Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
This is a normative appendix and is part of this standard
This appendix offers an alternative path for minimum standard compliance in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1 when administered by a building official. It is also provided for those who wish to use this appendix to quantify performance that exceeds the requirements of this standard when administered by a rating authority and not seeking minimum standard compliance in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1. It shall be used for evaluating the performance of all such proposed designs, including alterations and additions to existing buildings, except designs with no mechanical systems. In the case where this appendix is administered solely by a building official to determine compliance with this standard in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1, all references to "rating authority" shall be replaced with "building official."

This performance rating method requires conformance with the following provisions:

  1. All requirements of Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, 10.4, and Section 6.7 shall be met. These sections contain the mandatory provisions of the standard and are prerequisites for this rating method.
  2. The interior lighting power shall not exceed the interior lighting power allowance determined using either Tables G3.7 or G3.8 and the methodology described in Sections 9.5.1 and 9.6.1.
  3. In new buildings 25,000 square feet and greater, the building envelope shall comply with either:

    1. Section 5.5, "Prescriptive Building Envelope Option," or
    2. An envelope performance factor shall be calculated in accordance with Appendix C of this standard, and buildings shall comply with one of the following:

      1. For multifamily, hotel/motel and dormitory building area types, the margin by which the proposed envelope performance factor exceeds the base envelope performance factor shall not be greater than 15%. For compliance with this requirement, the base envelope performance factor shall be calculated using metal framing operable windows. In buildings with window area accounting for 40% or more of the gross wall area, the SHGC of the vertical fenestration on east and west oriented façade may be reduced by the following multiplier to account for the permanent site shading from existing buildings or infrastructure.

        MWest= 0.l8 + 0.33/WWR
        MEast= 0.35 + 0.26/WWR
        Where:
        MWest= SHGC multiplier for the West facade
        MEast= SHGC multiplier for the East façade
        WWR= the ratio of proposed vertical fenestration area to the gross wall area in consistent units

        The multiplier may be applied to the rated SHGC of the vertical fenestration which has at least 50% of the area located directly opposite of the shading surfaces and no higher from the street level than the difference between the shading surface height and the shading surface distance from the façade. Orientation must be determined following Section 5.5.4.5, Fenestration Orientation.

      2. For all other building area types, the margin by which the proposed envelope performance factor exceeds the base envelope performance factor shall be not greater than 7%. For compliance with this requirement, the base envelope performance factor shall be calculated using metal framing fixed windows.
      3. For mixed-use buildings, the margin shall be calculated as the gross wall area-weighted average of i) and ii) above.
The performance of the proposed design is calculated by either the provisions of Section‡ G1.2.2.1, Performance Cost Index or Section‡ G1.2.2.2, Performance Source Energy Index.

The performance of the proposed design is calculated in accordance with provisions of this Appendix using the following formula:

Performance Cost Index =
Proposed building performance/Baseline building performance

Both the proposed building performance and the baseline building performance shall include all end-use load components within and associated with the building when calculating the Performance Cost Index.

The performance of the proposed design is calculated in accordance with provisions of this Appendix using the following formula:

Performance Source Energy Index =
Proposed building source energy/Baseline building source energy

Both the proposed building source energy and the baseline building source energy shall include all end-use load components within and associated with the building when calculating the Performance Source Energy Index.

Simulated performance shall be documented, and documentation shall be submitted to the rating authority. The information shall be submitted in a report and shall include the following:

  1. A brief description of the project, the key energy efficiency improvements compared with the requirements in Sections 5 through 10, the simulation program used, the version of the simulation program, and the results of the energy analysis. This summary shall contain the calculated values for the baseline building unregulated energy cost (BBUEC), baseline building regulated energy cost (BBREC), baseline building unregulated source energy (BBUSE), baseline building regulated source energy (BBRSE), building performance factor (BPF), baseline building performance, the proposed building performance, baseline building source energy, the proposed building source energy, Performance Cost Index (PCI), Performance Source Energy Index (PSEI), Performance Cost Index Target (PCIt), and Performance Source Energy Target (PSEt).
  2. An overview of the project that includes the number of stories (above and below grade), the typical floor size, the uses in the building (e.g., office, cafeteria, retail, parking, etc.), the gross area of each use, and whether each use is conditioned space.
  3. A list of the energy-related features that are included in the design and on which the performance rating is based. This list shall document all energy features that differ between the models used in the baseline building performance and proposed building performance calculations.
  4. A list showing compliance for the proposed design with all the requirements of Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4 (mandatory provisions).
  5. A list identifying those aspects of the proposed design that are less stringent than the requirements of 5.5, 6.5, 7.5,9.5, and 9.6 (prescriptive provisions).
  6. A table with a summary by end use of the proposed building performance, proposed building source energy, baseline building performance, baseline building source energy with each end use separated into regulated and unregulated components.
  7. A site plan showing all adjacent buildings and topography that may shade the proposed building (with estimated height or number of stories).
  8. Building elevations and floor plans.
  9. A diagram showing the thermal blocks used in the computer simulation.
  10. An explanation of any significant modeling assumptions.
  11. Backup calculations and material to support data inputs (e.g., U-factors for building envelope assemblies, NFRC ratings for fenestration, end-uses identified in Table G3.1, "1. Design Model," paragraph [a]).
  12. Input and output reports from the simulation program or compliance software, including a breakdown of energy use by at least the following components: lights, internal equipment loads, service water-heating equipment, space-heating equipment, space-cooling and heat rejection equipment, fans, and other HVAC equipment (such as pumps). The output reports shall also show the amount of unmet load hours for both the proposed design and baseline building design.
  13. Purchased energy rates used in the simulations.
  14. An explanation of any error messages noted in the simulation program output.
  15. For any exceptional calculation methods employed, document the predicted energy savings by energy type, the energy cost savings, a narrative explaining the exceptional calculation method performed, and theoretical or empirical information supporting the accuracy of the method.
  16. The reduction in proposed building performance associated with on-site renewable energy.

The proposed building performance and baseline building performance shall be calculated using the following:

  1. The same simulation program.
  2. The same weather data.
  3. The same energy rates.
The simulation program shall be a computer-based program for the analysis of energy consumption in buildings (a program such as, but not limited to, DOE-2, BLAST, or EnergyPlus). The simulation program shall include calculation methodologies for the building components being modeled. For components that cannot be modeled by the simulation program, the exceptional calculation methods requirements in Section G2.5 shall be used.

The simulation program shall be approved by the rating authority and shall, at a minimum, have the ability to explicitly model all of the following:

  1. 8760 hours per year.
  2. Hourly variations in occupancy, lighting power, miscellaneous equipment power, thermostat set points, and HVAC system operation, defined separately for each day of the week and holidays.
  3. Thermal mass effects.
  4. Ten or more thermal zones.
  5. Part-load performance curves for mechanical equipment.
  6. Capacity and efficiency correction curves for mechanical heating and mechanical cooling equipment.
  7. Air economizers with integrated control.
  8. Baseline building design characteristics specified in Section G3.
The simulation program shall have the ability to either directly determine the proposed building performance and baseline building performance or produce hourly reports of energy use by an energy source suitable for determining the proposed building performance and baseline building performance using a separate calculation engine.
The simulation program shall be capable of performing design load calculations to determine required HVAC equipment capacities and air and water flow rates in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks (for example, ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals) for both the proposed design and baseline building design.
The simulation program shall be tested according to ASHRAE Standard 140, except Sections 7 and 8, and the results shall be furnished by the software provider.
The simulation program shall perform the simulation using hourly values of climatic data, such as temperature and humidity from representative climatic data, for the site in which the proposed design is to be located. For cities or urban regions with several climatic data entries, and for locations where weather data are not available, the designer shall select available weather data that best represent the climate at the construction site. The selected weather data shall be approved by the rating authority.
Site-recovered energy shall not be considered purchased energy and shall be subtracted from the proposed design energy consumption prior to calculating the proposed building performance or proposed building source energy. On-site renewable energy generated by systems included on the building permit that is used by the building shall be subtracted from the proposed design energy consumption prior to calculating the proposed building performance or proposed building source energy. The reduction in proposed building performance or proposed building source energy associated with on-site renewable energy systems shall not exceed 5% of the calculated baseline building performance or baseline building source energy, respectively.

The design energy cost and baseline energy cost shall be determined using rates for purchased energy (such as electricity, gas, oil, propane, steam, and chilled water) that are approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Where on-site renewable energy or site-recovered energy is used, the baseline building design shall be based on the energy source used as the backup energy source, or the baseline system energy source in that category if no backup energy source has been specified, except where the baselineenergy source is prescribed in Tables G3.1.1-2 and G3.1.1-3. Where the proposed design includes electricity generated from sources other than on-site renewable energy, the baseline design shall include the same generation system, excluding its site-recovered energy.

When the simulation program does not model a design, material, or device of the proposed design, an exceptional calculation method shall be used as approved by the rating authority. Where there are multiple designs, materials, or devices that the simulation program does not model, each shall be calculated separately and exceptional savings determined for each. At no time shall the total exceptional savings constitute more than half of the difference between the baseline building performance and the proposed building performance. All applications for approval of an exceptional method shall include the following:

  1. Step-by-step documentation of the exceptional calculation method performed, detailed enough to reproduce the results.
  2. Copies of all spreadsheets used to perform the calculations.
  3. A sensitivity analysis of energy consumption when each of the input parameters is varied from half to double the value assumed.
  4. The calculations shall be performed on a time-step basis consistent with the simulation program used.
  5. The Performance Cost Index or Performance Source Energy Index calculated with and without the exceptional calculation method.

The simulation model for calculating the proposed and baseline building performance shall be developed in accordance with the requirements in Table G3.1.

Table G3.1 Modeling Requirements for Calculating Proposed and Baseline Building Performance
No. Proposed Building Performance Baseline Building Performance
1. Design Model
  1. The simulation model of the proposed design shall be consistent with the design documents, including proper accounting of fenestration and opaque building envelope types and areas; interior lighting power and controls; HVAC system types, sizes, and controls; and service water-heating systems and controls. All end-use load components within and associated with the building shall be modeled, including but not limited to exhaust fans, parking garage ventilation fans, snow-melt and freeze-protection equipment, facade lighting, swimming pool heaters and pumps, elevators and escalators, refrigeration, and cooking. Where the simulation program does not specifically model the functionality of the installed system, spreadsheets or other documentation of the assumptions shall be used to generate the power demand and operating schedule of the systems.
  2. All conditioned spaces in the proposed design shall be simulated as being both heated and cooled even if no heating or cooling system is to be installed.

    Exception: Spaces designed with heating only systems serving storage rooms, stairwells, vestibules, electrical/mechanical rooms, and restrooms not exhausting or transferring air from mechanically cooled thermal zones in the proposed design shall not be modeled with mechanical cooling.

  3. When the performance rating method is applied to buildings in which energy-related features have not yet been designed (e.g., a lighting system), those yet-to-be-designed features shall be modeled in the proposed design to comply with but not exceed the requirements of this Standard as described in Table G3.1 parts 6, 10, 11 and 12. Where the space classification for a space is not known, the space shall be categorized as an office space.
The baseline building design shall be modeled with the
same number of floors and identical conditioned floor area
as the proposed design.
The baseline building design shall be developed by modifying
the proposed design as described in Section G3. Except as
specifically instructed, all building systems and equipment
shall be modeled identically in the proposed design and .
Where the baseline building systems and equipment are permitted to be different from the proposed design but are not prescribed in this Appendix, the baseline must be determined based on the following, in the order of priority:
  1. Requirements in Sections 5 through 10.
  2. Requirements of other efficiency or equipment codes or standards applicable to the designs of the building systems and equipment.
2. Additions and Alterations
It is acceptable to predict performance using building models that exclude parts of the existing building, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Work to be performed in excluded parts of the building shall meet the requirements of Sections 5 through 10.
  2. Excluded parts of the building are served by HVAC systems that are entirely separate from those serving parts of the building that are included in the building model.
  3. Design space temperature and HVAC system operating set points and schedules on either side of the boundary between included and excluded parts of the building are essentially the same.
  4. If a declining block or similar utility rate is being used in the analysis, and the excluded and included parts of the building are on the same utility meter, the rate shall reflect the utility block or rate for the building plus the addition.
If the proposed design excludes parts of the existing building,
the baseline building design shall exclude them as well.
When modeled, unmodified existing building components
shall follow the same rules as new and modified
building components.
3. Space Use Classification
Use shall be specified using the building type or space type lighting classifications in accordance with Section 9.5.1 or 9.6.1. The user shall specify the space use classifications using either the building type or space type categories but shall not combine the two types of categories. More than one building type category may be used in a building if it is a mixed-use facility. If space type categories are used, the user may simplify the placement of the various space types within the building model, provided that building total areas for each space type are accurate. Same as proposed design.
4. Schedule
Schedules capable of modeling hourly variations in occupancy, lighting power, miscellaneous equipment power, thermostat set points, and HVAC system operation shall be used. Schedules shall be in accordance with the rules of the department for the applicable space types, unless as determined by the designer and approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
Temperature and Humidity Schedules. Temperature and
humidity control set points and schedules as well as temperature control throttling range shall be the same for proposed design and baseline building design.
HVAC Fan Schedules. Schedules for HVAC fans that provide
outdoor air for ventilation shall run continuously whenever spaces are occupied and shall be cycled ON and OFF to meet heating and cooling loads during unoccupied hours.

Exceptions:

  1. Where no heating and/or cooling system is to be installed, and a heating or cooling system is being simulated only to meet the requirements described in this table, heating and/or cooling system fans shall not be simulated as running continuously during occupied hours but shall be cycled ON and OFF to meet heating and cooling loads during all hours.
  2. HVAC fans shall remain on during occupied and unoccupied hours in spaces that have health- and safety-mandated minimum ventilation requirements during unoccupied hours.
  3. HVAC fans shall remain on during occupied and unoccupied hours in systems primarily serving computer rooms.
Same as proposed design.

Exceptions:

  1. Set points and schedules for HVAC systems that
    automatically provide occupant thermal comfort via
    means other than directly controlling the air dry-bulb
    and wet-bulb temperature may be allowed to differ,
    provided that equivalent levels of occupant thermal
    comfort are demonstrated via the methodology in
    ASHRAE Standard 55, Section 5.3.3, "Elevated Air
    Speed," or Standard 55, Appendix B, "Computer Program
    for Calculation of PMV-PPD."
  2. Schedules may be allowed to differ between proposed design
    and baseline building design when necessary
    to model nonstandard efficiency measures, provided
    that the revised schedules have been approved by the
    rating authority. Measures that may warrant use of different
    schedules include but are not limited to automatic
    and automatic controls that reduce service water-heating
    loads. In no case shall schedules differ where the
    controls are manual (e.g., manual operation of light
    switches or manual operation of windows).
  3. Fan schedules may be allowed to differ when Section‡ G3.1.1(c) applies.
5. Building Envelope
  1. All components of the building envelope in the proposed design shall be modeled as shown on architectural drawings or as built for existing building envelopes. Opaque portions of the curtain wall shall use the default U-factors in Table 5.5.3, unless an alternative method is approved by the department.

    Exceptions: The following building elements are permitted to differ from architectural drawings:

    1. All uninsulated assemblies (e.g., projecting balconies, perimeter edges of intermediate floor slabs, concrete floor beams over parking garages, roof parapet) shall be separately modeled using either of the following techniques:
      1. Separate model of each of these assemblies within the energy simulation model.
      2. Separate calculation of the U-factor for each of these assemblies. The U-factors of these assemblies are then averaged with larger adjacent surfaces using an area-weighted average method. This average U-factor is modeled within the energy simulation model.
      Any other building envelope assembly that covers less than 5% of the total area of that assembly type (e.g., exterior walls) need not be separately described, provided that its U-factor is similar to an assembly being modeled. If not separately described, the area of a building envelope assembly shall be added to the area of an assembly of that same type with the same orientation and thermal properties. When the total area of penetrations from through-the-wall mechanical equipment or equipment listed in Table 6.8.1-4 exceeds 1% of the opaque above-grade wall area, the mechanical equipment penetration area shall be calculated as a separate wall assembly with a default U-factor of 0.5. Where mechanical equipment has been tested in accordance with testing standards approved by the authority having jurisdiction, the mechanical equipment penetration area may be calculated as a separate wall assembly with the U-factor as determined by such test.
    2. 2. Exterior surfaces whose azimuth orientation and tilt differ by less than 45 degrees and are otherwise the same may be described as either a single surface or by using multipliers.
    3. 3. The exterior roof surface shall be modeled using the aged solar reflectance and thermal emittance determined in accordance with Section 5.5.3.1.1(a). Where aged test data are unavailable, the roof surface may be modeled with a reflectance of 0.30 and a thermal emittance of 0.90.
    4. 4. Manual fenestration shading devices, such as blinds or shades, shall be modeled or not modeled the same as in the baseline building design. Automatically controlled fenestration shades or blinds shall be modeled. Permanent shading devices, such as fins, overhangs, and light shelves shall be modeled.
    5. 5. Automatically controlled dynamic glazing may be modeled. Manually controlled dynamic glazing shall use the average of the minimum and maximum SHGC and VT.
  2. b. Infiltration shall be modeled using the same methodology, air leakage rate, and adjustments for weather and building operation in both the proposed design and the baseline building design. These adjustments shall be made for each simulation time step and must account for but not be limited to weather conditions and HVAC system operation, including strategies that are intended to positively pressurize the building. The air leakage rate of the building envelope (I75Pa) at a fixed building pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water shall be 0.4 cfm/ft2. The air leakage rate of the building envelope shall be converted to appropriate units for the simulation program using one of the methods in Section G3.1.1.4.

    Exceptions: When whole-building air leakage testing, in accordance with ASTM E779, is specified during design and completed after construction, the proposed design air leakage rate of the building envelope shall be as measured.

Equivalent dimensions shall be assumed for each building envelope
component type as in the proposed design; i.e.,
the total gross area of walls shall be the same in the
shall be true for the areas of roofs, floors, and doors, and the
exposed perimeters of concrete slabs on grade shall also be
The following additional requirements shall apply to
the modeling of the baseline building design:
  1. Orientation. The baseline building performance shall be
    generated by simulating the building with its actual orientation
    and again after rotating the entire building 90, 180,
    and 270 degrees, then averaging the results. The building
    shall be modeled so that it does not shade itself.

    Exceptions:

    1. If it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the rating authority
      that the building orientation is dictated by site considerations.
    2. Buildings where the vertical fenestration area on each
      orientation varies by less than 5%.
  2. c. Opaque Assemblies. Opaque assemblies used for
    new buildings, existing buildings, or additions shall conform
    with assemblies detailed in Appendix A and shall match
    the appropriate assembly maximum U-factors in
    Tables G3.4-1 through G3.4-8:
  3. d. Vertical Fenestration Assemblies. Fenestration for
    new buildings, existing buildings, and additions shall comply
    with the following:
  4. e. Skylights and Glazed Smoke Vents. Skylight area shall
    be equal to that in the proposed design or 3%, whichever
    is smaller. If the skylight area of the proposed design is
    greater than 3%, baseline skylight area shall be
    decreased by an identical percentage in all roof components
    in which skylights are located to reach 3%. Skylight orientation
    and tilt shall be the same as in the proposed design.
    Skylight U-factor and SHGC properties shall match
    the appropriate requirements in Tables G3.4-1
    through G3.4-8 using the value and the applicable
    skylight percentage.
  5. f. Roof Solar Reflectance and Thermal Emittance.
    The exterior roof surfaces shall be modeled using a solar
    reflectance of 0.30 and a thermal emittance of 0.90.
  6. g. Roof Albedo. All roof surfaces shall be modeled
    with a reflectivity of 0.30.
6. Lighting
Lighting power in the proposed design shall be determined as follows:
  1. Where a complete lighting system exists, the actual lighting power for each thermal block shall be used in the model.
  2. Where a lighting system has been designed and submitted with design documents, lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Sections 9.1.3 and 9.1.4.
  3. Where lighting neither exists nor is submitted with design documents, lighting shall comply with but not exceed the requirements of Section 9. Where space types are known, lighting power shall be determined in accordance with the Space-by-Space Method. Where space types are not known, lighting power shall be determined in accordance with the Building Area Method.
  4. Lighting system power shall include all lighting system components shown or provided for on the plans (including lamps and ballasts and task and furniture-mounted fixtures).
  5. For dwelling units, hotel/motel guest rooms, and other spaces in which lighting systems are connected via receptacles and are not shown or provided for on building plans, lighting power used in the simulation shall be equal to the lighting power allowance in Table 9.6.1 for the appropriate space type or as designed, whichever is greater. For the dwelling units, lighting power used in the simulation shall be equal to 0.60 W/ft2, (or as designed, whichever is greater).

    Exception: Lighting use can be reduced for the portion of the space illuminated by the specified fixtures provided that they maintain the same illuminance level as in the baseline. Such reduction shall be demonstrated by calculations.

  6. Exterior lighting power and lighting power for parking garages shall be modeled.
  7. For lighting controls, at a minimum, the proposed design shall contain the mandatory automatic lighting controls specified in Section 9.4.1 (e.g., automatic daylight responsive controls, occupancy sensors, programmable controls, etc.). These controls shall be modeled in accordance with (h) and (i).
  8. Automatic daylighting responsive controls shall be modeled directly in the proposed design or through schedule adjustments determined by a separate daylighting analysis approved by the rating authority. Modeling and schedule adjustments shall separately account for primary sidelighted areas, secondary sidelighted areas, and toplighted areas.
  9. Other automatic lighting controls included in the proposed design shall be modeled directly in the building simulation by reducing the lighting schedule each hour by the occupancy sensor reduction factors in Table G3.7 for the applicable space type. This reduction shall be taken only for lighting controlled by the occupancy sensors. Credit for other programmable lighting control in buildings less than 5000 ft2 can be taken by reducing the lighting schedule each hour by 10%.
Interior lighting power in the baseline building design shall
be determined using the values in Table G3.7. However, where
lighting neither exists nor is submitted with design documents,
and the proposed design lighting power is determined
according to the Building Area Method, the baseline building design
lighting power shall be determined in accordance
with Table G3.8. Where retail display lighting is
included in the proposed building design in accordance with
lighting additional power shall be equal to the limits established
by Section 9.6.2(b) or same as proposed, whichever is
less.
Lighting shall be modeled having the automatic shutoff
controls in buildings greater than
5000 ft2 and occupancy sensors in employee
lunch and break rooms, conference/meeting rooms,
and classrooms (not including shop classrooms, laboratory
classrooms, and preschool through 12th-grade classrooms).
These controls shall be reflected in the baseline building design
lighting schedules. No additional automatic lighting controls,
e.g., automatic controls for daylight utilization and occupancy
sensors in space types not listed above, shall be modeled in the
Exterior lighting in areas that are designed to be
illuminated and identified as "Tradable Surfaces" in
Table G3.6 shall be modeled with the baseline lighting power
shown in Table G3.6. Other exterior lighting shall be modeled the
7. Thermal BlocksHVAC Zones Designed
Where HVAC zones are defined on HVAC design drawings, each HVAC zone shall be modeled as a separate thermal block.

Exceptions: Different HVAC zones may be combined to create a single thermal block or identical thermal blocks to which multipliers are applied, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The space use classification is the same throughout the thermal block or all of the zones have peak internal loads that differ by less than 10 Btu/hr • ft2 from the average.
  2. All HVAC zones in the thermal block that are adjacent to glazed exterior walls and glazed semiexterior walls face the same orientation or their orientations vary by less than 45 degrees.
  3. All of the zones are served by the same HVAC system or by the same kind of HVAC system.
  4. All of the zones have schedules that differ by 40 or less equivalent load hours per week.
Same as proposed design.
8. Thermal BlocksHVAC Zones Not Designed
Where the HVAC zones and systems have not yet been designed, thermal blocks shall be defined based on similar internal load densities, occupancy, lighting, thermal and space temperature schedules, and in combination with the following guidelines:
  1. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for interior and perimeter spaces. Interior spaces shall be those located greater than 15 ft from an exterior wall or semiexterior wall. Perimeter spaces shall be those located within 15 ft of an exterior wall or semiexterior wall. A separate thermal zone does not need to be modeled for areas adjacent to semiexterior walls that separate semiheated space from conditioned space.
  2. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces adjacent to glazed exterior walls or glazed semiexterior walls; a separate zone shall be provided for each orientation, except that orientations that differ by less than 45 degrees may be considered to be the same orientation. Each zone shall include all floor area that is 15 ft or less from a glazed perimeter wall, except that floor area within 15 ft of glazed perimeter walls having more than one orientation shall be divided proportionately between zones.
  3. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having floors that are in contact with the ground or exposed to ambient conditions from zones that do not share these features.
  4. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having exterior ceiling or roof assemblies from zones that do not share these features.
Same as proposed design.
9. Thermal Blocks—Multifamily Residential Buildings
Residential spaces shall be modeled using at least one thermal block per dwelling unit, except that those units facing the same orientations may be combined into one thermal block. Corner units and units with roof or floor loads shall only be combined with units sharing these features. Same as proposed design.
10. HVAC Systems
The HVAC system type and all related performance parameters in the proposed design, such as equipment capacities and efficiencies, shall be determined as follows:
  1. Where a complete HVAC system exists, the model shall reflect the actual system type using actual component capacities and efficiencies.
  2. Where an HVAC system has been designed and submitted with design documents, the HVAC model shall be consistent with design documents. Mechanical equipment efficiencies shall be adjusted from actual design conditions to the standard rating conditions specified in Section 6.4.1 if required by the simulation model. Where efficiency ratings include supply fan energy, the efficiency rating shall be adjusted to remove the supply fan energy from the efficiency rating in the baseline building design. The equations in Section G3.1.2.1 shall not be used in the proposed design. The proposed design HVAC system shall be modeled using manufacturers' full- and part-load data for the HVAC system without fan power.
  3. Where no heating system exists or no heating system has been submitted with design documents, the system type shall be the same system as modeled in the baseline building design and shall comply with but not exceed the requirements of Section 6.
  4. Where no cooling system exists or no cooling system has been submitted with design documents, the cooling system type shall be the same as modeled in the baseline building design and shall comply with the requirements of Section 6.

    Exception: Spaces using baseline HVAC system types 9 and 10.

The HVAC systems in the baseline building design shall be
of the type and description specified in Section G3.1.1,
shall meet the general HVAC system requirements specified
in Section G3.1.2, and shall meet any system-specific
requirements in Section G3.1.3 that are applicable to the
baseline HVAC system types.
If the proposed design includes humidification then the
baseline building design shall use adiabatic humidification.
Exception: If the proposed building humidification system shall use nonadiabatic humidification.
shall not have reheat for the purpose of dehumidification.
Fossil fuel systems shall be modeled using natural gas as their
fuel source.
Exception: For fossil fuel systems where natural gas is not
available for the proposed building site as determined by the
rating authority, the baseline HVAC systems shall be modeled
using propane as their fuel.
11. Service Water-Heating Systems
The service water-heating system type and all related performance parameters, such as equipment capacities and efficiencies, in the proposed design shall be determined as follows:
  1. Where a complete service water-heating system exists, the proposed design shall reflect the actual system type using actual component capacities and efficiencies.
  2. Where a service water-heating system has been designed and submitted with design documents, the service water-heating model shall be consistent with design documents.
  3. Where no service water-heating system exists or has been designed and submitted with design documents but the building will have service water-heating loads, a service water-heating system shall be modeled that matches the system type in the baseline building design, serves the same water-heating loads, and shall comply with but not exceed the requirements of Section 7.
  4. For buildings that will have no service water-heating loads, no service water-heating system shall be modeled.
  5. Where a combined system has been specified to meet both space heating and service water-heating loads, the proposed design shall reflect the actual system type using actual component capacities and efficiencies.
  6. Piping losses shall not be modeled.
The service water-heating system in the baseline building design
shall be as specified in Table G3.1.1-2 and conform with the following
conditions:
  1. Where a complete service water-heating system exists or a
    new service water-heating system has been specified, one
    service water-heating system shall be modeled for each building
    area type in the proposed building. Each system shall be
    sized according to the provisions of Section 7.4.1, and the
    equipment shall match the minimum efficiency requirements
  2. Where no service water-heating system exists or has been
    specified but the building will have service water-heating loads,
    one service water-heating system shall be modeled for each
    anticipated building area type in the proposed design. Each
    system shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of
    Section 7.4.2 and be modeled identically to the proposed design.
  3. For buildings that will have no service water-heating loads,
    no service water-heating shall be modeled.
  4. For large, 24-hour-per-day facilities that meet the prescriptive
    criteria for use of condenser heat recovery systems
    described in Section 6.5.6.2, a system meeting the
    requirements of that section shall be included in the
    baseline building design regardless of the exceptions to
    Exceptions: If a condenser heat recovery system meeting the
    requirements described in Section 6.5.6.2 cannot be modeled,
    the requirement for including such a system in the actual building
    shall be met as a prescriptive requirement in accordance with
    Section 6.5.6.2, and no heat recovery system shall be included
  5. Service water-heating energy consumption shall be calculated
    explicitly based upon the volume of service water heating required
    and the entering makeup water and the leaving service water-heating
    temperatures. Entering water temperatures shall be estimated based
    upon the location. Leaving temperatures shall be based upon the
    end-use requirements.
  6. Where recirculation pumps are used to ensure prompt availability
    of service water-heating at the end use, the energy consumption
    of such pumps shall be calculated explicitly.
  7. Service water loads and use shall be the same for both the
    documented by the calculation procedures described in Section 7.4.1.

    Exceptions:

    1. Service water-heating use can be demonstrated to be
      reduced by documented water conservation measures that
      reduce the physical volume of service water required. Examples
      include low-flow shower heads. Such reduction shall be
      demonstrated by calculations.The baseline flow
      rates shall be equal to the maximum allowed
      by the applicable code and the calculation methodology shall
      be approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
    2. Service water-heating energy consumption can be demonstrated
      to be reduced by reducing the required temperature of service
      mixed water, by increasing the temperature, or by increasing the
      temperature of the entering makeup water. Examples include
      alternative sanitizing technologies for dishwashing and heat
      recovery to entering makeup water. Such reduction shall be
      demonstrated by calculations.
    3. Service water heating use can be demonstrated to be reduced
      by reducing the hot fraction of mixed water to achieve required
      operational temperature. Examples include shower or laundry
      heat recovery to incoming cold-water supply, reducing the
      hot-water fraction required to meet required mixed-water
      temperature. Such reduction shall be demonstrated by calculations.
  8. Gas storage water heaters shall be modeled using natural gas as their fuel.

    Exceptions: Where natural gas is not available for the proposed
    building site, as determined by the rating authority, gas
    storage water heaters shall be modeled using propane as their fuel.
  9. Piping losses shall not be modeled.
12. Receptacle and Other Loads
Receptacle and process loads, such as those for office and other equipment, shall be estimated based on the building area type or space type category and shall be assumed to be identical in the proposed design and baseline building design, except as specifically approved by the rating authority only when quantifying performance that exceeds the requirements of Standard 90.1 but not when the Performance Rating Method is used as an alternative path for minimum standard compliance in accordance with Section 4.2.1.1. These loads shall always be included in simulations of the building. These loads shall be included when calculating the proposed building performance and the baseline building performance as required by Section G1.2.1.
  1. Where power and other systems covered by Sections 8 and 10 have been designed and submitted with design documents, those systems shall be determined in accordance with Sections 8 and 10.
  2. Where power and other systems covered by Sections 8 and 10 have not been submitted with design documents, those systems shall comply with but not exceed the requirements of those sections.
Motors shall have the efficiency ratings found in Table G3.9.1. Other systems
covered by Section 10 and miscellaneous loads shall be modeled as
identical to those in the proposed design, including schedules of operation
and control of the equipment. Energy used for cooking equipment,
receptacle loads, computers, medical or laboratory equipment, and
manufacturing and industrial process equipment not specifically identified
in the standard power and energy rating or capacity of the equipment
shall be identical between the proposed building performance and the
Exceptions: When quantifying performance that exceeds the
requirements of Standard 90.1 (but not when using the
Performance Rating Method as an alternative path for minimum
standard compliance per Section 4.2.1.1) variations of the power
requirements, schedules, or control sequences of the equipment
modeled in the baseline building design from those in the
proposed design shall be approved by the rating authority
based on documentation that the equipment installed in the
proposed design represents a significant verifiable departure
from documented current conventional practice. The burden of
this documentation is to demonstrate that accepted conventional
practice would result in baseline building equipment different from
that installed in the proposed design. Occupancy and occupancy
schedules shall not be changed.
13. Modeling Limitations to the Simulation Program
If the simulation program cannot model a component or system included in the proposed design explicitly, substitute a thermodynamically similar component model that can approximate the expected performance of the component that cannot be modeled explicitly. Same as proposed design.
14. Exterior Conditions
  1. Shading by Adjacent Structures and Terrain. The effect that structures and significant vegetation or topographical features have on the amount of solar radiation being received by a structure shall be adequately reflected in the computer analysis. All elements whose effective height is greater than their distance from a proposed building and whose width facing the proposed building is greater than one-third that of the proposed building shall be accounted for in the analysis.
  2. Ground Temperatures for Below-Grade Wall and Basement Floor Heat-Loss Calculations. It is acceptable to use either an annual average ground temperature or monthly average ground temperatures for calculation of heat loss through below-grade walls and basement floors.
  3. Water Main Temperatures for Service Water-Heating Calculations. It is acceptable to use either an annual water main supply temperature or monthly average water main supply temperatures for calculating service water heating. If annual or monthly water main supply temperatures are not available from the local water utility, annual average ground temperatures may be used.
Same as proposed design.
15. Distribution Transformers
Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers shall be modeled if the transformers in the proposed design exceed the efficiency required in Table 8.4.4. Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers shall be modeled
only if the proposed design transformers exceed the efficiency
requirements of Table 8.4.4. If modeled, the efficiency requirements
from Table 8.4.4 shall be used. The ratio of the capacity to peak
electrical load of the transformer shall be the same as the ratio
16. Elevators
Where the proposed design includes elevators, the elevator motor, ventilation fan, and light load shall be included in the model. The cab ventilation fan and lights shall be modeled with the same schedule as the elevator motor. Where the proposed design includes elevators, the baseline building design
shall be modeled to include the elevator cab motor, ventilation fans,
and lighting power.
The elevator peak motor power shall be calculated as follows:
bhp = (Weight of Car + Rated Load — Counterweight) × Speed of Car/(33,000 × hmechanical)
Pm = bhp × 746/hmotor

where

Weight of Car = the proposed design elevator car weight, lb

Rated Load = the proposed design elevator load at which to operate, lb

Counterweight of Car = the elevator car counterweight, from Table G3.9.2, lb

Speed of Car = the speed of the proposed elevator, ft/min

hmechanical = the mechanical efficiency of the elevator from Table G3.9.2

hmotor = the motor efficiency from Table G3.9.2

Pm = peak elevator motor power,W

The elevator motor use shall be modeled with the same
schedule as the proposed design.
When included in the proposed design, the baseline elevator
cab ventilation fan shall be 0.33 W/cfm and the lighting power density
shall be 3.14 W/ft2; both operate continuously.
17.Refrigeration
The proposed design shall be modeled using the actual equipment capacities and efficiencies. Where refrigeration equipment is specified in the proposed design
shall be modeled as specified in Tables G3.10.1 and G3.10.2 using the
actual equipment capacities.
If the refrigeration equipment is not listed in Tables G3.10.1
and G3.10.2, the baseline building design shall be modeled the
same as the proposed design.

HVAC systems in the baseline building design shall comply with the following:

  1. HVAC systems in the baseline building design shall be determined in the following order of priority:

    1. The building type with the largest conditioned floor area.
    2. Number of floors (including floors above grade and below grade but not including floors solely devoted to parking).
    3. Gross conditioned floor area.
    4. Climate zone as specified in Table G3.1.1-3, which shall conform with the system descriptions in Table G3.1.1-4. For Systems 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, each thermal block shall be modeled with its own HVAC system. For Systems 5, 6, 7, and 8, each floor shall be modeled with a separate HVAC system. Floors with identical thermal blocks can be grouped for modeling purposes.
  2. Use additional system types for nonpredominant conditions (i.e., residential/nonresidential) if those conditions apply to more than 20,000 ft2 of conditioned floor area.
  3. If the baseline HVAC system type is 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, or 13 use separate single-zone systems conforming with the requirements of system 3 or system 4 for any HVAC zones that have occupancy or internal gains or schedules that differ significantly from the rest of the HVAC zones served by the system. Total Peak internal gains that differ by 10 Btu/h•ft2 or more from the average of other spaces served by the system, or schedules that differ by more than 40 equivalent full-load hours per week from other HVAC zones served by the system, are considered to differ significantly. Examples where this exception may be applicable include but are not limited to natatoriums and continually occupied security areas. This exception does not apply to computer rooms.
  4. For laboratory spaces in a building having a total laboratory exhaust rate greater than 15,000 cfm, use a single system of type 5 or 7 serving only those spaces. The lab exhaust fan shall be modeled as constant horsepower reflecting constant-volume stack discharge with outdoor air bypass.
  5. Thermal zones designed with heating-only systems in the proposed design serving storage rooms, stairwells, vestibules, electrical/mechanical rooms, and restrooms not exhausting or transferring air from mechanically cooled thermal zones in the proposed design shall use system type 9 or 10 in the baseline building design.
  6. If the baseline HVAC system type is 9 or 10, all spaces that are mechanically cooled in the proposed design shall be assigned to a separate baseline system determined by using the area and heating source of the mechanically cooled spaces.
  7. Computer rooms in buildings with a total computer room peak cooling load >3,000,000 Btu/h or a total computer room peak cooling load >600,000 Btu/h where the baseline HVAC system type is 7 or 8 shall use System 11. All other computer rooms shall use System 3 or 4.
  8. For hospitals, depending on building type, use System 5 or 7 in all climate zones.
Table G3.1.1-1 Baseline Building Vertical Fenestration Percentage of Gross Above-Grade-Wall Area
Building Area Types Baseline Building Gross Above-Grade-Wall Area
Grocery store 7%
Healthcare (outpatient) 21%
Hospital 27%
Hotel/motel (≤75 rooms) 24%
Hotel/motel (>75 rooms) 34%
Office (≤5000 ft2) 19%
Office (5000 to 50,000 ft2) 31%
Office (>50,000 ft2) 40%
Restaurant (quick service) 34%
Restaurant (full service) 24%
Retail (stand alone) 11%
Retail (strip mall) 20%
School (primary) 22%
School (secondary and university) 22%
Warehouse (nonrefrigerated) 6%

Table G3.1.1-2 Baseline Service Water-Heating System
Building Area Type Baseline Heating Method Building Area Type Baseline Heating Method
Automotive facility Gas storage water heater Performing arts theater Gas storage water heater
Convenience store Electric resistance water heater Police station Electric resistance storage water heater
Convention center Electric resistance storage water heater Post office Electric resistance storage water heater
Courthouse Electric resistance storage water heater Religious facility Electric resistance storage water heater
Dining: Bar lounge/leisure Gas storage water heater Retail Electric resistance storage water heater
Dining: Cafeteria/fast food Gas storage water heater School/university Gas storage water heater
Dining: Family Gas storage water heater Sports arena Gas storage water heater
Dormitory Gas storage water heater Town hall Electric resistance storage water heater
Exercise center Gas storage water heater Transportation Electric resistance storage water heater
Fire station Gas storage water heater Warehouse Electric resistance storage water heater
Grocery store Gas storage water heater Workshop Electric resistance storage water heater
Gymnasium Gas storage water heater All others Gas storage water heater
Health-care clinic Electric resistance storage water heater
Hospital and outpatient surgery center Gas storage water heater
Hotel Gas storage water heater
Library Electric resistance storage water heater
Manufacturing facility Gas storage water heater
Motel Gas storage water heater
Motion picture theater Electric resistance storage water heater
Multifamily Gas storage water heater
Museum Electric resistance storage water heater
Office Electric resistance storage water heater
Parking garage Electric resistance storage water heater
Penitentiary Gas storage water heater
Table G3.1.1-3 Baseline HVAC System Types
Building Type, Number of Floors, and Climate Zones 3B, 3C, and 4 to 8 Climate Zones 0 to 3A
Residential System 1—PTAC System 2—PTHP
Public assembly <120,000 ft2 System 3—PSZ-AC System 4—PSZ-HP
Public assembly ≥120,000 ft2 System 12—SZ-CV-HW System 13—SZ-CV-ER
Heated-only storage System 9—Heating and ventilation System 10—Heating and ventilation
Retail and 2 floors or fewer System 3—PSZ-AC System 4—PSZ-HP
Other nonresidential and 3 floors or fewer and <25,000 ft2 System 3—PSZ-AC System 4—PSZ-HP
Other nonresidential and 4 or 5 floors and <25,000 ft2 or
5 floors or fewer and 25,000 ft2 to 150,000 ft2
System 5—Packaged VAV with reheat System 6—Packaged VAV with PFP boxes
Other nonresidential and more than 5 floors or >150,000 ft2 System 7—VAV with reheat System 8—VAV with PFP boxes

Notes:

  1. Residential building types include dormitory, hotel, motel, and multifamily. Residential space types include guest rooms, living quarters, private living space, and sleeping quarters. Other building and space types are considered nonresidential.
  2. Where attributes make a building eligible for more than one baseline system type, use the predominant condition to determine the system type for the entire building except as noted in Section G3.1.1.
  3. For laboratory spaces in a building having a total laboratory exhaust rate greater than 15,000 cfm, use a single system of type 5 or 7 serving only those spaces.
  4. For hospitals, depending on building type, use System 5 or 7 in all climate zones.
  5. Public assembly building types include houses of worship, auditoriums, movie theaters, performance theaters, concert halls, arenas, enclosed stadiums, ice rinks, gymnasiums, convention centers, exhibition centers, and natatoriums.
Table G3.1.1-4 Baseline System Descriptions
System No. System Type Fan Control Cooling Type a Heating Type a
1. PTAC Packaged terminal air conditioner Constant volume Direct expansion Hot-water fossil fuel boiler
2. PTHP Packaged terminal heat pump Constant volume Direct expansion Electric heat pump
3. PSZ-AC Packaged rooftop air conditioner Constant volume Direct expansion Fossil fuel furnace
4. PSZ-HP Packaged rooftop heat pump Constant volume Direct expansion Electric heat pump
5. Packaged VAV with reheat Packaged rooftop VAV with reheat VAV Direct expansion Hot-water fossil fuel boiler
6. Packaged VAV with PFP boxes Packaged rooftop VAV with parallel fan power boxes and reheat VAV Direct expansion Electric resistance
7. VAV with reheat VAV with reheat VAV Chilled water Hot-water fossil fuel boiler
8. VAV with PFP boxes VAV with parallel fan-powered boxes and reheat VAV Chilled water Electric resistance
9. Heating and ventilation Warm air furnace, gas fired Constant volume None Fossil fuel furnace
10. Heating and ventilation Warm air furnace, electric Constant volume None Electric resistance
11. SZ—VAV Single-zone VAV VAV Chilled water See note (b).
12. SZ-CV-HW Single-zone system Constant volume Chilled water Hot-water fossil fuel boiler
13. SZ-CV-ER Single-zone system Constant volume Chilled water Electric resistance
  1. For purchased chilled water and purchased heat, see G3.1.1.3.
  2. For Climate Zones 0 through 3A, the heating type shall be electric resistance. For all other climate zones the heating type shall be hot-water fossil-fuel boiler.
For systems using purchased hot water or steam, the heating source shall be modeled as purchased hot water or steam in both the proposed design and baseline building design. Hot-water or steam costs shall be based on actual utility rates, and on-site boilers, electric heat, and furnaces shall not be modeled in the baseline building design.
For systems using purchased chilled water, the cooling source shall be modeled as purchased chilled water in both the proposed design and baseline building design. Purchased chilled-water costs shall be based on actual utility rates, and on-site chillers and direct expansion equipment shall not be modeled in the baseline building design.
If the proposed design uses purchased chilled water and/or purchased heat, the following modifications to the baseline HVAC system types in Table G3.1.1-4 shall be used.
If the proposed design uses purchased heat, but does not use purchased chilled water, then Tables G3.1.1-3 and G3.1.1-4 shall be used to select the baseline HVAC system type, and purchased heat shall be substituted for the heating type in Table G3.1.1-4. The same heating source shall be used in the proposed design and baseline building design.

If the proposed design uses purchased chilled water but does not use purchased heat, then Tables G3.1.1-3 and G3.1.1-4 shall be used to select the baseline HVAC system type, with the modifications listed below:

  1. Purchased chilled water shall be substituted for the cooling types in Table G3.1.1-4.
  2. System 1 and 2 shall be constant-volume fan-coil units with fossil fuel boilers.
  3. System 3 and 4 shall be constant-volume single-zone air handlers with fossil fuel furnaces.
  4. System 7 shall be used in place of System 5.
  5. System 8 shall be used in place of System 6.

If the proposed design uses purchased chilled water and purchased heat, then Tables G3.1.1-3 and G3.1.1-4 shall be used to select the baseline HVAC system type, with the following modifications:

  1. Purchased heat and purchased chilled water shall be substituted for the heating types and cooling types in Table G3.1.1-4.
  2. System 1 shall be constant-volume fan-coil units.
  3. System 3 shall be constant-volume single-zone air handlers.
  4. System 7 shall be used in place of System 5.
All on-site distribution pumps shall be modeled in both the proposed design and base building design.

The air leakage rate of the building envelope (I75Pa) at a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water shall be converted to appropriate units for the simulation program using one of the following formulas:

For methods describing air leakage as a function of floor area,

For methods describing air leakage as a function of the area of above-grade walls that separate conditioned spaces and semiheated spaces from the exterior,

When using the measured air leakage rate of the building envelope at a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water for the proposed design, the air leakage rate shall be calculated as follows:

where

I75Pa = air leakage rate of the building envelope (cfm/ft2) at a fixed building pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water, or 1.57 psf

Q = volume of air in cfm flowing through the building envelope when subjected to a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water, or 1.57 psf, in accordance with ASTM E 779

S = total area of the building envelope (ft2), including the lowest floor, any below-grade walls or above-grade walls, and roof (including vertical fenestration and skylights)

IFLR = adjusted air leakage rate of the building envelope (cfm/ft2) at a reference wind speed of 10 mph and relative to the gross floor area

AFLR = gross floor area, ft2

IAGW = adjusted air leakage rate of the building envelope (cfm/ft2) at a reference wind speed of 10 mph and relative to the area of the above-grade walls of the building envelope

AAGW = total area of above-grade walls of the building envelope, ft2

Exception to G3.1.1.4

A multizone airflow model alternative method to modeling building envelope air leakage may be used, provided the following criteria are met:

  1. Where the calculations are made independently of the energy simulation program, the proposed method must comply with Section G2.5.
  2. The method for converting the air leakage rate of the building envelope at 0.3 in. of water, or 1.57 psf, to the appropriate units for the simulation program is fully documented and submitted to the rating authority for approval.
HVAC systems in the baseline building design shall conform with the general provisions in this section.

All HVAC equipment in the baseline building design shall be modeled at the minimum efficiency levels, both part load and full load, in accordance with Tables G3.5.1 through G3.5.6. Where multiple HVAC zones or residential spaces are combined into a single thermal block in accordance with Table G3.1, the efficiencies (for baseline HVAC System Types 1, 2, 3, 4, 9 and 10) taken from Tables G3.5.1, G3.5.2, G3.5.3, G3.5.4, and G3.5.5 shall be based on the equipment capacity of the thermal block divided by the number of HVAC zones or residential spaces. HVAC System Types 5 or 6 efficiencies taken from Table G3.5.1 shall be based on the cooling equipment capacity of a single floor when grouping identical floors in accordance with Section G3.1.1(a)(4). Fan energy shall be modeled separately according to Section G3.1.2.9. COPnfcooling and COPnfheating are the packaged HVAC equipment cooling and heating energy efficiency, respectively, to be used in the baseline building design, which excludes supply fan power.

The equipment capacities (i.e. system coil capacities) for the baseline building design shall be based on sizing runs for each orientation (per Table G3.1, No. 5[a]) and shall be oversized by 15% for cooling and 25% for heating; i.e., the ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by the sizing runs shall be 1.15 for cooling and 1.25 for heating. Plant capacities shall be based on coincident loads.
Weather conditions used in sizing runs to determine baseline equipment capacities shall be based either on hourly historical weather files containing typical peak conditions or on design days developed using 99.6% heating design temperatures and 1% dry-bulb and 1% wet-bulb cooling design temperatures.
Unmet load hours for the proposed design or baseline building design shall not exceed 300 (of the 8760 hours simulated). Alternatively, unmet load hours exceeding these limits shall be permitted to be accepted upon approval of the rating authority, provided that sufficient justification is given indicating that the accuracy of the simulation is not significantly compromised by these unmet loads.

Supply and return fans shall operate continuously whenever spaces are occupied and shall be cycled to meet heating and cooling loads during unoccupied hours. Supply, return, and/or exhaust fans will remain on during occupied and unoccupied hours in spaces that have health and safety mandated minimum ventilation requirements during unoccupied hours.

Exception to G3.1.2.4

For Systems 6 and 8, only the terminal-unit fan and reheat coil shall be energized to meet heating set point during unoccupied hours.

Minimum ventilation system outdoor air intake flow shall be the same for the proposed design and baseline building design.

Exception to G3.1.2.5

  1. When modeling demand control ventilation in the proposed design in systems with outdoor air capacity less than or equal to 3000 cfm serving areas with an average design capacity of 100 people per 1000 ft2 or less.
  2. When designing systems in accordance with Standard 62.1, Section 6.2, "Ventilation Rate Procedure," reduced ventilation airflow rates may be calculated for each HVAC zone in the proposed design with a zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) > 1.0 as defined by Standard 62.1, Table 6-2. Baseline ventilation airflow rates in those zones shall be calculated using the proposed design Ventilation Rate Procedure calculation with the following change only. Zone air distribution effectiveness shall be changed to (Ez) = 1.0 in each zone having a zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) > 1.0. Proposed design and baseline building design Ventilation Rate Procedure calculations, as described in Standard 62.1, shall be submitted to the rating authority to claim credit for this exception.
  3. Where the minimum outdoor air intake flow in the proposed design is provided in excess of the amount required by the building code or the rating authority, the baseline building design shall be modeled to reflect the greater of that required by either the rating authority or the building code and will be less than the proposed design.
  4. For baseline systems serving only laboratory spaces that are prohibited from recirculating return air by code or accreditation standards, the baseline system shall be modeled as 100% outdoor air.

Air economizers shall not be included in baseline HVAC Systems 1, 2, 9, and 10. Air economizers shall be included in baseline HVAC Systems 3 through 8, and 11, 12, and 13 based on climate as specified in Table G3.1.2.6.

Exception to G3.1.2.6

Economizers shall not be included for systems meeting one or more of the exceptions listed below.

  1. Systems that include gas-phase air cleaning to meet the requirements of Standard 62.1, Section 6.1.2. This exception shall be used only if the system in the proposed design does not match the building design.
  2. Where the use of outdoor air for cooling will affect supermarket open refrigerated case-work systems. This exception shall only be used if the system in the proposed design does not use an economizer. If the exception is used, an economizer shall not be included in the baseline building design.
  3. Systems that serve computer rooms complying with Section G3.1.2.6.1.
Table G3.1.2.6 Climate Conditions under which Economizers are Included for Comfort Cooling for Baseline Systems 3 through 8 and 11, 12, and 13
Climate Zone Conditions
0A, 0B, 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 4A NR
Others Economizer Included

Note: NR means that there is no conditioned building floor area for which economizers are included for the type of zone and climate.

Systems that serve computer rooms that are HVAC System 3 or 4 shall not have an economizer. Systems that serve computer rooms that are HVAC System 11 shall include an integrated fluid economizer meeting the requirements of Section 6.5.1.2 in the baseline building design.

The high-limit shutoff shall be a dry-bulb fixed switch with set-point temperatures in accordance with the values in Table G3.1.2.7.

Table G3.1.2.7 Economizer High-Limit Shutoff Temperature
Climate Zone Dry-Bulb Temperature Set Point
2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, 8 75°F
5A, 6A 70°F

System design supply airflow rates for the baseline building design shall be based on a supply-air-to-room temperature set-point difference of 20°F or the minimum outdoor airflow rate, or the airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, whichever is greater. For systems with multiple zone thermostat set points, use the design set point that will result in the lowest supply air cooling set point or highest supply air heating set point. If return or relief fans are specified in the proposed design, the baseline building design shall also be modeled with fans serving the same functions and sized for the baseline system supply fan air quantity less the minimum outdoor air, or 90% of the supply fan air quantity, whichever is larger.

Exception to G3.1.2.8.1

  1. For systems serving laboratory spaces, airflow rate shall be based on a supply-air-to-room temperature set-point difference of 17°F or the required ventilation air or makeup air, whichever is greater.
  2. If the proposed design HVAC system airflow rate based on latent loads is greater than the design airflow rate based on sensible loads, then the same supply-air-to-room-air humidity ratio difference (gr/lb) used to calculate the proposed design airflow shall be used to calculate design airflow rates for the baseline building design.
System design supply airflow rates for the baseline building design shall be based on the temperature difference between a supply air temperature set point of 105°F and the design space-heating temperature set point, the minimum outdoor airflow rate, or the airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, whichever is greater. If the proposed design includes a fan or fans sized and controlled to provide non-mechanical cooling, the baseline building design shall include a separate fan to provide non-mechanical cooling, sized and controlled the same as the proposed design.

System fan electrical power for supply, return, exhaust, and relief (excluding power to fan-powered VAV boxes) shall be calculated using the following formulas:

For Systems 1 and 2,

For Systems 3 through 8, and 11, 12, and 13,

For Systems 9 and 10 (supply fan),

For Systems 9 and 10 (non-mechanical cooling fan if required by Section G3.1.2.8.2),

where

Pfan = electric power to fan motor, W

bhp = brake horsepower of baseline fan motor from Table G3.1.2.9

fan motor efficiency = the efficiency from Table G3.9.1 for the next motor size greater than the bhp using a totally enclosed fan cooled motor at 1800 rpm

CFMs = the baseline system maximum design supply fan airflow rate, cfm

CFM nmc = the baseline non-mechanical cooling fan airflow, cfm

Table G3.1.2.9 Baseline Fan Brake Horsepower
Baseline Fan Motor Brake Horsepower
Constant-Volume Systems 3, 4, 12 and 13 Variable-Volume Systems 5 to 8 Variable-Volume System 11
CFMs × 0.00094 + A CFMs × 0.0013 + A CFMs × 0.00062 + A

Notes:

  1. Where A is calculated according to Section 6.5.3.1.1 using the pressure-drop adjustment from the proposed design and the design flow rate of the baseline building system.
  2. Do not include pressure-drop adjustments for evaporative coolers or heat recovery devices that are not required in the baseline building system by Section G3.1.2.10.
The calculated system fan power shall be distributed to supply, return, exhaust, and relief fans in the same proportion as the proposed design.

Individual fan systems that have both a design supply air capacity of 5000 cfm or greater and have a minimum design outdoor air supply of 70% or greater shall have an energy recovery system with at least 50% enthalpy recovery ratio. Fifty percent enthalpy recovery ratio shall mean a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply equal to 50% of the difference between the outdoor air and return air at design conditions. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the heat recovery system to permit air economizer operation, where applicable.

Exception to G3.1.2.10

If any of these exceptions apply, exhaust air energy recovery shall not be included in the baseline building design:

  1. Systems serving spaces that are not cooled and that are heated to less than 60°F.
  2. Systems exhausting toxic, flammable, or corrosive fumes or paint or dust. This exception shall only be used if exhaust air energy recovery is not used in the proposed design.
  3. Commercial kitchen hoods (grease) classified as Type 1 by NFPA 96. This exception shall only be used if exhaust air energy recovery is not used in the proposed design.
  4. Heating systems in Climate Zones 0 through 3.
  5. Cooling systems in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, and 8.
  6. Where the largest exhaust source is less than 75% of the design outdoor airflow. This exception shall only be used if exhaust air energy recovery is not used in the proposed design.
  7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil. This exception shall only be used if exhaust air energy recovery and series-style energy recovery coils are not used in the proposed design.
Baseline HVAC systems shall conform with provisions in this section, where applicable, to the specified baseline system types, as indicated in section headings.
Electric air-source heat pumps shall be modeled with electric auxiliary heat and an outdoor air thermostat. The systems shall be controlled to energize auxiliary heat only when the outdoor air temperature is less than 40°F. The air-source heat pump shall be modeled to continue to operate while auxiliary heat is energized.
The boiler plant shall use the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft, except as noted in Section G3.1.1.1. The baseline building design boiler plant shall be modeled as having a single boiler if the baseline building design plant serves a conditioned floor area of 15,000 ft2 or less, and as having two equally sized boilers for plants serving more than 15,000 ft2. Boilers shall be staged as required by the load.
Hot-water design supply temperature shall be modeled as 180°F and design return temperature as 130°F.

Hot-water supply temperature shall be reset based on outdoor dry-bulb temperature using the following schedule: 180°F at 20°F and below, 150°F at 50°F and above, and ramped linearly between 180°F and 150°F at temperatures between 20°F and 50°F.

Exception to G3.1.3.4

Systems served by purchased heat.

The baseline building design hot-water pump power shall be 19 W/gpm. The pumping system shall be modeled as primary-only with continuous variable flow and a minimum of 25% of the design flow rate. Hot-water systems serving 120,000 ft2 or more shall be modeled with variable-speed drives, and systems serving less than 120,000 ft2 shall be modeled as riding the pump curve.

Exception to G3.1.3.5

The pump power for systems using purchased heat shall be 14 W/gpm.

Piping losses shall not be modeled in either the proposed design or baseline building design for hot-water, chilled-water, or steam piping.

Electric chillers shall be used in the baseline building design regardless of the cooling energy source, e.g. direct-fired absorption or absorption from purchased steam. The baseline building design's chiller plant shall be modeled with chillers having the number and type as indicated in Table G3.1.3.7 as a function of building peak cooling load.

Exception to G3.1.3.7

Systems using purchased chilled water shall be modeled in accordance with Section G3.1.1.3.

Table G3.1.3.7 Type and Number of Chillers
Building Peak Cooling Load Number and Type of Chillers
≤300 tons 1 water-cooled screw chiller
>300 tons, <600 tons 2 water-cooled screw chillers sized equally
≥600 tons 2 water-cooled centrifugal chillers minimum with chillers added so that no chiller is larger than 800 tons, all sized equally
Chilled-water design supply temperature shall be modeled at 44°F and return water temperature at 56°F.

Chilled-water supply temperature shall be reset based on outdoor dry-bulb temperature using the following schedule: 44°F at 80°F and above, 54°F at 60°F and below, and ramped linearly between 44°F and 54°F at temperatures between 80°F and 60°F.

Exception to G3.1.3.9

  1. If the baseline chilled-water system serves a computer room HVAC system, the supply chilled-water temperature shall be reset higher based on the HVAC system requiring the most cooling; i.e., the chilled-water set point is reset higher until one cooling-coil valve is nearly wide open. The maximum reset chilled-water supply temperature shall be 54°F.
  2. Systems served by purchased chilled water.

Chilled-water systems shall be modeled as primary/secondary systems with constant-flow primary loop and variable-flow secondary loop. For systems with cooling capacity of 300 tons or more, the secondary pump shall be modeled with variable-speed drives and a minimum flow of 25% of the design flow rate. For systems with less than 300 tons cooling capacity, the secondary pump shall be modeled as riding the pump curve. The baseline building constant-volume primary pump power shall be modeled as 9 W/gpm, and the variable-flow secondary pump power shall be modeled as 13 W/gpm at design conditions. For computer room systems using System 11 with an integrated fluid economizer, the baseline building design primary chilled-water pump power shall be increased by 3 W/gpm for flow associated with the fluid economizer.

Exception to G3.1.3.10

For systems using purchased chilled water, the building distribution pump shall be modeled with variable-speed drive, a minimum flow of 25% of the design flow rate, and a pump power of 16 W/gpm.

The heat-rejection device shall be an axial-fan open-circuit cooling tower with variable-speed fan control and shall have an efficiency of 38.2 gpm/hp at the conditions specified in Table 6.8.1-7. Condenser-water design supply temperature shall be calculated using the cooling tower approach to the 0.4% evaporation design wet-bulb temperature as generated by the formula below, with a design temperature rise of 10°F:

where WB is the 0.4% evaporation design wet-bulb temperature (°F); valid for wet bulbs from 55°F to 90°F.

The tower shall be controlled to maintain a leaving water temperature, where weather permits, per Table G3.1.3.11, floating up to the design leaving water temperature for the cooling tower. The baseline building design condenser-water pump power shall be 19 W/gpm and modeled as constant volume. For computer room systems using System 11 with an integrated fluid economizer, the baseline building design condenser-water-pump power shall be increased by 3 W/gpm for flow associated with the fluid economizer. Each chiller shall be modeled with separate condenser-water and chilled-water pumps interlocked to operate with the associated chiller.

Table G3.1.3.11 Heat-Rejection Leaving Water Temperature
Climate Zone Leaving Water Temperature
5B, 5C, 6B, 8 65°F
0B, 1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5A, 6A, 7 70°F
3A,4A 75°F
0A, 1A, 2A 80°F
The air temperature for cooling shall be reset higher by 5°F under the minimum cooling load conditions.

Minimum volume set points for VAV reheat boxes shall be 30%of zone peak airflow, the minimum outdoor airflow rate, or the airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, whichever is larger.

Exception to G3.1.3.13

Systems serving laboratory spaces shall reduce the exhaust and makeup air volume during unoccupied periods to the largest of 50% of zone peak airflow, the minimum outdoor airflow rate, or the airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards.

Fans in parallel VAV fan-powered boxes shall run as the first stage of heating before the reheat coil is energized. Fans in parallel VAV fan-powered boxes shall be sized for 50% of the peak design primary air (from the VAV air-handling unit) flow rate and shall be modeled with 0.35 W/cfm fan power. Minimum volume set points for fan-powered boxes shall be equal to 30% of peak design primary airflow rate or the rate required to meet the minimum outdoor air ventilation requirement, whichever is larger. The supply air temperature set point shall be constant at the design condition.

VAV system supply fans shall have variable-speed drives, and their part-load performance characteristics shall be modeled using either Method 1 or Method 2 specified in Table G3.1.3.15.

Table G3.1.3.15 Part-Load Performance for VAV Fan Systems
Method 1—Part-Load Fan Power Data
Fan Part-Load Ratio Fraction of Full-Load Power
0.00 0.00
0.10 0.03
0.20 0.07
0.30 0.13
0.40 0.21
0.50 0.30
0.60 0.41
0.70 0.54
0.80 0.68
0.90 0.83
1.00 1.00
Method 2—Part-Load Fan Power Equation
Pfan = 0.0013 + 0.1470 × PLRfan + 0.9506 × (PLRfan)2 — 0.0998 × (PLRfan)3

where

Pfan = fraction of full-load fan power and

PLRfan = fan part-load ratio (current cfm/design cfm).

Computer room equipment schedules shall be modeled as a constant fraction of the peak design load per the following monthly schedule:

  • Month 1, 5, 9—25%
  • Month 2, 6, 10—50%
  • Month 3, 7, 11—75%
  • Month 4, 8, 12—100%

Minimum volume set point shall be 50% of the maximum design airflow rate, the minimum ventilation outdoor airflow rate, or the airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, whichever is larger.

Fan volume shall be reset from 100% airflow at 100% cooling load to minimum airflow at 50% cooling load. Supply air temperature set point shall be reset from minimum supply air temperature at 50% cooling load and above to space temperature at 0% cooling load. In heating mode supply air temperature shall be modulated to maintain space temperature, and fan volume shall be fixed at the minimum airflow.

If the proposed design HVAC systems have humidistatic controls, then the baseline building design shall use mechanical cooling for dehumidification and shall have reheat available to avoid overcooling. When the baseline building design HVAC system does not comply with any of the exceptions in Section 6.5.2.3, then only 25% of the system reheat energy shall be included in the baseline building performance. The reheat type shall be the same as the system heating type.

The baseline system shall be modeled with a preheat coil controlled to a fixed set point 20°F less than the design room heating temperature set point.

Table G3.4-1 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zones 0 and 1 (A,B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-1.282
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.124 U-0.124 U-0.352
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.350 U-0.350 U-0.350
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.700 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-1.450 U-1.450 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.36 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
Table G3.4-2 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 2 (A,B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.218
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.124 U-0.124 U-0.352
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.350
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.700 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-1.450 U-1.450 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.36 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
Table G3.4-3 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 3 (A,B,C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.218
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.124 U-0.084 U-0.352
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.069
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.700 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-1.450 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly Max. Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.25 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.36 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
Fenestration (for Zone 3C) Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.61 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.61 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.61 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.34 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-0.34 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.61 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
  2. Insulation is not required for nonresidential mass walls in Climate Zone 3A located below the "Warm-Humid" line, and in Zone 3B.
Table G3.4-4 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 4 (A,B,C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.218
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.124 U-0.064 U-0.124
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.052 U-0.038 U-0.069
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.700 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-1.450 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.58 SHGCall-0.36 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.58 SHGCall-0.19 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
Table G3.4-5 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 5 (A,B,C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.173
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.084 U-0.064 U-0.124
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.052 U-0.038 U-0.069
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.700 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-1.450 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

Table G3.4-6 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 6 (A,B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.173
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.084 U-0.064 U-0.124
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-1.140 C-0.119 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.038 U-0.038 U-0.069
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.730 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.500 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-0.500 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.58 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.58 SHGCall-0.39 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

Table G3.4-7 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 7*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.063 U-0.063 U-0.173
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.124
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-0.119 C-0.119 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.038 U-0.038 U-0.052
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.730 F-0.540 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.700 U-0.500 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-0.500 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-0.57 SHGCall-0.49 Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.68 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.64 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.64 Uall-0.69 SHGCall-0.64 Uall-1.36 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

Table G3.4-8 Performance Rating Method Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 8*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum Assembly Maximum
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.093
Walls, Above-Grade
Steel-framed U-0.064 U-0.055 U-0.124
Wall, Below-Grade
Below-grade wall C-0.119 C-0.119 C-1.140
Floors
Steel-joist U-0.038 U-0.032 U-0.052
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.540 F-0.520 F-0.730
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.500 U-0.500 U-0.700
Nonswinging U-0.500 U-0.500 U-1.450
Fenestration Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Assembly
Max. U
Assembly
Max. SHGC
Vertical Glazing, % of Wall
0% to 10.0% Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
10.1% to 20.0% Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
20.1% to 30.0% Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
30.1% to 40.0% Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.46 SHGCall-NR Uall-1.22 SHGCall-NR
Skylight All, % of Roof
0% to 2.0% Uall-0.58 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.58 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.81 SHGCall-NR
2.1%+ Uall-0.58 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.58 SHGCall-NR Uall-0.81 SHGCall-NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. Exception to Section A3.1.3.1 applies.
Table G3.5.1 Performance Rating Method Air Conditioners
Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section
Type
Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test
Procedure
Air conditioners,
air-cooled
<65,000 Btu/h All Single-package 3.0 COPnfcooling ARI 210/240
≥65,000 Btu/h and
<135,000 Btu/h
Split-system and
single-package
3.5 COPnfcooling ARI 340/360
≥135,000 Btu/h and
<240,000 Btu/h
3.4 COPnfcooling
≥240,000 Btu/h and
<760,000 Btu/h
3.5 COPnfcooling
≥760,000 Btu/h 3.6 COPnfcooling
Table G3.5.2 Performance Rating Method Electrically Operated Unitary and Applied Heat Pumps—Minimum Efficiency Requirements
Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section
Type
Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test
Procedure
Air-cooled
(cooling mode)
<65,000 Btu/h All Single package 3.0 COPnfcooling ARI 210/240
≥65,000 Btu/h and
<135,000 Btu/h
Split-system and
single-package
3.4 COPnfcooling ARI 340/360
≥135,000 Btu/h and
<240,000 Btu/h
3.2 COPnfcooling
≥240,000 Btu/h 3.1 COPnfcooling
Air-cooled
(heating mode)
<65,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
Single-package 3.4 COPnfheating ARI 210/240
≥65,000 Btu/h and
<135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb 3.4 COPnfheating ARI 340/360
17°F db/15°F wb 2.3 COPnfheating
≥135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb 3.4 COPnfheating
17°F db/15°F wb 2.1 COPnfheating
Table G3.5.3 Performance Rating Method Water Chilling Packages—Minimum Efficiency Requirements
Equipment Type Size Category Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
Water-cooled, electrically
operated, positive
displacement
(rotary screw and scroll)
<150 tons kW/ton 0.790 FL
0.676 IPLV.IP
ARI 550/590
≥150 tons and
<300 tons
0.718 FL
0.629 IPLV.IP
≥300 tons 0.639 FL
0.572 IPLV.IP
Water-cooled, electrically
operated, centrifugal
<150 tons kW/ton 0.703 FL
0.670 IPLV.IP
ARI 550/590
≥150 tons and
<300 tons
0.634 FL
0.596 IPLV.IP
≥300 tons 0.576 FL
0.549 IPLV.IP
Table G3.5.4 Performance Rating Method Electrically Operated Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners, Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps
Equipment Type Size Category
Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
PTAC (cooling mode) All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 3.2 COPnfcooling ARI 310/380
PTHP (cooling mode) All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 3.1 COPnfcooling ARI 310/380
PTHP (heating mode) All capacities 3.1 COPnfheating ARI 310/380
Table G3.5.5 Warm-Air Furnaces and Unit Heaters
Equipment Type Size Category Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
Warm-air furnace, gas-fired <225,000 Btu/h 78% AFUE or 80% Et DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or ANSI Z21.47
≥225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacity 80% Ec ANSI Z21.47
Warm-air unit heaters, gas-fired All capacities Maximum capacity 80% Ec ANSI Z83.8
Table G3.5.6 Gas-Fired Boilers—Minimum Efficiency Requirements
Equipment Type Size Category Subcategory or
Rating Condition
Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
Boilers, gas-fired <300,000 Btu/h Hot water 80% AFUE DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥300,000 Btu/h and
≤2,500,000 Btu/h
Maximum
capacity
75% Et DOE 10 CFR Part 431
>2,500,000 Btu/h Hot water 80% Ec
Table G3.6 Lighting Power Densities for Building Exteriors
Tradable Surfaces for uncovered parking
areas, building grounds,
building entrances and
exits, canopies and
overhangs and outdoor
sales areas may be
traded.)
Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking lots and drives 0.15 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 10 ft wide 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10 ft wide or greater
Plaza areas
Special feature areas
0.2 W/ft2
Stairways 1.0 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 30 W/linear foot of door width
Other doors 20 W/linear foot of door width
Canopies and Overhangs
Canopies (free standing and attached and
overhangs)
1.25 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 0.5 W/ft2
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition
to open-area allowance
20 W/linear foot

Table G3.7 Performance Rating Method Lighting Power Density Allowances and Occupancy Sensor Reductions Using the Space-by-Space Method
Common Space Typesa Lighting Power Density, W/ft2 Occupancy Sensor
Reductionb
Audience Seating Area
Auditorium 0.90 10%
Convention center 0.70 10%
Exercise center 0.30 10%
Gymnasium 0.40 10%
Motion picture theater 1.20 10%
Penitentiary 0.70 10%
Performing arts theater 2.60 10%
Religious facility 1.70 10%
In a sports arena 0.40 10%
Transportation facility 0.50 10%
All other audience seating area 0.90 10%
Atrium
≤40 ft in height 0.0375 per foot in total height 10%
>40 ft in height 0.50 + 0.025 per foot in total height 10%
Banking Activity Area 1.50 10%
Breakroom (See Lounge/Breakroom)
Classroom/Lecture Hall/Training Room
Penitentiary 1.30 None
Preschool through 12th grade, laboratory, and shop classrooms 1.40 30%
All other classroom/lecture hall/training room 1.40 None
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose Room 1.30 None
Confinement Cells 0.90 10%
Copy/Print Room 0.90 10%
Corridor
Facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents) 1.15 25%
Hospital 1.00 25%
Manufacturing facility 0.50 25%
A other corridor 0.50 25%
Courtroom 1.90 10%
Computer Room 2.14 35%
Dwelling Unit 1.07 None
Dining Area
Penitentiary 1.30 35%
Facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents) 3.32 35%
Bar/lounge or leisure dining 1.40 35%
Cafeteria or fast food dining 0.90 35%
Family dining 2.10 35%
All other dining area 0.90 35%
Electrical/Mechanical Room 1.50 30%
Emergency Vehicle Garage 0.80 10%
Food Preparation Area 1.20 30%
Guest Room 1.14 45%
Judges Chambers 1.30 30%
Laboratory
In or as a classroom 1.40 None
All other laboratory 1.40 10%
Laundry/Washing Area 0.60 10%
Loading Dock, Interior 0.59 10%
Lobby
Facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents) 2.26 25%
Elevator 0.80 25%
Hotel 1.10 25%
Motion picture theater 1.10 25%
Performing arts theater 3.30 25%
All other lobby 1.30 25%
Locker Room 0.60 25%
Lounge/Breakroom
Healthcare facility 0.80 None
All other lounge/breakroom 1.20 None
Office
Enclosed 1.10 30%
Open plan 1.10 15%c
Parking Area, Interior 0.20 15%
Pharmacy Area 1.20 10%
Restroom
Facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents) 1.52 45%
All other restroom 0.90 45%
Sales Area 1.70 15%
Seating Area, General 0.68 10%
Stairwell 0.60 75%
Storage Room
Hospital 0.90 45%
≥50 ft2 0.80 45%
< 50 ft2 0.80 45%
Vehicular Maintenance Area 0.70 10%
Workshop 1.90 10%
Building Type Specific Space Types a Lighting Power Density, W/ft2 Occupancy Sensor
Reduction b
Assisted Living Facility
Chapel (used primarily by residents) 2.77 10%
Recreation room (used primarily by residents) 3.02 10%
Automotive (See "Vehicular Maintenance Area") 10%
Convention Center—Exhibit Space 1.30 35%
Dormitory—Living Quarters 1.11 10%
Fire Station—Sleeping Quarters 0.30 10%
Gymnasium/Fitness Center
Exercise area 0.90 35%
Playing area 1.40 35%
Healthcare Facility
Emergency room 2.70 10%
Exam/treatment room 1.50 10%
Medical supply room 1.40 45%
Nursery 0.60 10%
Nurse's station 1.00 10%
Operating room 2.20 10%
Patient room 0.70 10%
Physical therapy room 0.90 10%
Recovery room 0.80 10%
Library
Reading area 1.20 15%
Stacks 1.70 15%
Manufacturing Facility
Detailed manufacturing area 2.10 10%
Equipment room 1.20 10%
Extra-high bay area (>50 ft floor-to-ceiling height) 1.32 10%
High bay area (25 to 50 ft floor-to-ceiling height) 1.70 10%
Low bay area (<25 ft floor-to-ceiling height) 1.20 10%
Museum
General exhibition area 1.00 10%
Restoration room 1.70 10%
Post Office—Sorting Area 1.20 10%
Religious Facility
Fellowship hall 0.90 10%
Worship/pulpit/choir area 2.40 10%
Retail Facilities
Dressing/fitting room 0.89 10%
Mall concourse 1.70 10%
Sports Arena—Playing Area
Class I facility 4.61 10%
Class II facility 3.01 10%
Class III facility 2.26 10%
Class IV facility 1.50 10%
Transportation Facility
Baggage/carousel area 1.00 10%
Airport concourse 0.60 10%
Terminal ticket counter 1.50 10%
Warehouse—Storage Area
Medium to bulky, palletized items 0.90 45%
Smaller, hand-carried items 1.40 45%
  1. In cases where both a common space type and a building area specific space type are listed, the building area specific space type shall apply
  2. For manual-ON or partial-auto-ON occupancy sensors, the occupancy sensor reduction factor shall be multiplied by 1.25.
  3. For occupancy sensors controlling individual workstation lighting, occupancy sensor reduction factor shall be 30%.
Table G3.8 Performance Rating Method Lighting Power Densities Using the Building Area Method
Building Area Type Lighting Power Density, W/ft2
Automotive facility 0.90
Convention center 1.20
Courthouse 1.20
Dining: Bar lounge/leisure 1.30
Dining: Cafeteria/fast food 1.40
Dining: Family 1.60
Dormitory 1.00
Exercise center 1.00
Fire station 1.00
Gymnasium 1.10
Health-care clinic 1.00
Hospital 1.20
Hotel/Motel 1.09
Library 1.30
Manufacturing facility 1.17
Motion picture theater 1.20
Multifamily 0.70
Museum 1.10
Office 1.00
Parking garage 0.30
Penitentiary 1.00
Performing arts theater 1.60
Police station 1.00
Post office 1.10
Religious facility 1.30
Retail 1.50
School/university 1.20
Sports arena 1.10
Town hall 1.10
Transportation 1.00
Warehouse 0.80
Workshop 1.40
Table G3.9.1 Performance Rating Method Motor Efficiency Requirements
Motor Horsepower Minimum Nominal Full-Load
1.0 82.5
1.5 84.0
2.0 84.0
3.0 87.5
5.0 87.5
7.5 89.5
10.0 89.5
15.0 91.0
20.0 91.0
25.0 92.4
30.0 92.4
40.0 93.0
50.0 93.0
60.0 93.6
75.0 94.1
100.0 94.5
125.0 94.5
150.0 95.0
200.0 95.0
Table G3.9.2 Performance Rating Method Baseline Elevator Motor
Number of Stories
(Including Basement)
Motor Type Counterweight Mechanical Motor Efficiencya
≤4 Hydraulic None 58% Table G3.9.3
>4 Traction Proposed design counterweight, if not specified use weight of the car plus 40% of the rated load 64% Table G3.9.1
  1. Use the efficiency for the next motor size greater than the calculated bhp.
Table G3.9.3 Performance Rating Method Hydraulic Elevator Motor Efficiency
Horsepower Full-Load Efficiency
10 72%
20 75%
30 78%
40 78%
100 80%
Table G3.10.1 Performance Rating Method Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers
Equipment Type Application Energy Use Limits,
kWh/day
Test Procedure
Refrigerator with solid doors Holding temperature 0.125 × V + 2.76 AHRI 1200
Refrigerator with transparent doors 0.172 × V + 4.77
Freezers with solid doors 0.398 × V + 2.28
Freezers with transparent doors 0.94 × V + 5.10
Refrigerators/freezers with solid doors 0.12 × V + 4.77
Commercial refrigerators Pulldown 0.181 × V + 5.01

Note: V is the chiller or frozen compartment volume (ft3) as defined in Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers Standard HRF-1.

Table G3.10.2 Performance Rating Method Commercial Refrigeration
Equipment Type
Equipment
Classa
Family Code Operating Mode Rating Temperature Energy Use Limits,b,c
kWh/day
Test
Procedure
VOP.RC.M Vertical open Remote condensing Medium temperature 1.01 × TDA + 4.07 AHRI 1200
SVO.RC.M Semivertical open Remote condensing Medium temperature 1.01 × TDA + 3.18
HZO.RC.M Horizontal open Remote condensing Medium temperature 0.51 × TDA + 2.88
VOP.RC.L Vertical open Remote condensing Low temperature 2.84 × TDA + 6.85
HZO.RC.L Horizontal open Remote condensing Low temperature 0.68 × TDA + 6.88
VCT.RC.M Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Medium temperature 0.48 × TDA + 1.95
VCT.RC.L Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Low temperature 1.03 × TDA + 2.61
SOC.RC.M Service over counter Remote condensing Medium temperature 0.62 × TDA + 0.11
VOP.SC.M Vertical open Self-contained Medium temperature 2.34 × TDA + 4.71
SVO.SC.M Semivertical open Self-contained Medium temperature 2.23 × TDA + 4.59
HZO.SC.M Horizontal open Self-contained Medium temperature 1.14 × TDA + 5.55
HZO.SC.L Horizontal open Self-contained Low temperature 2.63 × TDA + 7.08
VCT.SC.I Vertical transparent door Self-contained Ice cream 1.63 × TDA + 3.29
VCS.SC.I Vertical solid door Self-contained Ice cream 0.55 × V + 0.88
HCT.SC.I Horizontal transparent door Self-contained Ice cream 1.33 × TDA + 0.43
SVO.RC.L Semivertical open Remote condensing Low temperature 2.84 × TDA + 6.85
VOP.RC.I Vertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 3.6 × TDA + 8.7
SVO.RC.I Semivertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 3.6 × TDA + 8.7
HZO.RC.I Horizontal open Remote condensing Ice cream 0.87 × TDA + 8.74
VCT.RC.I Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Ice cream 1.2 × TDA + 3.05
HCT.RC.M Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Medium temperature 0.39 × TDA + 0.13 AHRI 1200
HCT.RC.L Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Low temperature 0.81 × TDA + 0.26
HCT.RC.I Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.95 × TDA + 0.31
VCS.RC.M Vertical solid door Remote condensing