Copyright

Dedication

Effective Date of Local Laws

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Precautions Against Fire

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Operations Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Furnishings, Decorations and Scenery

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities and Operations

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction, Alteration and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Wood Waste Materials

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Furnaces

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives, Fireworks and Special Effects

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Fees

Appendix B Referenced Standard Modifications

This chapter shall govern the storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, including flammable and combustible liquids subject to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Parts 595 through 614.

Exceptions: This chapter shall not apply to:

1. Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and commercial, institutional and industrial products in the same concentration and packaging containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, and alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales or storage uses when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

2. Installation of fuel oil storage tanks and auxiliary storage tanks for oil-burning equipment, except that this chapter shall apply with respect to permit requirements and requirements relating to out-of-service fuel oil tanks.

3. Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigerating systems (see FC606).

4. Storage and display of aerosol products complying with the requirements of FC Chapter 28.

5. Storage and use of liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92.

6. Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight, which do not sustain combustion.

7. Liquids without flash points that can be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons.

8. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
The commissioner may require design and installation documents, specifications and calculations in connection with the installation, alteration or repair of tanks and related devices, equipment and systems pursuant to this chapter, including fire protection systems.
Permits shall be required as set forth in FC105.6.
Flammable and combustible liquids shall be classified in accordance with the definitions in FC3402.1.
Manufacture, storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing of such liquids, shall be supervised as set forth in FC 3401.6.1 through 3401.6.3.
The manufacture of flammable and combustible liquids shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder.
The storage of flammable liquids, and combustible liquids with a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less, shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness holder when the quantity of such stored liquids exceeds the following amounts:

1. 275 gallons (1041 L) in a closed system;

2. 275 gallons (1041 L) of alcohol-based hand rubs;

3. 20 gallons (76 L) of combustible liquid in portable containers;

4. 10 gallons (38 L) of flammable liquid in portable containers, except alcohol-based hand rubs and gasoline; or

5. 21/2 gallons (9.5 L) of gasoline.
The handling and use of flammable liquids, and combustible liquids with a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less, shall be under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder when the quantity of such handled and used liquids exceeds the amounts set forth in FC3401.6.2.
It shall be unlawful to:

1. Manufacture, refine or distill petroleum or coal tar, or the liquid products thereof.

2. Operate a refinery.

3. Install an aboveground flammable liquid storage tank indoors.

4. Store or transport in the harbor or the city any flammable or combustible liquid, except in a barge, marine vessel, or watercraft constructed, protected and operated in accordance with the regulations of the United States Coast Guard.

5. Store flammable liquids in basements, cellars or other areas below grade.

6. Clean number six fuel oil tanks by heating number two fuel oil and circulating it within such tanks.
Persons who install, alter, test or repair any flammable or combustible liquid storage system shall hold a certificate of license or shall be employed by and perform such duties under the general supervision of a person holding such certificate.
The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcohol-containing preparation designed for application to the hands for anti microbacterial or other medicinal purpose that contains ethanol or isopropanol.

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. Any premises upon which flammable or combustible liquids are received from marine vessel, watercraft, pipeline, tank car or cargo tank and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by marine vessel, watercraft, pipeline, tank car, cargo tank or container.

BULK TRANSFER. The loading or unloading of flammable or combustible liquids from or between marine vessels, watercraft, pipelines, tank cars, cargo tanks or storage tanks.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. For purposes of transportation, a combustible liquid, as defined in the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Section 173.120. For all other purposes, a liquid, other than a compressed gas or cryogenic fluid, having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C), classified as follows:

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

Class IIIB. Liquids having closed cup flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).

FIRE POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92.

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE SYSTEM. A flammable or combustible liquid storage tank and all devices, equipment and systems associated with such tank, including the tank, piping, valves, fill connection, vent lines, pumps and any other ancillary equipment, except liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing systems and flammable and combustible liquid storage systems at a bulk plant or terminal used for bulk transfer operations.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. For purposes of transportation, a flammable liquid defined in the regulations of the United States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR Section 173.120. For all other purposes, a liquid, other than a compressed gas or cryogenic fluid, having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C), classified as follows:

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. A building classified as a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in closed containers.

PROCESS TRANSFER. The transfer of flammable or combustible liquids between cargo tanks or tank cars and containers, tanks piping and other equipment that is to be used in process operations.

PROCESSING VESSEL. A tank or other container used in manufacturing or other process operation that involves the use of a flammable or combustible liquid supplied from other than a cargo tank, tank car or pipeline.

REFINERY. A plant in which flammable or combustible liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources.

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square inches (10 322 mm2), which allows pump-cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area.

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. An appliance that receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and which distills the contents to remove contaminants and recover the solvents.

TANK, PRIMARY. A listed atmospheric tank used to store liquid.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the Electrical Code.
Areas where flammable liquids are stored, handled or used, including the dispensing or mixing of such liquids, shall be in accordance with FC Table 3403.1.1 and the Electrical Code. A classified area shall not extend beyond any floor, roof or other solid partition having no openings. The extent of the classified area is allowed to be reduced, or eliminated, where sufficient technical justification is provided to the commissioner that a concentration in the area in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit cannot be generated.

FC TABLE 3403.1.1 CLASS I ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT LOCATIONSa

LOCATION GROUP D
DIVISION
EXTENT OF
CLASSIFIED AREA
Underground tank fill opening 1
2
Pits, boxes or spaces below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Up to 18 inches above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from a loose-fill connection
and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet from a tight-fill connection.
Vent—Discharging upward 1
2
Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Drum and container filling
Outdoor or indoor with adequate
ventilation
1
2
Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent of fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to
18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings,
meters and similar devices
Indoor 2 Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor
or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoor 2 Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches
horizontally from an edge of such devices.
Pits
Without mechanical ventilation 1 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical ventilation 2 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves, fittings or piping, and
not within a Division 1 or 2 classified area
2 Entire pit.
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding
basins
Indoor
Outdoor
1 or 2
2
Same as pits.
Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade within
15 feet horizontal from any edge.
Cargo tank and tank carb
Loading through open dome 1
2
Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections
with atmospheric venting
1
2
Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions. Also
up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of loading connection.
Office and restrooms Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the room
shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Loading through closed dome with
atmospheric venting
1
2
Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within
3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through closed dome with vapor
control
2 Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor control or any
bottom unloading
2 Within 3 feet of point of connection, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade
within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Repair garage for cargo tanks 1
2
Pits or spaces below floor level.
Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Garages for other than cargo tanks Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire
room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storage Ordinary
Indoor warehousing where there is
no flammable liquid transfer
Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified area,
the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Indoor equipment where flammable
vapor/air mixtures could exist under
normal operations
1
2
Area within 5 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
Area between 5 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions. Also, area
up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 5 feet to 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such
equipment.c
Outdoor equipment where flammable
vapor/air mixtures could exist under
normal operations
1
2
Area within 3 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment extending in all directions. Also, area
up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 3 feet to 10 feet horizontally from any edge of such
equipment.
Tank—Aboveground
Shell, ends or roof and dike area 1 Area inside dike where dike height is greater than the distance from the tank to the dike for more
than 50 percent of the tank circumference.
Vent 2
1
Area within 10 feet from shell, ends or roof of tank. Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Area within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof 2
1
Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Area above the roof and within the shell.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Locations as classified in the Electrical Code.
b. When classifying extent of area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or cargo tanks can be situated at varying points. Therefore, the perimeter of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.
c. The release of Class I liquids can generate vapors to the extent that the entire building, and possibly a zone surrounding it, are considered a Class I, Division 2 location.
Areas where Class II or III liquids are heated above their flash points shall have electrical installations in accordance with FC3403.1.1 and the Electrical Code.

Exception: Solvent distillation units in accordance with FC3405.4.
The commissioner may determine the extent of the Class I electrical equipment and wiring location when a condition is not specifically covered by these requirements or the Electrical Code.
Tanks shall be properly grounded.
Fire protection for the storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, and on-site transportation, shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and FC Chapter 9.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with FC906. Where required, hose lines shall be provided in accordance with FC905.
The commissioner may require an owner or operator of a tank system to conduct a site assessment upon a determination that a potential fire or explosion hazard exists as a result of a spill, leak or discharge from such system. Such site assessments shall be conducted to ascertain potential fire hazards and shall be completed and submitted to the department within a time period established by the commissioner, not to exceed 60 calendar days.
Where the maximum allowable quantity per control area is exceeded, and when required by FC2704.2, rooms, buildings or areas used for storage, handling or use of Class I, II and III-A liquids, including the dispensing or mixing of such liquids, shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with FC2704.2.
The commissioner may require warning signs for the purpose of identifying the hazards of manufacturing, storing, handling or using flammable liquids, including the dispensing or mixing of such liquids. Signage for identification and warning such as for the inherent hazard of flammable liquids or smoking shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and FC2703.5 and 2703.6.
Warning signs shall be of a durable material. Signs warning of the hazard of flammable liquids shall have red, black or white lettering on a contrasting background and shall read: DANGER—FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. Letters shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height and 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in stroke.
Signs shall be posted in locations as required by the commissioner. Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1.
Individual containers, packages and cartons shall be identified, marked, labeled and placarded in accordance with federal regulations and applicable state laws.
Color coding or other approved identification means consistent with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Section 613.3(b), shall be provided on each loading and unloading riser for flammable or combustible liquids to identify the contents of the tank served by the riser.
Piping systems for flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section.

Exception: Piping that is integral to stationary or portable engines, including engines in aircraft, marine vessels, watercraft and motor vehicles, and piping associated with boilers and pressure vessels regulated by the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code.
Piping system components shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with the applicable standard listed in FC Table 3403.6.2 and NFPA 30, except as modified by this section.

FC TABLE 3403.6.2 PIPING STANDARDS

PIPING USE STANDARD
Power Piping ASME B31.1
Process Piping ASME B31.3
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
ASME B31.4
Building Services Piping ASME B31.9
Low-melting-point materials, such as aluminum, copper or brass, that soften on fire exposure, such as nonmetallic materials, and nonductile material, such as cast iron, shall be acceptable for use underground only in accordance with the applicable standard listed in FC Table 3403.6.2. Aboveground piping system components shall be constructed of Schedule 40 steel or a higher schedule steel.
Unless tested in accordance with the applicable section of ASME B31.9, piping, before being covered, enclosed or placed in use, shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated operating pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa) at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time period to complete visual inspection of joints and connections. For a minimum of 60 minutes, there shall be no leakage or permanent distortion. Pneumatic testing shall be conducted using an inert gas, except that air may be used if the piping system does not contain flammable or combustible liquid vapors. Piping system tests shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a representative of the department. Care shall be exercised to ensure that these pressures are not applied to vented storage tanks. Such storage tanks shall be tested independently from the piping.
Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with this section, upon a determination by the commissioner that such piping may be leaking. Piping that could contain flammable or combustible liquid vapors shall not be tested pneumatically, except that vapor-recovery piping may be tested pneumatically using an inert gas. Such tests shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative.
Posts or other approved means shall be provided in accordance with FC312 to protect piping, valves, fittings or ancillary equipment subject to vehicular damage.
Where subject to external corrosion, piping, related fluid-handling components and supports for both underground and aboveground applications shall be fabricated from noncorrosive materials, coated or otherwise provided with corrosion protection. Dissimilar metallic parts that promote galvanic action shall not be joined.
Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of manual control valves and check valves to operate the system properly and to protect the facility under both normal and emergency conditions. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of such valves to control properly the flow of liquids in normal operation and in the event of physical damage or fire exposure.
Connections to pipelines or piping by which tank cars, cargo tanks, marine vessels, watercraft or other equipment discharge liquids into storage tanks shall be provided with check valves or block valves for automatic protection against backflow where the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible. Where loading and unloading is done through a common pipe system, a check valve is not required except as required by the applicable provisions of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Section 613.3(c)(4). However, a block valve shall be provided which is located so as to be readily accessible or remotely operable.
Manual drainage-control valves shall be located at approved locations remote from the tanks, diked area, drainage system and impounding basin to ensure their operation in a fire condition.
Aboveground tanks with connections located below normal liquid level shall be provided with internal or external isolation valves located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Except for liquids whose chemical characteristics are incompatible with steel, such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel.
Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected from physical damage and designed to accommodate settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction or exposure to fire. The supports shall be constructed of steel, concrete or other approved noncombustible material.
Flexible joints shall be listed and approved and shall be installed on underground liquid, vapor and vent piping at all of the following locations:

1. Where piping connects to underground tanks.

2. Where piping ends at pump islands and vent risers.

3. At points where differential movement in the piping can occur.
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic piping is not required to be provided with flexible joints in locations where both of the following conditions are present:

1. Piping does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

2. Piping has a straight run of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on one side of the connection when such connections result in a change of direction.
In lieu of the minimum 4-foot (1219 mm) straight run length required in FC3403.6.9.1(2), approved and listed flexible joints are allowed to be used under dispensers and suction pumps, at submerged pumps and tanks, and where vents extend aboveground.
Joints shall be liquid-tight and shall be welded, flanged or threaded except that listed flexible connectors are allowed in accordance with FC3403.6.9. Threaded or flanged joints shall fit tightly by using approved methods and materials for the type of joint. Joints in piping systems used for Class I liquids shall be welded when located in concealed spaces within buildings or structures. Nonmetallic joints shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Pipe joints that are dependent on the friction characteristics or resiliency of combustible materials for liquid tightness of piping shall not be used in buildings or structures. Piping shall be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting.
The bending of piping and tubing shall be performed in accordance with ASME B31.9.
Piping system components shall be documented as being compatible with the liquid to which such components will be exposed. Such documentation shall be approved and submitted to the department upon request.
Flammable and combustible liquids in containers and tanks shall be stored in accordance with this section, FC Chapter 27 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Parts 596, 598, 599, 612, 613 and 614.
Except as specifically authorized in FC3406, it shall be unlawful to store flammable liquids in an aboveground storage tank.
Except at a bulk plant or terminal or as otherwise specified in this chapter, the capacity of flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks shall not exceed the amounts set forth in FC 3404.1.2.1 through 3404.1.2.4.
Individual underground flammable liquid storage tanks shall not exceed a capacity of 4,000 gallons (15 140 L). The aggregate capacity of underground flammable liquid storage tanks at a premises shall not exceed 20,000 gallons (75 700 L).
Individual underground combustible liquid storage tanks shall not exceed a capacity of 12,000 gallons (45 420 L). The aggregate capacity of underground combustible liquid storage tanks at a premises shall not exceed 40,000 gallons (151 400 L).
The aggregate capacity of aboveground combustible liquid tanks installed outdoors at a premises shall not exceed 30,000 gallons (113 550 L).
The aggregate capacity of aboveground combustible liquid tanks installed indoors shall not exceed 20,000 gallons (75 700 L).
The provisions of this section shall apply to:

1. The storage of flammable liquids in stationary aboveground tanks located outdoors and underground tanks.

2. The storage of combustible liquids in stationary aboveground tanks indoors and outdoors, and underground tanks.

3. Existing storage tank installations at bulk plants and terminals which have not been used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids for a period in excess of 2 years from the date of completion of construction of the tank structure, if the tank is to be placed in service.
Tanks subject to change in contents shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner and in accordance with this chapter, including FC3404.2.7. Prior to a change in contents, the commissioner may require testing of a tank for leaks and documentation of compatibility. Tanks that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such tanks and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.
Cargo tanks, tank cars, barges, marine vessels and watercraft shall not be used as stationary storage tanks unless approved.

Exception: A marine vessel or watercraft moored or anchored to privately owned waterfront property storing fuel oil to be used on such waterfront property, when the barge or vessel is located within the bulkhead line and the riparian ownership to the bulkhead line is under the same ownership as the waterfront property, the fuel oil is used only by the owner of such vessel or watercraft and the fuel oil is used beyond a radius of 200 feet (60 960 mm) from the waterfront. Fuel oil stored shall have the specific gravity of not more than 16 degrees Baume. Such marine vessels and watercraft shall be located wholly within the bulkhead line and in such a position as not to constitute an encumbrance to navigation, and shall be constructed, equipped and protected against fire in compliance with the requirements of the commissioner.
Labeling and signs for storage tanks and storage tank areas shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.3.1 and 3404.2.3.2.
Signs shall be posted in storage areas prohibiting open flames and smoking. Signs shall comply with the requirements of FC3403.5.
Tanks more than 100 gallons (379 L) in capacity, which are used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquids, shall bear a label and placard identifying the material therein. Placards shall be in accordance with NFPA 704.

Exception: Tanks located underground.
Open flames are prohibited in storage areas in accordance with FC2703.7.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with FC911.
Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored separated from incompatible materials, in accordance with FC2703.9.8.
Tanks shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 30. Each tank shall bear a permanent nameplate or marking indicating the standard used as the basis of design.
The materials used in tank construction shall be in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tanks shall be designed for the pressures to which they will be subjected in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tank vents for normal venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with FC 3404.2.7.3.1 through 3404.2.7.3.6.
Vent lines from tanks shall not be used for purposes other than venting unless approved.
Vent-line flame arresters and venting devices shall be installed in accordance with their listings. Use of flame arresters in piping systems shall be in accordance with API 2028.
Vent pipe outlets shall be located such that the vapors are released at a safe point outdoors and not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjacent ground level. Vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from adjacent walls to assist in vapor dispersion. Vent outlets shall be located such that flammable or combustible vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from building openings.
Vent piping shall be designed, sized, constructed and installed in accordance with FC3403.6. Vent pipes shall be installed such that they will drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. Vent pipes shall be installed in such a manner so as not to be subject to physical damage or vibration.
Tank vent piping shall not be manifolded unless required for special purposes such as vapor recovery, vapor conservation or air pollution control.
For aboveground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be adequately sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.
For underground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.
Vent piping for tanks storing Class I liquids shall not be manifolded with vent piping for tanks storing Class II and III liquids unless positive means are provided to prevent the vapors from Class I liquids from entering tanks storing Class II and III liquids, to prevent contamination and possible change in classification of less volatile liquid.
Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB or IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall remain closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with listed flame arresters. The vents shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 30 or API 2000.
Aboveground tanks shall be equipped with additional venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure to fires. Emergency vents shall not discharge indoors. The venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 30.

Exception: Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids that are larger than 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in capacity, located outdoors and not within the diked area or the drainage path of Class I or II liquids, do not require emergency relief venting.
Tank openings for other than vents shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.7.5.1 through 3404.2.7.5.8.
Connections for tank openings below the liquid level shall be liquid-tight.
Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections to tanks shall be located outdoors at a location free from sources of ignition and not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) away from building openings. Such openings shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap which shall be closed when not in use and properly identified.
Piping, connections, fittings and other appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with FC3403.6.
Openings for manual gauging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. Covers shall be kept closed when not gauging. Openings for manual gauging shall not be allowed for tanks installed indoors.
For top-loaded tanks, a metallic fill pipe shall be designed and installed to minimize the generation of static electricity by terminating the pipe within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank, and it shall be installed in a manner which avoids excessive vibration.
For Class I liquids other than crude oil, gasoline and asphalt, the fill pipe shall be designed and installed in a manner which will minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank.
For underground tanks, fill pipe and discharge lines shall enter only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank. Underground tanks for Class I liquids shall be equipped with a vapor and liquid-tight fill connection.
Filling, withdrawal and vapor-recovery connections that are made and broken shall be located outdoors at a location away from sources of ignition and not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) away from building openings. Such connections shall be closed and liquid-tight when not in use and shall be properly identified.
Tank openings provided for purposes of vapor recovery shall be protected against vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or dry-break connections, or other approved device, unless the opening is a pipe connected to a vapor processing system. Openings designed for combined fill and vapor recovery shall also be protected against vapor release unless connection of the liquid delivery line to the fill pipe simultaneously connects the vapor recovery line. Connections shall be vapor-tight.
An approved means or method in accordance with FC3404.2.9.4 and 3404.2.9.6.6 for aboveground storage and FC3404.2.11.4 for underground storage shall be provided to prevent the overfill of all flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks.
The repair or alteration, including welding, cutting and hot tapping of storage tanks and piping that have been placed in service, shall be in accordance with NFPA 30. Hot tapping shall only be allowed with the approval of the commissioner.
The design of the supporting structure for tanks shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code and NFPA 30.
When a tank is located in an area where it is subject to buoyancy because of a rise in the water table, flooding or accumulation of water from fire suppression operations, the tank shall be secured from movement in accordance with NFPA 30.
Where subject to external corrosion, tanks shall be fabricated from corrosion-resistant materials, coated or provided with corrosion protection in accordance with NFPA 30 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Part 614.
A consistent or accidental loss of liquid, or other indication of a leak from a tank system, shall be reported immediately to the department and other authorities having jurisdiction.
Leaking tanks shall be promptly emptied, repaired and returned to service, sealed in place or removed in accordance with FC3404.2.13 or 3404.2.14.
Steel tanks are allowed to be lined only for the purpose of protecting the interior from corrosion or providing compatibility with a material to be stored. Only those liquids tested for compatibility with the lining material are allowed to be stored in lined tanks. Tank lining shall not be used for purposes of repairing a tank.
Aboveground storage of combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with the requirements of FC3404.2, and FC3404.2.9.1.2 through 3404.2.9.6.10. Except as specifically authorized in FC3406, the storage of flammable liquid in aboveground storage tanks is prohibited.
Where foam fire protection is approved for a required fire extinguishing system pursuant to this chapter, it shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 11, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Where foam fire protection is approved for a required fire extinguishing system pursuant to this chapter, the foam-producing materials shall be stored on the premises.
Supports or pilings for aboveground tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids elevated more than 12 inches (305 mm) above grade shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours in accordance with the fire exposure criteria specified in ASTM E 1529.

Exception: Structural supports tested as part of a protected aboveground tank in accordance with UL 2085.
Liquids with boilover characteristics shall not be stored in fixed roof tanks larger than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in diameter unless an approved gas enrichment or inerting system is provided on the tank.
Supports, foundations and anchorages for aboveground tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Stairs, platforms and walkways shall be of noncombustible construction and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Aboveground tanks shall not be filled in excess of 95 percent of their capacity. An approved overfill prevention system shall be provided for each tank. During tank-filling operations, the system shall automatically shut off the flow of liquid to the tank when the quantity of liquid in the tank reaches 95 percent of tank capacity. For rigid hose liquid-delivery systems, an approved means shall be provided to empty the fill hose into the tank after the automatic shutoff device is activated.
Outdoor aboveground tanks shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.9.5.1 through 3404.2.9.5.3.
Outdoor aboveground tanks shall be located in accordance with FC 3404.2.9.5.1.1 through 3404.2.9.5.1.5, as applicable.
Aboveground tanks operating at pressures not exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids, which are designed with a floating roof or a weak roof-to-shell seam, or equipped with emergency venting devices limiting pressure to 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa), shall be located in accordance with NFPA 30.

Exceptions:

1. Vertical tanks having a weak roof-to-shell seam and storing Class IIIA liquids are allowed to be located at one-half the distances specified in NFPA 30, provided the tanks are not within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.

2. Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordance with FC 3404.2.9.5.1.4 and 3404.2.9.5.1.5.

3. For protected aboveground tanks in accordance with FC3404.2.9.6, the distances in NFPA 30 shall apply and shall be reduced by one-half, but not to less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Aboveground tanks for the storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) shall be located in accordance with NFPA 30.

Exception: Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordance with FC 3404.2.9.5.1.4 and 3404.2.9.5.1.5.
Aboveground tanks for storage of liquids with boilover characteristics shall be located in accordance with NFPA 30.
Aboveground tanks for the storage of unstable liquids shall be located in accordance with NFPA 30.
Aboveground tanks for the storage of Class IIIB liquids, excluding unstable liquids, shall be located in accordance with NFPA 30, except when located within a diked area or drainage path for a tank or tanks storing Class I or II liquids. Where a Class IIIB liquid storage tank is within the diked area or drainage path for a Class I or II liquid, distances required by FC3404.2.9.5.1.2 shall apply.
The separation between tanks containing stable liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 30. Where tanks are in a diked area containing Class I or II liquids, or in the drainage path of Class I or II liquids, and are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, the commissioner may require greater separation than specified in NFPA 30 or other means to make tanks in the interior of the pattern accessible for firefighting purposes. The separation between tanks containing unstable liquids shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.

Exception: Tanks used for storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) apart unless within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.
The minimum horizontal separation between an LPG container and a Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) except in the case of Class I, II or IIIA liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa), in which case the provisions of FC3404.2.9.5.2 shall apply. An approved means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of Class I, II or IIIA liquids under adjacent LPG containers such as by dikes, diversion curbs or grading. When flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the LPG containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area.

Exception: Horizontal separation is not required between LPG containers and underground flammable and combustible liquid tanks.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter for aboveground tanks, the installation of protected aboveground tanks shall be in accordance with FC 3404.2.9.6.1 through 3404.2.9.6.10.
The construction of a protected aboveground tank and its primary tank shall be in accordance with FC3404.2.7.
Normal and emergency venting for protected aboveground tanks shall be provided in accordance with FC 3404.2.7.3 and 3404.2.7.4. The vent capacity reduction factor shall not be allowed.
Approved flame arresters or pressure vacuum breather valves shall be installed in normal vents.
Protected aboveground tanks shall be provided with secondary containment, drainage control or diking in accordance with FC2704.2 and 6 NYCRR Part 613.3(c)(6). A means shall be provided to establish the integrity of the secondary containment in accordance with NFPA 30.
Where protected aboveground tanks, piping, electrical conduit or dispensers are subject to vehicular impact, they shall be protected therefrom, either by having the impact protection incorporated into the system design in compliance with the impact test protocol of UL 2085, or by meeting the provisions of FC312, or where necessary, a combination of both. Where posts or other approved barriers are provided, they shall be independent of each aboveground tank.
A durable sign shall be conspicuously posted on or immediately adjacent to the fill point for the tank, setting forth the filling procedure and the tank calibration chart. The filling procedure shall require the person filling the tank to determine the number of gallons required to fill it to 90 percent of capacity before commencing the fill operation.
The fill pipe shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the cargo tank’s fuel delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel by means of a liquid-tight connection is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill hose connection.
A spill container having a capacity of not less than 15 gallons (56.8 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container shall be allowed.
Tank openings in protected aboveground tanks shall be through the top only.
Approved antisiphon devices shall be installed in each external pipe connected to the protected aboveground tank when the pipe extends below the level of the top of the tank.
The area surrounding a tank or group of tanks shall be provided with drainage control or shall be diked to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjacent tanks, adjoining property or reaching waterways. The area shall be in compliance with the requirements of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 NYCRR Section 613.3(c)(6).

Exceptions:

1. For tanks having a capacity of less than 10,000 gallons (37 850 L), the commissioner may modify these requirements based on an approved technical report which demonstrates that such tank or group of tanks does not constitute a hazard to other tanks, waterways or adjoining property, after consideration of special features such as topographical conditions, nature of occupancy and proximity to buildings or structures on the same or adjacent property, capacity, and construction of proposed tanks and character of liquids to be stored, and nature and quantity of private and public fire protection provided.

2. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks.
The volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.
Diked areas containing multiple tanks shall be subdivided in accordance with NFPA 30.
Piping shall not pass through adjacent diked areas or impounding basins, unless provided with a sealed sleeve or otherwise protected from exposure to fire.
Diked areas shall be kept free from combustible materials, drums and barrels.
Pumps, manifolds and fire protection equipment or controls shall not be located within diked areas or drainage basins or in a location where such equipment and controls would be endangered by fire in the diked area or drainage basin. Aboveground piping shall be minimized and located as close as practical to the shell of the tank in diked areas or drainage basins.

Exceptions:

1. Pumps, manifolds and piping integral to the tanks or equipment being served which is protected by intermediate diking, berms, drainage or fire protection, such as water spray, monitors or resistive coating.

2. Fire protection equipment or controls which are appurtenances to the tanks or equipment being protected, such as foam chambers or foam piping and water or foam monitors and hydrants, or hand and wheeled extinguishers.
All dike walls shall be of steel or reinforced concrete, designed to be liquid-tight and to withstand a full hydraulic head, and constructed to provide access to and from the diked area. Where stairways or other means are required to provide such access, they shall be constructed of steel. No dike wall shall be higher than 60 percent of the tank height.
Underground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2, and 3404.2.11.1 through 3404.2.11.5.2.
Underground tanks shall not store petroleum products containing mixtures of a nonpetroleum nature, such as ethanol or methanol blends, without evidence of compatibility.
Flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks located underground, either outdoors or under buildings, shall be in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Tanks shall be installed so that the external forces exerted from building foundations and support loads are not transmitted to the tanks. The distance from any part of a tank to the nearest wall of any basement, pit, cellar or any property line shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm). Tanks shall not be placed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a subway wall.

2. Tanks shall be installed so that the highest point of the tank is not less than 2 feet (610 mm) below the level of the lowest cellar floor of any building within a radius of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the tank. No tank shall be located under a sidewalk or beyond the property line.

3. A minimum distance of 18 inches (458 mm), shell to shell, shall be maintained between underground tanks.

4. Manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (152 mm) of noncorrosive inert material, in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Fill pipes shall be equipped with a spill container of not less than 15-gallon (56.8 L) capacity and an approved overfill prevention system to automatically prevent overflow in accordance with NFPA 30 and FC3404.2.9.4.
Leak prevention for underground tanks shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.11.5.1 and 3404.2.11.5.2.
Daily inventory records shall be maintained for underground storage tank systems.
Underground storage tank systems shall be provided with an approved method of leak detection from any component of the system that is designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 30. Leak detection systems shall be tested at the time of installation at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a representative of the department.
Any underground single-walled flammable or combustible liquid storage tank existing prior to the effective date of this code that is not provided with a leak detection system meeting the requirements of FC 3404.2.11.5.2 shall be precision tested at least once every 5 years.

Exception: Bulk plant and terminal tanks.
The commissioner may require a tank and piping system to be precision tested, pressure tested or tested by other approved method in accordance with this section to determine the condition of the tank or piping or when the commissioner has good cause to believe that a leak exists. Storage systems that may contain flammable or combustible liquid vapor shall not be tested pneumatically. Such tests shall be conducted at the owner’s risk by his or her representative.
Tank testing required by FC 3404.2.12.1 through 3404.2.12.3 shall be at the owner’s risk by his or her representative before a representative of the department.
Prior to being placed into service, tanks shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 30.
Underground tanks shall be tested hydrostatically at 15 pounds per square inch (psig)(103.4 kPa), or 150 percent of the maximum anticipated static head pressure, whichever is greater, for the inner tank, and pneumatically or hydrostatically at 5 pounds per square inch (psig)(34.5 kPa) for the annular space (secondary containment tank). When a pneumatic test is allowed, an inert gas shall be used; however, air may be used if the tank does not contain any flammable or combustible liquid vapor. Test pressure shall be maintained for sufficient time to complete visual inspection, but not less than 1 hour. A tank shall be deemed to have passed the test if it shows no evidence of leakage or permanent deformation.
Aboveground tanks shall be tested hydrostatically at 15 pounds per square inch (psig)(103.4 kPa) for the inner tank, and pneumatically or hydrostatically at 5 pounds per square inch (psig)(34.5 kPa) for the annular space (secondary containment tank). When a pneumatic test is allowed, an inert gas shall be used; however, air may be used if the tank does not contain any flammable or combustible liquid vapor. Test pressure shall be maintained for sufficient time to complete visual inspection, but not less than 1 hour. A tank shall be deemed to have passed the test if it shows no evidence of leakage or permanent deformation.
Tanks taken out of service shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.13.1 through 3404.2.13.2.3 and API 1604. Tanks taken out of service shall be removed, sealed in place or safeguarded by a certificate of license holder or a plumber in accordance with the rules.

Exceptions:

1. Tanks within operating facilities at bulk plants and terminals.

2. Tanks connected to fuel oil burning equipment that is used seasonally or as one of the fuels in dual-fueled equipment.

3. Tanks that are used for seasonal storage or standby storage.
Underground tanks taken out of service shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.13.1.1 through 3404.2.13.1.3.
A fuel oil storage tank removed from service by reason of conversion of the heating system to an alternative fuel or power source, or other replacement of the tank, shall be sealed or removed from the premises in compliance with FC3404.2.13.1.3 at the time of conversion or replacement.
Except as otherwise provided in FC3404.2.13.1.1, underground tanks not used for a period of 30 calendar days or more shall be removed from the premises, or sealed in place in compliance with the requirements of FC3404.2.13.1.3, or safeguarded in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Flammable or combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connecting piping.

2. The tank and connecting piping shall be rendered free of flammable and combustible vapors using an inert gas.

3. Except for any active fire extinguishing system piping, the tank and connecting piping, including fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection, shall be capped or plugged and secured from tampering and the fill connection covered with concrete.

4. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with FC 3404.2.7.3 and 3404.2.7.4.
Except as otherwise provided in FC3404.2.13.1.1, underground tanks that have been out of service for a period of 1 year or more shall be removed from the premises or sealed in place in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.

2. The tank and connecting piping shall be rendered free of flammable and combustible vapors, using an inert gas.

3. The tank shall be disconnected from system piping and removed from the premises, or filled completely with an approved, inert solid material, and sealed in place.

4. All system piping, including fire extinguishing system lines, fill line, gauge opening and vapor return and pump connection, shall be disconnected from the tank and removed from the premises, or sealed in place and secured from tampering. Unless other methods are approved, the fill connection shall be cut from the fill piping and removed; the fill piping shall be capped or plugged; and the fill box filled with concrete.

5. Tank openings shall be capped and plugged, leaving a 0.125-inch to 0.25-inch-diameter (3.2-mm to 6.4-mm-diameter) opening for pressure equalization, when tanks are removed from the premises.
Aboveground tanks taken out of service shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.2.13.2.1 through 3404.2.13.2.3.
A fuel oil storage tank removed from service by reason of conversion of the heating system to an alternative fuel or power source, or other replacement of the tank, shall be sealed or removed from the premises in compliance with FC3404.2.13.2.3 at the time of conversion or replacement.
Except as otherwise provided in FC3404.2.13.2.1, aboveground tanks not used for a period of 30 calendar days or more shall be removed from the premises or sealed in place in compliance with the requirements of FC3404.2.13.2.3, or safeguarded in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Tank and connecting piping shall be safeguarded in accordance with FC3404.2.13.1.2.

2. The tank shall be protected from flotation in accordance with good engineering practice.
Except as otherwise provided in FC3404.2.13.2.1, aboveground tanks that have been out of service for a period of 1 year or more shall be removed from the premises or sealed in place in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.

2. The tank and connecting piping shall be rendered free of flammable and combustible vapors using an inert gas.

3. The tank shall be disconnected from system piping and removed from the premises, or filled completely with an approved, inert solid material, and sealed in place.

4. All system piping, including fire extinguishing system lines, fill line, gauge opening, and vapor return and pump connection, shall be disconnected from the tank and removed from the premises, or sealed in place and secured from tampering. Unless other methods are approved, the fill connection shall be cut from the fill piping and removed; the fill piping shall be capped or plugged; and the spill containment box shall be removed.

5. Tank openings shall be capped and plugged, leaving a 0.125-inch to 0.25-inch-diameter (3.2-mm to 6.4-mm-diameter) opening for pressure equalization, when tanks are removed from the premises.

6. The tank shall be protected from flotation in accordance with good engineering practice.

7. The tank shall be stenciled with the date that it was sealed in place.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers that do not exceed 60 gallons (227 L) in individual capacity, and transfers incidental thereto, shall comply with the requirements of this section. It shall be unlawful to store flammable and combustible liquids in containers with an individual capacity of greater than 60 gallons (227 L).
The design, construction and capacity of containers for the storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section and NFPA 30. It shall be unlawful to store flammable and combustible liquids in portable tanks, intermediate bulk containers and fiber drums.
Only approved containers shall be used.
Where other sections of this code require that liquid containers be stored in storage cabinets, such cabinets and storage shall be in accordance with FC 3404.3.2.1 through 3404.3.2.3.
Design of liquid storage cabinets shall be in accordance with this section.
Cabinets shall be listed in accordance with UL 1275.
Cabinets shall be provided with a conspicuous label in red letters on contrasting background which reads: FLAMMABLE—KEEP FIRE AWAY.
Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a three-point latch.
The bottom of the cabinet shall be liquid-tight to a height of at least 2 inches (51 mm).
The combined total quantity of liquids in a cabinet shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).
Not more than three storage cabinets shall be located in a single fire area, except that in a Group F occupancy, additional cabinets are allowed to be located in the same fire area if the additional cabinets (or groups of up to three cabinets) are separated from other cabinets or groups of cabinets by at least 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids indoors in containers shall be in accordance with this section.

Exceptions:

1. Liquids in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, aircraft, marine vessel, watercraft or portable or stationary engines.

2. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels or casks.
Approved portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with specific sections of this chapter and FC906.
Materials that will react with water or other liquids to produce a hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable and combustible liquids in accordance with FC2703.9.8.
Storage of any liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress.
The storage of empty containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored as required for filled containers. Containers, when emptied, shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings, be removed to an outdoor location and, if not cleaned on the premises, the empty containers shall be removed from the premises as soon as practical, but at least daily.
Shelving shall be of approved noncombustible construction, adequately braced and anchored. Seismic requirements shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Shelves shall be of sufficient depth and provided with a lip or guard to prevent individual containers from being displaced.

Exception: Shelves in storage cabinets or on laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.
Shelf storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in an orderly manner.
Where storage on racks is allowed elsewhere in this code, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rack sections and any adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall have a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm).
Solid pile and palletized storage in liquid warehouses shall be arranged so that piles are separated from each other by at least 4 feet (1219 mm). Aisles shall be provided so that no container is more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from an aisle. Main aisles shall have a minimum width of 8 feet (2438 mm).
Approved quantities of combustible materials may be stored in liquid storage areas, provided that a distance of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) horizontally is maintained between the liquid storage area and combustible materials and fire protection systems are provided in accordance with this code and Chapter 9 of the Building Code.
Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside an unprotected liquid storage area shall be limited to a maximum pile size of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) and to a maximum storage height of 6 feet (1829 mm). Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside a protected liquid storage area shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B. Pallet storage shall be separated from liquid storage by aisles with a minimum width of 8 feet (2438 mm).
Containers in piles shall be stacked in such a manner as to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. Adequate material-handling equipment shall be available to handle containers safely at the upper tier level.
Liquid storage quantity limitations shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.3.4.1 through 3404.3.4.5.
For occupancies other than Group M wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in FC Table 2703.1.1(1) and shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in this section. For Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in FC Table 3404.3.4.1, except that no gasoline or flammable liquid motor fuel may be stored in portable containers for wholesale or retail sale. Storage of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 18.

FC TABLE 3404.3.4.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES USES PER CONTROL AREAa

TYPE OF LIQUID MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
Sprinkleredb per footnote densities
and arrangements
Sprinklered per FC Tables
3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and
FC Table 3404.3.7.5.1 and the
construction codes, including the
Building Code
Nonsprinklered
Class IA 60 60 30
Class IB, IC, II and IIIA 7,500c 15,000c 1,600
Class IIIB Unlimited Unlimited 13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.
b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:
1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square foot area.
c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
The quantity of flammable or combustible liquid stored shall be limited by occupancy as follows:

1. Group A, B, E, F, I and S occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored only for lawful uses incidental to the occupancy, including maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed that which is necessary for such use.

2. Group M occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored only for lawful uses incidental to the occupancy, including maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed that which is necessary for such use. The maximum allowable quantities for storage in wholesale and retail sales areas shall be in accordance with FC3404.3.4.1.

3. Group R occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored only for maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed that which is necessary for such use. Quantities within a dwelling unit shall be stored only for household use and in quantities below permit amounts. It shall be unlawful to store gasoline or other flammable liquid motor fuel within a dwelling unit.

4. Gasoline and other flammable liquid motor fuel. Storage of gasoline and other flammable liquid motor fuel in portable containers in quantities requiring a permit is subject to the approval of the commissioner, regardless of the occupancy classification of the premises.
Quantities exceeding those allowed in control areas set forth in FC3404.3.4.1 shall be stored in liquid storage rooms or liquid storage warehouses in accordance with FC3404.3.7 and 3404.3.8.
In all occupancies, quantities of flammable and combustible liquids requiring a permit pursuant to FC105.6, used for maintenance purposes and the operation of equipment, shall be stored in liquid storage cabinets in accordance with FC3404.3.2. Quantities not requiring a permit pursuant to FC105.6 shall be stored in approved containers and locations.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in control areas shall be in accordance with FC 3404.3.5.1 through 3404.3.5.4.
Flammable liquids shall not be allowed in basements, cellars or other areas below grade. Combustible liquids shall be allowed to be stored in basements, cellars or other areas below grade provided that such basement, cellar or other area below grade is protected throughout by a sprinkler system, and other fire protection is provided in accordance with FC Chapter 9 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.

Exception: Class IIIB combustible liquids may be stored in basements, cellars and other areas below grade that are not protected throughout by a sprinkler system when stored in a room or other area that is segregated, vertically and horizontally, from surrounding spaces by a fire separation of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rating and such room or other area is protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
Containers having less than a 30-gallon (114 L) capacity which contain Class I or II liquids shall not be stacked more than 3 feet (914 mm) or two containers high, whichever is greater, unless stacked on fixed shelving or otherwise satisfactorily secured. Containers of Class I or II liquids having a capacity of 30 gallons (114 L) or more shall not be stored more than one container high. Containers shall be stored in an upright position.
Piles of containers shall not be stored closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to the nearest beam, chord, girder or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet (914 mm) below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray or other overhead fire extinguishing system.
In areas that are inaccessible to the public, Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be stored in the same pile or rack section as ordinary combustible commodities unless such materials are packaged together as kits.
Flammable and combustible liquids in Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales shall be in accordance with FC 3404.3.6.1 through 3404.3.6.5, or NFPA 30.
Containers for Class I liquids shall be metal.

Exception: In sprinklered buildings, an aggregate quantity of 120 gallons (454 L) of water-miscible Class IB and Class IC liquids is allowed in nonmetallic containers, each having a capacity of 16 ounces (0.473 L) or less.
Containers for Class I liquids shall not exceed a capacity of 5 gallons (19 L).

Exception: Metal containers not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) are allowed to store up to 240 gallons (908 L) of the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IB and IC liquids in a control area. The building shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.4.1. The containers shall be provided with plastic caps without cap seals and shall be stored upright. Containers shall not be stacked or stored in racks and shall not be located in areas accessible to the public.
Fire protection and container storage arrangements shall be in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(1) or the following:

1. Storage on shelves shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, and shelving shall be metal.

2. Storage on pallets or in piles greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height, shall be protected by a sprinkler system in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(4), and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in FC Table 3404.3.6.3(2).

3. Storage on racks greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height shall be protected in accordance with FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(5), 3404.3.6.3(6), 3404.3.6.3(7) and 3404.3.6.3(8) and the construction codes, including the Building Code as appropriate, and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in FC Table 3404.3.6.3(3).

FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(1) MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT IN CONTROL AREAS

TYPE OF LIQUID NONSPRINKLERED AREA (feet) SPRINKLERED AREA (feet) SPRINKLERED BUILDINGSa,b WITH
IN-RACK PROTECTION (feet)
Flammable liquids:
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
4
4
4
4
8
8
4
12
12
Combustible liquids:
Class II
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
6
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
20

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. In buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system, the storage height for metallic containers shall not exceed the maximum height allowed by NFPA 30 based on the type of fire protection systems provided, or the maximum height as determined by the department based on a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. These storage heights do not apply to storage of nonmetallic containers.
b. In-rack protection shall be in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(5), 3404.3.6.3(6), 3404.3.6.3(7) or 3404.3.6.3(8) and the construction codes, including the Building Code.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(2) STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR PALLETIZED OR SOLID-PILE STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASS STORAGE
LEVEL
MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT MAXIMUM QUANTITY
PER PILE(gallons)
MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER
ROOMa (gallons)
Drums Containersb
(feet)
Containers Containers
IA Ground floor
Upper floors
Basementse
1
1
Not Allowed
5
5
Not Allowed
3,000
2,000
Not Allowed
12,000
8,000
Not Allowed
IB Ground floor
Upper floors
Basementse
1
1
Not Allowed
6.5
6.5
Not Allowed
5,000
3,000
Not Allowed
15,000
12,000
Not Allowed
IC Ground floord 1 6.5c 5,000 15,000
Upper floors 1 6.5c 3,000 12,000
Basementse Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed
II Ground floord
Upper floors
Basementse
3
3
1
10
10
5
10,000
10,000
7,500
25,000
25,000
7,500
III Ground floor
Upper floors
Basementse
5
5
3
20
20
10
15,000
15,000
10,000
50,000
50,000
25,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. See FC3404.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
b. In buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system, the storage height for metallic containers shall not exceed the maximum height allowed by NFPA 30 based on the type of fire protection systems provided, or the maximum height as determined by the department based on a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. These storage heights do not apply to storage of nonmetallic containers.
c. These height limitations are allowed to be increased to 10 feet for containers having a capacity of 5 gallons or less.
d. For palletized storage of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) in relieving-style metal containers with 50 percent or less by weight Class IC or II liquid and no Class IA or IB liquid, height and pile quantity limits shall be allowed to be 10 feet and 15,000 gallons, respectively, provided that such storage is protected by sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 30 and that the UPR storage area is not located in the same containment area or drainage path for other Class I or II liquids.
e. Basements include cellars and other areas below grade.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(3) STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASS TYPE RACK STORAGE LEVEL MAXIMUM STORAGE
HEIGHT (feet)b
MAXIMUM QUANTITY
PER ROOMa (gallons)
Containers Containers
IA Double row or Single row Ground floor
Upper floors
Basements
25
15
Not Allowed
7,500
4,500
Not Allowed
IB
IC
Double row or Single row Ground floor
Upper floors
Basements
25
15
Not Allowed
15,000
9,000
Not Allowed
II Double row or Single row Ground floor
Upper floors
Basements
25
25
15
24,000
24,000
9,000
III Multirow
Double room
Single row
Ground floor
Upper floors
Basements
40
20
20
48,000
48,000
24,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L
a. See FC 3404.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
b. In buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system, the storage height for metallic containers shall not exceed the maximum height allowed by NFPA 30 based on the type of fire protection systems provided, or the maximum height as determined by the department based on a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. These storage heights do not apply to storage of nonmetallic containers.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(4) SPRINKLER SYSTEM PROTECTION FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKSa

STORAGE CONDITIONS CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND MINIMUM
HOSE STREAM
DEMAND (gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLERS
AND HOSE
STREAMS
(hours)
Class
Liquid
Container size and arrangement Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area (square feet) Maximum
spacing
(square feet)
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
IA 5 gallons or less, with or without
cartons, palletized or solid pileb
0.30 3,000 5,000 100 750 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons,
on end or side, palletized or
solid pile
0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750
IB, IC
and II
5 gallons or less, with or without
cartons, palletized or solid pileb
0.30 3,000 5,000 100 500 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons
on pallets or solid pile, one high
0.25 5,000 8,000 100
II Containers greater than 5 gallons
on pallets or solid pile, more
than one high, on end or side
0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750 2
III 5 gallons or less, with or without
cartons, palletized or solid pile
0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Containers greater than 5 gallons
on pallets or solid pile, on end
or sides, up to three high
0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
III Containers greater than 5 gallons,
on pallets or solid pile, on end
or sides, up to 18 feet high
0.35 3,000 5,000 100 750 2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,
1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by
30 percent without revising density.
b. For storage heights above 4 feet or ceiling heights greater than 18 feet, an approved engineering design shall be provided in accordance with FC104.7.2.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(5) SPRINKLER SYSTEM PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH OR WITHOUT CARTONS ON CONVENTIONAL WOOD PALLETSa

CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN
AND DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM
HOSE STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLERAND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
Racks up to
9 feet deep
Racks more than
9 feet to
12 feet deep
30 psi
(standard
orifice)
Number of
sprinklers
operating
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
14 psi
(large
orifice)
I
(maximum
25-foot
height)
Option 1
0.40 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary
temperature,
quick-response
sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet
3 inches horizontal
spacing
2. One line sprinklers
above each level of
storage
3. Locate in
longitudinal flue
space, staggered
vertical
4. Shields required
where multilevel
1. Ordinary
temperature,
quick-response
sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet
3 inches horizontal
spacing
2. One line sprinklers
above each level
of storage
3. Locate in
transverse flue
spaces, staggered
vertical and within
20 inches of aisle
4. Shields required
where multilevel
30 psi
(0.5-inch
orifice)
1. Eight
sprinklers if
only one
level
2. Six sprinklers
each on two
levels if only
two levels
3. Six sprinklers
each on top
three levels,
if three or
more levels
4. Hydraulically
most remote
750 2
I
(maximum
25-foot
height)
Option 2
0.55 2,000b Not
Applicable
100 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary
temperature, quick-
response sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet 3
inches horizontal
spacing
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. Ordinary
temperature, quick-
response sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet 3
inches horizontal
spacing
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
14 psi
(0.53-inch
orifice)
See 1
through
4 above
500 2
I and II
(maximum
14-foot
storage
height)
(maximum
three tiers)
0.55c 2,000b,d Not
Applicable
100 ft2/
head
Not Applicable
None for maximum
6-foot-deep racks
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not Applicable 500 2
II
(maximum
25-foot
height)
0.30 3,000 5,000 100 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers 8 feet
apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers
between levels at
nearest 10-foot
vertical intervals
3. Locate in
longitudinal flue
space, staggered
vertical
4. Shields required
where multilevel
1. Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers 8 feet
apart horizontally
2. Two lines between
levels at nearest
10-foot vertical
intervals
3. Locate in
transverse flue
spaces, staggered
vertical and within
20 inches of aisle
4. Shields required
where multilevel
30 psi Hydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers at
each level, up to
a maximum of
three levels
750 2
III
(40-foot
height)
0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/
head
Same as for
Class II liquids
Same as for
Class II liquids
30 psi Same as for
Class II liquids
500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L,
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.
b. When the installation uses listed or approved extra-large orifices, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers, such spaces may be provided with a maximum 30-foot ceiling height provided minimum 7.5-foot aisles are maintained.
c. For friction lid cans and other metal containers equipped with plastic nozzles or caps, the density shall be increased to 0.65 gpm per square foot using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response sprinklers.
d. When the installation uses listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers, such spaces may be provided with a maximum 18-foot ceiling height provided minimum 7.5-foot aisles are maintained and only metal containers are stored.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(6) SPRINKLER SYSTEM PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa

CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN
AND
DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM
HOSE
STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLER
AND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/
ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
On-side storage racks
up to 9-foot-deep racks
On-end storage (on
pallets) up to 9-foot-
deep racks
Minimum
nozzle
pressure
Number of
sprinklers
operating
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
IA
(maximum
25-foot
height)
0.60 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers 8 feet
apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers
above each tier of
storage
3. Locate in
longitudinal flue
space, staggered
vertical
4. Shields required
where multilevel
1. Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers 8 feet
apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers
above each tier of
storage
3. Locate in
longitudinal flue
space, staggered
vertical
4. Shields required
where multilevel
30 psi Hydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers at
each level
1,000 2
IB, IC and II
(maximum
25-foot
height)
0.60 3,000 5,000 100 ft2/
head
1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers
every three tiers of
storage
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. See 1 above
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
30 psi Hydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers at
each level
750 2
III
(maximum
40-foot
height)
0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/
head
1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers
every sixth level
(maximum)
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers
every third level
(maximum)
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
15 psi Hydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers at
each level
500 1

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,
1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. The design assumes the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where a Class I standpipe system is used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(7) AUTOMATIC AFFF WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa,b

CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER
DESIGN AND DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDc DURATION
AFFF
SUPPLY
(minimum)
DURATION
WATER
SUPPLY
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
On-end storage
of drums on pallets,
up to 25 feet
Minimum
nozzle
pressure
(psi)
Number of
sprinklers
operating
Hose stream
demandd

(gpm)
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
IA, IB,
IC and II
0.30 1,500 2,500 1. Ordinary temperature
sprinkler up to 10 feet
apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers
above each level of
storage
3. Locate in longitudinal
flue space, staggered
vertically
4. Shields required for
multilevel
30 Three
sprinklers
per level
500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L,
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
b. Except as modified by this table, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
c. Storage heights shall not exceed 25 feet.
d. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hand hose, when required.


FC TABLE 3404.3.6.3(8) SPRINKLER SYSTEM PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CLASS I LIQUID STORAGE IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 1-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH UNCARTONED OR CASE-CUT SHELF DISPLAY UP TO 6.5 FEET, AND PALLETIZED STORAGE ABOVE IN A DOUBLE-ROW RACK ARRAYa

STORAGE
HEIGHT
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM
HOSE
STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLER
AND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
Racks up to 9 feet
deep
Racks 9 to 12
feet
Minimum
nozzle
pressure
Number of
sprinkler
operating
High
temperature
Ordinary
temperature
Maximum
20-foot
storage
height
0.60 2,000b Not
Applicable
100 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary
temperature,
quick-response
sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet 3
inches horizontal
spacing
2. One line of
sprinklers at the 6-
foot level and the
11.5-foot level of
storage
3. Locate in
longitudinal flue
space, staggered
vertical
4. Shields required
where multilevel
Not
Applicable
30 psi
(standard
orifice) or
14 psi
(large
orifice)
1. Six sprinkler
each on two
levels
2. Hydraulically
most remote
12 sprinklers
500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L,
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. This table shall not apply to racks with solid shelves.
b. When the installation uses extra-large orifice sprinklers, such spaces may be provided with a maximum 30-foot ceiling height provided minimum 7.5-foot aisles are maintained.
Combustible commodities shall not be stored above flammable and combustible liquids.
All containers of flammable liquids offered for sale shall bear a warning label in accordance with federal laws, rules and regulations, painted or printed on the container, cautioning that the liquid is flammable and must be kept away from heat and open flames.
The commissioner may require that aisle and storage plans be submitted to the department in accordance with FC Chapter 27.
Liquid storage rooms shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.3.7.1 through 3404.3.7.5.2.
Quantities of liquids exceeding those set forth in FC3404.3.4.1 for storage in control areas shall be stored in a liquid storage room complying with the requirements of this section and constructed and separated as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code.
The quantity limits and storage arrangements in liquid storage rooms shall be in accordance with FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) and 3404.3.6.3(3) and FC 3404.3.7.2.1 through 3404.3.7.2.3.
Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a pile or rack section:

1. The quantity in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum quantities for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3); and

2. The height of storage in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum heights for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3).
Piles shall be separated from each other by at least 4-foot (1219 mm) aisles. Aisles shall be provided so that all containers are 20 feet (6096 mm) or less from an aisle. Where the storage of liquids is on racks, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rows of racks and adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide. Additional aisles shall be provided for access to doors, required windows and ventilation openings, standpipe connections, mechanical equipment and switches. Such aisles shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) in width, unless greater widths are required for separation of piles or racks, in which case the greater width shall be provided.
Containers and piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress to container walls. Adequate material-handling equipment shall be readily available and used to handle containers safely at upper tier levels.
Liquid storage rooms shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with FC2704.2.
Liquid storage rooms shall be ventilated in accordance with FC2704.3.
Fire protection for liquid storage rooms shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.3.7.5.1 and 3404.3.7.5.2.
Liquid storage rooms shall be protected throughout by sprinkler systems installed in accordance with FC Chapter 9, FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and FC Table 3404.3.7.5.1 and the construction codes, including the Building Code. In-rack sprinklers shall additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B, and the construction codes, including the Building Code. Foam fire extinguishing systems and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) fire extinguishing systems shall not be used except when approved by the commissioner and the Commissioner of Buildings. Protection criteria developed from fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at an approved testing laboratory are allowed in lieu of the protection as required in FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and FC Table 3404.3.7.5.1 and the construction codes, including the Building Code when approved by the commissioner and the Commissioner of Buildings.

FC TABLE 3404.3.7.5.1 AUTOMATIC AFFF-WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESSa,b

PACKAGE
TYPE
CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND STORAGE
HEIGHT
(feet)
HOSE
DEMAND
(gpm)c
DURATION
AFFF
SUPPLY
(minimum)
DURATION
WATER
SUPPLY
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Temperature
rating
Maximum
spacing
Orifice size
(inch)
Cartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.40 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.531 11 500 15 2
Uncartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.30 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.5 or 0.531 12 500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,
1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2, °C. = (°F-32)/1.8.
a. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
b. Ceiling heights shall not exceed 30 feet.
c. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hand hose, when required.
A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of FC906 and having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any Class I or II liquid storage area located outside of a liquid storage room. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from, the door opening into a liquid storage room.
Buildings used for storage of flammable or combustible liquids in quantities exceeding those set forth in FC3404.3.4 for control areas and FC3404.3.7 for liquid storage rooms shall comply with the requirements of FC 3404.3.8.1 through 3404.3.8.5 and shall be constructed and separated as required by the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Except as may be limited by the commissioner at a particular premises in the interest of public safety, any amount of flammable and combustible liquids may be stored in a liquid warehouse as defined in NFPA 30. The arrangement of such storage shall be in accordance with FC Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3).
Mixed storage shall be in accordance with FC3404.3.7.2.1.
Separation and aisles shall be in accordance with FC3404.3.7.2.2.
Liquid warehouses shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment as set forth in FC2704.2.
Liquid warehouses storing containers greater than 5 gallons (19 L) in capacity shall be ventilated in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
Liquid warehouses shall be protected throughout by sprinkler systems installed in accordance with FC Chapter 9 and FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and FC Table 3404.3.7.5.1, or NFPA 30. In-rack sprinklers shall additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B, and the construction codes, including the Building Code. Foam fire extinguishing systems and automatic aqueous film-forming foam fire extinguishing systems shall not be used except when approved. Protection criteria developed from fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at an approved testing laboratory are allowed in lieu of the protection as required in FC Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and FC Table 3404.3.7.5.1 and the construction codes, including the Building Code, when approved by the commissioner and the Commissioner of Buildings.
In liquid warehouses, either 11/2-inch (38-mm) lined or 1-inch (25-mm) hard rubber hand hose lines shall be provided in sufficient number to reach all liquid storage areas and shall be in accordance with FC905 and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Outdoor storage areas for portable containers of flammable and combustible liquids shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in compliance with the requirements of FC 3403, and 3404.4.1 through 3404.4.8.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved design and installation documents.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with FC Table 3404.4.2 and in compliance with the requirements of FC 3404.4.2.1 through 3404.4.2.4.

FC TABLE 3404.4.2 OUTDOOR LIQUID STORAGE IN CONTAINERS

CLASS OF
LIQUID
CONTAINER STORAGE—
MAXIMUM PER PILE
MINIMUM DISTANCE
BETWEEN PILES OR
RACKS (feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE
TO LOT LINEd (feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE
TO PUBLIC STREET OR
PRIVATE ROADd (feet)
Quantitya, b
(gallons)
Height
(feet)
IA
IB
IC
II
III
1,100
2,200
4,400
8,800
22,000
10
12
12
12
18
5
5
5
5
5
50
50
50
25
10
10
10
10
5
5

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For mixed class storage, see FC3404.4.2.
b. For storage in racks, the quantity limits per pile do not apply, but the rack arrangement shall be limited to a maximum of 50 feet in length and two rows or 9 feet in depth.
c. Reserved.
d. When the total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of the maximum allowed per pile, the distances are allowed to be reduced 50 percent, but not less than 3 feet.
Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a single pile, the quantity in the pile shall not exceed the smallest of maximum quantities for the classes of material stored.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be provided with fire apparatus access in accordance with FC319.7.1.
A maximum amount of 1,100 gallons (4163 L) of flammable and combustible liquids stored in portable containers may be stored adjacent to a building located on the same premises and under the same ownership, provided that:

1. The building does not exceed one story in height. Such building shall be of fire-resistance-rated construction with noncombustible exterior surfaces or noncombustible construction and shall be used principally for the storage of liquids; or

2. The exterior building wall adjacent to the storage area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, having no openings to above grade areas within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such storage and no openings to below grade areas within 50 feet (15 240 mm) horizontally of such storage.
The quantity of liquids stored adjacent to a building protected in accordance with FC3404.4.2.4(2) may exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L), provided that the maximum quantity per pile does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L) and each pile is separated by a 10-foot-minimum (3048 mm) clear space along the common wall. Where the quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons (4163 L) adjacent to a building complying with FC3404.4.2.4(1), or the provisions of FC3404.4.2.4(1) cannot be met, a minimum distance in accordance with the column for distance to a lot line in FC Table 3404.4.2 shall be maintained between buildings and the nearest container.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with FC3403.4.

Exception: Containers stored on approved containment pallets in accordance with FC2704.2.3 and containers stored in cabinets and lockers with integral spill containment.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be protected against tampering or trespassers by fencing or other approved control measures.
Posts or other means shall be provided to protect outdoor portable container storage areas from vehicular damage. When posts are installed, the posts shall be installed in accordance with FC312.
Outdoor portable container storage areas shall be kept free from vegetation and other combustible waste as set forth in FC 3404.4.6.1 and 3404.4.6.2.
Brush, grass, vines, weeds and other vegetation capable of being ignited that is located within 15 feet (4572 mm) of an outdoor portable container storage area shall be regularly mowed or pruned and the clippings removed from the premises.
Rubbish and other combustible waste shall not be allowed to accumulate within 15 feet (4572 mm) of an outdoor portable container storage area.
Weather protection for outdoor portable container storage areas shall be in accordance with FC2704.13.
The storage of empty containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored as required for filled containers. Containers when emptied shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.
The handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall be conducted in accordance with this chapter. Cargo tank and tank car loading and unloading and other special operations shall be conducted in accordance with FC3406.

Exception: Containers of organic coatings having no fire point and which are opened for pigmentation are not required to comply with the requirements of this section.
Liquid transfer equipment and methods for transfer of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner and conducted in compliance with the requirements of FC 3405.2.1 through 3405.2.7.
Positive-displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank, pump suction or other approved location, or shall be provided with interlocks to prevent over-pressure.
Gases shall not be used to pressurize containers or tanks to provide for transfer.
Piping, hoses and valves used in liquid transfer operations shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner or listed for the intended use.
Class I and II liquids or Class III liquids in containers exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L) capacity that are at a temperature higher than 20°F (11°C) less than their flash points shall not be dispensed by gravity, but shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

1. From safety cans complying with the requirements of UL 30.

2. Through an approved closed piping system.

3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.

4. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.
Class I liquids and Class II or III liquids at a temperature higher than 20°F (11°C) less than their flash points shall not be transferred into containers unless the nozzle and containers are electrically interconnected. Acceptable methods of electrical interconnection include:

1. Metallic floor plates on which containers stand while filling, when such floor plates are electrically connected to the fill stem; or

2. Where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling by means of a bond wire.
Container-filling operations for flammable liquids involving conveyor belts or other automatic-feeding operations shall be designed to prevent static accumulations.
When a portable container is used to dispense gasoline or other flammable or combustible liquids into portable fueled equipment or stationary fuel-burning equipment by means of pouring or other gravity dispensing, the individual capacity of the portable container shall not exceed 21/2 gallons (9.5L), except as authorized by this code at construction sites.
Indoor use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall be in accordance with FC3405.2, and FC 3405.3.1 through 3405.3.5.3.
Vessels used for mixing or blending of flammable liquids and combustible liquids at a temperature higher than 20°F (11°C) less than their flash points shall be provided with self-closing, tight-fitting, noncombustible lids that will control a fire within such vessel.

Exception: Where such devices are determined by the commissioner to be impractical, a fire extinguishing system shall be provided.
Where differences of potential could be created, vessels containing flammable liquids, or combustible liquids at a temperature higher than 20°F (11°C) less than their flash points shall be electrically connected by bond wires, ground cables, piping or similar means to a static grounding system to maintain equipment at the same electrical potential to prevent sparking.
Heating, lighting and cooking devices, equipment and systems which utilize flammable liquids shall not be operated indoors, and shall comply with the requirements of FC Chapters 3 and 14, as applicable.
Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines, in accordance with FC Tables 3405.3.4(1) and 3405.3.4(2). Processing vessels for flammable liquids shall be limited to not more than 550 gallons (2082 L). Processing vessels for Class II and IIIA combustible liquids shall be limited to not more than 1,100 gallons (4164 L). Processing vessels for Class IIIB combustible liquids shall be limited to not more than 20,000 gallons (75 700 L).

Exception: Where the exterior wall facing the adjoining lot line is a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours, the commissioner may modify the distances. The distance shall not be less than that set forth in the construction codes, including the Building Code, and when Class IA or unstable liquids are involved, explosion control shall be provided in accordance with FC911.

FC TABLE 3405.3.4(1) SEPARATION OF PROCESSING VESSELS FROM LOT LINES

PROCESSING VESSELS
WITH EMERGENCY
RELIEF VENTING
LOCATION
Stable liquids Unstable liquids
Not in excess of 2.5
psig
FC Table
3405.3.4(2)
two and one-half
times FC Table
3405.3.4(2)
Over 2.5 psig one and one-half
times FC Table
3405.3.4(2)
four times FC Table
3405.3.4(2)

For SI: 1 pound per square inch gauge = 6.895 kPa.


FC TABLE 3405.3.4(2) REFERENCE TABLE FOR USE WITH FC TABLE 3405.3.4(1)

TANK CAPACITY
(gallons)
MINIMUM
DISTANCE FROM
LOT LINE
(feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE
FROM A BUILDING,
PUBLIC STREET OR
PRIVATE ROAD
(feet)
275 or less 5 5
Over 275 to 750 10 5
Over 750 to 12,000 15 5
Over 12,000 to
20,000
20 5

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
Liquid use quantity limitations shall comply with the requirements of FC 3405.3.5.1 through 3405.3.5.3.
Indoor use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in FC Table 2703.1.1(1) and shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in FC3405.3.5.

Exceptions:

1. Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with FC3405.3.6.

2. Use of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 18.
The quantity of flammable or combustible liquid handled and used, including the quantity dispensed and mixed, shall be limited by occupancy as follows:

1. Group A, B, E, F, I and S occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be handled and used only for lawful uses incidental to the occupancy, including maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed those which are necessary for such use.

2. Group M occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be handled and used only for lawful uses incidental to the occupancy, including maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed those which are necessary for such use.

3. Group R occupancies. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be handled and used only for maintenance and operation of equipment, and in quantities not to exceed those which are necessary for such use. Quantities used within a dwelling unit shall be for household uses only and in quantities below permit amounts. It shall be unlawful to handle or use gasoline or other flammable liquid motor fuel within a dwelling unit.

4. Gasoline and other flammable liquid motor fuel. Gasoline and other flammable liquid motor fuel in portable containers in quantities requiring a permit is subject to the approval of the commissioner, regardless of the occupancy classification of the premises.
Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in FC 3405.3.5.1 and 3405.3.5.2 shall be in compliance with the following requirements:

1. For open systems, indoor use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall be within a room or building complying with the construction codes, including the Building Code and FC 3405.3.7.1 through 3405.3.7.5.

2. For closed systems, indoor use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall be within a room or building complying with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code and FC 3405.3.7 through 3405.3.7.4 and 3405.3.7.6.
Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be accordance with this section.

Exceptions:

1. Dry cleaning shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 12.

2. Spray-nozzle cleaning shall be in accordance with FC1503.3.5.
Class IA liquids and gasoline shall not be used to clean facilities or for other maintenance purposes, except as authorized by this code or the rules in connection with commercial and industrial process-related operations. The cleaning with Class IB, IC or II liquids shall be conducted as follows:

1. In a room or building in accordance with FC3405.3.7; or

2. In a machine listed and approved for the purpose in accordance with FC3405.3.6.2.
Parts cleaning and degreasing conducted in listed and approved machines in accordance with FC3405.3.6.1 shall be in accordance with FC 3405.3.6.2.1 through 3405.3.6.2.7.
Solvents shall be classified and shall be compatible with the machines within which they are used.
The quantity of solvent shall not exceed the listed design capacity of the machine for the solvent being used with the machine.
Solvent quantities shall be limited as follows:

1. Machines without remote solvent reservoirs shall be limited to quantities set forth in FC3405.3.5.

2. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using a Class IB or IC liquid shall be limited to quantities set forth in FC3405.3.5.

3. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class II liquids shall be limited to 35 gallons (132 L) per machine. The total quantities shall not exceed an aggregate of 240 gallons (908 L) per control area in buildings not protected throughout by a sprinkler system and an aggregate of 480 gallons (1817 L) per control area in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system.

4. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class IIIA liquids shall be limited to 80 gallons (303 L) per machine.
Work areas of machines with remote solvent reservoirs shall not be used for immersion soaking of parts.
Multiple machines shall be separated from each other by a distance of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or by a fire barrier with a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
Machines shall be located in areas adequately ventilated to prevent accumulation of vapors.
Machines shall be installed in accordance with their listings.
Where required by FC 3405.3.5.3 or 3405.3.6.1, rooms or buildings used for the handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, shall be in accordance with FC 3405.3.7.1 through 3405.3.7.6.3.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies based on use of flammable or combustible liquids, including the dispensing or mixing of such liquids, shall be constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
In rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be conducted in basements, cellars or other areas below grade.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code, as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
Interior doors to rooms or portions of such buildings shall be self-closing fire doors in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
The handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing and mixing of such liquids, in open systems shall be in accordance with FC 3405.3.7.5.1 through 3405.3.7.5.3.
Continuous mechanical ventilation shall be provided and shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code and the Mechanical Code.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with FC911.
Spill control shall be provided in accordance with FC3403.4 where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with FC3403.4 when the capacity of an individual container exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 100 gallons (378.5 L).
The handling and use of flammable or combustible liquids in closed containers, including the mixing of such liquids, shall be in accordance with FC 3405.3.7.6.1 through 3405.3.7.6.3.
Closed systems designed to be opened as part of normal operations shall be provided with ventilation in accordance with FC3405.3.7.5.1.
Explosion control shall be provided when an explosive environment can occur as a result of the use, including any mixing process. Explosion control shall be designed in accordance with FC911.

Exception: When process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions considering the most likely failure.
Spill control shall be provided in accordance with FC3403.4 when flammable or combustible liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with FC3403.4 when the capacity of an individual container or tank exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
Outdoor handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing of such liquids, shall be in accordance with FC 3405.3.8.1 through 3405.3.8.3.

Exception: Dispensing of liquids into motor vehicle fuel tanks at liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 22.
Outdoor handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including the dispensing areas for such liquids, shall be provided with spill control as set forth in FC3403.4.
Dispensing activities which exceed the quantities set forth in FC Table 3405.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of buildings or combustible materials or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines, public streets or private roads. Dispensing activities that exceed the quantities set forth in FC Table 3405.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of storage of Class I, II or III liquids unless such liquids are stored in tanks which are listed and labeled as 2-hour protected tank assemblies in accordance with UL 2085. The commissioner may impose by rule, or as a condition of a permit, additional restrictions on dispensing activities, including dispensing locations, dispenser requirements, container requirements and fire protection requirements, upon a determination that such additional restrictions are required in the interest of public safety.

Exceptions:

1. The requirements shall not apply to areas where only the following liquids are dispensed: Class III liquids; liquids that are heavier than water; water-miscible liquids; and liquids with viscosities greater than 10,000 centipoise (cp).

2. Flammable and combustible liquid dispensing in chemical plants, process facilities, oil blending and packaging facilities, bulk plants and terminals.

FC TABLE 3405.3.8.2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES FOR DISPENSING OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREASa

CLASS OF LIQUID QUANTITY (gallons)
Flammable
Class IA
Class IB
Class IC
Combination Class IA, IB and IC
10
15
20
30c
Combustible
Class II
Class IIIA
Class IIIB
30
80
3,300

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For definition of "Outdoor Control Area," see FC2702.1.
b. Reserved.
c. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of each individual class.
Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines in accordance with FC Table 3405.3.4(1).
Mobile trailers using fuel oil for heating and power generation shall comply with the requirements of the rules.
Solvent distillation units shall comply with the requirements of FC 3405.4.1 through 3405.4.9.
Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids having a distillation chamber capacity of not more than 60 gallons (227 L) shall be listed, labeled and installed in accordance with FC3405.4 and UL 2208.

Exceptions:

1. Solvent distillation units installed in dry cleaning facilities in accordance with FC Chapter 12.

2. Solvent distillation units used in continuous through-put industrial processes where the source of heat is remotely supplied using steam, hot water, oil or other heat transfer fluids, the temperature of which is below the auto-ignition point of the solvent.

3. Solvent distillation units listed for and used in laboratories.

4. Approved research, testing and experimental processes.
Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids, having a distillation chamber capacity exceeding 60 gallons (227 L) shall be used in locations that comply with the use and mixing requirements of FC3405 and other applicable provisions in this chapter.
It shall be unlawful to process Class I, II and IIIA liquids also classified as unstable (reactive) in solvent distillation units.
Solvent distillation units shall bear a permanent label indicating the capacity of the distillation chamber, the distance the unit shall be placed away from sources of ignition, and the products for which the unit has been listed for use.
The manufacturer’s manual for the installation, operation and servicing of the solvent distillation unit shall be maintained on the premises, readily available to the user and for inspection by any department representative. In accordance with FC2703.4, material safety data sheets shall be maintained on the premises for each flammable or combustible liquid used in the distillation unit.
Solvent distillation units shall be installed at locations in accordance with the listing for the unit. Solvent distillation units shall not be used in basements, cellars or other areas below grade.
Distilled liquids and liquids awaiting distillation shall be stored in accordance with FC3404.
Hazardous residue from the distillation process shall be stored in accordance with FC3404 and FC Chapter 27.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with FC906. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 40-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from any solvent distillation unit.
The storage, handling and use of dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or Class II liquids shall be in compliance with the following requirements:

1. Dispensers shall be of the nonaerosol, disposable and nonrefillable type.

2. The maximum capacity of each dispenser shall be 68 ounces (2.0 L).

3. The maximum alcohol content shall not exceed 95 percent by volume.

4. The minimum separation between dispensers shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).

5. Dispensers shall not be installed directly adjacent to, above or below any electrical receptacle, switch, appliance, device or other ignition source. The wall space between the dispenser and the floor shall remain clear and unobstructed.

6. Dispensers shall be wall mounted with the bottom of each dispenser a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.

7. Dispensers shall not release their contents except when the dispenser is manually activated.

8. The storage of dispensers shall be in compliance with the applicable requirements of FC3404.

9. In occupancies with carpeted floors, dispensers may only be installed in smoke compartments or fire areas protected throughout by a sprinkler system.
Dispensers installed in corridors shall additionally comply with the following requirements:

1. The maximum capacity of each dispenser shall be 41 ounces (1.21 L).

2. The maximum quantity allowed in a corridor within a control area shall be 10 gallons (38 L).

3. The minimum corridor width shall be 72 inches (1829 mm).

4. Projections into a corridor shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.

5. The corridor shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system or smoke detection system.
Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored, handled and used in connection with special operations, including the following operations, in compliance with the requirements of this section:

1. Storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids at construction sites.

2. Bulk plants or terminals.

3. Bulk transfer and process transfer operations utilizing cargo tanks and tank cars.

4. Cargo tanks and cargo tank operation.

5. Vapor recovery and vapor-processing systems.
Special operations involving the storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be conducted in accordance with FC 3401, 3403, 3404 and 3405, except as otherwise provided in this section.
It shall be unlawful to dispense any flammable or combustible liquid from a cargo tank or tank car into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, except for the transfer of liquids from a cargo tank to construction equipment at a construction site in accordance with FC3406.2.8.
Temporary storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids at