworks display and to be responsible for all storage, handling, use and transportation of fireworks in connection therewith.

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. The discharge of fireworks for an outdoors public display.

FLAME-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Material that meets the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, either because it is inherently flame-resistant or because it has been subjected to a flame-retardant treatment.

FLAME-RETARDANT TREATMENT. An approved chemical that, when applied to a material in an approved manner, imparts flame resistance to a material.

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE SYSTEM. A flammable or combustible liquid storage tank and all devices, equipment and systems associated with such tank, including the tank, piping, valves, fill connection, vent lines, pumps and any other ancillary equipment, except liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing systems and flammable and combustible liquid storage systems at a bulk plant or terminal used for bulk transfer operations.

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. A cryogenic fluid that is flammable in its vapor state.

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel coating.

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material which has a boiling point and becomes a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure which:
  1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air, in accordance with testing procedures set forth in ASTM E 681; or
  2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower explosive limit, in accordance with testing procedures set forth in ASTM E 681.
FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is a flammable gas.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. For purposes of transportation, a flammable liquid defined in the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Section 173.120. For all other purposes, a liquid, other than a compressed gas or cryogenic fluid, having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C), classified as follows:

Class I. A flammable liquid or liquids with the properties of a Class IA, IB and/or Class IC liquid.

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline or other flammable liquids used as fuel in the operation of motor vehicles, motorcycles, watercraft and aircraft.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or other explosive, whether in elemental or alloy form, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or heat retained from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid if upon testing using the method prescribed in CPSC regulations, as set forth in 16 CFR Section 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis.

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. The interior of any room, booth or area, including spray rooms, spray booths, exhaust ducts and drying rooms, or other areas in which, as a result of flammable finishing operations, the concentration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

FLEET FUELING. The transferring of Class II and III liquids directly from a cargo tank through approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at approved off-street locations where fleet vehicles are parked.

FLEET MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed into the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, motorcycle, marine vessel or watercraft owned or operated by or on behalf of the owner of the facility, and where such dispensing operations are conducted by persons employed by or on behalf of the owner of the facility. There are four approved types of fleet motor fuel-dispensing facilities:

Fleet automotive hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles)
Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles and motorcycles)
Fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles, marine vessels and watercraft)
Fleet marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility (marine vessel and watercraft)


FLOAT. A floating dock or structure to which marine vessels or watercraft may be moored and which is typically used as means by which passengers and freight may be transferred from ship to shore.

FLOOR FINISHING OPERATION. Any activity involving the surfacing or finishing of a floor, including but not limited to cleaning, stripping, sealing, painting, varnishing, lacquering, staining and waxing.

FLS. Fire and life safety.

FLS STAFF. The individuals required to implement a comprehensive fire safety and emergency action plan, as identified in such plan, including but not limited to the FLS director, deputy FLS director, members of the FLS brigade or other FLS staff, and any staff designated as critical operations staff.

FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.

FLUE SPACE, LONGITUDINAL. In high-piled combustible storage, the vertical space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading.

FLUE SPACE, TRANSVERSE. In high-piled combustible storage, the horizontal space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading.

FREQUENCY. The number of ground vibration or air overpressure waves generated by blasting operations that pass a fixed point in a given amount of time, usually measured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second.

FRONTAGE SPACE. A street or an open space in front of and adjoining the main front entrance to the building and not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in any dimension that is accessible from a public street or fire apparatus access road, provides access to the building, and serves as a staging area for firefighting and other emergency operations. It shall be designed and constructed to allow operation of department apparatus on the front side of the building and shall be maintained free of obstructions that may interfere with its use by the department.

FUEL GAS CODE. The New York City Fuel Gas Code in effect on July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

FULL-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein motor fuel is dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles, motorcycles, marine vessels or watercraft by a certified attendant or, when under the personal supervision of a certified attendant, by persons employed by or on behalf of the owner of the facility. There are four approved types of full-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities:

Full-service automotive hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles)
Full-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles and motorcycles)
Full-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles, marine vessels and watercraft)
Full-service marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility (marine vessel and watercraft)

FUME CLASS 1. A classification established by the Institute of Makers of Explosives. Explosives meeting the requirements of this classification will provide less than 0.16 cubic feet (0.00453 m3) of poisonous gases upon detonation of 0.44 pounds (200 grams) of explosive.

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, rats or other vermin or fungi, germs or similar conditions, as distinguished from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride.

FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic to humans.

FUMIGATION AND INSECTICIDAL FOGGING OPERATION COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of fumigation and insecticidal fogging operations, which authorizes an owner or principal of such business to conduct such fumigation and insecticidal fogging operations, for which such certificate is required by this code or the rules.

FURNACE. A compartment, receptacle, enclosed chamber or structure that is capable of being heated to a high temperature in order to heat the contents thereof. Furnaces may be heated by internal or external sources, including gas burners, oil burners, electrical elements, infrared lamps, induction heaters and steam radiation systems, regardless of whether denominated as an oven or furnace. Furnaces shall be classified as follows:

Class A. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at or near atmospheric pressure and that presents a potential explosion or fire hazard if flammable volatiles or combustible materials are processed or heated in the furnace. Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials include those originating from paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and impregnated materials; the substrate material; wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging materials; or polymerization or other molecular rearrangements.

Class B. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combustible materials being heated.

Class C. A furnace with any type of heating system and a special atmosphere supply system that is potentially hazardous due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being used for treatment of material in process, including integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces.

Class D. A furnace with any type of heating system that operates at temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) and at pressures normally below atmospheric, including special processing atmosphere furnaces.

FURNISHING. Furniture or items other than structural elements, building service equipment or interior finishes that are installed or placed in a building for the human comfort or other use of the occupants.

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas containers in storage or use, including any doors and access ports for exchanging containers and accessing pressure-regulating controls.

GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

GASEOUS HYDROGEN. A nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture that is not less than 95 percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1 percent oxygen by volume.

GENERAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided in this code, supervision by the holder of any department certificate who is responsible for performing the duties set forth in FC113.2 but need not be personally present on the premises at all times.

GEOPHONE. A device that measures particle velocity. The ground vibration measurements detected by a geophone are recorded by a blasting seismograph.

GLOBAL STRAIN METHOD. A calculation of the structure differential motion, resulting from blast-induced ground vibration and/or air overpressure, encompassing the whole of the structure. Global strain is used to estimate potential crack damage over the entire height of a building or structure. The global strain is computed using measurements at upper and lower building corners.

Global Shear Wall Strain. Computation of the peak lateral time-correlated differential displacement between the upper and lower structure. Global strain is calculated using measurements on a vertical at the corner closest to the blast, divided by the height of the building. Global shear wall strain must be ascertained to compute global tensile wall strain.

Global Tensile Wall Strain. Computation of the peak change in building diagonal length over the original length as measured from time-correlated horizontal motions, reported in micro-strains (10-6 inch/inch).

Strain. A change in length or deformation of a material or structure component as the result of an applied load, numerically equal to the change in length divided by the original length, reported in 10-6 inch/inch or micro-strains.

GROUND VIBRATION. Energy traveling through the earth as a result of blasting operations; measured and reported in Hertz (Hz).

HANDLING. The movement of a material in its container, the removal of the material from its container, or any other action or process that may affect the material, other than its storage or use.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classified in this code, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as defined in NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have, as their end product, materials that are not hazardous.

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive.

HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATION. The movement of an external load with the use of a helicopter.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are designed or used for heliport facilities and operations.

HELISTOP. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the landing or takeoff of helicopters, but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters, including any staging or other appurtenant areas.

HI-BOY. A cart used to move hot roofing materials on a roof.

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. High-piled combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building, structure or premises that is designed or used for high-piled combustible storage.

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. Any building designed or constructed in accordance with the Building Code that has one or more occupied floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle apparatus access, and, with respect to any building lawfully existing on July 1, 2008, any building designed or constructed in accordance with the 1968 Building Code, any prior Building Code, or other applicable laws, rules and regulations, that is more than six stories or 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height.

HIGH-RISE FLOOR. Any occupied floor in a high-rise building that is at or above the height that causes such building to be classified as a high-rise building.

HIGH-RISE MEGASTRUCTURE. Any building or structure that has an occupied floor 800 feet (243 840 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts.

HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIAL. A chemical that is lethal at the following doses or concentration:
  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each; or
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each; or
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
HIGHWAY. A public street.

HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system.

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.

HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATION. The filling of balloons with hot air for purposes of display or flight.

HOT TAPPING. Hot work conducted on a tank or piping while the tank or piping is in service and contains a flammable or combustible liquid.

HOT WORK. Cutting, welding, thermit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, thawing pipe, cadwelding, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any other similar operation or activity.

HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of hot work.

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cutting equipment used for hot work.

HOT WORK PROGRAM. A program, implemented by a responsible person designated by the owner of a building or structure in or on which hot work is being performed, to oversee and issue authorizations for such hot work for the purpose of preventing fire and fire spread.

HOT WORK PROGRAM AUTHORIZATIONS. Authorizations issued by the responsible person under a hot work program allowing welding or other hot work to be performed at the premises.

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, an HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.

HPM ROOM. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, a room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

HYDRANT-FUELING VEHICLE. A type of aircraft fueling vehicle that is equipped to transfer fuel between a fuel hydrant and an aircraft.

HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room designed for the generation of gaseous hydrogen for immediate on-premises use in fuel cells or other energy production process, and incidental storage of gaseous hydrogen. A hydrogen fuel gas room does not include a room designed or operated for production or dispensing of hydrogen motor fuel.

HYPERBARIC FACILITY. A building, structure, or space used to house a hyperbaric chamber and associated service equipment for medical applications and procedures at pressures above normal atmospheric pressure.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment, as established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the commissioner shall make such determination.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for ensuring that proper safety precautions are taken when a fire protection system is out of service.

IN-BUILDING RELOCATION. The controlled movement of building occupants from an endangered area of a building to an in-building relocation area within the same building in response to a fire or non-fire emergency.

IN-BUILDING RELOCATION AREA. A designated area in a building to which building occupants may be relocated in accordance with the emergency preparedness plan for the premises.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, if mixed or combined, could explode, generate heat, gases or other byproducts, or react in a way hazardous to life or property.

INERT GAS. Argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, xenon or other gas that does not react with other materials under atmospheric pressures and other conditions ordinarily encountered in common use.

INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for human beings, or any house of worship, school building, railroad station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble.

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal liquids passed through fog-generating units where, by pressure and turbulence, and with or without addition of heat, such liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or mist blown into an area to be treated.

INTENSITY. As pertaining to ground vibration, the speed of particle movement (particle velocity), measured in inches per second.

INTERIOR FINISH. Construction materials that form the exposed interior surfaces of a building and that are part of or affixed to walls, fixed or folding partitions, ceilings, and other construction elements.

INTERMEDIATE BULK CONTAINER. See Alcohol Storage Equipment.

IRRITANT. A material which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A material shall be classified a skin irritant if, when tested in accordance with the regulations of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR Section 1500.41, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A material shall be classified as an eye irritant in accordance with the regulations of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR Section 1500.42.

JOB SITE. The construction site at which blasting operations are being conducted, including the blast site and blast area.

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a citywide standard key or other approved key.

KILOWATT HOURS (kWh). A measurement of electrical energy.

LABELED. A material, device, equipment or system to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory or other approved organization, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards and designates suitable usage.

LABORATORY CHEMICAL. A material with a health, flammability and/or instability hazard ranking of 2, 3 or 4 as defined in NFPA 704.

LABORATORY UNIT. An enclosed space of a minimum one-hour fire-rated construction, designed or used as a non-production laboratory. Laboratory units may include one or more separate laboratory work areas, and accessory storage rooms or spaces within or contiguous with the laboratory unit, such as offices and lavatories.

LARGE-AREA BUILDING. A building that is not a high-rise building, but is either a Group B office building within the meaning of Section 907.2.2.2 of the Building Code that has a total gross area of more than 100,000 square feet (9290 m2) or a building of an occupancy type other than Group R-2 or Group R-3 that has a total gross area of more than 100,000 square feet (9290 m2).

LIMITED-SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which spraying operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet (0.84m2) or less per workpiece are conducted.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG). A material which is composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane) and butylenes. Methylacetylene-propadiene mixtures (MAPP-gas) shall be deemed to be an LPG.

LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 psia (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline, diesel fuel or other flammable or combustible liquids used as fuel in the operation of motor vehicles, motorcycles, marine vessels and watercraft.

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL STORAGE AND DISPENSING SYSTEM. A liquid motor fuel storage tank and all motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment associated with such tank, including the tank, piping, valves, fill connection catchment basins, vent lines, pumps, dispensing devices and any other ancillary equipment.

LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. A liquid oxygen container with a capacity not exceeding 0.396 gallons (1.5 liters) that constitutes a medical device, as that term is defined in Chapter 9 of Title 21 of the United States Code Section 321, that is designed to be filled from a liquid oxygen home care container, and that is designed for portable use to supply oxygen for medical purposes, and that is used for such purpose.

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. A liquid oxygen container with a capacity not exceeding 15.8 gallons (60 liters) that constitutes a medical device, as that term is defined in Chapter 9 of Title 21 of the United States Code Section 321, and that is designed and used for medical purposes in a residential or resident health care setting in a Group I-1, I-4 or R occupancy.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in an unopened condition.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. A building classified as a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in barrels and closed containers.

LIQUID-TIGHT CONSTRUCTION. Construction designed to prevent a liquid manufactured, stored, handled or used in a room or other area from escaping from such room or other area by means of penetration through a surface.

LISTED. A material, device, equipment or system included on a list published by a nationally recognized testing laboratory or other approved organization performing product evaluations that maintains periodic inspection of production of such listed material, device, equipment or system, and whose listing indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards and designates suitable usage.

LOADER. A person holding a certificate of fitness for explosives handling, who handles explosives and performs explosives loading operations.

LOW-PRESSURE CONTAINER. A storage container designed to withstand an internal pressure greater than 1/2 pound per square inch gauge (psig) (3.4 kPag) but not greater than 15 psig (103.4 kPag).

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See "Lower flammable limit."

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit.

MAGAZINE. A building, structure or container approved for storage of explosives.

Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 magazines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant.

Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or other permanent structure constructed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124, or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, that is bullet-resistant, fire-resistant, theft-resistant, weather-resistant and ventilated.

Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, skid-magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, that is fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated, and if used outdoors, bullet resistant.

Type 3. A portable structure for the temporary storage of explosives, such as a "day box," constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124, or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, that is fire-resistant, theft-resistant and weather-resistant.

Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, box, semitrailer or other mobile container constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124, or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, that is fire-resistant, theft-resistant and weather-resistant.

Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile container constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124, or the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the United States Department of Justice, as set forth in 27 CFR Part 555, that is theft resistant.

MAGAZINE KEEPER. A person holding a certificate of fitness for explosives storage who is in charge of and responsible for the storage and handling of explosives in an explosives magazine.

MAIN ENTRANCE. For purposes of FC505, the main entrance to a dwelling unit is the primary means of entry to, and egress from, the dwelling unit. Such main entrance typically opens into an area that affords unimpeded access to the rooms and corridors of the dwelling unit.

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. For purposes of high-piled combustible storage, stocking methods utilizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move stock.

MARINA. A facility on, in or around a body of water, protected by natural or manmade features, that is used or designed to be used for the mooring, servicing or storage of marine vessels or watercraft, or the provision of services to the passengers and crews of such vessels or watercraft. A marina typically is comprised of one or more docks, piers, wharfs, and storage and fueling facilities for watercraft.

MASTER FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING CONTRACTOR. A licensed master fire suppression piping contractor, as that term is defined by the Building Code.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within an indoor or an outdoor control area.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE (MAWP). The maximum pressure permissible at the top of a container in its operating position for a designated temperature, as established by the container manufacturer.

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building, structure or premises to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

MECHANICAL CODE. The New York City Mechanical Code in effect on July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. For purposes of high-piled combustible storage, stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move stock.

MEGAWATT HOURS (MWh). A measurement of electrical energy.

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-supported, cable or frame-covered structure or tent, as defined in Chapter 31 of the Building Code.

METAL HYDRIDE. A chemical compound composed of one or more hydrogen-absorbing metallic elements, and hydrogen.

METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM. A closed system designed to store and release hydrogen through the use of a metal hydride.

MICROPHONE. A sensor used to measure air overpressure. The air overpressure measurements detected by a microphone are recorded by a blasting seismograph.

MICROTURBINE. A turbine-driven electrical generator with an electric generating capacity of not more than 500 kW, fueled by piped natural gas that is compressed by ancillary compressing equipment to a pressure exceeding 6 psig (41.4 kPa).

MINIMUM SECURED RADIUS. A minimum separation distance based on the size of the largest fireworks shell to be used in the display.

MIXED-OCCUPANCY BUILDING. A building or structure housing more than one occupancy or type of occupancy required by FC Chapter 4 to prepare an emergency preparedness plan.

MORTAR. A tube or similar device in which fireworks, shells or other aerial fireworks are directed and discharged into the air.

MOTOR VEHICLE. A vehicle or other conveyance having more than two running wheels and using liquid motor fuel or flammable gas as fuel for generating motive power, except such vehicles as have a storage tank with a maximum capacity for less than 2 gallons (7.6 L) of liquid motor fuel or flammable gas that generates energy that is equivalent to the energy generated by 2 gallons (7.6 L) of gasoline.

MUCKING. The removal, usually by heavy machinery, of debris or other broken material resulting from a blast.

MULTI-FLOOR DWELLING UNIT. For purposes of FC505, a dwelling unit or other residential occupancy with living space on a floor other than the floor upon which the entrance door to such room, unit or occupancy is located, or which is accessed by means of an interior stair or passageway from an entrance door on another floor.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.

NATURAL DECORATIVE GREEN. A bough of a natural tree or part thereof, and any natural vegetation that has been cut, including preserved vegetation.

NATURAL GAS. A mixture of hydrocarbon gases and vapors, consisting principally of methane in gaseous form.

NATURAL TREE. Any live tree, plant or shrub, including conifer, that is rooted in soil.

NATURAL VEGETATION. Live plants used as a decorative or other element in the design of any room or other area of a building, including common areas. Natural vegetation includes living walls and other vertical gardens, and vegetation in room dividers and other large planters.

NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed gas containers upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three-point contact system whereby all containers within a group have a minimum of three points of contact with other containers, walls or bracing.

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of an explosive expressed in pounds, representing the aggregate amount of explosives contained within a building or structure, including a magazine, used to establish quantity-distance relationships.

NON-FIRE EMERGENCY. An active shooter or other law enforcement emergency; biological, chemical or radiological release; building or other structural collapse; earthquake; explosion; heat wave, hurricane, storm surge, tornado or other weather emergency; medical emergency; natural gas leak; nuclear incident; tidal wave; a declaration of emergency by a lawful authority; or other emergency, other than fire, affecting the premises or the safety of building occupants; or the threat thereof.

NON-FIRE EMERGENCY DRILL. A training exercise by which building occupants are familiarized with and/or practice the procedures for safe, orderly and expeditious sheltering in place, in-building relocation, partial or full evacuation, or combination thereof, in the event of a non-fire emergency, in accordance with the emergency preparedness plan for the premises.

NON-PRODUCTION LABORATORY. A building or portion thereof wherein chemicals or gases are stored, handled or used on a non-production basis for testing, research, experimental, instructional or educational purposes.

NON-PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. Any material, article or device of a flammable, combustible or otherwise dangerous nature, other than a pyrotechnic material, article, or device, used to create a special effect, including demonstration laser products and chemicals and equipment used to generate fog or haze.

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere (14.7 psia (101 kPa)).

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building or space is used or designed to be used. References to occupancy classification shall be deemed to include the equivalent occupancy classifications under the 1968 Building Code and all prior Building Codes or other applicable laws, rules and regulations. The occupancy classifications used in this code are defined as follows:

Group A. An assembly occupancy, including Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5, as defined in Section 303 of the Building Code.

Group B. A business occupancy, as defined in Section 304 of the Building Code.

Group E. An educational occupancy, as defined in Section 305 of the Building Code.

Group F. A factory and industrial occupancy, including Groups F-1 and F-2, as defined in Section 306 of the Building Code.

Group H. A high-hazard occupancy, including H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5, as defined in Section 307 of the Building Code.

Group I. An institutional occupancy, including Groups I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4, as defined in Section 308 of the Building Code.

Group M. A mercantile occupancy, as defined in Section 309 of the Building Code.

Group R. A residential occupancy, including Groups R-1, R-2 and R-3, as defined in Section 310 of the Building Code.

Group S. A storage occupancy, including Groups S-1 and S-2, as defined in Section 311 of the Building Code.

Group U. A utility and miscellaneous occupancy, as defined in Section 312 of the Building Code.

OFFICE BUILDING. A Group B occupancy designed and arranged to provide offices and other areas for the conduct of business ordinarily conducted in offices.

OPEN FIRES. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open.

OPEN FLAME. A flame that is generated by any material or device in a sustained and controlled manner and that is not securely enclosed by noncombustible material, such as a candle that is unenclosed or enclosed in a globe or lantern, or a gas light lantern, for decorative and lighting purposes; flaming foods and beverages, and food warming. An open flame does not include a flame generated in a sustained and controlled manner in the following devices, equipment and systems:
  1. Any fireplace, furnace, grill, hot water heater, oven, stove or other similar stationary appliance and any outdoor stationary decorative gas appliance, which shall comply with the construction codes and applicable provisions of this code.
  2. Lighted smoking paraphernalia, which shall comply with FC310.
  3. Portable fueled devices, including any torch, which shall comply with FC313.
OPEN-FLAME DEVICE. A device utilizing an open flame.

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material in equipment or a vessel, or system that remains open during normal operation, such that vapors are emitted during the operation of such equipment, vessel or system and the material is exposed to the atmosphere during such operation. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a device, equipment or system operates.

ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as alkyd, acrylic or oil, and flammable and combustible liquids, such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decorative finish.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound having a double oxygen or peroxy (-O-O-) in its chemical structure. Organic peroxides can present an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration), can be shock sensitive, can be susceptible to decomposition into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time and are classified as follows based upon their hazardous properties:

Class I. Organic peroxides that are capable of deflagration but not detonation.

Class II. Organic peroxides that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class III. Organic peroxides that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class IV. Organic peroxides that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.

Class V. Organic peroxides that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation and pose an extremely high-explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition.

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that contains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities of FC Table 5003.1.1(3) or 5003.1.1(4).

OUT-OF-SERVICE SYSTEM. A fire protection system that is not fully functional; or whose operation is impaired or is otherwise not in good working order.

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when: (1) the number of occupants present in any premises or part thereof exceeds (a) the maximum number of occupants specified for such premises or part thereof by the certificate of occupancy or other authorization issued by the Department of Buildings; or (b) in the absence of such certificate or authorization, the maximum number of occupants established by using the applicable occupant-area allowances set forth in Section 1004.1 of the Building Code; or (c) with respect to a rooftop place of assembly or place of public gathering, the number of occupants present in any such place exceeds one person per 10 square feet (0.929 m2) of the rooftop area to be used for such purpose; or (2) the commissioner determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants of any premises or part thereof by reason of the number of persons on the premises and/or the presence of persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede access to means of egress, including obstructing or impeding access to aisles, passages, corridors, stairways or exits.

OWNER. The owner of the freehold of any real property (as defined in section two of the Real Property Law), or of a lesser estate therein, a mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of rents, receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, agent, or any other person, firm or corporation, directly or indirectly in control of real property. Any reference in this code to the owner of any building, structure or premises shall be deemed to designate collectively any and all of the foregoing, including, but not limited to, the owner of the freehold or lesser estate therein and a managing agent designated by such owner pursuant to Section 27-2098 of the New York City Administrative Code.

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition, classified as follows:

Class 1. An oxidizer that causes a readily measurable increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact, but less than a moderate increase.

Class 2. An oxidizer that causes a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. An oxidizing gas in the cryogenic state.

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials more than air does.

OZONE GAS GENERATOR. Equipment which produces ozone.

PASS-THROUGH. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, an enclosure installed in a wall with a door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other.

PEAK PARTICLE VELOCITY (PPV). The highest amplitude of ground motion among three mutually orthogonal components, measured by a triaxial geophone and reported in inches per second (in/s).

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum allowed 8-hour time-weighted-average concentration of an air-borne contaminant as established by the regulations of the United States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved standard.

PERMIT. A written statement issued by the commissioner authorizing the manufacture, storage, handling, use or transportation of a hazardous material, or other material, or to conduct an operation or to maintain a facility, for which a permit is required by this code.

PERSONAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided in this code, supervision by the holder of any department certificate who is required to be personally present on the premises, or other proximate location acceptable to the department, while performing the duties for which the certificate is required.

PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, but excluding any product defined as a drug in the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, intended for the purpose of preventing, repelling or killing pests or pest infestations, or for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant.

PIER. A structure built over the water, typically supported by piles.

PIPED NATURAL GAS. Natural gas supplied by means of piping connected to a distribution system operated by a public utility.

PLACE OF ASSEMBLY. A building or other premises, or portion thereof, used for gatherings, as regulated by the Building Code.

PLUMBER. A licensed master plumber, as that term is defined by the Building Code, or a person working under the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber, as authorized by said code.

PLUMBING CODE. The New York City Plumbing Code in effect on July 1, 2008, and as amended thereafter.

PORTABLE COOKING EQUIPMENT. Commercial cooking equipment, provided with or installed with wheels.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SALES COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of selling portable fire extinguishers door to door to owners of buildings or business for use on their premises, which authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise such sales.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SERVICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of servicing portable fire extinguishers, which authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise the provision of such servicing by certificate of fitness holders.

PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT. Any portable device, equipment or system, whether or not flue-connected, that utilizes a flammable or combustible liquid or flammable gas as a fuel, including any portable device, equipment or system that generates a flame in a sustained or controlled manner that is not an open-flame device.

PORTABLE SPACE HEATER. Any portable equipment designed or used for space heating that utilizes a combustible liquid or flammable gas as a fuel, whether or not flue-connected.

POWERED INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT. Equipment used in commercial and industrial applications, including floor scrubbers and floor buffers, powered by a lead-acid battery system or other storage battery.

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by a lead-acid battery system or other storage battery, a metal hydride hydrogen storage system or an internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or motor vehicles for highway use.

POWERED MOBILITY DEVICES. Motorized bicycles, motorized scooters and other personal mobility devices powered by a lithium-ion or other storage battery. The term does not include motor vehicles or motorcycles or other mobility devices that must be registered with the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles.

PREMISES. Any real property, including buildings and structures thereon, or any part thereof.

PRESIGNAL SYSTEM. A fire alarm system having a feature that allows initial fire alarm signals to sound in a constantly attended central location and for which a human action is subsequently required to achieve a general alarm, or a feature that allows the control equipment to delay the general alarm by more than one minute after the start of the alarm processing.

PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at pressures above 15 psig (103 kPa).

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being contained.

PRIMER. A unit, package or cartridge of explosives, including a detonator or detonator/detonating cord combination, that is used to initiate a main charge of explosives or blasting agents.

PRIVATE ROAD. A private driveway, lane or street, or other means of vehicular access to one or more buildings, structures or premises not directly fronting on a public street. A private road does not include a public street.

PROCESS TRANSFER. The transfer of flammable or combustible liquids between cargo tanks or tank cars and containers, tanks piping and other equipment that is to be used in process operations.

PROCESSING VESSEL. A tank or other container used in manufacturing or other process operation that involves the use of a flammable or combustible liquid supplied from other than a cargo tank, tank car or pipeline.

PRODUCTION LOCATION. Any location approved for the purpose of motion picture, television or commercial production by the Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment pursuant to its rules. Such approvals are commonly referred to as filming permits.

PROOF OF COMPLIANCE. Department-issued decals, tags or other forms of documentation, individually marked and/or numbered to identify the company and person who performed certain fire safety inspections, testing, cleaning servicing and/or other required or regulated activities.

PROPELLANT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an aerosol container that expels the contents from an aerosol container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is considered flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if a flame is self-propagating in a mixture with air.

PROTECTED EXPOSURE. Any premises, building, structure, facility, installation, street, railway, natural feature or other thing or place determined by the department to require protection from a fireworks display by reason of its proximity to the discharge site and the fallout area and the risk of resulting harm from aerial or other fireworks.

PROTECTED PREMISES. A building, occupancy or structure located in the city that is equipped with a fire alarm system that transmits an alarm signal to the department or a central station that monitors such system for the purposes of reporting fire alarms to the department, whether or not the installation of such system on the premises is required by law.

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123.

PYROTECHNIC. A controlled exothermic chemical reaction timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least volume of pyrotechnic composition.

PUBLIC STREET. All streets, including marginal streets, record streets and restricted use streets, established on the city map maintained pursuant to Section 198 of the New York City Charter or dedicated for general public use and accepted for such purposes by the City of New York, constructed and open for passage.

PYROPHORIC MATERIAL. A material with an autoignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C).

PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE OR DEVICE. Any article or device containing a pyrotechnic material or pyrotechnic effect simulation equipment.

PYROTECHNIC EFFECT SIMULATION. The use of a chemical mixture that is not a pyrotechnic material to initiate or maintain combustion, deflagration or detonation to produce a visible or audible effect, in a manner that simulates a pyrotechnic effect.

PYROTECHNIC EFFECT SIMULATION EQUIPMENT. Any device, equipment or system that simulates a pyrotechnic effect, including spark-generating equipment.

PYROTECHNIC MATERIAL. A chemical mixture consisting predominantly of solids that, upon ignition, are capable of producing a controlled, self-sustaining, and self-contained exothermic reaction, that functions without external oxygen, resulting in a visible or audible effect by combustion, deflagration, or detonation.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. A special effect created through the use of a pyrotechnic material, article, or device.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECTS CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. A written statement issued by the department to a company authorizing such company to conduct a pyrotechnic display and to be responsible for all storage, handling, use and transportation of pyrotechnic materials in connection therewith.

PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. Any plastic substance, material or compound, other than cellulose nitrate film, that has soluble cotton or similar cellulose nitrate as a base, by whatever name known, in the form of blocks, sheets, tubes or other fabricated shapes, including raw pyroxylin plastics and finished pyroxylin plastic products.

RACK STORAGE. For purposes of high-piled combustible storage, any storage system, except shelf storage.

RAILWAY. A subway, railroad, railway or other similar means of transportation.

RAW PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. Any pyroxylin plastic in the form of blocks, slabs, rods tubes or other shapes, that is to be used in a manufacturing process.

READY BOX. A container with a self-closing cover that is of a material and construction sufficient to protect fireworks from burning debris and from precipitation or other weather conditions. A tarpaulin structure shall not be deemed sufficient for use as a ready box.

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. A valve equipped with a restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas container that is designed to reduce the maximum flow from the valve under full-flow conditions. The maximum flow rate from the valve is determined with the valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no other piping or fittings attached.

REFINERY. A plant in which flammable or combustible liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources.

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change of state.

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting then expelling heat.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect registered to practice the profession of architecture, or an engineer licensed to practice the profession of engineering, as set forth in the laws, rules and regulations of the State of New York.

REGULAR BUSINESS HOURS. Times of day and days of the week during which a building or occupancy is normally occupied and business is conducted, and any time when a building or occupancy required to have a comprehensive fire and emergency action plan is occupied by more than five hundred persons, or more than one hundred persons above or below the street level. The number of persons employed in a building or occupancy during regular business hours shall be computed based on the work shift or other regular work schedule during which the largest number of employees or other persons working at the premises are present at the premises.

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square inches (10 322 mm2), which allows pump-cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area.

REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles or motorcycles, including motor vehicles and motorcycles powered by liquid motor fuel, storage batteries and/or lighter-than-air gaseous motor fuel.

RESIDENTIAL FIRE PIT. A freestanding vessel in which an open fire, fueled by wood or LPG, that is kindled and maintained outdoors on residential premises for private, non-commercial purposes.

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or spray-fabrication methods.

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the fire safety hazards associated with hot work and in the necessary and appropriate measures to minimize those hazards, who is designated by the owner of a premises to authorize the performance of hot work at the premises.

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occupancy open for the purpose of viewing or purchasing merchandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments are free to circulate among the items offered for sale which are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the floor.

ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid.

RUBBISH. Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including dust, dirt, ashes, rags, paper, cartons, cans, plastic and glass containers, and discarded appliances.

RULES. Rules of the department, promulgated pursuant to the authority granted by the New York City Charter, this code, or other law, rule or regulation.

SAFETY CAN. An approved container with a capacity of not more than 5-gallons (19 L) and equipped with a spring-closing lid and spout cover designed to relieve internal pressure when exposed to fire.

SAFETY DATA SHEET (SDS). A document prepared in accordance with the regulations of the United States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 or a federally approved state OSHA plan which sets forth information concerning a hazardous material.

SCENERY. Any or all of those devices ordinarily used on a stage in the presentation of a theatrical, artistic, musical or other similar live performance, or at a production location, such as back drops, side tabs, teasers, borders or scrim, rigid flats, set pieces, and all properties, except costumes.

SEAPLANE BASE. An area of water that is used for the landing or takeoff of airplanes, and any appurtenant areas of land or water designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance, repair or storage of seaplanes.

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. A device, equipment or system designed to contain liquid or solid, that is external to and separate from the primary containment device, equipment or system.

SEED COTTON. Cotton in its raw, unprocessed (unginned) form, an agricultural commodity consisting of cotton fiber (lint) attached to the seed of the cotton plant.

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein motor fuel is dispensed by customers of the facility from a motor fuel storage and dispensing system into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles. There are two approved types of self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities:

Self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles and motorcycles)
Self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility (motor vehicles)

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A building or structure, or part thereof, in which electrical circuits or devices, commonly known as semiconductors, are manufactured on solid crystalline substances having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors.

SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance that is to be maintained during the fireworks display from the outer perimeter of the discharge area to each viewing area or protected area. The separation distance represents the distance determined by the department to be necessary and sufficient to secure viewing areas and protected areas from hazards associated with a fireworks display, including but not limited to blast, fire, fallout and noise hazards.

SERVICE CORRIDOR. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, a fully enclosed passage, other than one designated as a required means of egress, through which HPM can be moved during handling.

SHELF STORAGE. For purposes of high-piled combustible storage, storage on shelves less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) vertically.

SHELTER IN PLACE. The precaution of directing building occupants to remain indoors, at their present location, in response to a fire or non-fire emergency.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment, and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol cartridge, and any cartridge for propellant-actuated devices, excluding ammunition containing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyrotechnic projectiles.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION PRIMERS. Small percussion-sensitive explosive charges, encased in a cap, used to ignite propellant powder.

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke and not connected to a fire alarm system.

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

SMOKE DETECTOR MAINTENANCE COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of performing smoke detector cleaning and testing, which authorizes such person to engage in such business and supervise the performance of such cleaning and testing by certificate of fitness holders.

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. Solid propellants, commonly referred to as smokeless powders, used in small arms ammunition, cannons, rockets, propellant-actuated devices and similar articles.

SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimates at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).

SOLID SHELVING. For purposes of high-piled storage, shelving that is solid, slatted or of other construction located in racks and that obstructs sprinkler discharge down into the racks.

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. An appliance that receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and which distills the contents to remove contaminants and recover the solvents.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

SPECIAL EFFECT. A visible or audible effect used for entertainment or other display purposes, often used to create an illusion.

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An explosive power pack containing an explosive charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device, including, but not limited to, explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosive-actuated power tools and charges of explosives used in automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth furnaces and jet perforation of oil well casings.

. The person that has retained a fireworks contractor to conduct a fireworks display, and to whom the fireworks display permit is issued.

SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely.

SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying operations constructed in accordance with the Building Code. The room enclosure shall be at least 2-hour fire-resistant rated.

SPRAYING SPACE. The interior of a spray room, spray booth, exhaust duct or other area in which, as a result of flammable finishing operations, surfaces are exposed to flammable vapors or mists or combustible dust, and are susceptible to accumulation of flammable or combustible residues or deposits.

SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A fire extinguishing system, other than a water mist fire extinguishing system, that uses water as the sole extinguishing agent.

STAGED EVACUATION. Building or occupancy with a fire alarm system that is programmed for a staged evacuation sequence of operation, in which alarm notification devices activate on the floor on which a fire occurs, the floor above, and in some buildings, the floor below. Fire alarm systems that are not programmed for staged evacuation typically activate alarm notification devices on all floors (full evacuation) to initiate evacuation by all building occupants.

STAGING AREA. Any portion of a premises or other location from where an external load is to be lifted by helicopter.

STANDARD CUBIC FEET (SCF). Cubic feet of gas at normal temperature and pressure (NTP).

STANDPIPE, MULTI-ZONE. A standpipe system that is vertically subdivided as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code, into zones to limit the maximum operating pressure in the system. Each zone will have its own individual automatic water supply.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM. Piping installed in a building or structure that serves to transfer water from a water supply to hose connections at one or more locations in a building or structure used for firefighting purposes.

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the Building Code.

STILL. See Distillery Equipment.

STORAGE BATTERY. An electrochemical device, equipment or system designed to store and generate electrical energy. Types of storage batteries include:

Flow Battery. A storage battery that stores and generates an electrical current by ion exchange through a membrane separating liquid electrolytes.

Lead-Acid Battery. A storage battery that is comprised of lead electrodes immersed in sulfuric acid electrolyte, including vented (flooded) or valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries.

Lithium-Ion Battery. A storage battery in which an electrical current is generated by lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal-oxide substrate placed in a high-viscosity carbonate mixture or gelled polymer electrolyte.

Lithium Metal Polymer Battery. A storage battery in which an electrical current is generated by the interaction between lithiated positive active material electrically separated from metallic lithium or lithiated negative active material, and nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electrolytes.

Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative active material contains cadmium, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative active material is a hydrogen-absorbing alloy, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

Nonrecombinant Battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery.

Recombinant Battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted into water inside the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery.

Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries).

Vented (Flooded) Lead-Acid Battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell.

STORAGE BATTERY UNIT. A storage battery system in the configuration in which it was tested and listed to Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 9540, including any cabinet or other enclosure.

STRAIN. See Global Strain Method.

STRUCTURE. Any construction on, above or below real property, including buildings, enclosures, sheds and tents.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need for action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, fire extinguishing systems or equipment, fire alarm systems or the maintenance features of related systems.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system, that triggers a supervisory signal.

SYSTEM. An assembly of devices, equipment, containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors and connecting piping that is designed to perform a complex and/or complete function.

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L).

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 1.0 pound per square inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the top of the tank.

TANK, PORTABLE. A container of more than 60-gallon (227 L) capacity, and designed to be loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle, marine vessel, or watercraft and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any cargo tank or tank car.

TANK, PRIMARY. A listed atmospheric tank used to store liquid.

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVEGROUND. An atmospheric aboveground tank listed in accordance with UL 2085, including the design requirements of integral secondary containment, protection from physical damage, and an insulation system designed to reduce the heat transferred to the primary tank when the tank is exposed to a high-intensity liquid pool fire.

TANK, STATIONARY. A container having not less than 1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity, designed primarily for stationary installations, and not intended to be moved in the course of normal use.

TAR KETTLE. A device designed to heat tar, asphalt, pitch or similar materials, typically for waterproofing operations, that, utilizing a flammable gas or a combustible liquid, generates a flame to heat a vessel containing such a material. Tar kettle does not include asphalt melters.

TENT. A nonpressurized membrane structure of a fabric weather barrier supported by poles and guys in which the fabric weather barrier does not impart stability to the structure. Tents need not be fully enclosed on the sides.

THEFT RESISTANT. Construction designed to deter unauthorized entry into magazines or other explosives storage facilities, so as to prevent unauthorized access to stored explosives.

TNT EQUIVALENT. A measurement of the quantity of an explosive calculated by reference to the quantity of trinitrotoluene that contains the equivalent explosive energy.

TOOL. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, a device, storage container, workstation, or process machine used in a fabrication area.

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing systems using membranes that are adhered by heating with a torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping hot asphalt for adhesion.

TOXIC MATERIAL. A chemical that is lethal at the following doses or concentration:
  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each; or
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each; or
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
    Exception: Chlorine. Although chlorine is, by definition, a toxic material, for purposes of this code it shall be classified as a highly toxic material.
TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. Roadway features of fire apparatus access roads designed or installed to reduce traffic volume and/or vehicle speed, including street alignment, barriers, speed bumps and speed tables.

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.

TUBE TRAILER. A tractor trailer upon which a number of tubular gas containers have been installed, typically with a manifold connecting the container valves, that is used to deliver and dispense a compressed gas.

UNNECESSARY ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by a fire alarm system which functioned as designed, but for which a department response proved unnecessary. An example of an unnecessary alarm is an alarm triggered by smoke from a lit cigarette in a non-smoking area, when the presence of such smoke does not implicate fire safety concerns.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are classified as follows:

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.

UNWARRANTED ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by a fire alarm system which failed to function as designed as a result of improper installation, improper maintenance, malfunction, or other factor. Examples of unwarranted alarms are alarms resulting from improper smoke detector placement, improper detector setting for installed location, lack of system maintenance, and control panel malfunction.

VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid, as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323.

VENDOR. Any person engaged in the transportation and storage of explosives in connection with the sale of such explosives for blasting operations.

VESSEL. A motorized watercraft, other than a seaplane, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation, including watercraft not primarily used for transportation purposes, such as houseboats.

VIEWING AREA. Areas designated for viewing a fireworks display, to which spectators are restricted.

VOICE COMMUNICATION CAPABILITY. The ability to communicate to the occupants of a building or occupancy by means of a fire alarm system with one-way or two-way voice communication.

WATER MIST SYSTEM. A fire extinguishing system which uses water mist as a fire extinguishing agent. Very fine droplets of water are generated and released under pressure as a mist.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes, violently reacts, produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases, and/or generates enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustible materials upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are classified as follows:

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or cause water to boil upon contact; produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases upon contact with water; or adjoining combustible materials.

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.

WHARF. A structure or bulkhead constructed along the shore of an inlet, lake or river, or other navigable body of water, used or designed to be used to tie up vessels so that they may lie alongside the shore, and/or to anchor piers or floats.

WORKSTATION. For purposes of semiconductor fabrication facilities, a defined space within a fabrication area in which a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity relating to semiconductor manufacture is conducted. A workstation may include equipment using HPM, hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets, ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices and electrical devices.

ZONING RESOLUTION. The New York City Zoning Resolution.