Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.
Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the New York City Construction Codes, New York City Fire Code, or the New York City Electrical shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.
Terms not defined in this chapter or in the New York City Construction Codes, New York City Fire Code, or the New York City Electrical Code shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
ABOVE-GRADE WALL. See "Wall, above-grade."
ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, or similar obstruction.
ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area, number of stories or height of a building or structure.
AIR BARRIER. One or more materials joined together in a continuous manner to restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope and its assemblies.
AIR CURTAIN. A device, installed at the building entrance, that generates and discharges a laminar air stream intended to prevent the infiltration of external, unconditioned air into the conditioned spaces, or the loss of interior, conditioned air to the outside.
ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation.
APPROVAL OR APPROVED. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
AREA-WEIGHTED AVERAGE. A mathematical technique for combining different amounts of various components, based on proportional relevance, into a single number. Weighted averaging may be used where there is more than one R-value for floor, wall, or ceiling insulation, or more than one U-factor for fenestration in a building. As an example, the area-weighted average for window fenestration U-factors equals (Area 1 × U-factor 1) + (Area 2 × U-factor 2) + …/Total Area = maximum allowable fenestration U-factor.
ASHRAE 90.1—2016. The publication entitled "ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1—2016, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings" (October 2016 printing) published by ASHRAE, formerly known as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE 90.1—2016 is published by ASHRAE and jointly sponsored by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America and the American National Standards Institute, and is also known as "ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1—2016" or "ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1—2016.")
ASHRAE 90.1—2016 (AS AMENDED). ASHRAE 90.1—2016, as amended by 19 NYCRR Part 1240 with revisions as set forth in Appendix CA of this code.
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION. The commissioner or the commissioner's designee.
AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").
BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane. See the definition of "Story above grade plane."
BELOW-GRADE WALL. See "Wall, below-grade."
BOILER, MODULATING. A boiler that is capable of more than a single firing rate in response to a varying temperature or heating load.
BOILER SYSTEM. One or more boilers, their piping and controls that work together to supply steam or hot water to heat output devices remote from the boiler.
BUBBLE POINT. The refrigerant liquid saturation temperature at a specified pressure.
BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy or for affording shelter to persons, animals or property, together with: (1) any mechanical systems, service water heating systems, and electric power and lighting systems located in such structure, and (2) any mechanical systems, service water heating systems, and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and supporting such structure. The term "building" shall include, but not be limited to, factory manufactured homes, as defined in subdivision 8 of Section 372 of the Executive Law, and mobile homes, as defined in subdivision 13 of Section 372 of the Executive Law.
BUILDING CODE OF NEW YORK STATE. The 2020 edition of the publication entitled "Building Code of New York State," published by the International Code Council, Inc. (publication date November 2019).
BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner's project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.
BUILDING ENTRANCE. Any doorway, set of doors, revolving door, vestibule, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access to the building or to exit from the building by its users and occupants. This does not include doors solely used to directly enter mechanical, electrical, and other building utility service equipment rooms.
BUILDING OFFICIAL. The Commissioner of Buildings of the City of New York or his or her duly authorized representative. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
BUILDING SITE. A contiguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.
BUILDING SYSTEM. The term "building system" means a combination of central or terminal equipment or components or controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal devices by which energy is transformed so as to perform a specific function, such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning, service water heating or illumination
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The exterior walls (above and below grade), floors, ceilings, roofs and any other building element assemblies that enclose conditioned space or provide a boundary between conditioned space and unconditioned space.
C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
CAPTIVE KEY OVERRIDE. A lighting control that will not release the key that activates the override when the lighting is on.
CAVITY INSULATION. Insulating material located between framing members.
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use of a building or a portion of a building that results in any of the following:
- A change of occupancy classification.
- A change from one group to another group within an occupancy classification.
- Any change in use within a group for which there is a change in the application of the requirements of this code.
CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to the fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment.
CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code.
COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) — HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.
COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of "Residential building."
COMMISSIONING PLAN. See Section C408.2.1, Commissioning plan.
COMPUTER ROOM. A room whose primary function is to house equipment for the processing and storage of electronic data and that has a design electronic data equipment power density of less than 20 watts per square foot (20 watts per 0.092 m2) of conditioned floor area or a connected design electronic data equipment load of less than 10 kW.
CONDENSING UNIT. A factory-made assembly of refrigeration components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant. The unit consists of one or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers (air-cooled, evaporatively cooled, or water-cooled), condenser fans and motors (where used) and factory-supplied accessories.
CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.
CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and is directly or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with conditioned spaces, where they are separated from conditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings, or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling.
CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.
CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.
CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.
DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE CONTROL. A device or system that provides automatic control of electric light levels based on the amount of daylight in a space.
DAYLIGHT ZONE. That portion of a building's interior floor area that is illuminated by natural light.
DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.
DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system having one or more recirculation pumps that pump water from a heated water supply pipe back to the heated water source through a cold water supply pipe.
DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.
DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.
DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
DX-DEDICATED OUTDOOR AIR SYSTEM UNITS (DX-DOAS UNITS). A type of air-cooled, watercooled, or water source factory assembled product that dehumidifies 100 percent outdoor air to a low dew point and includes reheat that is capable of controlling the supply dry-bulb temperature of the dehumidified air to the designed supply air temperature. This conditioned outdoor air is then delivered directly or indirectly to the conditioned spaces. It may precondition outdoor air by containing an enthalpy wheel, sensible wheel, desiccant wheel, plate heat exchanger, heat pipes, or other heat or mass transfer apparatus.
DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), or visible transmittance (VT).
ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.
ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.
ENCLOSED SPACE. A volume surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows.
ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.
ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.
ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.
ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.
ENTRANCE DOOR. A vertical fenestration product used for occupant ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances utilizing latching hardware and automatic closers and containing over 50 percent glazing specifically designed to withstand heavy-duty usage.
EQUIPMENT ROOM. A space that contains either electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, machinery, water pumps or hydraulic pumps that are a function of the building's services.
EXISTING BUILDING CODE OF NEW YORK STATE. The 2020 edition of the publication entitled "Existing Building Code of New York State," published by the International Code Council, Inc. (publication date November 2019).
EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls.
FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan's shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses such as that from belts and gears.
FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG). A numerical rating identifying the fan's aerodynamic ability to convert shaft power, or impeller power in the case of a direct-driven fan, to air power.
FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system, other than during air economizer operation.
FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.
FENESTRATION. Products classified as either skylights or vertical fenestration.
Skylights. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal, including unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices and glazing materials in solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls.
Vertical fenestration. Windows that are fixed or operable, opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque and glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of not less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.
FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.
FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.
GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.
GREENHOUSE. A structure or a thermally isolated area of a building that maintains a specialized sunlit environment exclusively used for, and essential to, the cultivation, protection or maintenance of plants.
GROUP R. Buildings or portions of buildings that contain any of the following occupancies as established in the Building Code of New York State:
- Group R-1.
- Group R-2 where located more than three stories in height above grade plane.
- Group R-4 where located more than three stories in height above grade plane.
HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.
HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.
HIGH SPEED DOOR. A nonswinging door used primarily to facilitate vehicular access or material transportation, with a minimum opening rate of 32 inches (813 mm) per second, a minimum closing rate of 24 inches (610 mm) per second and that includes an automatic-closing device.
HISTORIC BUILDING. The term historic building means an existing building or structure that:
- is listed in the New York State Register of Historic Places, either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district; or
- is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district; or
- has been determined to be eligible for listing in either the New York State or National Register of Historic Places, either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district, by the New York State Commissioner of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation; or
- has been determined to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district, by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.
IEC DESIGN H MOTOR. An electric motor that meets all of the following:
IEC DESIGN N MOTOR. An electric motor that meets all of the following:
INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.
INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single-number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment.
INTEGRATED SEASONAL COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (ISCOP). A seasonal efficiency number that is a combined value based on the formula listed in AHRI Standard 920 of the two COP values for the heating season of a DX-DOAS unit water or air source heat pump, expressed in W/W.
INTEGRATED SEASONAL MOISTURE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY (ISMRE). A seasonal efficiency number that is a combined value based on the formula listed in AHRI Standard 920 of the four dehumidification moisture removal efficiency (MRE) ratings required for DX-DOAS units, expressed in lb of moisture/kWh.
ISOLATION DEVICES. Devices that isolate HVAC zones so that they can be operated independently of one another. Isolation devices include separate systems, isolation dampers, and controls providing shutoff at terminal boxes.
LABELED. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
LEAD ENERGY PROFESSIONAL. The registered design professional who signs and seals the energy analysis for an entire project. Such individual may be the same registered design professional who signs and seals the design drawings for the same project.
LINER SYSTEM (Ls). A system that includes the following:
- A continuous vapor barrier liner membrane that is installed below the purlins and that is uninterrupted by framing members.
- An uncompressed, unfaced insulation resting on top of the liner membrane and located between the purlins.
For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached.
LISTED. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
LOW-SLOPED ROOF. A roof having a slope less than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal.
LOW-VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER. A transformer that is air-cooled, does not use oil as a coolant, has an input voltage less than or equal to 600 volts and is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 hertz.
LUMINAIRE-LEVEL LIGHTING CONTROLS. A lighting system consisting of one or more luminaires with embedded lighting control logic, occupancy and ambient light sensors, wireless networking capabilities and local override switching capability, where required.
MOISTURE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY (MRE). A ratio of the moisture removal capacity in pounds of moisture per hour to the power input values in kilowatts at any given set of standard rating conditions expressed in lb of moisture/kWh.
NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor output power rating stamped on the motor nameplate.
NEMA DESIGN A MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following:
- It is designed to withstand full-voltage starting and develop locked-rotor torque as shown in paragraph 12.38.1 of NEMA MG 1.
- It has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.40.1 of NEMA MG 1.
- It has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.39.1 of NEMA MG 1.
- It has a locked-rotor current higher than the values shown in paragraph 12.35.1 of NEMA MG 1 for 60 hertz and paragraph 12.35.2 of NEMA MG 1 for 50 hertz.
- It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles.
NEMA DESIGN B MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following:
- It is designed to withstand full-voltage starting.
- It develops locked-rotor, breakdown, and pull-up torques adequate for general application as specified in Sections 12.38, 12.39 and 12.40 of NEMA MG1.
- It draws locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in Section 12.35.1 for 60 hertz and Section 12.35.2 for 50 hertz of NEMA MG1.
- It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles.
NEMA DESIGN C MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following:
- Designed to withstand full-voltage starting and develop locked-rotor torque for high-torque applications up to the values shown in paragraph 12.38.2 of NEMA MG1 (incorporated by reference, see A§431.15).
- It has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.40.2 of NEMA MG1.
- It has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.39.2 of NEMA MG1.
- It has a locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in paragraph 12.35.1 of NEMA MG1 for 60 hertz and paragraph 12.35.2 for 50 hertz.
- It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent.
NETWORKED GUESTROOM CONTROL SYSTEM. A control system, accessible from the front desk or other central location associated with a Group R-1 building, that is capable of identifying the occupancy status of each guestroom according to a timed schedule and is capable of controlling HVAC in each hotel and motel guestroom separately.
NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at AHRI standard rating conditions.
OCCUPANT SENSOR CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that detects the presence or absence of people within an area and causes lighting, equipment or appliances to be regulated accordingly.
ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biogas, biomass or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site.
OPAQUE DOOR. A door that is not less than 50-percent opaque in surface area.
POWERED ROOF/WALL VENTILATORS. A fan consisting of a centrifugal or axial impeller with an integral driver in a weather-resistant housing and with a base designed to fit, usually by means of a curb, over a wall or roof opening.
PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION. See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code.
PROJECT. A design and construction undertaking comprised of work related to one or more buildings and the site improvements. A project is represented by one or more plan/work applications, including construction documents compiled in accordance with Section 107 of the New York City Building Code, that relate either to the construction of a new building or buildings or to the demolition or alteration of an existing building or buildings. Applications for a project may have different registered design professionals and different job numbers, and may result in the issuance of one or more permits.
PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.
RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM. A heating system that transfers heat to objects and surfaces within a conditioned space, primarily by infrared radiation.
READY ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appliance or equipment to be directly reached, without requiring the removal or movement of any panel or similar obstruction.
REFRIGERANT DEW POINT. The refrigerant vapor saturation temperature at a specified pressure.
REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, LOW TEMPERATURE. Systems for maintaining food product in a frozen state in refrigeration applications.
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, MEDIUM TEMPERATURE. Systems for maintaining food product above freezing in refrigeration applications.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is a licensed and registered architect (RA) in accordance with Article 147 of the New York State Education Law or a licensed and registered professional engineer (PE) in accordance with Article 145 of the New York State Education Law.
REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance or to correct damage.
REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See "Roof recover" and "Roof replacement."
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes:
- Detached one-family dwellings having not more than three stories above grade plane;
- Detached two-family dwellings having not more than three stories above grade plane;
- Buildings that (i) consist of three or more attached townhouse units and (ii) have not more than three stories above grade plane;
- Buildings that (i) are classified in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Building Code of New York State in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4 and (ii) have not more than three stories above grade plane;
- Factory manufactured homes (as defined in Section 372(8) of the New York State Executive Law); and
- Mobile homes (as defined in Section 372(13) of the New York State Executive Law).
For the purposes of this definition of the term "Residential building," the term "Townhouse unit" means a single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit (1) extends from the foundation to roof, (2) has open space on at least two sides, and (3) has a separate means of egress.
ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.
ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over an existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.
ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purpose of its maintenance.
ROOF REPLACMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering.
ROOFTOP MONITOR. A raised section of a roof containing vertical fenestration along one or more sides.
R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W].
SATURATED CONDENSING TEMPERATURE. The saturation temperature corresponding to the measured refrigerant pressure at the condenser inlet for single component and azeotropic refrigerants, and the arithmetic average of the dew point and bubble point temperatures corresponding to the refrigerant pressure at the condenser entrance for zeotropic refrigerants.
SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.
SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, that can include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR. A general purpose, alternating current, single speed induction motor.
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation, that is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.
SPANDREL PANEL. An opaque assembly within a fenestration framing system in a wall that is part of the building thermal envelope. Such panels are considered to be a portion of the opaque thermal envelope assembly.
STOREFRONT. A system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings, with or without mulled windows and doors.
STORY. The portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above. See the definitions of "Basement" and "Grade plane." A story is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:
- More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
- More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.
THERMAL BRIDGE. Thermal bridges are elements that interrupt areas of uniform thermal resistance in the building envelope.
Clear field thermal bridge. An area-based thermal transmittance associated with elements of a building envelope assembly which repeat at regular intervals. Examples of clear field thermal bridges include metal or wood studs, brick ties and cladding attachments such as z-girts.
Linear thermal bridge. A length-based thermal transmittance associated with horizontal, vertical, or diagonal elements within the building envelope and with length measured along the exterior surface of the building envelope. Examples of linear thermal bridges include balconies or floor assemblies which penetrate walls in the building envelope, fenestration perimeter interfaces, parapets, and shelf angles. Linear thermal transmittance is heat flow divided by length and by the temperature difference between the interior and exterior sides of the assembly, represented by a Ψ-value (Psi-Value) in units Btu/hr • ft • °F (W/mK).
Point thermal bridge. An element-based thermal transmittance associated with a discrete element that penetrates the building envelope. Examples of point thermal bridges include a beam penetrating a wall, a column penetrating a roof or floor, and an anchor or connection used to attach an element to the building and not otherwise addressed as a clear field thermal bridge or linear thermal bridge. Point thermal transmittance is heat flow divided by the temperature difference between the interior and exterior sides of the assembly, represented by a X-value (Chi-Value) in units Btu/hr • °F (W/K).
THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable setpoint.
TIME SWITCH CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that controls lighting or other loads, including switching off, based on time schedules.
TOWNHOUSE, OR TOWNHOUSE UNIT. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit (1) extends from the foundation to roof, (2) has open space on at least two sides, and (3) has a separate means of egress.
U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW SYSTEM. An engineered direct-expansion (DX) refrigerant system that incorporates a common condensing unit, at least one variable-capacity compressor, a distributed refrigerant piping network to multiple indoor fan heating and cooling units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through integral zone temperature control devices and a common communications network. Variable refrigerant flow utilizes three or more steps of control on common interconnecting piping.
VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.
VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light. Visible transmittance includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.
VOLTAGE DROP. A decrease in voltage caused by losses in the wiring systems that connect the power source to the load.
WALK-IN COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C) and less than 55°F (12.8°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
WALK-IN FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
WALL, ABOVE-GRADE. A wall associated with the building thermal envelope that is more than 15 percent above grade and is on the exterior of the building or any wall that is associated with the building thermal envelope that is not on the exterior of the building.
WALL, BELOW-GRADE. A wall associated with the basement or first story of the building that is part of the building thermal envelope, is not less than 85 percent below grade and is on the exterior of the building.
WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.