Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Section 5 specifies requirements for the building envelope.
Separate building envelope requirements are specified for (a) nonresidential conditioned space, (b) residential conditioned space, and (c) semiheated space.
The minimum skylight area requirements in Section 5.5.4.2.3 are also specified for unconditioned spaces.

Spaces shall be assumed to be conditioned spaces and shall comply with the requirements for conditioned spaces at the time of construction, regardless of whether mechanical or electrical equipment is included in the building permit application or installed at that time.

Exception to 5.1.2.3

A space may be designated as either a semiheated space or an unconditioned space only if approved by the building official.

Alterations to the building envelope shall comply with the requirements of Section 5 for insulation, air leakage, and fenestration applicable to those specific portions of the building that are being altered.

Exceptions to 5.1.3

The following alterations need not comply with these requirements, provided such alterations will not increase the energy use of the building:

  1. Installation of storm windows or glazing panels over existing glazing, provided the storm window or glazing panel contains a low-emissivity coating. However, a low-emissivity coating is not required where the existing glazing already has a low-emissivity coating. Installation is permitted to be either on the inside or outside of the existing glazing.
  2. Replacement of glazing in existing sash and frame, provided the U-factor and SHGC will be equal to or lower than before the glass replacement.
  3. Alterations to roof, wall, or floor cavities that are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0/in.
  4. Alterations to walls and floors, where the existing structure is without framing cavities and no new framing cavities are created.
  5. Roof recovering.
  6. Removal and replacement of a roof membrane where there is existing roof insulation integral to or below the roof deck.
  7. Replacement of existing doors that separate a conditioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned space from the exterior shall not be removed.
Determine the climate zone for the location. For U.S. locations, follow the procedure in Section 5.1.4.1. For international locations, follow the procedure in Section 5.1.4.2.

For locations in the United States and its territories, use ASHRAE Standard 169, Table B-1, "U.S. Climate Zones by State and County," to determine the assigned climate zone and, where required, the assigned climate zone letter.

Exception to 5.1.4.1

If there are recorded historical climatic data available for a construction site, they may be used to determine compliance if approved by the building official.

 

For locations in Canada that are listed in ASHRAE Standard 169, Table A-5, "Canada Stations and Climate Zones," use this table to determine the required assigned climate zone number and, where required, the assigned climate zone letter. For locations in other international countries that are listed in ASHRAE Standard 169, Table A-6, "International Stations and Climate Zones," use this table to determine the required climate zone number and, where required, the assigned climate zone letter. For all international locations that are not listed either in ASHRAE Standard 169, Table A-5, "Canada Stations and Climate Zones," or ASHRAE Standard 169, Table A-6, "International Stations and Climate Zones," use ASHRAE Standard 169, Section A3, "Climate Zone Definitions," and Table A-3, "Thermal Climate Zone Definitions," to determine both the climate zone number and letter.

 

For the appropriate climate, space-conditioning category, and class of construction, the building envelope shall comply with Section 5.1, "General"; Section 5.4, "Mandatory Provisions"; Section 5.7, "Submittals"; Section 5.8, "Product Information and Installation Requirements"; Section 5.9, "Inspection and Verification"; and either

  1. Section 5.5, "Prescriptive Building Envelope Option," provided that the fenestration area does not exceed the maximum allowed by Section 5.5.4.2, or
  2. Section 5.6, "Building Envelope Trade-Off Option."
Projects using the Energy Cost Budget Method (see Section 11 of this standard) must comply with Section 5.4, the mandatory provisions of this section, as a portion of that compliance path.

For projects following the Energy Cost Budget Method (Section 11), or the Performance Rating Method (Appendix G), which are 25,000 square feet and greater, the building envelope shall comply with either:

  1. Section 5.5, "Prescriptive Building Envelope Option," or
  2. An envelope performance factor shall be calculated in accordance with Appendix C of this standard, and buildings shall comply with one of the following:

    1. For multifamily, hotel/motel and dormitory building area types, the margin by which the proposed envelope performance factor exceeds the base envelope performance factor shall not be greater than 15%. For compliance with this requirement, the base envelope performance factor shall be calculated using metal framing operable windows. In buildings with window area accounting for 40% or more of the gross wall area, the SHGC of the vertical fenestration on east and west oriented façade may be reduced by the following multiplier to account for the permanent site shading from existing buildings or infrastructure.

      MWest = 0.18 + 0.33/WWR

      MEast = 0.35 + 0.26/WWR

      where:

      MWest = SHGC multiplier for the West façade

      MEast = SHGC multiplier for the East façade

      WWR = the ratio of the proposed vertical fenestration area to the gross wall area in consistent units.

      The multiplier may be applied to the rated SHGC of the vertical fenestration which has at least 50% of the area located directly opposite of the shading surfaces and no higher from the street level than the difference between the shading surface height and the shading surface distance from the façade. Orientation must be determined following Section 5.5.4.5, Fenestration Orientation.

    2. For all other building area types, the margin by which the proposed envelope performance factor exceeds the base envelope performance factor shall be not greater than 7%. For compliance with this requirement, the base envelope performance factor shall be calculated using metal framing fixed windows.
    3. For mixed-use buildings the margin shall be calculated as the gross wall area-weighted average of 1 and 2 above.
Where insulation is required in Section 5.5 or Section 5.6, it shall comply with the requirements found in Section 5.8.1.
Procedures for determining fenestration and door performance are described in Section 5.8.2. Product samples used for determining fenestration performance shall be production line units or representative of units purchased by the consumer or contractor.

The entire building envelope shall be designed and constructed with a continuous air barrier.

Exceptions to 5.4.3.1

  1. Semiheated spaces in Climate Zones 0 through 6.
  2. Single wythe concrete masonry buildings in Climate Zone 2B.

The continuous air barrier shall be designed and noted in the following manner:

  1. All air barrier components of each building envelope assembly shall be clearly identified or otherwise noted on construction documents.
  2. The joints, interconnections, and penetrations of the continuous air barrier components, including lighting fixtures, shall be detailed or otherwise noted.
  3. The continuous air barrier shall extend over all surfaces of the building envelope (at the lowest floor, walls, and roof).
  4. The continuous air barrier shall be designed to resist positive and negative pressures from wind, stack effect, and mechanical ventilation.

The following areas of the continuous air barrier in the building envelope shall be wrapped, sealed, caulked, gasketed, or taped in an approved manner to minimize air leakage:

  1. Joints around fenestration and door frames (both manufactured and site-built).
  2. Junctions between walls and floors, between walls at building corners, and between walls and roofs or ceilings.
  3. Penetrations through the continuous air barrier in building envelope roofs, walls, and floors.
  4. Building assemblies used as ducts or plenums.
  5. Joints, seams, connections between planes, and other changes in continuous air barrier materials.

The building shall comply with whole-building pressurization testing in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.3(a) or with the continuous air barrier requirements in Section 5.4.3.1.3(b) or 5.4.3.1.3(c).

Exceptions to 5.4.3.1.3

  1. New buildings and additions 10,000 square feet and greater, but less than 50,000 square feet, and less than or equal to 75 feet in height, must show compliance through testing in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.3(a) and department rules.
  2. New buildings and additions 10,000 square feet and greater, but less than 50,000 square feet, and greater than 75 feet in height, shall test or inspect each type of unique air barrier joint or seam in the building envelope for continuity and defects, as per an Air Barrier Continuity Plan developed by a registered design professional. Alternatively, such buildings and additions may show compliance through testing in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.3(a) and department rules.
  3. New buildings and additions 50,000 square feet and greater shall test or inspect each type of unique air barrier joint or seam in the building envelope for continuity and defects, as per an Air Barrier Continuity Plan developed by a registered design professional. Alternatively, such buildings and additions may show compliance through testing in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.3(a) and department rules.
  1. ‡Whole-building pressurization testing shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E779, or ASTM E1827, or other approved standards, by an independent third party. The measured air leakage rate of the building envelope shall not exceed 0.40 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water, with this air leakage rate normalized by the sum of the above and below-grade building envelope areas of the conditioned and semiheated space. R-2 buildings may alternatively show compliance through testing in accordance with Section R402.4.1.3 of the New York City Energy Conservation Code.

    Exception to 5.4.3.1.3(a)

    1. For buildings having over 50,000 ft2 of gross conditioned floor area, air leakage testing shall be permitted to be conducted on less than the whole building, provided the following portions of the building are tested and their measured air leakage is area-weighted by the surface areas of the building envelope:

      1. The entire floor area of all stories that have any spaces directly under a roof.
      2. The entire floor area of all stories that have a building entrance or loading dock.
      3. Representative above-grade wall sections of the building totaling at least 25% of the wall area enclosing the remaining conditioned space; floor area tested per (a) and (b) shall not be included in the 25%.

  2. ‡Materials that have an air permeance not exceeding 0.004 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water (1.57 psf) when tested in accordance with ASTM E2178. The following materials meet these requirements:

    1. Plywood—minimum 3/8 in.
    2. Oriented strand board—minimum 3/8 in.
    3. Extruded polystyrene insulation board—minimum 1/2 in.
    4. Foil-faced urethane insulation board—minimum 1/2 in.
    5. Exterior gypsum sheathing or interior gypsum board—minimum 1/2 in.
    6. Cement board—minimum 1/2 in.
    7. Built-up roofing membrane
    8. Modified bituminous roof membrane
    9. Single-ply roof membrane
    10. A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco, or gypsum plaster—minimum 1/2 in. thick
    11. Cast-in-place and precast concrete
    12. Sheet metal
    13. Closed-cell 2 lb/ft3 nominal density spray polyurethane foam—minimum 1 in.
  3. ‡Assemblies of materials and components (sealants, tapes, etc.) that have an average air leakage not to exceed 0.04 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water (1.57 psf) when tested in accordance with ASTM E2357, ASTM E1677, ASTM E1680, or ASTM E283. The following assemblies meet these requirements:

    1. Concrete masonry walls that are

      1. fully grouted, or
      2. painted to fill the pores.

Air leakage for fenestration and doors shall be determined in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283 as specified below. Air leakage shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council, and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Air leakage shall not exceed

  1. 1.0 cfm/ft2 for glazed swinging entrance doors, glazed power-operated sliding entrance doors, glazed power-operated folding entrance doors, and revolving doors, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283;
  2. 0.06 cfm/ft2 for curtainwall and storefront glazing, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psfin accordance with NFRC 400 or ASTM E283;
  3. 0.3 cfm/ft2 for unit skylights having condensation weepage openings, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400, or 0.5 cfm/ft2 tested at a pressure of at least 6.24 psf in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440;
  4. 1.3 cfm/ft2 for nonswinging doors intended for vehicular access and material transportation, with a minimum opening rate of 32 in/s, tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283;
  5. 0.4 cfm/ft2 for other opaque nonswinging doors, glazed sectional garage doors, and upward acting glazed nonswinging doors tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283; and
  6. 0.2 cfm/ft2 for all other products tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400, or 0.3 cfm/ft2 tested at a pressure of at least 6.24 psf in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S/A440.

Exceptions to 5.4.3.2

  1. Field-fabricated fenestration and doors.
  2. Air leakage shall not exceed 1.0 cfm/ft2 when tested at a pressure of at least 1.57 psf in accordance with ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283 for metal coiling doors in semiheated spaces in Climate Zones 0 through 6.
  3. Products in buildings that comply with a whole building air leakage rate of 0.4 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. of water, 1.57 psf when tested in accordance with ASTM E779.
In Climate Zones 0 and 4 through 8, cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.

Building entrances that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. Interior and exterior doors shall have a minimum distance between them of not less than 7 ft when in the closed position. The floor area of each vestibule shall not exceed the greater of 50 ft2 or 2% of the gross conditioned floor area for that level of the building. The exterior envelope of conditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a conditioned space. The interior and exterior envelope of unconditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a semiheated space.

Exceptions to 5.4.3.4

  1. Building entrances with revolving doors.
  2. Doors not intended to be used as a building entrance.
  3. Doors opening directly from a dwelling unit.
  4. Building entrances in buildings located in Climate Zone 1 or 2.
  5. Building entrances in buildings that are located in Climate Zone 3, less than four stories above grade, and less than 10,000 ft2 in gross conditioned floor area.
  6. Building entrances in buildings that are located in Climate Zone 0, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 and are less than 1000 ft2 in gross conditioned floor area.
  7. Doors that open directly from a space that is less than 3,000 ft2 in area and is separate from the building entrance, in buildings less than 75 feet in height, and doors that open directly from a space that is less than 1,000 square feet in area, in buildings 75 feet and greater in height.
  8. Semiheated spaces.

Where vestibules are required under Section 5.4.3.4, for spaces having a gross conditioned floor area for that level of the building of 40,000 ft2 and greater, and when the doors opening into and out of the vestibule are equipped with automatic, electrically driven, self-closing devices, the interior and exterior doors shall have a minimum distance between them of not less than 16 ft.

Applications for construction document approval shall include the following documentation of thermal bridges:

Table 5.4.4 Average Thermal Transmittance for Unmitigated Linear Thermal Bridges
Type of Ψ-valuea
[Btu/hr • ft • F]
Balcony 0.50
Floor Slab 0.44
Fenestration Perimeter Transitionb 0.32
Parapet 0.42
Shelf Angle 0.41
  1. Psi-values are derived from the BC Hydro Building Envelope Thermal Bridging Guide Version 1.2—September 2018, and are based on poor performing details.
  2. Fenestration Perimeter Transition is the thermal bridge between any fenestration frame and the typical wall, roof or floor assembly it abuts or is mounted within.
Where otherwise not included in pre-calculated assembly U-factors, C-factors, or F-factors outlined in Appendix A of this standard, clear field thermal bridges in a wall, roof, or floor assembly shall be noted as such in the drawings.
Point thermal bridges greater than or equal in area to 12 in2 and not associated with HVAC or electrical systems shall be noted as thermal bridges in the drawings.

Construction documents shall include the following documentation in tabular format for linear thermal bridges listed in Table 5.4.4:

  1. Linear thermal bridge type.
  2. Aggregate length of each type of linear thermal bridge.
  3. Relevant detail in the construction documents showing a cross-section through the thermal bridge.
  4. Ψ-value for each thermal bridge from Table 5.4.4.

Exception to 5.4.4.3

Where linear thermal bridges have been tested or modeled using methods approved by the department, alternate values may be used.

Table 5.5-4 Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 4 (A,B,C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Roofs
Insulation entirely
above deck
U-0.030 R-33 c.i. U-0.030 R-33 c.i. U-0.093 R-10 c.i.
Metal buildinga U-0.035 R-19 + R-11 Ls or
R-25 + R-8 Ls
U-0.035 R-19 + R-11 Ls or
R-25 + R-8 Ls
U-0.082 R-19
Attic and other U-0.020 R-53 U-0.020 R-53 U-0.034 R-30
Walls, above Grade
Mass U-0.099 R-11.2 c.i. U-0.086 R-13.25 c.i. U-0.580 NR
Metal building U-0.048 R-13 + R-14.9 c.i. U-0.048 R-13 + R-14.9 c.i. U-0.162 R-13
Steel-framed U-0.061 R-13 + R-8.5 c.i. U-0.061 R-13 + R-8.5 c.i U-0.124 R-13
Wood-framed and other U-0.061 R-13 + R-4.5 c.i.
or R-19 + R-1.5 c.i.
U-0.061 R-13 + R-4.5 c.i.
or R-19 + R-1.5 c.i.
U-0.089 R-13
Wall, below Grade
Below-grade wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.092 R-10 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
Mass U-0.057 R-14.6 c.i. U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.107 R-6.3 c.i.
Steel joist U-0.033 R-38 U-0.033 R-38 U-0.052 R-19
Wood-framed and other U-0.033 R-30 U-0.033 R-30 U-0.051 R-19
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
Heated F-0.63 R-20 for 48 in.
+ R-5 full slab
F-0.63 R-20 for 48 in.
+ R-5 full slab
F-0.900 R-10 for 24 in.
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.370 U-0.370 U-0.370
Nonswinging U-0.310 U-0.310 U-0.360
Fenestration Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Vertical Fenestration,
0% to 40% of Wall
(for all frame types) (for all frame types) (for all frame types)
Nonmetal framing, all 0.28 0.36 1.10 0.28 0.36 1.10 0.51 NR NR
Metal framing, fixed,
below 95 ftb
0.30 0.30 0.73
Metal framing, fixed,
above 95 ftb
0.36 0.36 0.73
Metal framing, operable,
below 95 ftb
0.40 0.40 0.81
Metal framing, operable,
above 95 ftb
0.42 0.42 0.81
Curtain wall fixed 0.36 0.36 0.73
Metal framing, 0.68 0.68 0.77
Skylight, 0% to 3% of Roof
All types 0.48 0.38 NR 0.48 0.38 NR 1.15 NR NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), FC = filled cavity (see Section A2.3.2.5), Ls = liner system (see Section A2.3.2.4), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. When using the R-value compliance method for metal building roofs, a thermal spacer block is required (see Section A2.3.2).
  2. Where any portion of the fenestration frame is installed at or above 95 feet above grade, the unit may meet the requirements for above 95 feet.
Table 5.5-5 Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 5 (A,B,C)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Roofs
Insulation entirely
above deck
U-0.032 R-30 c.i. U-0.032 R-30 c.i. U-0.063 R-15 c.i.
Metal buildinga U-0.037 R-19 + R-11 Ls or
R-25 + R-8 Ls
U-0.037 R-19 + R-11 Ls or
R-25 + R-8 Ls
U-0.082 R-19
Attic and other U-0.021 R-49 U-0.021 R-49 U-0.034 R-30
Walls, above grade
Mass U-0.090 R-11.4 c.i. U-0.080 R-13.3 c.i. U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b
Metal building U-0.050 R-0 + R-19 c.i. U-0.050 R-0 + R-19 c.i. U-0.094 R-0 + R-9.8 c.i.
Steel-framed U-0.055 R-13 + R-10 c.i. U-0.055 R-13 + R-10 c.i. U-0.084 R-13+R-3.8 c.i.
Wood-framed and other U-0.051 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. or
R-19 + R-5 c.i.
U-0.051 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. or
R-19 + R-5 c.i.
U-0.089 R-13
Wall, below Grade
Below-grade wall C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i. C-0.092 R-10 c.i. C-1.140 NR
Floors
Mass U-0.057 R-14.6 c.i. U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.107 R-6.3 c.i.
Steel joist U-0.038 R-30 U-0.038 R-30 U-0.052 R-19
Wood-framed and other U-0.033 R-30 U-0.033 R-30 U-0.051 R-19
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.520 R-15 for 24 in F-0.510 R-20 for 24 in. F-0.730 NR
Heated F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.900 R-10 for 24 in.
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.370 U-0.370 U-0.370
Nonswinging U-0.310 U-0.310 U-0.360
Fenestration Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Vertical Fenestration,
0% to 40% of Wall
(for all frame types) (for all frame types) (for all frame types)
Nonmetal framing, all 0.31 0.38 1.10 0.31 0.38 1.10 0.45 NR NR
Metal framing, fixed 0.38 0.38 0.62
Metal framing, operable 0.46 0.46 0.70
Metal framing, 0.68 0.68 0.77
Skylight, 0% to 3% of Roof
All types 0.50 0.40 NR 0.50 0.40 NR 0.98 NR NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), FC = filled cavity (see Section A2.3.2.5), Ls = liner system (see Section A2.3.2.4), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. When using the R-value compliance method for metal building roofs, a thermal spacer block is required (see Section A2.3.2).
  2. Exception to Section 5.5.3.2 applies for mass walls above grade.
Table 5.5-6 Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 6 (A,B)*
Opaque Elements Nonresidential Residential Semiheated
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Roofs
Insulation entirely
above deck
U-0.032 R-30 c.i. U-0.032 R-30 c.i. U-0.063 R-15 c.i.
Metal buildinga U-0.031 R-25 + R-11 Ls U-0.029 R-30 + R-11 Ls U-0.060 R-19 + R-19
Attic and other U-0.021 R-49 U-0.021 R-49 U-0.034 R-30
Walls, above Grade
Mass U-0.080 R-13.3 c.i. U-0.071 R-15.2 c.i. U-0.151b R-5.7 c.i.b
Metal building U-0.050 R-0 + R-19 c.i. U-0.050 R-0 + R-19 c.i. U-0.094 R-0 + R-9.8 c.i.
Steel-framed U-0.049 R-13 + R-12.5 c.i. U-0.049 R-13 + R-12.5 c.i. U-0.084 R-13 + R-3.8 c.i.
Wood-framed and other U-0.051 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. or
R-19 + R-5 c.i.
U-0.051 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. or
R-19 + R-5 c.i.
U-0.089 R-13
Wall, below Grade
Below-grade wall C-0.092 R-10 c.i. C-0.063 R-15 c.i. C-0.119 R-7.5 c.i
Floors
Mass U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.051 R-16.7 c.i. U-0.087 R-8.3 c.i.
Steel joist U-0.032 R-38 U-0.032 R-38 U-0.052 R-19
Wood-framed and other U-0.027 R-38 U-0.027 R-38 U-0.051 R-19
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.510 R-20 for 24 in. F-0.434 R-20 for 48 in F-0.730 NR
Heated F-0.688 R-20 for 48 in. F-0.671 R-25 for 48 in. F-0.860 R-15 for 24 in.
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.370 U-0.370 U-0.370
Nonswinging U-0.310 U-0.310 U-0.360
Fenestration Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Assembly
Max.
U
Assembly
Max.
SHGC
Assembly
Min.
VT/SHGC
Vertical Fenestration,
0% to 40% of Wall
(for all frame types) (for all frame types) (for all frame types)
Nonmetal framing, all 0.30 0.40 1.10 0.30 0.40 1.10 0.45 NR NR
Metal framing, fixed 0.36 0.36 0.51
Metal framing, operable 0.45 0.45 0.59
Metal framing, entrance door 0.68 0.68 0.77
Skylight, 0% to 3% of Roof
All types 0.50 0.40 NR 0.50 0.40 NR 0.85 NR NR

* The following definitions apply: c.i. = continuous insulation (see Section 3.2), FC = filled cavity (see Section A2.3.2.5), Ls = liner system (see Section A2.3.2.4), NR = no (insulation) requirement.

  1. When using the R-value compliance method for metal building roofs, a thermal spacer block is required (see Section A2.3.2).
  2. Exception to Section 5.5.3.2 applies for mass walls above grade.


For a conditioned space, the exterior building envelope shall comply with either the nonresidential or residential requirements in Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-6 for the appropriate climate.

If a building contains any semiheated space or unconditioned space then the semiexterior building envelope shall comply with the requirements for semiheated space in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡ for the appropriate climate. (See Figure 5.5.2.)

Figure 5.5.2 Exterior and semiexterior building envelope.

For all opaque surfaces except doors, compliance shall be demonstrated by one of the following two methods:

  1. Minimum rated R-value of insulation for the thermal resistance of the added insulation in framing cavities and continuous insulation only. Specifications listed in Normative Appendix A for each class of construction shall be used to determine compliance.
  2. Maximum U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor for the entire assembly. The values for typical construction assemblies listed in Normative Appendix A shall be used to determine compliance.

Exceptions to 5.5.3

  1. For assemblies significantly different than those in Appendix A, calculations shall be performed in accordance with the procedures required in Appendix A.
  2. For multiple assemblies within a single class of construction for a single space-conditioning category, compliance shall be shown for either (a) the most restrictive requirement or (b) an area-weighted average U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor.
  3. When the total area of penetrations from through-the-wall equipment or equipment listed in Table 6.8.1-4 exceeds 1% of the opaque above-grade wall area, the mechanical equipment penetration area shall be calculated as a separate wall assembly with a default U-factor of 0.5, and compliance shall be shown with method b. Where mechanical equipment has been tested in accordance with testing standards, approved by the authority having jurisdiction, the mechanical equipment penetration area may be calculated as a separate wall assembly with the U-factor as determined by such test.
  4. For opaque assemblies in curtain wall framing or other fenestration framing systems, compliance shall be shown using the effective U-factor values of Table 5.5.3.
Table 5.5.3 Effective U-factors for Spandrel Panels and Glass Curtain Wallsa
Frame Type Spandrel Panel Rated R-value of Insulation between Framing Members
R-4 R-7 R-10 R-15 R-20 R-25 R-30
Aluminum without Thermal
Breakb
Single glass pane, stone, or
metal panel
0.242 0.222 0.212 0.203 0.198 0.195 0.193
Double glass with no low-e
coatings
0.233 0.218 0.209 0.202 0.197 0.194 0.192
Triple or low-e glass 0.226 0.214 0.207 0.200 0.196 0.194 0.192
Aluminum with Thermal
Breakc
Single glass pane, stone, or
metal panel
0.211 0.186 0.173 0.162 0.155 0.151 0.149
Double glass with no low-e
coatings
0.200 0.180 0.170 0.160 0.154 0.151 0.148
Triple or low-e glass 0.191 0.176 0.167 0.159 0.153 0.150 0.148
Structural Glazingd Single glass pane, stone, or
metal panel
0.195 0.163 0.147 0.132 0.123 0.118 0.114
Double glass with no low-e
coatings
0.180 0.156 0.142 0.129 0.122 0.117 0.114
Triple or low-e glass 0.169 0.150 0.138 0.127 0.121 0.116 0.113
No framing or Insulation is
continuouse
Single glass pane, stone, or
metal panel
0.148 0.102 0.078 0.056 0.044 0.036 0.031
Double glass with no low-e
coatings
0.136 0.097 0.075 0.054 0.043 0.035 0.030
Triple or low-e glass 0.129 0.093 0.073 0.053 0.042 0.035 0.030
  1. Opaque assembly U-factors based on designs tested in accordance with ASTM C1363 or NFRC 100 shall be permitted. Interpolation outside of the table shall not be permitted. Spandrel panel assemblies in the table do not include metal backpans.
  2. Aluminum frame without a thermal break shall be used for systems where the mullion provides a thermal bridge through the insulation.
  3. Aluminum frame with a thermal break shall be used for systems where a urethane or other nonmetallic element separates the metal exposed to the exterior from the metal that is exposed to the interior condition.
  4. Structural glazing frame type shall be used for systems that have no exposed mullion on the interior.
  5. No framing or continuous insulation shall be used for systems where there is no framing or the insulation is continuous and uninterrupted between framing.
All roofs shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5.0, whichever is less.

Roofs in Climate Zones 0 through 3 shall have one of the following:

  1. A minimum three-year-aged solar reflectance of 0.55 and a minimum three-year-aged thermal emittance of 0.75 when tested in accordance with CRRC-1 Standard.
  2. A minimum Solar Reflectance Index of 64 when determined in accordance with the Solar Reflectance Index method in ASTM E1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h•ft2•°F, based on three-year-aged solar reflectance and three-year-aged thermal emittance tested in accordance with CRRC-1 Standard.
  3. Increased roof insulation levels found in Table 5.5.3.1.1.

The values for three-year-aged solar reflectance and three-year-aged thermal emittance shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization and shall be labeled and certified by the manufacturer.

Exceptions to 5.5.3.1.1

  1. Ballasted roofs with a minimum stone ballast of 17 lb/ft2 or 23 lb/ft2 pavers.
  2. Vegetative roof systems that contain a minimum thickness of 2.5 in. of growing medium and covering a minimum of 75% of the roof area with durable plantings.
  3. Roofs where a minimum of 75% of the roof area

    1. is shaded during the peak sun angle on June 21 by permanent components or features of the building;
    2. is covered by offset photovoltaic arrays, building-integrated photovoltaic arrays, or solar air or water collectors; or
    3. is permitted to be interpolated using a combination of 1 and 2 above.
  4. Steep-sloped roofs.
  5. Low-sloped metal building roofs in Climate Zones 2 and 3.
  6. Roofs over ventilated attics, roofs over semiheated spaces, or roofs over conditioned spaces that are not cooled spaces.
  7. Asphaltic membranes in Climate Zones 2 and 3.
Table 5.5.3.1.1 Increased Roof Insulation Levels
Roofs Nonresidential Residential
Opaque
Elements
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Assembly
Maximum
Insulation
Min. R-Value
Climate Zone 0
Insulation entirely
above deck
U-0.027 R-36 c.i. U-0.027 R-36 c.i.
Metal buildings U-0.028 R-35
Climate Zones 1 to 3
Insulation entirely
above deck
U-0.030 R-33 c.i. U-0.029 R-34 c.i.
Metal buildings U-0.028 R-35

All above-grade walls shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exception to 5.5.3.2

Alternatively, for mass walls, where the requirement in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡ is for a maximum assembly U-0.151 followed by footnote "b," ASTM C90 concrete block walls, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 in. or less on center vertically and 48 in. or less on center horizontally, shall have ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu • in/h • ft2 • °F. Other mass walls with integral insulation shall meet the criteria when their U-factors are equal to or less than those for the appropriate thickness and density in the "Partly Grouted, Cells Insulated" column of Table A3.1-3.

When a wall consists of both above-grade and below-grade portions, the entire wall for that story shall be insulated on either the exterior or the interior or be integral.

  1. If insulated on the interior, the wall shall be insulated to the above-grade wall requirements.
  2. If insulated on the exterior or integral, the below-grade wall portion shall be insulated to the below-grade wall requirements, and the above-grade wall portion shall be insulated to the above-grade wall requirements.

In addition, for Climate Zone 0, above-grade walls shall comply with one of the following:

  1. For east and west walls, a minimum of 75% of the opaque wall area shall have a minimum SRI of 29. For the portion of the opaque wall that is glass spandrel area, a minimum solar reflectance of 29% determined in accordance with NFRC 300 or ISO 9050 shall be permitted. Each wall is allowed to be considered separately.
  2. For east and west walls, a minimum of 30% of the above-grade wall area shall be shaded through the use of shade-providing plants, manmade structures, existing buildings, hillsides, permanent building projections, on-site renewable energy systems, or a combination of these. Shade coverage shall be calculated at 10 a.m. for the east walls and 3 p.m. for the west walls on the summer solstice.

The building is allowed to be rotated up to 45 degrees to the nearest cardinal orientation for purposes of calculations and showing compliance.

Below-grade walls shall have a rated R-value of insulation no less than the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exception to 5.5.3.3

Where framing, including metal and wood studs, is used, compliance shall be based on the maximum assembly C-factor.

All floors shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.
All slab-on-grade floors, including heated slab-on-grade floors and unheated slab-on-grade floors, shall comply with the insulation values specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

All opaque doors shall have a U-factor not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exceptions to 5.5.3.6

  1. For conditioned spaces, nonswinging doors that are horizontally hinged sectional doors with a single row of fenestration shall have an assembly U-factor less than or equal to 0.440 in Climate Zones 0 through 6 and less than or equal to 0.360 in Climate Zones 7 and 8, provided the fenestration area is at least 14% and no more than 25% of the total door area.
  2. For semiheated spaces, nonswinging doors that are horizontally hinged sectional doors with a single row of fenestration shall have an assembly U-factor less than or equal to 0.440 in Climate Zones 3 through 6 and less than or equal to 0.360 in Climate Zones 7 and 8, provided the fenestration area is at least 14% and no more than 25% of the total door area.

In new construction, balconies and parapets that interrupt the building thermal envelope shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Shall be insulated with continuous insulation having a minimum thermal resistance equivalent to the continuous insulation component required in the adjacent wall assembly as listed in Table 5.5-4. Where more than one wall assembly is interrupted by an adjacent balcony, the higher thermal resistance shall be followed.
  2. Shall incorporate a minimum R-3 thermal break where the structural element penetrates the building thermal envelope.

Compliance with U-factors, SHGC, and VT/SHGC shall be demonstrated for the overall fenestration product. Gross wall areas and gross roof areas shall be calculated separately for each space-conditioning category for the purposes of determining compliance.

Exceptions to 5.5.4.1

  1. If there are multiple assemblies within a single class of construction for a single space-conditioning category, it shall be permitted to demonstrate compliance based on an area-weighted average U-factor, SHGC, VT/SHGC, or LSG. The area-weighted average across multiple classes of construction or multiple space-conditioning categories shall not be permitted for use to demonstrate compliance.
  2. Vertical fenestration shall be permitted to demonstrate compliance based on an area-weighted average U-factor, SHGC, VT/SHGC, or LSG across multiple classes of construction for a single space-conditioning category, but not across multiple space-conditioning categories.

The total vertical fenestration area shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exception to 5.5.4.2.1

Vertical fenestration complying with Exception (3) to Section 5.5.4.4.1.

The total skylight area shall not be greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exception to 5.5.4.2.2

The total skylight area is permitted to be increased to no greater than 6% of the gross roof area, provided the skylights meet all of the criteria in Exception (1) to Section 5.5.4.4.2 and the total daylight area under skylights is a minimum of half the floor area of the space.

In any enclosed space in a building that is

  1. 2500 ft2 and greater;
  2. directly under a roof with ceiling heights greater than 15 ft; and
  3. one of the following space types: office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, storage (including nonrefrigerated warehouse), gymnasium, fitness/exercise area, playing area, gymnasium seating area, convention exhibit/event space, courtroom, automotive service, fire station engine room, manufacturing corridor/transition and bay areas, retail, library reading and stack areas, distribution/sorting area, transportation baggage and seating areas, or workshop,

the total daylight area under skylights shall be a minimum of half the floor area and either

  1. provide a minimum skylight area to daylight area under skylights of 3% with a skylight VT of at least 0.40 or
  2. provide a minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1%.

These skylights shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze value greater than 90% when tested according to ASTM D1003. General lighting in the daylight area shall be controlled as described in Section 9.4.1.1(f).

Exceptions to Section 5.5.4.2.3

  1. Enclosed spaces in Climate Zones 6 through 8
  2. Enclosed spaces where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct-beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed space for more than 1500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  3. Enclosed spaces where the daylight area under roof monitors is greater than 50% of the enclosed space floor area.
  4. Enclosed spaces where it is documented that 90% of the skylight area is shaded on June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere (December 21 in the Southern Hemisphere) at noon by permanent architectural features of the building.
  5. Enclosed spaces where the total area minus the primary sidelighted area and secondary sidelighted area is less than 2500 ft2 and where the lighting is controlled according to sidelighting requirements described in Section 9.4.1.1(e).

Fenestration shall have a U-factor not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exception to 5.5.4.3

The U-factor for skylights is permitted to be increased to no greater than 0.90 Btu/h•ft2•°F in Climate Zones 0 through 3 and 0.75 Btu/h•ft2•°F in Climate Zones 4 through 8, provided the skylights meet all of the criteria in Exception (1) to Section 5.5.4.4.2.

Vertical fenestration shall have an SHGC not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exceptions to Section 5.5.4.4.1

  1. For demonstrating compliance for south-, east-, or west-oriented vertical fenestration shaded by opaque permanent projections that will last as long as the building itself, the SHGC of the shaded vertical fenestration in the proposed design is permitted to be reduced by using the multipliers in Table 5.5.4.4.1. Permanent projections consisting of open louvers shall be considered to provide shading, provided that no sun penetrates the louvers during the peak sun angle on June 21.
  2. For demonstrating compliance for south-, east-, or west-oriented vertical fenestration shaded by partially opaque permanent projections (e.g., framing with glass or perforated metal) that will last as long as the building itself, the projection factor (PF) shall be reduced by multiplying it by a factor of Os, which is derived as follows:

    where

    Os = percent opacity of the shading device

    Ai = percent of the area of the shading device that is a partially opaque infill

    Oi = percent opacity of the infill for glass Oi = (100% — Ts), where Ts is the solar transmittance as determined in accordance with NFRC 300; for perforated or decorative metal panels, Oi = percentage of solid material

    Af = percent of the area of the shading device that represents the framing members

    Of = percent opacity of the framing members; if solid then 100%

    The SHGC of the shaded vertical fenestration in the proposed building is permitted to then be reduced by using the multipliers in Table 5.5.4.4.1 for each fenestration product.

  3. Vertical fenestration that is located on the street side of the street-level story only, provided that

    1. the street side of the street-level story does not exceed 20 ft in height,
    2. the fenestration has a continuous overhang with a weighted average PF greater than 0.5, and
    3. the fenestration area for the street side of the street-level story is less than 75% of the gross wall area for the street side of the street-level story.

    When this exception is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope, and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes. No credit shall be given here or elsewhere in the building for not fully utilizing the fenestration area allowed.

  4. For dynamic glazing, the minimum SHGC shall be used to demonstrate compliance with this section. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other vertical fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other vertical fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.
  5. Vertical fenestration that is north oriented shall be permitted to have an SHGC equal to or less than the area-weighted average SHGC of the south-, east-, and west-oriented vertical fenestration before any reductions made for permanent projections in Exceptions 1 and 2 of Section 5.5.4.4.1.
Table 5.5.4.4.1 SHGC Multipliers for Permanent Projections
Projection Factor SHGC Multiplier (South, East,
and West Orientations)
0 to 0.10 1.00
>0.10 to 0.20 0.91
>0.20 to 0.30 0.82
>0.30 to 0.40 0.74
>0.40 to 0.50 0.67
>0.50 to 0.60 0.61
>0.60 to 0.70 0.56
>0.70 to 0.80 0.51
>0.80 to 0.90 0.47
>0.90 to 1.00 0.44

Skylights shall have an SHGC not greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.

Exceptions to Section 5.5.4.4.2

  1. Skylights are exempt from SHGC requirements provided the following:

    1. They have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze value greater than 90% when tested according to ASTM D1003.
    2. They have a skylight VT greater than 0.40.
    3. They have all general lighting in the daylight area under skylights controlled by multilevel photocontrols in accordance with Section 9.4.1.1(f).
  2. For dynamic glazing, the minimum SHGC shall be used to demonstrate compliance with this section. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other skylights, and area-weighted averaging with other skylights that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

The vertical fenestration shall comply with either (a) or (b):

  1. For Climate Zones 0 through 8,

  2. For Climate Zones 0 through 3,

For Climate Zones 4 through 8,

where

Aw = west-oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented within 45 degrees of true west to the south and within 22.5 degrees of true west to the north in the northern hemisphere; oriented within 45 degrees of true west to the north and within 22.5 degrees of true west to the south in the southern hemisphere)

Ae = east-oriented vertical fenestration area (oriented within 45 degrees of true east to the south and within 22.5 degrees of true east to the north in the northern hemisphere; oriented within 45 degrees of true east to the north and within 22.5 degrees of true east to the south in the southern hemisphere)

AT = total vertical fenestration area

SHGCC = SHGC criteria in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡ for each climate zone

SHGCE = SHGC for east-oriented fenestration that complies with Section 5.5.4.4.1

SHGCW = SHGC for west-oriented fenestration that complies with Section 5.5.4.4.1

Exceptions to Section 5.5.4.5

  1. Vertical fenestration that complies with Section 5.5.4.4.1, Exception (3).
  2. Buildings with shade on 75% of the east- and west-oriented vertical fenestration areas from permanent projections, existing buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., respectively, on the summer solstice (June 21 in the northern hemisphere).
  3. Alterations and additions with no increase in vertical fenestration area.
  4. Buildings where the west-oriented and east-oriented vertical fenestration area (as defined in Section 5.5.4.5) does not exceed 20% of the gross wall area for each of those façades, and SHGC on those facades is no greater than 90% of the criteria in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡.
  5. Buildings in Climate Zone 8.

Where automatic daylighting controls are required in accordance with 9.4.1.1(e) or (f), fenestration shall have a ratio of VT divided by SHGC not less than that specified in Tables 5.5-4‡ through 5.5-6‡ for the appropriate fenestration area.

Exceptions to Section 5.5.4.6

  1. A light-to-solar-gain ratio (LSG) of not less than 1.25 is allowed to be used as an alternative to VT/SHGC. When using this option, the center-of-glass VT and the center-of-glass SHGC shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 300 and NFRC 301, determined by an independent laboratory or included in a database published by a government agency, and certified by the manufacturer.
  2. Fenestration not covered in the scope of the NFRC 200.
  3. Enclosed spaces where the daylight area under roof monitors is greater than 50% of the enclosed space floor area.
  4. Enclosed spaces with skylights that comply with Section 5.5.4.2.3.
  5. Enclosed spaces where the sidelighting effective aperture is greater than or equal to 0.15.
  6. For dynamic glazing, the VT/SHGC ratio and the LSG shall be determined using the maximum VT and maximum SHGC. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

The building envelope complies with the standard if

  1. the proposed design satisfies the provisions of Sections 5.1, 5.4, 5.7, 5.8, and 5.9 and
  2. the proposed envelope performance factor of the proposed design is less than or equal to the proposed envelope performance factor of the base design.

All components of the building envelope shown on architectural drawings or installed in existing buildings shall be modeled in the proposed design. The simulation program model fenestration and opaque building envelope types and area shall be consistent with the construction documents. Any building envelope assembly that covers less than 5% of the total area of that assembly type (e.g., exterior walls) need not be separately described, provided it is similar to an assembly being modeled. If not separately described, the area of a building envelope assembly shall be added to the area of an assembly of that same type with the same orientation and thermal properties. When the total area of penetrations from through-the-wall mechanical equipment or equipment listed in Table 6.8.1-4 exceeds 1% of the opaque above-grade wall area, the mechanical equipment penetration area shall be calculated as a separate wall assembly with a default U-factor of 0.5.

Exception to 5.6.1.1

Where mechanical equipment has been tested in accordance with testing standards approved by the authority having jurisdiction, the mechanical equipment penetration area may be calculated as a separate wall assembly with the U-factor as determined by such test.

When the building permit being sought applies to less than the whole building, parameters relating to unmodified existing conditions or to future building components shall be identical for both the proposed envelope performance factor and the base envelope performance factor. Future building components shall meet the prescriptive requirements of Section 5.5.
Envelope performance factor shall be calculated using the procedures of Normative Appendix C.
The authority having jurisdiction may require submittal of compliance documentation and supplemental information in accordance with Section 4.2.2 of this standard.
For buildings that contain spaces that will be only semiheated space or unconditioned space, and compliance is sought using the semiheated space building envelope criteria, such spaces shall be clearly indicated on the floor plans that are submitted for review.
Test results required in Section 5.8.2.5 for skylight glazing or diffusers shall be included with construction documents submitted with each application for a permit.
For new buildings or additions that are 10,000 square feet and greater, prior to passing final inspection, the approved agency shall provide evidence of air barrier commissioning and substantial completion in accordance with the provisions of Sections 5.7.5.1 through 5.7.5.3.
Construction documents shall include documentation of the continuous air barrier components included in the design and a field inspection checklist that includes all requirements necessary for maintaining air barrier continuity and durability in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.
Reports from field inspections during project construction showing compliance with continuous air barrier requirements including proper material handling and storage, use of approved materials and material substitutes, proper material and surface preparation, and air barrier continuity shall be provided to the owner and, upon request, to the building official. Air barrier continuity shall be determined by testing or inspecting each type of unique air barrier joint or seam in the building envelope for continuity and defects.
A final Commissioning Report indicating compliance with the continuous air barrier requirements shall be provided to the building owner and, upon request, to the building official.

The rated R-value of insulation shall be clearly identified by an identification mark applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building envelope insulation.

Exception to 5.8.1.1

When insulation does not have such an identification mark, the installer of such insulation shall provide a signed and dated certification for the installed insulation listing the type of insulation, the manufacturer, the rated R-value of insulation, and, where appropriate, the initial installed thickness, the settled thickness, and the coverage area.

Insulation materials shall be installed in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations and in such a manner as to achieve rated R-value of insulation.

Exception to 5.8.1.2

Where metal building roof and metal building wall insulation is compressed between the roof or wall skin and the structure.

Open-blown or poured loose-fill insulation shall not be used in attic roof spaces when the slope of the ceiling is more than three in twelve.
When eave vents are installed, baffling of the vent openings shall be provided to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation.

Insulation shall be installed in a permanent manner in substantial contact with the inside surface in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations for the framing system used. Flexible batt insulation installed in floor cavities shall be supported in a permanent manner by supports no greater than 24 in. on center.

Exception to 5.8.1.5

Insulation materials that rely on air spaces adjacent to reflective surfaces for their rated performance.

Lighting fixtures; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment, including wall heaters, ducts, and plenums; and other equipment shall not be recessed in such a manner as to affect the insulation thickness unless

  1. the total combined area affected (including necessary clearances) is less than 1% of the opaque area of the assembly,
  2. the entire roof, wall, or floor is covered with insulation to the full depth required, or
  3. the effects of reduced insulation are included in calculations using an area-weighted-average method and compressed insulation values obtained from Table A9.4.3.

In all cases, air leakage through or around the recessed equipment to the conditioned space shall be limited in accordance with Section 5.4.3.

Exterior insulation shall be covered with a protective material to prevent damage from sunlight, moisture, landscaping operations, equipment maintenance, and wind.
In attics and mechanical rooms, a way to access equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation shall be provided.
Foundation vents shall not interfere with the insulation.
Insulation materials in ground contact shall have a water absorption rate no greater than 0.3% when tested in accordance with ASTM C272.
The roof insulation shall not be installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels.
Insulation shall extend over the full component area to the required rated R-value of insulation, U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor, unless otherwise allowed in Section 5.8.1.
Where two or more layers of rigid insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the edge joints between each layer of boards shall be staggered.
The U-factor, SHGC, VT, and air leakage rate for all manufactured fenestration products shall be determined by a laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council.

All manufactured and site-built fenestration and door products shall be labeled, or a signed and dated certificate shall be provided, by the manufacturer, listing the U-factor, SHGC, VT, and air leakage rate.

Exception to 5.8.2.2

Doors with less than 25% glazing are not required to list SHGC and VT.

U-factors shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100. U-factors for skylights shall be determined for a slope of 20 degrees above the horizontal.

Exceptions to Section 5.8.2.3

  1. U-factors from Section A8.1 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for skylights. Where credit is being taken for a low-emissivity coating, the emissivity of the coating shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 300. Emissivity shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  2. U-factors from Section A8.2 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for vertical fenestration.
  3. U-factors from Section A7 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the U-factor criteria for opaque doors.
  4. For sectional garage doors and metal coiling doors, ANSI/DASMA105 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining U-factors.

SHGC for the overall fenestration area shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200.

Exceptions to Section 5.8.2.4

  1. Shading coefficient (SC) of the center-of-glass multiplied by 0.86 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC requirements for the overall fenestration area. SC shall be determined using a spectral data file determined in accordance with NFRC 300. SC shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  2. SHGC of the center-of-glass shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC requirements for the overall fenestration area. SHGC shall be determined using a spectral data file determined in accordance with NFRC 300. SHGC shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  3. SHGC from Section A8.1 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC criteria for skylights. Where credit is being taken for a low-emissivity coating, the emissivity of the coating shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 300. Emissivity shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.
  4. SHGC from Section A8.2 shall be an acceptable alternative for determining compliance with the SHGC criteria for vertical fenestration.

VT shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200. VT shall be verified and certified by the manufacturer.

Exception to 5.8.2.5

For skylights whose transmittances are not within the scope of NFRC 200, their transmittance shall be the solar photometric transmittance of the skylight glazing materials determined in accordance with ASTM E972.

In addition to the requirements of Section 4.2.4, building envelope components and assemblies shall be inspected in accordance with Sections 5.9.1.1 through 5.9.1.4.

Fenestration and doors shall be inspected to ensure compliance with the requirements of Sections 5.4.3.2, 5.8.2.1, 5.8.2.2, and 5.8.2.3. Where testing is required to demonstrate compliance with the air leakage requirements, it shall be conducted by an independent third party. Operation of the door and closer or operating mechanism shall be inspected for conformance with the manufacturer's instructions, and that the seals or gaskets are installed and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Where there is a loading dock, weatherseals shall be inspected for proper installation and to ensure that the seals are in good condition.

Opaque roof, above-grade walls and below-grade walls, and floors, shall be subject to the following inspections during construction:

  1. Use of compliant materials and assemblies as indicated in Section 5.4.3.1.3.
  2. Integration with adjoining fenestration and continuous air barrier elements.

Fenestration shall be subject to the following inspections during construction:

  1. Skylights size and location in relation to the designed primary sidelighted area and secondary lighted area below.
  2. Roof monitor size and location in relation to the designed primary sidelighted area and secondary lighted area areas below.
  3. Dynamic glazing compliance with SHGC and U-factor in accordance with Sections 5.5.4.4.1 and 5.5.4.4.2, and testing of the operation for conformance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  4. Permanent fenestration projections installation and performance in accordance with Section 5.5.4.4.1 and the construction documents.
The performance of the building envelope shall be verified in accordance with this section and Section 4.2.5.

Air leakage verification shall be determined in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. An air barrier design and installation verification program shall be implemented and shall include the following elements:

    1. A design review shall be conducted to assess compliance with the requirements in Sections 5.4.3.1.1, 5.4.3.1.2, and the applicable portions of Section 5.4.3.1.3.
    2. Periodic field inspection of continuous air barrier components and assemblies shall be conducted during construction while the air barrier is still accessible for inspection and repair to verify compliance with the requirements of Sections 5.4.3.1.1, 5.4.3.1.2, and the applicable portions of Section 5.4.3.1.3.
    3. Reporting shall be in compliance with Section 4.2.5.
  2. A whole-building air leakage verification program shall be implemented and shall include the following elements:

    1. Whole-building pressurization testing shall be performed in accordance with Section 5.4.3.1.3(a) and the use of any exceptions shall be documented.
    2. Reporting shall be in compliance with Section 4.2.5.
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